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1.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (4): 18-23, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term results of reconstructive procedures for esophageal strictures and evaluate quality life after each type of esophageal repair using own criteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted among patients who underwent esophageal repair with gastric transplant (172), colonic transplant (25), intestinal transplant (14) and repair of short cervical strictures (7). The age of patients ranged from 5 to 60 years. All patients underwent X-ray and endoscopic examination. Survey also included external respiration function and cardiac function, digestive function, measurement of height and weight, analysis of social aspects (work, study), female genital function. Five-score scale for quality of life assessment was developed. RESULTS: Long-term results were studied in 218 patients for the period from 3 months to 31 years (2002-2017). Excellent and good results were obtained in 180 patients. The best results were obtained after repair of short cervical strictures (4.42 scores), good results - after esophageal repair with gastric (4.14 scores) and intestinal (4.07 scores) transplants. Colonic repair was followed by satisfactory outcome (3.16 scores). CONCLUSION: Gastric and small bowel grafts are preferred for total esophageal repair due to better quality of life in long-term postoperative period.


Assuntos
Colo/transplante , Estenose Esofágica/cirurgia , Esofagoplastia/métodos , Intestino Delgado/transplante , Qualidade de Vida , Estômago/transplante , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (4): 70-73, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352672

RESUMO

Gastric diverticulum is a rather rare disease. This lesion is diagnosed in about 0.01% of cases during contrast-enhanced X-ray examination and in 0.04-0.11% of patients undergoing endoscopic examination. Symptomatic diverticulum is complicated by diverticulitis, bleeding, perforation and malignant transformation. Therefore, surgical resection is indicated. We report surgical treatment of a patient with diverticulum of the cardiac part of the stomach. Endoscopic and X-ray examination was valuable to establish the correct diagnosis. Laparoscopic approach minimized surgical trauma and reduced surgery time.


Assuntos
Divertículo Gástrico/diagnóstico , Divertículo Gástrico/cirurgia , Estômago/cirurgia , Divertículo Gástrico/complicações , Humanos , Laparoscopia
3.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 115(2): 161-168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369720

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to review the entire literature on gastric and bariatric surgery in order to best define the surgical indications and the specifics of their management. A literature review from 1995 to August 2015 was conducted in Pubmed and Google Scholar, using French and English as publication languages. 21 studies were included (level 3 and 4) over 128 identified. In total, if the cirrhotic patients, candidates for gastric surgery, are appropriately selected, long-term survival seems relatively good. No risk factors for long-term survival have been reported. The literature data are insufficient to be able to make recommendations concerning bariatric surgery in the cirrhotic patient.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Obesidade/cirurgia , Estômago/cirurgia , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações
4.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(5): 456-460, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392607

RESUMO

Clostridium (C.) ventriculi (known as Sarcina ventriculi) is a ubiquitous gram-positive, anaerobic, acidophilic coccus found in patients with gastric motility disorders. The microorganisms can be identified histologically by their characteristic presentation in tetrads or packets of 8 in hematoxylin and eosin stains. Severe cases of emphysematous gastritis or gastric perforation have been described. Nevertheless, the significance of C. ventriculi in an upper gastrointestinal tract and its pathogenic character remain unclear. We present a 67-year-old woman who underwent hiatoplasty with gastropexy. After 3 months, she underwent a gastroscopy showing gastroesophageal reflux. Biopsies showed ulcerative reflux esophagitis with presence of C.ventriculi, subsequently confirmed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing. The barium swallow study revealed an atonic stomach with delayed gastric emptying. The patient was treated with PPI and domperidone. On follow up, 15 months post-operatively, a control gastroscopy showed a stomach with food residues and reflux-associated small erosions. The Clostridium organisms were detected only in oxyntic mucosa biopsies without erosions or ulcerations. We speculate that the recognition of the organisms in the biopsy material is important and suggests dysmotility disorder. However, in our opinion, the presence of C. ventriculi, even in combination with mucosal damage, does not necessarily prompt antibiotic treatment since no complications occurred and inflammation as well as gastric function improved under PPI and prokinetic therapy in our patient. Larger study groups with long-term follow-up are needed to understand whether these organisms could behave as pathogens or are only bystanders in the setting of delayed gastric emptying.


Assuntos
Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Domperidona/uso terapêutico , Esofagite Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Esofagite Péptica/microbiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Esofagite Péptica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico por imagem , Gastropexia , Gastroscopia , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Estômago/cirurgia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19885, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312014

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is one of the most common malignant mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. They generally arise from the fourth layer (muscularis propria) and rarely from the second or third layer. Although the manifestations of gastric stromal tumors are diverse, to our knowledge, there are only several cases of an extra-gastric stromal tumor in the literature appearing with a pedunculation. Pedunculated large GISTs are not frequent and compress the neighboring organs. When they were huge, it is difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. Thus, in the clinical setting, physicians should pay more attention to the pattern of manifestation of the gastric stromal tumor. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 62-year-old man had no gastrointestinal symptoms or significant medical and family histories. During the health examination with US, a cystic-solid tumor was found below liver. The results of the physical examination were unremarkable, and routine laboratory data on admission did not show any abnormal findings. DIAGNOSIS: Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a mixed echoic mass measuring 10 × 8 × 8 cm and located below the liver, adjacent to the gastric antrum. After endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, cytopathology showed that the specimen was filled with red blood cells, and it had no malignant cells. Histopathology revealed that the mass was a GIST, and immunohistochemical analysis showed the following: CD117(+), CD34(+), desmin(-), Dog-1(+), Ki-67% <1%, and smooth muscle actin(-). INTERVENTIONS: Surgical resection was performed on the patient. OUTCOMES: The lesion was diagnosed as a gastric stromal tumor with a pedicle and an old hemorrhage. The patient's recovery was uneventful. After surgery, computed tomography at the 6-month and 1-year postoperative follow-up visits did not reveal relapse or any metastasis. LESSONS: In the clinical setting, physicians should pay more attention to the pattern of manifestation of the extra-gastric stromal tumor in patients with a pedicle or hemorrhage. Additionally, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration can be used to make an accurate preoperative diagnosis of such diseases, and its findings can serve as an important basis for surgical excision of the lesions.


Assuntos
Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Estômago/patologia , Assistência ao Convalescente , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/métodos , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19888, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312016

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Although percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy (PEG-J) tubes are believed to reduce the side effect of aspiration, cautious catheter management is required. Intussusception is a serious complication of these tubes. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 7-year-old boy bedridden with hypoxic encephalopathy owing to drowning at the age of 1 year was admitted our hospital with urinary retention for 1 month. At the age of 4 years, a PEG-J tube was inserted. Concomitant with hyperaldosteronemia, an intestinal intussusception from the duodenum to the jejunum was observed via computed tomography (CT). The patient's condition worsened dramatically; gastrointestinal perforation was suspected, and laparotomy was performed. DIAGNOSIS: Jejuno-jejunal intussusception. INTERVENTIONS: Open surgery was performed to release the intussusception. By assessing the reduced intestinal tract, the intussusception starting from a 50 cm portion from the Treitz ligament had been extended to 100 cm from the Treitz ligament. The oral side jejunum was dilated. No evidence of intestinal perforation or strangulated ileus was observed, and the intussusception was manually remediable. OUTCOMES: Preoperative CT examination showed intussusception from the duodenum to the jejunum. Laparotomy showed intussusception on the anal side of the Treitz ligament. With regard to the CT findings associated with the progression of intussusception to the duodenal site, as a result of the telescope phenomenon extending to the duodenum due to the relaxation of the Treitz ligament through repeated intussusception, it was considered that CT examination revealed intussusception extending from the jejunum to the duodenum of oral side. After 3 postoperative weeks, the patient was finally able to return home. LESSONS: If the ileus is observed during the insertion of a PEG-J, clinicians should consider the possibility of intussusception even in the duodenum.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Intussuscepção/etiologia , Jejunostomia/efeitos adversos , Estômago/cirurgia , Criança , Duodeno/patologia , Duodeno/cirurgia , Derivação Gástrica/instrumentação , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica , Íleus/diagnóstico , Íleus/etiologia , Intussuscepção/patologia , Doenças do Jejuno/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Jejuno/etiologia , Doenças do Jejuno/patologia , Jejuno/patologia , Jejuno/cirurgia , Laparotomia/métodos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(15): e19630, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282712

RESUMO

To investigate computed tomography and angiography findings and clinical outcomes after transcatheter arterial embolization for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding from advanced gastric cancers.From January 2005 to December 2014, 58 patients with pathologically proven gastric cancer were treated at our institution with transcatheter arterial embolization due to acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding recalcitrant to endoscopic treatment. The electronic medical records for each patient were reviewed for clinical presentation, endoscopy history, computed tomography and angiographic findings, blood transfusion requirements, and follow-up results.Angiography findings were positive in 13 patients (22.4%): contrast extravasation was found in 9 patients and pseudoaneurysm in 4 patients. All patients with positive angiograms underwent selective embolization treatment. Those with negative angiography findings underwent empirical embolization. Gelfoam, n-butyl cyanoacrylate, coils, or a combination of these were used as embolic agents. The overall clinical success rate was 72.4% (42/58), and the success rate for patients with positive angiography was 53.8% (7/13). The median survival was 97.5 days (range, 7-1415 days), and the 1-month survival rate was 89.6% (52/58). The 1-month survival rate of the clinical success group was 95.2% (40/42), which was significantly higher than that of the clinical failure group (P = .04). The clinical success group also required significantly fewer transfusions (2.43 units, range 0-24 units) (P = .02).Transcatheter arterial embolization is a highly effective treatment for advanced gastric cancer with active bleeding. It should be considered as an additional treatment, especially when endoscopic or surgical treatment fails or when these approaches are difficult.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Neoplasias Gástricas/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Falso Aneurisma/diagnóstico por imagem , Falso Aneurisma/epidemiologia , Angiografia/instrumentação , Embolização Terapêutica/tendências , Embucrilato/uso terapêutico , Extravasamento de Materiais Terapêuticos e Diagnósticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Extravasamento de Materiais Terapêuticos e Diagnósticos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Esponja de Gelatina Absorvível/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estômago/irrigação sanguínea , Estômago/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(5): 355-362, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326735

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the world. By the time the patients are diagnosed with stage IV gastric cancer, many patients already have distant metastases. There is no unified systemic treatment plan in existence. The use of gastrectomy is ambiguous in patients with stage IV gastric cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the beneficial outcome of gastrectomy in patients with stage IV gastric cancer. METHODS: Clinical information of patients with gastric cancer from 2000 to 2010 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database were extracted and analysed. The risk factors for stage IV gastric cancer were also analysed. RESULTS: We observed that the median survival time for patients after surgery was greater than that for patients not treated surgically. The five-year survival rate for chemotherapy patients was higher than that of non-chemotherapeutic patients. Patients who receive both chemotherapy and surgery could achieve a more significant survival benefit. The risks following gastrectomy (partial, subtotal, hemi-) were lower than those of other surgical procedures, which provided guidance on the choice of surgical method. The numbers of regional lymph node metastasis were found to be related to prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stage IV gastric cancer, gastrectomy (partial, subtotal or hemi) should be selected when surgery is necessary. The number of regional lymph node metastasis could be considered as a prognostic factor for patients with stage IV gastric cancer and lymph node dissection could reduce the risk of patients undergoing surgery.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/métodos , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Metástase Linfática , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Gastrectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo/estatística & dados numéricos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Seleção de Pacientes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER/estatística & dados numéricos , Estômago/patologia , Estômago/cirurgia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 1897-1904, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We investigated the clinical role of the molecular targets, APEX1 and Jagged-1, and the Apex1 - Jagged-1 cascade in gastric cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used 6 human gastric cancer cell lines (SNU-1, SNU-5, SNU-16, NCI-N87, KATO- III and AGS), and demonstrated the chemosensitivity of APEX1 and Jagged-1 through the MTT assay and immunoblotting. Tumor growth was assayed following cisplatin and 5-FU treatment using a xenograft model injected with KATO-III cells. Moreover, gastric tumor samples from 9 patients, divided in 2 groups according to chemotherapy response, were examined by immunocytochemical (IHC) staining, and protein expression levels were scored. RESULTS: Following APEX1 knockdown, the MTT assay revealed that the IC50 of cisplatin and 5-FU in AGS cells was decreased approximately 7% and 15%, respectively, however, their decrease in chemoresistant KATO-III cells was decreased by approximately 21% and 67% for cisplatin and 5-FU, respectively. The tumor volume of KATO-III/sicontrol mice treated with cisplatin and 5-FU was affected less, compared with KATO-III/siAPEX1 mice treated with cisplatin and 5-FU. Also, the expression levels of APEX1, Jagged-1 and CD133, assayed by IHC staining, were higher in the chemorefractory group than in the chemoresponsive group. CONCLUSION: Jagged-1-activated signaling by APEX1 plays a role in advanced gastric cancer.


Assuntos
DNA Liase (Sítios Apurínicos ou Apirimidínicos)/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Proteína Jagged-1/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(3): 227-32, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To display the low hydraulic resistance channel along the running course of the Conception Vessel (CV) by using in vivo fluorography, so as to provide evidence for the existence of meridians of traditional Chinese medicine from the aspect of interstitial fluid channel. METHODS: A total of 24 male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely CV-low impedance spots (CV-LIS), CV-low hydraulic resistance points (CV-LHRP) and non-meridian points (NMP) groups (n=8 in each group). The CV-LIS (the imaged line between the xiphoid process and symphysis pubis), CV-LHRP (lateral and parallel to LIS) and NMP (lateral and parallel to CV-LHRP) were detected by using meridian detector and biofluid resistance meter, respectively. Sodium fluorescein solution (1%) was injected into the spot (A-spot, upper 1/5 of the CV-LIS), and one of the NMP (about 1 cm lateral and parallel to the A-spot, and the mid-point between the Kidney and Stomach meridian running courses) by using a microsyringe for observing the migration trace of sodium fluorescein. RESULTS: After injection of fluorescein, the migration trace of fluorescein appeared along the CV-LIS and CV-LHRP lines, and only local diffusion was found in the NMP group. The migration trace lengths along the CV-LIS and CV-LHRP were significantly longer than that of the NMP group (P<0.01), and the migration width of CV-LIS and CV-LHRP groups was significantly smaller than that of the NMP group (P<0.01). The migration speed of CV-LIS and CV-LHRP groups was significantly higher than that of the NMP group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Fluorography is able to be used to display the running course of CV, possibly supporting the existence of meridians from the interstitial fluid channel and providing a new method for visualization of meridians.


Assuntos
Meridianos , Animais , Injeções , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estômago
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19343, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080155

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a relatively common clinical situation in the emergency department. However, multiple sharply pointed foreign bodies located in different organs are rare conditions and no definite treatment guidelines has been established. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 31-year-old amateur magician visited the outpatient clinic with a chief complaint of epigastric discomfort. He might have accidentally swallowed some needles while practicing a magic trick 2 days before. DIAGNOSIS: Imaging tests revealed 1 needle was stuck in the left liver lobe through the stomach wall, 1 was in the third portion of the duodenum, 3 were in the ascending colon, and 2 were in the transverse colon. INTERVENTIONS: A needle in the duodenum and 5 in the colon were removed by endoscopy. The needle stuck in the liver from the stomach was not visible inside the stomach and was successfully removed by laparoscopy a few days later. OUTCOMES: The patient was able to tolerate an oral diet and was discharged on postoperative day 4 without any complications. LESSONS: Developing a treatment plan in cases of multiple sharp FB may be difficult. A multidisciplinary team of endoscopists and surgeons is needed to determine the best possible treatment plan. This experience illustrates the importance of the planning of the sequence and method of removal of multiple foreign bodies from the gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Laparoscopia , Agulhas , Acidentes , Adulto , Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo/cirurgia , Duodeno/diagnóstico por imagem , Duodeno/cirurgia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/cirurgia , Magia , Masculino , Radiografia , Estômago/diagnóstico por imagem , Estômago/cirurgia
15.
Helicobacter ; 25(2): e12684, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistant Helicobacter pylori to commonly used antimicrobial agents are associated with severe upper gastrointestinal disorders. To provide an epidemiological picture of H pylori and characterize the resistance pattern and genetic variation of clinical isolates, stomach biopsies from patients with functional dyspepsia were evaluated in northeast of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 80 patients were recruited. Finally, fifty H pylori strains were isolated from antrum and corpus biopsies by culturing on Columbia agar. All strains were identified by standard laboratory procedures. Susceptibility testing of antibiotics was performed using minimum inhibitory concentration test. Allele-specific primer (ASP)-PCR of 23S rRNA which associated with clarithromycin resistance was done among resistant strains. Moreover, cagA gene and polymorphism in vacA were detected. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was applied to investigate the genetic variations among all strains. RESULTS: Antibiotic resistance pattern of H pylori strains was as follows: 68% (34/50) to metronidazole, 50% (25/50) to rifampicin, 30% (15/50) to amoxicillin, 28% (14/50) to levofloxacin, 22% (11/50) to clarithromycin, and 16% (8/50) to tetracycline. Multidrug-resistant strains were observed in 19 strains (38%). ASP-PCR of 23S rRNA showed four strains had A2143G mutation, six strains had A2142G mutation, and one strain had a Wt+A2143G mutation. Amplification of virulence-associated genes revealed that cagA was present in 27 isolates (54%) and vacA in 36 isolates (72%). The most common genotype of H pylori was vacA s1am2 (40%) followed by vacA s2m2 (14%), vacA s1am1 (12%), vacA s1bm1 (4%), and vacA s1bm2 (2%). DNA fingerprinting pattern indicated a high heterogeneity among isolated strains. CONCLUSION: An alarming level of resistance to metronidazole and rifampicin and high heterogeneity among H pylori isolates highlighted the importance of continued monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility and epidemiological surveillance of this pathogen.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Virulência/genética , Adulto , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biópsia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Estômago/microbiologia
16.
Helicobacter ; 25(2): e12681, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori occupy a unique niche, located within the mucus layer lining the stomach, and attached to the apical surface of the gastric epithelium. As such, antibodies would be expected to play a major role in regulating infection and/or pathogenesis. However, experiments using antibody-deficient mice to study gastric helicobacter infection have yielded inconsistent results, although some pointed toward antibodies increasing colonization levels and decreasing gastritis severity. The variability in these studies is possibly due to their use of nonmatched wild-type controls. This current study presents the first evaluation of the role of antibodies in H pylori infection by comparing antibody-deficient mice with matched wild-type siblings. METHODS: Matched wild-type and antibody-deficient µMT mice were generated by heterozygous crossings. In two separate experiments, appropriately genotyped sibling littermates were infected with H pylori for 4 months and then sera and stomachs were collected. RESULTS: There was no difference in H pylori colonization levels between infected µMT mice and sibling wild-type controls. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the severity of gastritis between these groups of mice, although there was a trend toward less severe gastritis in µMT mice which was supported by a significantly lower IFNγ (Th1) gastric cytokine response. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing matched antibody-deficient and antibody-competent mice indicates that an antibody response does not influence H pylori colonization levels. Contrary to previous studies, these results suggest antibodies might have a minor pro-inflammatory effect by promoting gastric Th1 cytokines, although this did not translate to a significant effect on gastritis severity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Helicobacter pylori , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Gastrite/microbiologia , Gastrite/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estômago/microbiologia , Estômago/patologia
17.
Gene ; 736: 144421, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018014

RESUMO

5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of heme, a prosthetic group that is found in hemoproteins, including those involved in molting. To better understand the roles of ALAS in L. vannamei (LvALAS), we analyzed its sequence and tissue distribution, the effects of age and bacterial infection on its gene expression, and the effects of LvALAS gene silencing. We also examined the expressions of three hemoproteins, the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COX I) and subunit IV (COX IV) and catalase. Three LvALAS splicing variants were found in the hepatopancreas, with the main splicing variant having an open reading frame that encodes 532 aa. LvALAS transcripts were found in each of the eleven tissues tested in this study, with the highest gene expression in the intestine. The transcript abundances of LvALAS, COX I and COX IV in the hepatopancreas and stomach tended to decrease with age. LvALAS and catalase gene expressions significantly increased in the stomach after V. parahaemolyticus infection. LvALAS gene expression in the hepatopancreas, stomach and intestine (12- and 24-hours post-injection) was relatively lower in dsALAS-injected shrimp than in PBS-injected shrimp. All the PBS-injected shrimp molted after 8-10 days while no molting activity was observed in the dsALAS-injected shrimp group within the 14 days post-injection period. Our results provide evidence that (1) only the housekeeping form of ALAS exists in L. vannamei; LvALAS gene expression (2) decreases with age and (3) increases after bacterial infection; and (4) an ALAS-dependent pathway is necessary for proper molting in L. vannamei.


Assuntos
5-Aminolevulinato Sintetase/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Penaeidae/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ácido Aminolevulínico/metabolismo , Animais , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/patologia , Intestinos/patologia , Penaeidae/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Estômago/patologia
18.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(2): 163-175, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026207

RESUMO

The adaptive radiation of the angiosperms was strongly affected by fruit and seed dispersal since the establishment of the seedlings is a fundamental process for the recruitment of juveniles to the populations. Among the species of Burseraceae, seeds with fleshy attachments and high caloric value suggest mammaliochory as an ancestral dispersal way. In Protium icicariba, at the same time as there is a visual pattern typical of ornithochory, with a report of effective demonstration, the diaspores present the highest levels of essential oils of the whole plant, suggesting other dispersion processes by olfactory guided vectors. This work aims to monitor the diasporic dispersal process in P. icicariba in situ, aiming to identify dispersers and to investigate the role of the essential oil in the dispersion of diaspores of this plant species. The natural dispersion was monitored in situ, in weekly campaigns throughout eight months, using visual and photographic records, in daily shifts of six hours, distributed along the dawn, morning, afternoon, dusk, and night. We used both direct observation and continuous picture capturing along 43 days with photographic traps. Mature diaspores removed from pseudocapsules were pooled to determine potential dispersers. Artificial models of the diaspores, in white and green colors, were also used to test hypotheses on the role of scent in the dispersion, added 1%, weight/weight, of the essential oil extracted from the mature diaspores, which chemical composition determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Besides, the analysis of stomach contents of lizards collected in adjacent area was also performed. In daytime and nighttime monitoring in nature, no vertebrates were recorded dispersing diaspores. The most common was the primary wind-facilitated autochory of diaspores to the substrate, near the plant matrices. Secondarily, workers of the ant species Atta robusta can remove the pseudoarils or move the pyrenes to the anthills. The lizard species Tropidurus torquatus ingests pyrenes with the pseudoarils, and the sclerified pericarp of the pyrene is potentially resistant to chemical action of the digestive juices. Ants and lizards have also accessed the caves with natural diaspores. Concerning the artificial diaspore models, ants accessed, indistinctly, white and the green models that contained essential oils. The lizards accessed the white models, with or without essential oils, and showed insignificant access to green ones, with or without essential oil. The ingestion of pyrenes by lizards was also confirmed through analysis of stomach contents. The aggregate spatial pattern of P. icicariba at the study site, associated with clumps, may be derived from germination in the substrate near the matrices, or in the anthills or after diaspora defecation and / or regurgitation of the lizard, which is a species strongly associated with clumps of this vegetation. As the access to the diaspores by ants and lizards depends on the primary autochory, and no impediments to the germination near to the matrix plant were found, the dispersion is compatible with a multifactorial characteristic of the diplochory.


Assuntos
Burseraceae/metabolismo , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Burseraceae/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lagartos/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Estômago/química
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18927, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000406

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastritis is a rare opportunistic infection with diverse clinical manifestations. Our study aimed to investigate the clinical features of Chinese patients with CMV gastritis.Six inpatients diagnosed with CMV gastritis were retrospectively enrolled, based on the finding of inclusion bodies in routine hematoxylin and eosin staining or positive anti-CMV monoclonal antibodies under immunohistochemistry in the gastric biopsy. Data, including demographics, diagnostic measurements, and medications, were collected.Abdominal pain was the most frequently reported symptom, occurring in 4 patients. Five patients were immunocompromised with associated underlying diseases, and 3 patients had decreased leukocyte differentiation antigen 4 positive (CD4) T lymphocyte counts. Only 3 patients had either positive cytomegalovirus (CMV)-immunoglobulin (Ig) M or increased copies of CMV-DNA peripherally. All patients had gastric lesions in the antrum of the stomach, including ulcers or erosions observed by gastroscopy. All patients received ganciclovir by intravenous injection (IV) as the first line anti-CMV therapy, and attained complete (4) or partial remission (2) during the follow-up.CMV gastritis should be taken into consideration in patients with immunocompromised status who have abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting. Gastroscopy and necessary biopsy are the major diagnostic methods for CMV gastritis. Early diagnosis leads to a better prognosis for these patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biópsia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/patologia , Feminino , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Gastrite/patologia , Gastroscopia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/diagnóstico , Náusea/tratamento farmacológico , Náusea/epidemiologia , Náusea/etiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estômago/diagnóstico por imagem , Estômago/patologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vômito/diagnóstico , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico , Vômito/epidemiologia , Vômito/etiologia
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