Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 112.475
Filtrar
2.
Euro Surveill ; 26(37)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533117

RESUMO

BackgroundIn Denmark, influenza surveillance is ensured by data capturing from existing population-based registers. Since 2017, point-of-care (POC) testing has been implemented outside the regional clinical microbiology departments (CMD).AimWe aimed to assess influenza laboratory results in view of the introduction of POC testing.MethodsWe retrospectively observed routine surveillance data on national influenza tests before and after the introduction of POC testing as available in the Danish Microbiological Database. Also, we conducted a questionnaire study among Danish CMD about influenza diagnostics.ResultsBetween the seasons 2014/15 and 2018/19, 199,744 influenza tests were performed in Denmark of which 44,161 were positive (22%). After the introduction of POC testing, the overall percentage of positive influenza tests per season did not decrease. The seasonal influenza test incidence was higher in all observed age groups. The number of operating testing platforms placed outside a CMD and with an instrument analytical time ≤ 3 h increased after 2017. Regionally, the number of tests registered as POC in the Danish Microbiological Database and the number of tests performed with an instrument analytical time ≤ 3 h or outside a CMD partially differed. Where comparable (71% of tests), the relative proportion of POC tests out of all tests increased from season 2017/18 to 2018/19. In both seasons, the percentage of positive POC tests resulted slightly lower than for non-POC tests.ConclusionPOC testing integrated seamlessly into national influenza surveillance. We propose the use of POC results in the routine surveillance of seasonal influenza.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
3.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1279-1281, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500253

RESUMO

Wuhan, China was the first city to discover COVID-19. With the government's macro-control and the active cooperation of the public, the spread of COVID-19 has been effectively controlled. In order to understand the additional impact of these measures on the prevalence of common influenza, we have collected flu test data from the Pediatric Clinic of Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from September to December 2020, and compared them with the same period in 2018 and 2019. It is found that compared with the same period in 2018 and 2019, the rate of children's influenza activity in 2020 has significantly decreased, which indicates that the protective measures against COVID-19 have effectively reduced the level of influenza activity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano
4.
Euro Surveill ; 26(36)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505568

RESUMO

BackgroundCohort studies on vaccine effectiveness are prone to confounding bias if the distribution of risk factors is unbalanced between vaccinated and unvaccinated study subjects.AimWe aimed to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness in the elderly population in Finland by controlling for a sufficient set of confounders based on routinely available register data.MethodsFor each of the eight consecutive influenza seasons from 2012/13 through 2019/20, we conducted a cohort study comparing the hazards of laboratory-confirmed influenza in vaccinated and unvaccinated people aged 65-100 years using individual-level medical and demographic data. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as 1 minus the hazard ratio adjusted for the confounders age, sex, vaccination history, nights hospitalised in the past and presence of underlying chronic conditions. To assess the adequacy of the selected set of confounders, we estimated hazard ratios of off-season hospitalisation for acute respiratory infection as a negative control outcome.ResultsEach analysed cohort comprised around 1 million subjects, of whom 37% to 49% were vaccinated. Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed influenza ranged from 16% (95% confidence interval (CI): 12-19) to 48% (95% CI: 41-54). More than 80% of the laboratory-confirmed cases were hospitalised. The adjusted off-season hazard ratio estimates varied between 1.00 (95% CI: 0.94-1.05) and 1.08 (95% CI: 1.01-1.15), indicating that residual confounding was absent or negligible.ConclusionSeasonal influenza vaccination reduces the hazard of severe influenza disease in vaccinated elderly people. Data about age, sex, vaccination history and utilisation of hospital care proved sufficient to control confounding.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Vacinação
5.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc ; 111(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Google Trends proves to be a novel tool to ascertain the level of public interest in pathology and treatments. From anticipating nascent epidemics with data-driven prevention campaigns to identifying interest in cosmetic or bariatric surgery, Google Trends provides physicians real-time insight into the latest consumer trends. METHODS: We used Google Trends to identify temporal trends and variation in the search volume index of four groups of keywords that assessed practitioner-nomenclature inquiries, in addition to podiatric-specific searches for pain, traumatic injury, and common podiatric pathology over a 10-year period. The Mann-Kendall trend test was used to determine a trend in the series, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to determine whether there was a significant difference between summer and winter season inquiries. Significance was set at P ≤ .05. RESULTS: The terms "podiatrist" and "foot doctor" experienced increasing Search Volume Index (SVI) and seasonal variation, whereas the terms "foot surgeon" and "podiatric surgeon" experienced no such increase. "Foot pain," "heel pain," "toe pain," and "ankle pain" experienced a significant increase in SVI, with "foot pain" maintaining the highest SVI at all times. Similar results were seen with the terms "foot fractures," "bunion," "ingrown toenail," and "heel spur." These terms all experienced statistically significant increasing trends; moreover, the SVI was significantly higher in the summer than in the winter for each of these terms. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show the utility in illustrating seasonal variation in Internet interest of pathologies today's podiatrist commonly encounters. By identifying the popularity and seasonal variation of practitioner- and pathology-specific search inquiries, resources can be allocated to effectively address current public inquiries. With this knowledge, providers can learn what podiatric-specific interests are trending in their local communities and market their practice accordingly throughout the year.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Ferramenta de Busca , Tornozelo , Humanos , Estações do Ano
6.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(3): 357-365, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no evidence for the association of depressive symptoms with the sense of well-being of undergraduate medical students residing in high southern latitudes (HSL). AIM: To assess the frequency of depressive symptoms and its relationship with seasonal sensitivity and quality of life in medical students residing in HSL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Beck anxiety and depressive symptoms inventory, the seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire and the quality-of-life questionnaire of the WHO were applied to 102 medical students residing in Magallanes, Chile. RESULTS: Fifty-two percent of respondents reported some degree of depressive symptoms. These symptoms were significantly associated with the seasonal pattern score (r = 0.432, p < 0.01). They were also inversely associated with parameters of physical health and psychosocial health (r = -0.567, p < 0.01 and r = -0.708, p < 0.01, respectively). There was also a correlation between depressive and anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are common in medical students residing in HSL and they are associated with seasonal sensitivity and quality of life measures.


Assuntos
Depressão , Estudantes de Medicina , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20191221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495199

RESUMO

The invasion record for the estuarine bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeata in Brazil is in Rio de Janeiro city, including the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, where high densities of this invader were registered. This work aimed to (1) assess the composition and structure of the benthic macrofauna associated with this invader in Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, (2) analyze the spatiotemporal variation of richness, density and diversity of the associated benthic community, and (3) correlate changes on the density of the associated benthic species with some water quality variables and the density of M. leucophaeata. Clusters of M. leucophaeata were collected monthly (two years) in four sites. Nine taxa associated with M. leucophaeata were found; Heleobia sp. (Gastropoda) and Melita mangrovi (Amphipoda) showed the highest densities. The structure of the benthic macrofauna slightly differed among sampling sites, but not between dry and wet seasons. The water quality parameters, specific patterns of each taxon and high densities of M. leucophaeata contribute to variations in density of the associated species. Oscillations in the densities of M. leucophaeata and the native bivalve Brachidontes darwinianus suggest some agonistic relationship between them, such as a competition for space.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Bivalves , Animais , Brasil , Estações do Ano , Qualidade da Água
8.
Dan Med J ; 68(10)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498585

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of children admitted to Scandinavian trauma centres remains largely unknown. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of severe injuries in children admitted to a Danish university-level trauma centre. METHODS: A descriptive study of all severely injured (Injury Severity Score ≥ 16) children aged 0-15 years who were admitted to the university level trauma centre at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, in the 2002-2018 period. Data were extracted from the South Danish Register and from medical records. RESULTS: A total of 152 children were included. The median age was 11 (range: 0-15) years. Boys accounted for 57% of the cases. Accidents accounted for 99% of the cases. In the youngest age group (0-4 years), the majority of injuries occurred in domestic areas, in the daytime, in the summer and around the weekends. In the oldest age group (11-15 years), most injuries occurred in traffic areas, in the autumn, on weekdays and in the afternoon. In all age groups, the majority of lesions were sustained to the head/face/neck, limbs and thorax. The overall median number of days in hospital was six. Overall, 39 (26%) children died. Almost half of the injuries were traffic related and this proportion increased with increasing age group. One-third of the traffic injured children died. CONCLUSIONS: Based on a regional trauma register, we described the characteristics of severely injured children. The study included several aspects regarding injury pattern and severity, which may be useful for risk identification, prevention of accidents and for hospital resource planning. FUNDING: none TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.


Assuntos
Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
9.
Acta Biomed ; 92(4): e2021273, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scorpion envenomation is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in children and elderly worldwide. In Saudi Arabia it is an important issue as the climate and the desert terrain are ideal for scorpions' habitat. METHODS: A literature review of articles on the incidence of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: In Saudi Arabia, 28 species of scorpions were identified. Approximately 14,500 scorpion stings are annually reported, with full recovery and low morbidity and mortality rates. The highest risk groups to get envenomated are people living in the desert. And the highest incidence of scorpion stings was during the summer season. CONCLUSION: The number of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia is considerable and there were insufficient studies regarding such topic. The aim of this study is to emphasize on the importance of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia and providing updates regarding scorpion types, clinical presentations, and statistical data.


Assuntos
Picadas de Escorpião , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Picadas de Escorpião/epidemiologia , Picadas de Escorpião/terapia , Escorpiões , Estações do Ano
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 616, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476606

RESUMO

Remote sensing-based observation provides an opportunity to study the spatiotemporal variations of plant phenology across the landscapes. This study aims to examine the phenological variations of different types of sal (Shorea robusta) forests in India and also to explore the relationship between phenology metrics and climatic parameters. Sal, one of the main timber-producing species of India, can be categorized into dry, moist, and very moist sal. The phenological metrics of different types of sal forests were extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) time series data (2002-2015). During the study period, the average start of season (SOS) was found to be 16 May, 17 July, and 29 June for very moist, moist, and dry sal forests, respectively. The spatial distribution of mean SOS was mapped as well as the impact of climatic variables (temperature and rainfall) on SOS was investigated during the study period. In relation to the rainfall, values of the coefficient of determination (R2) for very moist, moist, and dry sal forests were 0.69, 0.68, and 0.76, respectively. However, with temperature, R2 values were found higher (R2 = 0.97, 0.81, and 0.97 for very moist, moist, and dry sal, respectively). The present study concluded that MODIS EVI is well capable of capturing the phenological metrics of different types of sal forests across different biogeographic provinces of India. SOS and length of season (LOS) were found to be the key phenology metrics to distinguish the different types of sal forests in India and temperature has a greater influence on SOS than rainfall in sal forests of India.


Assuntos
Dipterocarpaceae , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Índia , Imagens de Satélites , Estações do Ano
11.
Chemosphere ; 282: 131105, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470159

RESUMO

Atmospheric wet deposition is an important process for the occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in polar/remote mountain regions; however, there are limited data on PFASs in precipitation from the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Precipitation (rain from May to October 2017) was therefore collected across the TP to investigate the concentrations, composition profiles, sources, and fluxes of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). The average ∑PFAA concentrations ranged from 212.3 pg L-1 to 547.7 pg L-1, and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) accounted for 87% of the measured PFAAs (mean value). Significant positive associations (p < 0.05) were found for most PFCAs in the southeast TP, indicating that they may come from similar sources. The monthly PFAA deposition flux ranged from 12.6 to 68.9 ng m-2 month-1, decreasing from east to west. As climate of the eastern TP is controlled mainly by the Indian monsoon, indicating that the Indian monsoon plays an important role in delivering PFAAs to the TP. PCA (principal component analysis) combined with back-trajectory analysis was used to estimate the atmospheric transport pathways, and the PSCF (potential source contribution function) model was applied to define the potential source regions of individual PFAAs. The results suggested that northeast India, Bangladesh, and southern Nepal are the potential sources of C4-C7 PFCAs; C8-C10 PFCAs are more influenced by emissions from southern Nepal and Bhutan; while the source regions of long-chain PFCAs (C11-C12) can be attributed to northern India and Pakistan. Specifically, PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid) has a local contribution from the central TP.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Estações do Ano , Tibet , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 628, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487265

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to evaluate the parasitological and bacteriological qualities of the soil and water of the Oued Larbaâ, through nine stations covering the part of the Oued crossing the Taza city of Morocco (7 km of length). This study was conducted during two dry periods (2017 and 2018) and one wet period (2018). Soil parasitological studies revealed high contamination by helminths belonging to the species Enterobius vermicularis and Toxocara sp., which recorded the highest concentrations in stations S2 and S8, respectively, with values of 11.41 and 29.26 eggs/g. Concerning water, the majority of stations indicated contamination mainly by Ascaris lumbricoides, which reached concentrations of 56.49, 37.39, and 56.15 eggs/l in stations S3, S6, and S8, respectively. Bacteriological examination of the soil showed very high concentrations of bacteria, especially Streptococcus, due to the high retention of this type of bacteria in the soil. The water analysis indicated that stations S3, S4, and S8 are the most impacted, with total coliform and Streptococcus concentrations in station S3 of 2.45 105 and 0.20 107 CFU/ml, respectively, Fecal coliforms and Staphylococci are detected in high concentrations in station S8 with values of 1.35 104 and 8.92 106 CFU/ml, respectively, and total aerobic mesophilic flora in station S4 with a concentration of 1.89 109 CFU/ml. During the study periods, influences of sampling season, nature of discharge existed (wastewater or leachate) on the parasitological and bacteriological composition of the river were established with high concentrations during the dry period and in the stations in which large amounts of liquid discharge were observed.


Assuntos
Solo , Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Marrocos , Estações do Ano
13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488277

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the causes and characteristics of occupational hand trauma in Xiaoshan District of Hangzhou, and to provide basis for formulating preventive measures and treatment. Methods: In July 2020, 3021 patients with occupational hand injury treated in Xiaoshan District from January 2017 to December 2019 were selected as the research object. The data of gender, age, injury month and time period of patients with occupational hand injury were collected, and their relationship with the causes of injury was analyzed. Results: Among 3021 patients with occupational hand trauma in Xiaoshan District, most of them were men (male to female ratio 2.05∶1) , and the proportion of injuries from 18 to 30 years old was relatively high (1508 cases, 49.92%) . The proportion of patients with cutting injury was high (1208 cases, 39.99%) , most of the injuries were at the distal end of metacarpophalangeal joint (2118 cases, 70.11%) , the proportion of injuries in summer was relatively high (1225 cases, 40.55%) . Most of them were injured from 8:00 to 16:00 every day (1684 cases, 55.74%) , of which 11:00-12:00 accounted for 29.46% (890 cases) . The excellent and good rate of functional recovery in all patients was 85.10% (2571/3021) . There were significant differences in the distribution of injury causes among patients with occupational hand trauma in different gender, age and seasons (P<0.01) . Conclusion: In Xiaoshan District of Hangzhou, there are many cases of cutting injuries in patients with occupational hand injuries, with high incidence in summer and 11:00-12:00. Enterprises should strengthen the supervision and management of relevant time periods, especially to prevent the occurrence of cutting injuries.


Assuntos
Traumatismos da Mão , Traumatismos Ocupacionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Mãos , Traumatismos da Mão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148396, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465046

RESUMO

Droughts represent one of the most severe abiotic stress factors that could result in great crop yield loss. Numerous vegetation indices have been proposed for monitoring the vegetation condition under stress and assessing drought impacts on yield loss. However, the understanding and comparison between traditional vegetation indices (VIs) and the newly emerging satellite Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) for monitoring vegetation condition is still limited especially under drought stress and at multiple spatial scales. In this study, the potential of satellite observation SIF for monitoring corn response to drought was investigated based on the 2012 drought in the US Corn Belt. The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was used here to quantify drought. We found that all SPEI were above -1, except for July (-1.27), August (-1.39) and September (-1.14) in 2012, indicating the severity of this drought. We examined the relationship between satellite measurements of SIF, SIFyield, VIs (e.g., NDVI and EVI) and SPEI. Results indicated that SIFyield was sensitive to drought and SIF captured the stress more accurately both at the regional and state scales for the US Corn Belt. Quantitatively, SIFyield had a high correlation with SPEI (r = 0.987, p < 0.05) over the entire Corn Belt, and it indicated losses in response to drought approximately one month earlier than SIF/NDVI/EVI. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that SIF could be trusted as an effective indicator to study the relationship between GPP (R2 ≥ 0.8664, p < 0.01) under drought conditions across the Corn Belt. This study highlighted the advantage of using satellite SIF observations to monitor the drought stress on crop growth especially GPP at regional scale.


Assuntos
Clorofila , Secas , Fluorescência , Estações do Ano , Zea mays
15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 108: 120-133, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465426

RESUMO

Landfill sites are regarded as prominent sources of bioaerosols for the surrounding atmosphere. The present study focused on the emission of airborne bacteria and fungi in four seasons of a sanitary landfill site. The main species found in bioaerosols were assayed using high-throughput sequencing. The SourceTracker method was utilized to identify the sources of the bioaerosols present at the boundary of the landfill site. Furthermore, the health consequences of the exposure to bioaerosols were evaluated based on the average daily dose rates. Results showed that the concentrations of airborne bacteria in the operation area (OPA) and the leakage treatment area (LTA) were in the range of (4684 ± 477)-(10883 ± 1395) CFU/m3 and (3179 ± 453)-(9051 ± 738) CFU/m3, respectively. The average emission levels of fungal aerosols were 4026 CFU/m3 for OPA and 1295 CFU/m3 for LTA. The landfill site received the maximum bioaerosol load during summer and the minimum during winter. Approximately 41.39%- 86.24% of the airborne bacteria had a particle size of 1.1 to 4.7 µm, whereas 48.27%- 66.45% of the airborne fungi had a particle size of more than 4.7 µm. Bacillus sp., Brevibacillus sp., and Paenibacillus sp. were abundant in the bacterial population, whereas Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. dominated the fungal population. Bioaerosols released from the working area and treatment of leachate were the two main sources that emerged in the surrounding air of the landfill site boundary. The exposure risks during summer and autumn were higher than those in spring and winter.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aerossóis/análise , Fungos , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 108: 44-57, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465436

RESUMO

Zhengzhou is one of the most haze-polluted cities in Central China with high organic carbon emission, which accounts for 15%-20% of particulate matter (PM2.5) in winter and causes significantly adverse health effects. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the precursors of secondary PM2.5 and O3 formation. An investigation of characteristics, sources and health risks assessment of VOCs was carried out at the urban area of Zhengzhou from 1st to 31st December, 2019. The mean concentrations of total detected VOCs were 48.8 ± 23.0 ppbv. Alkanes (22.0 ± 10.4 ppbv), halocarbons (8.1 ± 3.9 ppbv) and aromatics (6.5 ± 3.9 ppbv) were the predominant VOC species, followed by alkenes (5.1 ± 3.3 ppbv), oxygenated VOCs (3.6 ± 1.8 ppbv), alkyne (3.5 ± 1.9, ppbv) and sulfide (0.5 ± 0.9 ppbv). The Positive Matrix Factorization model was used to identify and apportion VOCs sources. Five major sources of VOCs were identified as vehicular exhaust, industrial processes, combustion, fuel evaporation, and solvent use. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk values of species were calculated. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of almost all air toxics increased during haze days. The total non-carcinogenic risks exceeded the acceptable ranges. Most VOC species posed no non-carcinogenic risk during three haze events. The carcinogenic risks of chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane, benzyl chloride, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, benzene and naphthalene were above the acceptable level (1.0  ×  10-6) but below the tolerable risk level (1.0  ×  10-4). Industrial emission was the major contributor to non-carcinogenic, and solvent use was the major contributor to carcinogenic risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/análise , Estações do Ano , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1631, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hot weather leads to increased illness and deaths. The Heatwave Plan for England (HWP) aims to protect the population by raising awareness of the dangers of hot weather, especially for those most vulnerable. Individuals at increased risk to the effects of heat include older adults, particularly 75+, and those with specific chronic conditions, such as diabetes, respiratory and heart conditions. The HWP recommends specific protective actions which relate to five heat-health alert levels (levels 0-4). This study examines the attitudes to hot weather of adults in England, and the protective measures taken during a heatwave. METHODS: As part of a wider evaluation of the implementation and effects of the HWP, a survey (n = 3153) and focus groups, a form of group interview facilitated by a researcher, were carried out after the June 2017 level 3 heat-health alert. Survey respondents were categorised into three groups based on their age and health status: 'vulnerable' (aged 75+), 'potentially vulnerable' (aged 18-74 in poor health) and 'not vulnerable' (rest of the adult population) to hot weather. Multivariable logistic regression models identified factors associated with these groups taking protective measures. In-person group discussion, focused on heat-health, were carried out with 25 people, mostly aged 75 + . RESULTS: Most vulnerable and potentially vulnerable adults do not consider themselves at risk of hot weather and are unaware of the effectiveness of important protective behaviours. Only one-quarter of (potentially) vulnerable adults reported changing their behaviour as a result of hearing hot weather-related health advice during the level 3 alert period. Focus group findings showed many vulnerable adults were more concerned about the effects of the sun's ultra-violet radiation on the skin than on the effects of hot temperatures on health. CONCLUSIONS: Current public health messages appear to be insufficient, given the low level of (potentially) vulnerable adults changing their behaviour during hot weather. In the context of increasingly warmer summers in England due to climate change, public health messaging needs to convince (potentially) vulnerable adults of all the risks of hot weather (not just effects of sunlight on the skin) and of the importance of heat protective measures.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta , Idoso , Atitude , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 647, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519882

RESUMO

Land managers need reliable metrics for assessing the quality of restorations and natural areas and prioritizing management and conservation efforts. However, it can be difficult to select metrics that are robust to sampling methods and natural environmental differences among sites, while still providing relevant information regarding ecosystem changes or stressors. We collected herbaceous-layer vegetation data in wetlands and grasslands in four regions of the USA (the Midwest, subtropical Florida, arid southwest, and coastal New England) to determine if commonly used vegetation metrics (species richness, mean coefficient of conservatism [mean C], Floristic Quality Index [FQI], abundance-weighted mean C, and percent non-native species cover) were robust to environmental and methodological variables (region, site, observer, season, and year), and to determine adequate sample sizes for each metric. We constructed linear mixed effects models to determine the influence of these environmental and methodological variables on vegetation metrics and used metric accumulation curves to determine the effect of sample size on metric values. Species richness and FQI varied among regions, and year and observer effects were also highly supported in our models. Mean C was the metric most robust to sampling variables and stabilized at less sampling effort compared to other metrics. Assessment of mean C requires sampling a small number of quadrats (e.g. 20), but assessment of species richness or FQI requires more intensive sampling, particularly in species-rich sites. Based on our analysis, we recommend caution be used when comparing metric values among sites sampled in different regions, different years, or by different observers.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estações do Ano , Áreas Alagadas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...