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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 518-526, sept. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008290

RESUMO

Valeriana amurensis Smir. ex Kom. widely distributed in the northeast region of China and some region in Russia and Korea, and its underground parts (roots and rhizomes) being used to cure nervous system diseases such as insomnia. The active components including the essential oil and iridoids of underground parts were investigated in different harvest periods in order to evaluate the quality for the roots and rhizomes of V. amurensis. The content of the essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and bornyl acetate in the oil was quantitated by GC-EI. The iridoids, valepotriates were determined by potentiometric titration and the main component, valtrate was quantitated by HPLC-UV. The factors of biomass were considered in the determination of collection period. Statistical analysis of results showed that, the highest content of the essential oil per plant was 22.69 µl in withering period and then 21.58 µl in fruit ripening period, while the highest contents of bornyl acetate, valepotriates and valtrate per plant were 2.82 mg, 31.90 mg and 0.98 mg in fruit ripening period separately. Fruit ripening period was decided as the best harvest period for the content of active constituents and output of drug, and it would provide scientific basis for the artificial cultivation of V. amurensis.


Valeriana amurensis Smir. ex Kom. Se distribuye ampliamente en la región noreste de China y en algunas regiones de Rusia y Corea, y sus partes subterráneas (raíces y rizomas) se utilizan para curar enfermedades del sistema nervioso como el insomnio. Se investigaron los componentes activos, incluidos el aceite esencial y los iridoides de las partes subterráneas de V. amurensis en diferentes períodos de cosecha para evaluar la calidad de las raíces y rizomas. El contenido del aceite esencial se obtuvo mediante hidrodestilación y el acetato de bornilo en el aceite se cuantificó por GC-EI. Los iridoides, valepotriatos se determinaron mediante valoración potenciométrica y el componente principal, el valtrato se cuantificó por HPLC-UV. Los factores de biomasa fueron considerados en la determinación del período de recolección. El análisis estadístico de los resultados mostró que el mayor contenido de aceite esencial por planta fue de 22,69 µl en el período de marchitación y luego de 21,58 µl en el período de maduración de la fruta, mientras que el mayor contenido de acetato de bornilo, valepotriatos y valtrato por planta fue de 2.82 mg, 31.90 mg y 0,98 mg, respectivamente, en el período de maduración de la fruta por separado. Se definió el período de maduración de la fruta como el mejor período de cosecha para el contenido de constituyentes activos y la producción de droga, lo cual proporcionaría una base científica para el cultivo artificial de V. amurensis.


Assuntos
Valeriana/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Estações do Ano , Bornanos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Rizoma/química , Iridoides/análise
2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 2999-3009, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529875

RESUMO

Two typical soil profiles of sand dune (mixed sandy loam with sandy soil; uniform sandy soil) were selected from the arid region on the edge of the Badain Jaran desert to analyze soil physical characteristics. The effects of soil physical characteristics on capillary rise were monitored and simulated. The relationship between two typical soil profiles of sand dune and capillary rise were investigated to reveal the interactive processes among groundwater, capillary water, and soil water. Results showed that capillary rise was mainly affected by soil bulk density and soil clay content in the arid-desert area. The capillary rise could reach to 152 cm above shallow layer in the profile of mixed sandy loam with sandy soils, and 120 cm in the profile of sandy soil, respectively. Soil water distribution driven by the capillary rise was more uniform in the profile of sandy soil. Soil water content showed a diminishing trend from the groundwater to the maximum distance of capillary rise. In contrast, soil water distribution was markedly varied in the profile of mixed sandy loam with sandy soil. The process of capillary movement could be well simulated with Hydrus-3D model. Soil structure above the groundwater was the critical factor, which could affect the capillary rise and soil water distribution. However, the effects of soil in-season evaporation and plant root uptake on capillary rise movement need to be explored in further studies.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/química , Solo/química , Clima Desértico , Modelos Químicos , Estações do Ano , Água
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3019-3027, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529877

RESUMO

We examined the role of photosynthesis in regulating soil CO2 emission under nitrogen enrichment in Keerqin sandy grassland. Results showed that nitrogen (N) application could affect soil respiration rate by altering the allocation of photosynthetic products to the belowground. Gross ecosystem photosynthesis rate (GEP) was positively correlated with soil respiration rate (Rs). Nitrogen application reduced slope of the fitting function from 0.236 to 0.161, with the equation intercept difference (0.51 µmol·m-2·s-1) being similar to the nighttime soil respiration rate increment (0.52 µmol·m-2·s-1). From May to October, the difference of photosynthetic rate (differential ratio) caused by nitrogen application was significantly correlated with that of soil respiration (differential ratio). Results from partial correlation confirmed the essential role of photosynthetic rate difference (ΔGEP) in driving soil respiration rate difference (ΔRs) caused by nitrogen application. In the nighttime, soil respiration rate was affected by the aboveground vegetation activities in daytime. The daily mean GEP was an important factor affecting the nighttime soil respiration rate difference (ΔRs) (P<0.01). Photosynthesis, rather than soil temperature, was the main factor affecting soil respiration rate difference (ΔRs) under nitrogen application. Thus, the role of photosynthetic assimilation-regulating may provide a novel supplement for elucidating the responses of soil respiration to nitrogen enrichment.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Nitrogênio , Fotossíntese , Solo/química , Dióxido de Carbono , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano
4.
BMJ ; 366: l5021, 2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506273

RESUMO

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) belongs to the recently defined Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. It is a negative sense, single stranded RNA virus that results in epidemics of respiratory infections that typically peak in the winter in temperate climates and during the rainy season in tropical climates. Generally, one of the two genotypes (A and B) predominates in a single season, alternating annually, although regional variation occurs. RSV is a cause of disease and death in children, older people, and immunocompromised patients, and its clinical effect on adults admitted to hospital is clarified with expanded use of multiplex molecular assays. Among adults, RSV produces a wide range of clinical symptoms including upper respiratory tract infections, severe lower respiratory tract infections, and exacerbations of underlying disease. Here we discuss the latest evidence on the burden of RSV related disease in adults, especially in those with immunocompromise or other comorbidities. We review current therapeutic and prevention options, as well as those in development.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Epidemias , Genótipo , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/terapia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/patogenicidade , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Estações do Ano
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 465-472, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483037

RESUMO

To identify susceptible and resistant Haematobia irritans cows, horn flies were counted biweekly for 3 years in a herd of 25 Sindhi cows. Repeated measures linear mixed models were created including cow as a random factor. The results were analyzed by: 1) observing horn fly counts, considering fly-susceptible cows with infestations appearing in the upper quartile more than 50% of the weeks and in the lower quartile less than 20% of the weeks, and fly-resistant cows those that the number of flies was in the lower quartile more than 50% of the weeks and in the upper quartile less than 20%; 2) by the best linear unbiased predictions (BLUPs), to evaluate the cow effect on fly counts. Fly-susceptible cows were those in which the infestation appeared in the 90th percentile of the BLUPs, whereas fly-resistant cows appeared in the 10th percentile. For the observational method the individuals identified as resistant varied between 8% and 20% and 8% to 12% were susceptible. For the BLUP method, the rates of susceptible and resistant cows were 12%. The agreement among methods suggests that susceptible cows can be identified by observations of fly counts, allowing for selective breeding, culling or treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Muscidae , Animais , Bovinos , Estações do Ano
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 889-894, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484249

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the seasonality and etiological characteristics of infectious diarrhea in adults from Shanghai. Methods: Adult patients with diarrhea who had visited the enteric disease clinics in 22 hospitals that carrying on the Diarrhea Comprehensive Surveillance sentinel programs in Shanghai during 2014-2017, were surveyed. Stool specimens were collected according to the different intervals of sampling and detected for 12 bacteria and 5 viruses. Concentration ratio and circular distribution method were used for data analysis. Results: From 2014 to 2017, a total of 9 573 stool specimens were collected from the targeted diarrhea patients ≥18 years old (n=96 067), through the Shanghai Diarrhea Comprehensive Surveillance program. The positive rate of detection was 46.44%. Seasonal peaks of infectious diarrhea were both seen in summer (bacteria peak, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, etc.) and in winter (virus peak, Norovirus, etc.). Both bacterial and viral infections presented seasonal concentration (Raleigh's test P<0.001) but more obvious with bacterial infection. Viral infection accounted for 60.19% of the cause of infectious diarrhea. The top five predominant pathogens appeared as Norovirus, Rotavirus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Salmonella spp.. Conclusions: Among the adult outpatients with infectious diarrhea in Shanghai, obvious seasonality was seen, with peaks in both summer and winter. Viral infection with Norovirus in particular, appeared as the predominant source of infection. Active, continuous and comprehensive diarrhea-related surveillance programs would be able to monitor the changing dynamic of pathogen spectrum, and lead to the adoption of targeted preventive measures.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/etiologia , Disenteria/diagnóstico , Disenteria/etiologia , Fezes , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/classificação
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 930-935, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484256

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the spatial-temporal distribution and epidemic characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Hebei province from 2005 to 2016. Methods: Records of HFRS cases reported from each county in Hebei during January 2005 to December 2016 were collected from National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS). Global and local spatial association statistics were used to measure the spatial autocorrelation and software GeoDa 1.2.0. Software SaTScan 9.4.1 was used to analyze spatiotemporal clusters. Software ArcGIS 10.2 was used to visualize the yearly scan results. Results: In Hebei province, a total of 8 437 human HFRS cases reported from 170 counties with an annual incidence rate of 0.99/100 000 population during 2005-2016. The peak incidence season was spring. Global spatial autocorrelation analysis on the incidence of HFRS at county-level showed that the value of Moran's I were all above 0 (P<0.05), indicating that the significant spatial cluster. The result of local indicators on spatial association (LISA) analysis revealed that identified hot spots were mainly in northeastern area, while cold spots were found in some counties of central and southern areas. Spatial-temporal scan detected that the primary cluster of HFRS incidence was mainly distributed in Qinhuangdao city and Tangshan city, including 11 counties (city/district): Beidaihe district, Haigang district, Funing district, Shanhaiguan district, Changli county, Lulong county and Qinglong Manchu autonomous county in Qinhuangdao city, and Qian'an city, Laoting county, Luanzhou city and Luannan county in Tangshan city (RR=39.64, P<0.001), during January-July in 2005. Conclusions: There were significant spatial-temporal cluster of HFRS in Hebei from 2005 to 2016. The cluster areas of HFRS were mainly in northeastern Hebei, it is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control programs of HFRS in these areas.


Assuntos
Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Vírus Hantaan , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Incidência , Estações do Ano , Análise Espacial , Análise Espaço-Temporal
8.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 42(7): 510-514, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365967

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of influenza A (H3N2) infected patients in Jinhua area, and therefore to improve the understanding of infection with H3N2 influenza virus. Methods: The pharynx swab specimens for pathogenic detection were collected from acute respiratory infection (ARI) cases in the fever clinic of the sentinel hospital in Jinhua area from 2014 to 2017. Descriptive statistics method was used to analyze the clinical features and pathogenics characteristics of the patients infected with H3N2 influenza virus. The t test or χ(2) test of independent samples were used for comparison between groups. Results: A total of 3 803 cases of acute respiratory infection (ARI) were reported in the sentinel hospital in Jinhua area from 2014 to 2017. Among them, 245 cases (6.4%) of H3N2 influenza were diagnosed, including 153 males (62.4%) and 92 females (37.6%), aged from 0.5 to 95 years, with an average age of (50.1+15.7) years. They were divided into 5 age groups, with 107 (43.7%) patients aged 60 years and older. The incidence of major diseases was 43.7%. There was no significant difference in the gender in different age groups (χ(2)=4.581, P=0.333). The seasonal peak of H3N2 influenza A virus infection was mainly in summer (In June-September), but was also seen in other months. In the 4 years from 2014 to 2017, there were a total of 4 peaks, which occurred in July-September, July-August, June-August, and June-August. The body temperature of most patients (73.1%) was between 38.0 and 38.9 ℃. The main positive signs of H3N2 influenza A virus infection were different degrees of pharyngeal hyperemia and tonsillar enlargement. Fever (>38 ℃), cough, dizziness, fatigue, sore throat, headache, chills, shortness of breath, runny nose, myalgia, expectoration, nasal congestion were the main symptoms of H3N2 cases. The proportion of abnormal X-ray/CT manifestations in H3N2 influenza A virus infection cases was lower than that of other influenza viruses. 89.8% of the patients were positive for H3N2 influenza A. The average lymphocyte count was (1.1±0.5) × 10(9)/L, total platelet count (157±39) × 10(9)/L in H3N2 influenza A infection group, which were lower than those in other influenza positive patients [(1.2±0.6)×10(9)/L and (165±42) × 10(9)/L], while the neutrophil count (3.6±0.8) × 10(9)/L was higher than that in other influenza positive patients (3.4±1.0) × 10(9)/L(all P<0.05). Conclusions: Patients with H3N2 influenza A in Jinhua mostly presented with throat congestion and tonsillar enlargement in varying degrees, fever (>38 ℃), cough and sputum production. The seasonal peak of influenza A was in summer (June-September). Elderly aged 60 years or older were the susceptible group.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tosse/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Environ Manage ; 248: 109299, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376608

RESUMO

Understanding the underlying mechanisms driving population demographics such as species-habitat relationships and the spatial scale in which these relationships occur is essential for developing optimal management strategies. Here we evaluated how landscape characteristics and winter severity measured at three spatial scales (1 km2, 9 km2, and hunting unit) influenced white-tailed deer occurrence and abundance across North Dakota by using 10 years of winter aerial survey data and generalized linear mixed effects models. In general, forest, wetland, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands were the main drivers of deer occurrence and abundance in most of the spatial scales analyzed. However, the effects of habitat features vary between the home-range scale (9 km2) and the finer spatial scale (1 km2; i.e., within home ranges). While escape cover was the main factor driving white-tailed deer occurrence and abundance at broad spatial scales, at a fine spatial scale deer also selected for food (mainly residual winter cropland). With CRP appearing in nearly all top models, here we had strong evidence that this type of program will be fundamental to sustaining populations of white-tailed deer that can meet recreational demands. In addition, land managers should focus on ways to protect other escape covers (e.g., forest and wetland) on a broad spatial scale while encouraging landowners to supply winter resources at finer spatial scales. We therefore suggest a spatial multi-scale approach that involves partnerships among landowners and government agencies for effectively managing white-tailed deer.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais , Demografia , Ecossistema , North Dakota , Estações do Ano
10.
J Environ Manage ; 248: 109293, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386990

RESUMO

Studying the composition and structure of bacterial communities in sediments helps to understand the contribution of bacteria to environmental changes and the role of feedback in response to disturbances. However, seasonal changes in bacterial communities of river sediments with different pollution levels and sources have not been clear yet. In this study, we collected sediment samples during the dry season, wet season and level season from 40 sites with various pollution sources in three inflow rivers (Fengle-Hangbu River, Nanfei River and Zhegao River) of Chaohu Lake. Bacterial community compositions were determined based on high-throughput sequencing. The 'Bioenv' in the R package 'Vegan' and redundancy analysis was used to explore the influence of environmental factors on the bacterial community in the river sediments. Results showed that a significant deviation in bacterial communities was found among seasons and rivers. In addition, seasonal dynamics had a greater impact on shaping bacterial communities than rivers with different pollution sources. A higher diversity was found in the wet season as compared to the other seasons. The bacterial diversity was negatively correlated with nutrients (OM, TN, NH4+, IP, OP and TP) and metals (Cu and Zn). Bacterial communities were more sensitive to heavy metals pressure than nutrients. We also concluded that heavy metals (Cu and Cd) were the key contributing factors in explaining variations in bacterial communities. This study provided a valuable reference for assessing ecological stress.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios , Estações do Ano
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446719

RESUMO

Objective:The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between the onset of different types of sudden sensorineural hearing loss(SSNHL) with temperature parameters and seasons. Method:We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 175 patients who were diagnosed as SSNHL, precisely collected the exact date and city of onset, confirmed the season, and obtained the meteorological data including maximum temperature(Tmax), minimum temperature(Tmin), mean temperature(T), day-to-day change of mean temperature(ΔT), and diurnal temperature range(Trange) at the same day, then analyzed the relation between season and temperature with the onset of different types of SSNHL. Result:There was a significant difference of Trange between different types of SSNHL(P=0.001). Trange on the onset date of all-frequency SSNHL(including flat and profound type) was significantly higher than low and high frequency descending type(P=0.001, P<0.05 respectively). Types of SSNHL had weak association with Trange groups(P=0.03, Cramer's V=0.220). An increase of 1℃ in Trange increased the risk of flat type SSNHL by 23.9% and 16.5% compared with low and high frequency descending type, respectively, and for profound type, the risk was increased by 22.4% and 15.1%. No significant differences were observed between seasons and SSNHL types(P=0.666). Conclusion:The incidence of different types of sudden sputum may be related to the worse temperature on the day, and has nothing to do with the disease season.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Súbita/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente , Correlação de Dados , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 443-450, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390438

RESUMO

Diseases related to the alimentary system are the main cause of death in horses. This retrospective study aimed to describe the pathological findings of fatal parasite-induced enteritis and typhlocolitis caused by cyathostominae, Eimeria leuckarti, Balantidium coli, and Strongyloides westeri in horses. The records of parasite-induced intestinal lesions in horses necropsied in Southern Brazil between 2005 and 2017 were reviewed. Ten horses had fatal parasitic enteritis and/or typhlocolitis, and the main causes were: cyathostominae typhlocolitis (6/10), E. leuckarti enteritis (1/10), S. westeri enteritis (1/10), B. coli colitis related to cyathostominae (1/10), and infection by multiple agents (1/10). Cyathostominae typhlocolitis showed marked mucosal thickening, with multifocal elevated nodules containing tangled filiform parasites. Microscopic examination revealed that the mucosa and submucosa had encysted parasitic structures surrounded by eosinophilic and granulomatous inflammation. E. leuckarti enteritis was microscopically characterized by macrogamonts, microgamonts, and oocysts inside the host cells. S. westeri enteritis showed microscopic atrophy of the villi with numerous mucosal encysted parasitic structures. B. coli typhlocolitis showed severe diffuse mucosal reddening, with microscopic superficial mucosal necrosis associated with multiple protozoan trophozoites. Fatal parasite-induced enteritis and typhlocolitis are important causes of death in horses in Southern Brazil.


Assuntos
Balantidium/isolamento & purificação , Colite/parasitologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Enterite/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Strongyloides/isolamento & purificação , Tiflite/parasitologia , Animais , Colite/mortalidade , Enterite/mortalidade , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/mortalidade , Cavalos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Tiflite/mortalidade
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16928, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441879

RESUMO

The consistent, sporadic transmission of shigellosis in Taiwan necessitates an exploration of risk factors for the occurrence of shigellosis. The purpose of this study was to study the epidemiologic characteristics and the relationship between climatic factors and the incidence of shigellosis in Taiwan. We collected data from cases of shigellosis reported to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) from 2001 to 2016. Climatic data were obtained from the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau. The relationships between weather variability and the incidence of shigellosis in Taiwan were determined via Poisson regression analyses. During the 16-year study period, a total of 4171 clinical cases of shigellosis were reported to the Taiwan CDC. Among them, 1926 (46.2%) were classified as confirmed cases. The incidence of shigellosis showed significant seasonality, with the majority of cases occurring in summertime (for oscillation, P < .001). The number of shigellosis cases started to increase when temperatures reached 21°C (r = 0.88, P < .001). Similarly, the number of shigellosis cases began to increase at a relative humidity of 70-74% (r = 0.75, P < .005). The number of shigellosis cases was positively associated with the mean temperature and relative humidity in the period preceding the infection. In conclusion, the occurrence of shigellosis is significantly associated with increasing temperature and relative humidity in Taiwan. Therefore, these factors could be regarded as warning signals indicating the need to implement preventive measures.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Umidade/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Vigilância da População , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180224, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365647

RESUMO

Virus diseases of cool season vegetable crops (mainly cabbage, white and red head cabbage, broccoli, kale, radish, rocket salad, garden cress, and turnip) were surveyed in Bafra Plain, Turkey during winter 2017, and 2018. Leaf samples were collected from different species of the Brassicaceae family showing mosaic, mottling, necrotic spots, malformation, and chlorosis symptoms. These samples were tested for the presence of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV), Radish mosaic virus (RaMV), Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV), and Turnip yellows virus (TuYV) by biological and serological methods. A total of 455 samples were collected from cole crop fields and tested for the seven viruses by double-antibody sandwich ELISA using specific polyclonal antibodies. According to the results, out of these, 7 % of the samples were infected by at least one of these viruses. TuMV was the most prevalent virus detected in cole crops. TuMV, CaMV, and CMV were detected in 3 %, 2 %, and 2 % of infected samples, respectively, and the infection rate of these three viruses changed significantly among Brassica species.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/virologia , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Brassicaceae/classificação , Estações do Ano , Turquia
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180545, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365651

RESUMO

Fungi play an important role in litter decomposition in forest ecosystems and are considered an undersampled group in the Amazon biome. This study aims to describe the composition, richness and frequency of species of conidial fungi associated with palm trees in an area of ​​the Amapá National Forest, State of Amapá, Brazil. Palm leaf litter was collected from July 2009 to June 2010, incubated in moist chambers and examined for the presence of fungi. One hundred and seven species of conidial fungi were identified, in 79 genera and 25 families. As for the relative frequency of the species, the majority (94.4%) was sporadic and occurred on leaflets. We report new records for South America (Chaetopsis intermedia, Chaetochalara laevis and Thysanophora verrucosa) and Brazil (Chloridium phaeosporum, Helminthosporiella stilbacea and Zygosporium geminatum), and 83 for the State of Amapá, while 15 are also new for the Brazilian Amazon. This study significantly increases the knowledge about the distribution of the fungal species in the Amazon biome, and emphasizes the importance of the conservation of these organisms particularly in view of the large number of sporadic species recorded.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Fungos Mitospóricos/fisiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia , Brasil , Estações do Ano
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2757-2766, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418201

RESUMO

Soil microbial community dynamics during the spring freezing-thawing period could affect carbon and nutrient cycling in the subsequent growing season. During spring soil freezing-thawing period, we monitored temporal dynamics of soil microbial community in different soil substrates for Larix gmelinii forest using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) as biomarkers every 3-7 days. The results were as followed: 1) the total PLFAs content, the PLFAs content and relative abundance of each soil microbial group, the ratio of Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacteria (G+/G-), the ratio of saturated PLFAs to unsaturated PLFAs (S/NS) and the ratio of bacteria to total fungi (fungi + arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) (B/F) all varied among sampling times; 2) soil total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (TN) were the main factors affecting soil microbial community in the early stage of soil freezing-thawing period; soil moisture, TOC and TN were the main driving factors in the middle stage of soil freezing-thawing period; soil microbes were affected by soil tempera-ture, moisture, TOC, TN and C/N in the late stage of soil freezing-thawing period; 3) the total PLFAs content, the PLFAs content and relative abundance of each soil microbial group (except the relative abundance of bacteria), B/F, G+/G- and S/NS all showed significant difference between soil substrates, and soil TOC, TN and C/N were the key determination factors. Soil temperature, moisture, and nutrient availability were the main factors affecting soil microbial community during the spring soil freezing-thawing period, but the degree of influence varied with the freezing-thawing stages and microbial groups.


Assuntos
Larix , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Florestas , Congelamento , Nitrogênio , Estações do Ano
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2829-2836, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418209

RESUMO

Based on the bottom trawl surveys in spring (May) and in autumn (September to October) from 2011 to 2017 (except 2012) in Haizhou Bay, variations in the mean trophic levels (MTL) and large fish index (LFI) of fish community were examined to understand the changes of fish community structure in Haizhou Bay. The results showed that the dominant fish species were Hexagrammos otakii, Enedrias fangi, Syngnathus acus, Pseudosciaena polyactis and Saurida elongata, which had obvious seasonal variation. The mean trophic level of fish community varied significantly among different years and seasons. Generally, MTL in autumn was higher than that in spring, and the variation of which in autumn always lagged behind that in spring. The result of LFI calculation showed that the large fish resources declined and fish community structure in Haizhou Bay showed an obvious tendency of miniaturization in recent years.


Assuntos
Baías , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , China , Peixes/classificação , Perciformes , Estações do Ano
18.
Biol Res ; 52(1): 43, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drought is one of the main serious problems for agriculture production which its intensity is increasing in many parts of the world, hence, improving water use efficiency is a main goal for sustainable agriculture. RESULTS: Growth indices including relative shoot length growth (SL), relative stem diameter increase (SD) and relative trunk cross sectional area growth (TCSA) measured at the start and end of the season decreased by reducing the irrigation level. Chlorophyll index (CI) was decreased at 70% crop evapotranspiration, however water use efficiency (WUE), leaf and fruit total phenolic content (TPC), and fruit anthocyanin content (AC) were among the traits that showed increment by water deficit stress in both cultivars. Shafi-Abadi cultivar showed to be more sensitive to the water stress than 'Golab'. Kaolin treatment improved SL, SD and CI traits, but this increase was statistically significant only for SD at 5% level. Kaolin had no significant effect on yield and water use efficiency (WUE), however, it had negative effect on yield efficiency (YE). Kaolin treatments also significantly increased fruit and leaf TPC (P < 0.01) but had no effect on leaf and fruit total antioxidant activity (AA), as well as fruit anthocyanin content (AC) and soluble proteins (SP). CONCLUSIONS: Irrigation at 85% ETc showed better results than 100% and 70% ETc levels for yield attributes. It seems that the more pronounced effect of kaolin on vegetative traits but not on the fruits, might be attributed to the early ripening and harvest time of the examined cultivars.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Secas , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caulim/administração & dosagem , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Estações do Ano
19.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 673-683, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407198

RESUMO

Animals modulate intraspecific signal shape and intensity, notably during reproductive periods. Signal variability typically follows a seasonal scheme, traceable through the expression of visual, acoustic, chemical and behavioral patterns. The chemical channel is particularly important in lizards, as demonstrated by well-developed epidermal glands in the cloacal region that secrete lipids and proteins recognized by conspecifics. In males, the seasonal pattern of gland activity is underpinned by variation of circulating androgens. Changes in the composition of lipid secretions convey information about the signaler's quality (e.g., size, immunity). Presumably, individual identity is associated with a protein signature present in the femoral secretions, but this has been poorly investigated. For the first time, we assessed the seasonal variability of the protein signal in relation to plasma testosterone level (T), glandular activity and the concentration of provitamin D3 in the lipid fraction. We sampled 174 male common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) over the entire activity season. An elevation of T was observed one to two months before the secretion peak of lipids during the mating season; such expected delay between hormonal fluctuation and maximal physiological response fits well with the assumption that provitamin D3 indicates individual quality. One-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of proteins showed that gel bands were preserved over the season with an invariant region; a result in agreement with the hypothesis that proteins are stable identity signals. However, the relative intensity of bands varied markedly, synchronously with that of lipid secretion pattern. These variations of protein secretion suggest additional roles of proteins, an issue that requires further studies.


Assuntos
Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo , Lipídeos/análise , Lagartos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Répteis/análise , Animais , Desidrocolesteróis/análise , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Testosterona/sangue
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2165-2170, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418218

RESUMO

Combined with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset, vegetation type data, and meteorological data, we revealed the variation of vegetation growth responses to air temperature in the growing-season during 1982-2015 in Xinjiang, using the moving-windows based partial correlation analysis, the unitary linear regression analysis and GIS spatial analysis. Results showed that, in the whole growing-seasons of study period, there was a significant downturn trend in the responses of vegetation growth to temperature. At the seasonal scale, the downturn trend was obvious especially in summer and autumn, while it was in adverse in spring. During the whole gro-wing season, the responses of different vegetation types to air temperature change showed a decreasing trend. Seasonally, the responses of grassland and forest to temperature change showed a significant increase, while that of shrubland and desert were exactly the opposite in spring. The responses of all natural vegetation (grassland, shrubland, desert and forest) to temperature change showed a significant decreasing trend in summer, whereas their responses in autumn had no significant statistical characteristics. Spatially, the decreasing influence of temperature on the vegetation growth during the growing season in Xinjiang was universal, which might be due to the change in precipitation and solar radiation.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , China , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
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