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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4956, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009383

RESUMO

Tet-enzyme-mediated 5-hydroxymethylation of cytosines in DNA plays a crucial role in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In RNA also, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has recently been evidenced, but its physiological roles are still largely unknown. Here we show the contribution and function of this mark in mouse ESCs and differentiating embryoid bodies. Transcriptome-wide mapping in ESCs reveals hundreds of messenger RNAs marked by 5hmC at sites characterized by a defined unique consensus sequence and particular features. During differentiation a large number of transcripts, including many encoding key pluripotency-related factors (such as Eed and Jarid2), show decreased cytosine hydroxymethylation. Using Tet-knockout ESCs, we find Tet enzymes to be partly responsible for deposition of 5hmC in mRNA. A transcriptome-wide search further reveals mRNA targets to which Tet1 and Tet2 bind, at sites showing a topology similar to that of 5hmC sites. Tet-mediated RNA hydroxymethylation is found to reduce the stability of crucial pluripotency-promoting transcripts. We propose that RNA cytosine 5-hydroxymethylation by Tets is a mark of transcriptome flexibility, inextricably linked to the balance between pluripotency and lineage commitment.


Assuntos
5-Metilcitosina/análogos & derivados , Diferenciação Celular , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , 5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Corpos Embrioides/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4104, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796835

RESUMO

Transfer RNAs (tRNA) are quintessential in deciphering the genetic code; disseminating nucleic acid triplets into correct amino acid identity. While this decoding function is clear, an emerging theme is that tRNA abundance and functionality can powerfully impact protein production rate, folding, activity, and messenger RNA stability. Importantly, however, the expression pattern of tRNAs is obliquely known. Here we present Quantitative Mature tRNA sequencing (QuantM-tRNA seq), a technique to monitor tRNA abundance and sequence variants secondary to RNA modifications. With QuantM-tRNA seq, we assess the tRNA transcriptome in mammalian tissues. We observe dramatic distinctions in isodecoder expression and known tRNA modifications between tissues. Remarkably, despite dramatic changes in tRNA isodecoder gene expression, the overall anticodon pool of each tRNA family is similar across tissues. These findings suggest that while anticodon pools appear to be buffered via an unknown mechanism, underlying transcriptomic and epitranscriptomic differences suggest a more complex tRNA regulatory landscape.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Animais , Anticódon/genética , Northern Blotting , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4134, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807779

RESUMO

Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a translation-dependent RNA degradation pathway that is important for the elimination of faulty, and the regulation of normal, mRNAs. The molecular details of the early steps in NMD are not fully understood but previous work suggests that NMD activation occurs as a consequence of ribosome stalling at the termination codon (TC). To test this hypothesis, we established an in vitro translation-coupled toeprinting assay based on lysates from human cells that allows monitoring of ribosome occupancy at the TC of reporter mRNAs. In contrast to the prevailing NMD model, our in vitro system reveals similar ribosomal occupancy at the stop codons of NMD-sensitive and NMD-insensitive reporter mRNAs. Moreover, ribosome profiling reveals a similar density of ribosomes at the TC of endogenous NMD-sensitive and NMD-insensitive mRNAs in vivo. Together, these data show that NMD activation is not accompanied by stable stalling of ribosomes at TCs.


Assuntos
Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido/fisiologia , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/fisiologia , Códon de Terminação/genética , Humanos , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ribossomos/genética
4.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008977, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804959

RESUMO

Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is emerging as a widespread regulatory layer since the majority of human protein-coding genes contain several polyadenylation (p(A)) sites in their 3'UTRs. By generating isoforms with different 3'UTR length, APA potentially affects mRNA stability, translation efficiency, nuclear export, and cellular localization. Polyadenylation sites are regulated by adjacent RNA cis-regulatory elements, the principals among them are the polyadenylation signal (PAS) AAUAAA and its main variant AUUAAA, typically located ~20-nt upstream of the p(A) site. Mutations in PAS and other auxiliary poly(A) cis-elements in the 3'UTR of several genes have been shown to cause human Mendelian diseases, and to date, only a few common SNPs that regulate APA were associated with complex diseases. Here, we systematically searched for SNPs that affect gene expression and human traits by modulation of 3'UTR APA. First, focusing on the variants most likely to exert the strongest effect, we identified 2,305 SNPs that interrupt the canonical PAS or its main variant. Implementing pA-QTL tests using GTEx RNA-seq data, we identified 330 PAS SNPs (called PAS pA-QTLs) that were significantly associated with the usage of their p(A) site. As expected, PAS-interrupting alleles were mostly linked with decreased cleavage at their p(A) site and the consequential 3'UTR lengthening. However, interestingly, in ~10% of the cases, the PAS-interrupting allele was associated with increased usage of an upstream p(A) site and 3'UTR shortening. As an indication of the functional effects of these PAS pA-QTLs on gene expression and complex human traits, we observed for few dozens of them marked colocalization with eQTL and/or GWAS signals. The PAS-interrupting alleles linked with 3'UTR lengthening were also strongly associated with decreased gene expression, indicating that shorter isoforms generated by APA are generally more stable than longer ones. Last, we carried out an extended, genome-wide analysis of 3'UTR variants and detected thousands of additional pA-QTLs having weaker effects compared to the PAS pA-QTLs.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sinais de Poliadenilação na Ponta 3' do RNA/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Poli A , Poliadenilação/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8724-8739, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735645

RESUMO

T cell activation is a well-established model for studying cellular responses to exogenous stimulation. Motivated by our previous finding that intron retention (IR) could lead to transcript instability, in this study, we performed BruChase-Seq to experimentally monitor the expression dynamics of nascent transcripts in resting and activated CD4+ T cells. Computational modeling was then applied to quantify the stability of spliced and intron-retained transcripts on a genome-wide scale. Beyond substantiating that intron-retained transcripts were considerably less stable than spliced transcripts, we found a global stabilization of spliced mRNAs upon T cell activation, although the stability of intron-retained transcripts remained relatively constant. In addition, we identified that La-related protein 4 (LARP4), an RNA-binding protein (RBP) known to enhance mRNA stability, was involved in T cell activation-dependent mRNA stabilization. Knocking out Larp4 in mice destabilized Nfκb1 mRNAs and reduced secretion of interleukin-2 (IL2) and interferon-gamma (IFNγ), two factors critical for T cell proliferation and function. We propose that coordination between splicing regulation and mRNA stability may provide a novel paradigm to control spatiotemporal gene expression during T cell activation.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-2/genética , Proteínas/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Animais , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8704-8723, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738044

RESUMO

Trypanosoma brucei is a parasitic protozoan that undergoes a complex life cycle involving insect and mammalian hosts that present dramatically different nutritional environments. Mitochondrial metabolism and gene expression are highly regulated to accommodate these environmental changes, including regulation of mRNAs that require extensive uridine insertion/deletion (U-indel) editing for their maturation. Here, we use high throughput sequencing and a method for promoting life cycle changes in vitro to assess the mechanisms and timing of developmentally regulated edited mRNA expression. We show that edited CYb mRNA is downregulated in mammalian bloodstream forms (BSF) at the level of editing initiation and/or edited mRNA stability. In contrast, edited COIII mRNAs are depleted in BSF by inhibition of editing progression. We identify cell line-specific differences in the mechanisms abrogating COIII mRNA editing, including the possible utilization of terminator gRNAs that preclude the 3' to 5' progression of editing. By examining the developmental timing of altered mitochondrial mRNA levels, we also reveal transcript-specific developmental checkpoints in epimastigote (EMF), metacyclic (MCF), and BSF. These studies represent the first analysis of the mechanisms governing edited mRNA levels during T. brucei development and the first to interrogate U-indel editing in EMF and MCF life cycle stages.


Assuntos
Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mitocondrial/genética , RNA de Protozoário/genética , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Edição de RNA/genética , RNA Guia/genética , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658922

RESUMO

PRESENILIN 2 (PSEN2) is one of the genes mutated in early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOfAD). PSEN2 shares significant amino acid sequence identity with another EOfAD-related gene PRESENILIN 1 (PSEN1), and partial functional redundancy is seen between these two genes. However, the complete range of functions of PSEN1 and PSEN2 is not yet understood. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis of the zebrafish psen2 gene to generate a premature termination codon close downstream of the translation start with the intention of creating a null mutation. Homozygotes for this mutation, psen2S4Ter, are viable and fertile, and adults do not show any gross psen2-dependent pigmentation defects, arguing against significant loss of γ-secretase activity. Also, assessment of the numbers of Dorsal Longitudinal Ascending (DoLA) interneurons that are responsive to psen2 but not psen1 activity during embryogenesis did not reveal decreased psen2 function. Transcripts containing the S4Ter mutation show no evidence of destabilization by nonsense-mediated decay. Forced expression in zebrafish embryos of fusions of psen2S4Ter 5' mRNA sequences with sequence encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) indicated that the psen2S4Ter mutation permits utilization of cryptic, novel downstream translation start codons. These likely initiate translation of N-terminally truncated Psen2 proteins lacking late endosomal/lysosomal localization sequences and that obey the "reading frame preservation rule" of PRESENILIN EOfAD mutations. Transcriptome analysis of entire brains from a 6-month-old family of wild type, heterozygous and homozygous psen2S4Ter female siblings revealed profoundly dominant effects on gene expression likely indicating changes in ribosomal, mitochondrial, and anion transport functions.


Assuntos
Códon de Terminação/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mutação , Presenilina-2/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Alelos , Animais , Contagem de Células , Homozigoto , Hipóxia/genética , Neurônios/citologia , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
8.
RNA ; 26(10): 1431-1447, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611709

RESUMO

RNA structure influences numerous processes in all organisms. In bacteria, these processes include transcription termination and attenuation, small RNA and protein binding, translation initiation, and mRNA stability, and can be regulated via metabolite availability and other stresses. Here we use Structure-seq2 to probe the in vivo RNA structurome of Bacillus subtilis grown in the presence and absence of amino acids. Our results reveal that amino acid starvation results in lower overall dimethyl sulfate (DMS) reactivity of the transcriptome, indicating enhanced protection owing to protein binding or RNA structure. Starvation-induced changes in DMS reactivity correlated inversely with transcript abundance changes. This correlation was particularly pronounced in genes associated with the stringent response and CodY regulons, which are involved in adaptation to nutritional stress, suggesting that RNA structure contributes to transcript abundance change in regulons involved in amino acid metabolism. Structure-seq2 accurately reported on four known amino acid-responsive riboswitches: T-box, SAM, glycine, and lysine riboswitches. Additionally, we discovered a transcription attenuation mechanism that reduces yfmG expression when amino acids are added to the growth medium. We also found that translation of a leader peptide (YfmH) encoded just upstream of yfmG regulates yfmG expression. Our results are consistent with a model in which a slow rate of yfmH translation caused by limitation of the amino acids encoded in YfmH prevents transcription termination in the yfmG leader region by favoring formation of an overlapping antiterminator structure. This novel RNA switch offers a way to simultaneously monitor the levels of multiple amino acids.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/genética , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8782-8795, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633758

RESUMO

The stability and processing of cellular RNA transcripts are efficiently controlled via non-templated addition of single or multiple nucleotides, which is catalyzed by various nucleotidyltransferases including poly(A) polymerases (PAPs). Germline development defective 2 (GLD-2) is among the first reported cytoplasmic non-canonical PAPs that promotes the translation of germline-specific mRNAs by extending their short poly(A) tails in metazoan, such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Xenopus. On the other hand, the function of mammalian GLD-2 seems more diverse, which includes monoadenylation of certain microRNAs. To understand the structural basis that underlies the difference between mammalian and non-mammalian GLD-2 proteins, we determine crystal structures of two rodent GLD-2s. Different from C. elegans GLD-2, mammalian GLD-2 is an intrinsically robust PAP with an extensively positively charged surface. Rodent and C. elegans GLD-2s have a topological difference in the ß-sheet region of the central domain. Whereas C. elegans GLD-2 prefers adenosine-rich RNA substrates, mammalian GLD-2 can work on RNA oligos with various sequences. Coincident with its activity on microRNAs, mammalian GLD-2 structurally resembles the mRNA and miRNA processor terminal uridylyltransferase 7 (TUT7). Our study reveals how GLD-2 structurally evolves to a more versatile nucleotidyltransferase, and provides important clues in understanding its biological function in mammals.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Polinucleotídeo Adenililtransferase/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas de Xenopus/genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Citoplasma/genética , Células Germinativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mamíferos , Poli A/genética , Interferência de RNA
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8509-8528, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710631

RESUMO

The ribonucleolytic exosome complex is central for nuclear RNA degradation, primarily targeting non-coding RNAs. Still, the nuclear exosome could have protein-coding (pc) gene-specific regulatory activities. By depleting an exosome core component, or components of exosome adaptor complexes, we identify ∼2900 transcription start sites (TSSs) from within pc genes that produce exosome-sensitive transcripts. At least 1000 of these overlap with annotated mRNA TSSs and a considerable portion of their transcripts share the annotated mRNA 3' end. We identify two types of pc-genes, both employing a single, annotated TSS across cells, but the first type primarily produces full-length, exosome-sensitive transcripts, whereas the second primarily produces prematurely terminated transcripts. Genes within the former type often belong to immediate early response transcription factors, while genes within the latter are likely transcribed as a consequence of their proximity to upstream TSSs on the opposite strand. Conversely, when genes have multiple active TSSs, alternative TSSs that produce exosome-sensitive transcripts typically do not contribute substantially to overall gene expression, and most such transcripts are prematurely terminated. Our results display a complex landscape of sense transcription within pc-genes and imply a direct role for nuclear RNA turnover in the regulation of a subset of pc-genes.


Assuntos
Exossomos/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , RNA/genética , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética
11.
RNA ; 26(10): 1400-1413, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518066

RESUMO

Eukaryotes possess eight highly conserved Lsm (like Sm) proteins that assemble into circular, heteroheptameric complexes, bind RNA, and direct a diverse range of biological processes. Among the many essential functions of Lsm proteins, the cytoplasmic Lsm1-7 complex initiates mRNA decay, while the nuclear Lsm2-8 complex acts as a chaperone for U6 spliceosomal RNA. It has been unclear how these complexes perform their distinct functions while differing by only one out of seven subunits. Here, we elucidate the molecular basis for Lsm-RNA recognition and present four high-resolution structures of Lsm complexes bound to RNAs. The structures of Lsm2-8 bound to RNA identify the unique 2',3' cyclic phosphate end of U6 as a prime determinant of specificity. In contrast, the Lsm1-7 complex strongly discriminates against cyclic phosphates and tightly binds to oligouridylate tracts with terminal purines. Lsm5 uniquely recognizes purine bases, explaining its divergent sequence relative to other Lsm subunits. Lsm1-7 loads onto RNA from the 3' end and removal of the Lsm1 carboxy-terminal region allows Lsm1-7 to scan along RNA, suggesting a gated mechanism for accessing internal binding sites. These data reveal the molecular basis for RNA binding by Lsm proteins, a fundamental step in the formation of molecular assemblies that are central to eukaryotic mRNA metabolism.


Assuntos
Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cap de RNA/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Pequenas/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Spliceossomos/genética
12.
RNA ; 26(10): 1380-1388, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513655

RESUMO

Pat1, known as Pdc2 in fission yeast, promotes the activation and assembly of multiple proteins during mRNA decay. After deadenylation, the Pat1/Lsm1-7 complex binds to transcripts containing oligo(A) tails, which can be modified by the addition of several terminal uridine residues. Pat1 enhances Lsm1-7 binding to the 3' end, but it is unknown how this interaction is influenced by nucleotide composition. Here we examine Pat1/Lsm1-7 binding to a series of oligoribonucleotides containing different A/U contents using recombinant purified proteins from fission yeast. We observe a positive correlation between fractional uridine content and Lsm1-7 binding affinity. Addition of Pat1 broadens RNA specificity of Lsm1-7 by enhancing binding to A-rich RNAs and increases cooperativity on all oligonucleotides tested. Consistent with increased cooperativity, Pat1 promotes multimerization of the Lsm1-7 complex, which is potentiated by RNA binding. Furthermore, the inherent ability of Pat1 to multimerize drives liquid-liquid phase separation with multivalent decapping enzyme complexes of Dcp1/Dcp2. Our results uncover how Pat1 regulates RNA binding and higher order assembly by mRNA decay factors.


Assuntos
Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , RNA/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Schizosaccharomyces/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Citoplasma/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
13.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486349

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes a porcine disease associated with swine epidemic diarrhea. The type I interferon (IFN-I or IFN α/ß) is a key mediator of innate antiviral response during virus infection. Different antagonistic strategies have been identified and determined as to how PEDV infection inhibits the host's IFN responses to escape the host innate immune pathway, but the pathogenic mechanisms of PEDV infection are not fully elucidated. Our preliminary results revealed that endogenous TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), the key components in the IFN signaling pathway were downregulated in PEDV infected IPEC-J2 cells by iTRAQ analysis. In this study, we screened nsp15 as the most important viral encoded protein involved in TBK1 and IRF3 reduction. Endoribonuclease (EndoU) activity has been well determined for coronavirus nsp15. Three residues (H226, H241, and K282) of PEDV nsp15 were identified as critical amino acids for PEDV EndoU but not D265, which was not well correlated with published results of other coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV). Moreover, PEDV nsp15 can directly degrade the RNA levels of TBK1 and IRF3 dependent on its EndoU activity to suppress IFN production and constrain the induction of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), by which PEDV antagonizes the host innate response to facilitate its replication. Collectively, these results have confirmed that PEDV nsp15 was capable of subverting the IFN response by the RNA degradation of TBK1 and IRF3.


Assuntos
Endorribonucleases/imunologia , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/imunologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Regulação para Baixo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/genética , Interferon Tipo I/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Células Vero
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(1): 24-33, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502391

RESUMO

Zygotic cleavage failure (ZCF) is a unique early embryonic phenotype resulting in female infertility and recurrent failure of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). With this phenotype, morphologically normal oocytes can be retrieved and successfully fertilized, but they fail to undergo cleavage. Until now, whether this phenotype has a Mendelian inheritance pattern and which underlying genetic factors play a role in its development remained to be elucidated. B cell translocation gene 4 (BTG4) is a key adaptor of the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex, which is involved in maternal mRNA decay in mice, but no human diseases caused by mutations in BTG4 have previously been reported. Here, we identified four homozygous mutations in BTG4 (GenBank: NM_017589.4) that are responsible for the phenotype of ZCF, and we found they followed a recessive inheritance pattern. Three of them-c.73C>T (p.Gln25Ter), c.1A>G (p.?), and c.475_478del (p.Ile159LeufsTer15)-resulted in complete loss of full-length BTG4 protein. For c.166G>A (p.Ala56Thr), although the protein level and distribution of mutant BTG4 was not altered in zygotes from affected individuals or in HeLa cells, the interaction between BTG4 and CNOT7 was abolished. In vivo studies further demonstrated that the process of maternal mRNA decay was disrupted in the zygotes of the affected individuals, which provides a mechanistic explanation for the phenotype of ZCF. Thus, we provide evidence that ZCF is a Mendelian phenotype resulting from mutations in BTG4. These findings contribute to our understanding of the role of BTG4 in human early embryonic development and provide a genetic marker for female infertility.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Mutação/genética , Zigoto/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Exorribonucleases/genética , Feminino , Células HeLa , Homozigoto , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/patologia , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Estabilidade de RNA/genética
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(1): 83-95, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516569

RESUMO

Synonymous codon usage has been identified as a determinant of translational efficiency and mRNA stability in model organisms and human cell lines. However, whether natural selection shapes human codon content to optimize translation efficiency is unclear. Furthermore, aside from those that affect splicing, synonymous mutations are typically ignored as potential contributors to disease. Using genetic sequencing data from nearly 200,000 individuals, we uncover clear evidence that natural selection optimizes codon content in the human genome. In deriving intolerance metrics to quantify gene-level constraint on synonymous variation, we discover that dosage-sensitive genes, DNA-damage-response genes, and cell-cycle-regulated genes are particularly intolerant to synonymous variation. Notably, we illustrate that reductions in codon optimality in BRCA1 can attenuate its function. Our results reveal that synonymous mutations most likely play an underappreciated role in human variation.


Assuntos
Uso do Códon/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Códon/genética , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética
16.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 56: 109-117, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569975

RESUMO

Post-transcriptional control of gene expression allows plants to rapidly adapt to changes in their environment. Under low nitrogen conditions, legume plants engage into a symbiosis with soil bacteria that results in the formation of root nodules, where bacteria are allocated and fix atmospheric nitrogen for the plant's benefit. Recent studies highlighted the importance of small RNA-mediated mechanisms in the control of bacterial infection, nodule organogenesis, and the long-distance signaling that balances plant growth and nodulation. Examples of such mechanisms are shoot-to-root mobile microRNAs and small RNA fragments derived from degradation of bacterial transfer RNAs that repress complementary mRNAs in the host plant. Mechanisms of selective mRNA translation also contribute to rapidly modulate the expression of nodulation genes in a cell-specific manner during symbiosis. Here, the most recent advances made on the regulation of mRNA stability and translatability, and the emerging roles of long non-coding RNAs in symbiosis are summarized.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Rhizobium , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Proteínas de Plantas , Nodulação/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/genética , Simbiose/genética
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2401, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409639

RESUMO

The molecular connections between homeostatic systems that maintain both genome integrity and proteostasis are poorly understood. Here we identify the selective activation of the unfolded protein response transducer IRE1α under genotoxic stress to modulate repair programs and sustain cell survival. DNA damage engages IRE1α signaling in the absence of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signature, leading to the exclusive activation of regulated IRE1α-dependent decay (RIDD) without activating its canonical output mediated by the transcription factor XBP1. IRE1α endoribonuclease activity controls the stability of mRNAs involved in the DNA damage response, impacting DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The activation of the c-Abl kinase by DNA damage triggers the oligomerization of IRE1α to catalyze RIDD. The protective role of IRE1α under genotoxic stress is conserved in fly and mouse. Altogether, our results uncover an important intersection between the molecular pathways that sustain genome stability and proteostasis.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Reparo do DNA , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster , Endorribonucleases/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Instabilidade Genômica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Multimerização Proteica , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteostase/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
18.
RNA ; 26(9): 1143-1159, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404348

RESUMO

Tob2, an anti-proliferative protein, promotes deadenylation through recruiting Caf1 deadenylase to the mRNA poly(A) tail by simultaneously interacting with both Caf1 and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). Previously, we found that changes in Tob2 phosphorylation can alter its PABP-binding ability and deadenylation-promoting function. However, it remained unknown regarding the relevant kinase(s). Moreover, it was unclear whether Tob2 phosphorylation modulates the transcriptome and whether the phosphorylation is linked to Tob2's anti-proliferative function. In this study, we found that c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) increases phosphorylation of Tob2 at many Ser/Thr sites in the intrinsically disordered region (IDR) that contains two separate PABP-interacting PAM2 motifs. JNK-induced phosphorylation or phosphomimetic mutations at these sites weaken the Tob2-PABP interaction. In contrast, JNK-independent phosphorylation of Tob2 at serine 254 (S254) greatly enhances Tob2 interaction with PABP and its ability to promote deadenylation. We discovered that both PAM2 motifs are required for Tob2 to display these features. Combining mass spectrometry analysis, poly(A) size-distribution profiling, transcriptome-wide mRNA turnover analyses, and cell proliferation assays, we found that the phosphomimetic mutation at S254 (S254D) enhances Tob2's association with PABP, leading to accelerated deadenylation and decay of mRNAs globally. Moreover, the Tob2-S254D mutant accelerates the decay of many transcripts coding for cell cycle related proteins and enhances anti-proliferation function. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which Ccr4-Not complex is recruited by Tob2 to the mRNA 3' poly(A)-PABP complex in a phosphorylation dependent manner to promote rapid deadenylation and decay across the transcriptome, eliciting transcriptome reprogramming and suppressed cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Fosforilação/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Linhagem Celular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Poli A/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli(A)/genética , Poliadenilação/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética
19.
RNA ; 26(9): 1160-1169, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414857

RESUMO

DEAD-box proteins (DBPs) are RNA remodeling factors associated with RNA helicase activity that are found in nearly all organisms. Despite extensive studies on the mechanisms used by DBPs to regulate RNA function, very little is known about how DBPs themselves are regulated. In this work, we have analyzed the expression and regulation of DeaD/CsdA, the largest of the DBPs in Escherichia coli (E. coli). We show that deaD transcription initiates 838 nt upstream of the start of the coding region. We have also found that DeaD is autoregulated through a negative feedback mechanism that operates both at the level of deaD mRNA stability and Rho-dependent transcription termination, and this regulation is dependent upon its mRNA 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). These findings suggest that DeaD might be regulating the conformation of its own mRNA through its RNA helicase activity to facilitate ribonuclease and Rho access to its 5' UTR.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Homeostase/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , RNA Bacteriano/genética
20.
RNA ; 26(9): 1198-1215, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424019

RESUMO

In Escherichia coli, endoribonuclease RNase E initiates degradation of many RNAs and represents a hub for post-transcriptional regulation. The tetrameric adaptor protein RapZ targets the small regulatory RNA GlmZ to degradation by RNase E. RapZ binds GlmZ through a domain located at the carboxyl terminus and interacts with RNase E, promoting GlmZ cleavage in the base-pairing region. When necessary, cleavage of GlmZ is counteracted by the homologous small RNA GlmY, which sequesters RapZ through molecular mimicry. In the current study, we addressed the molecular mechanism employed by RapZ. We show that RapZ mutants impaired in RNA-binding but proficient in binding RNase E are able to stimulate GlmZ cleavage in vivo and in vitro when provided at increased concentrations. In contrast, a truncated RapZ variant retaining RNA-binding activity but incapable of contacting RNase E lacks this activity. In agreement, we find that tetrameric RapZ binds the likewise tetrameric RNase E through direct interaction with its large globular domain within the catalytic amino terminus, independent of RNA. Although RapZ stimulates cleavage of at least one non-cognate RNA by RNase E in vitro, its activity is restricted to GlmZ in vivo as revealed by RNA sequencing, suggesting that certain features within the RNA substrate are also required for cleavage. In conclusion, RapZ boosts RNase E activity through interaction with its catalytic domain, which represents a novel mechanism of RNase E activation. In contrast, RNA-binding has a recruiting role, increasing the likelihood that productive RapZ/GlmZ/RNase E complexes form.


Assuntos
Endorribonucleases/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Pareamento de Bases/genética , Catálise , Escherichia coli/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Mimetismo Molecular/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética
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