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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21085, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871979

RESUMO

The lymph nodal invasion diagnosis is critical for therapeutic-decision and follows up in gastric cancer. However, the number of nodes to be examined for nodal invasion diagnosis is still under controversy, and the model for quantifying risk of missing positive node is currently not reported yet. We analyzed the nodal invasion status of 13,857 gastric cancer samples with records of primary tumor stage, the number of examined and positive lymph nodes in the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database, fitting a beta-binomial model. The nodes need to be examined with different primary tumor stage were determined based on the model. Overall, examining 11 lymph nodes reduces the probability of missing positive nodes to <10%, and the currently median nodes dissected is adequate (12 nodes). While the number of nodes demands to be dissected for T1, T2, T3, and T4 subgroups are 6, 19, 40, and 66, respectively. The currently implemented median value for these samples was 12, 12, 13, and 16, separately. It implies that the number of nodes to be examined is sufficient for early gastric cancer (T1), but it is inadequate for middle and advanced gastric cancer (T2-T3). The clinical significance of nodal staging score was validated with survival information. In summary, we first quantified the lymph nodes to be examined during surgery using a beta-binomial model, and validated with survival information.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Probabilidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Programa de SEER , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Análise de Sobrevida
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e20932, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate clinical staging of patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has a significant impact on treatment decisions. In this study, we aimed to compare the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 18-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) for staging of CCA. METHODS: We performed comprehensive systematic search in Web of Science (including MEDLINE) and Excerpta Medica Database for relevant diagnostic studies in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis statement. Based on data extracted from patient-based analysis, we calculated the pooled sensitivity and specificity with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In addition, the publication bias was assessed by Deek funnel plot of the asymmetry test. The potential heterogeneity was explored by threshold effect analysis and subgroup analyses. RESULTS: Thirty-two studies with 1626 patients were included in present analysis. In T stage, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of MRI were 0.90 (95% CI 0.86-0.93), 0.84 (95% CI 0.73-0.91) respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of F-FDG PET/CT were 0.91 (95% CI 0.83-0.95) and 0.85 (0.64-0.95) respectively. In N stage, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of MRI were 0.64 (95% CI 0.52-0.74) and 0.69 (95% CI 0.51-0.87) respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT were 0.52 (95% CI 0.37-0.66) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.79-0.97) respectively. In M stage, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of F-FDG PET/CT were 0.56 (95% CI, 0.42-0.69) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.91-0.97) respectively. The Deek test revealed no significant publication bias. No threshold effect was identified. The subgroup analyses showed that pathological type (extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma vs hilar cholangiocarcinoma/intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma), country (Asia vs non-Asia) and type of MRI (1.5T vs. 3.0T) were potential causes for the heterogeneity of MRI studies and country (Asia vs non-Asia) was a potential source for F-FDG PET/CT studies. CONCLUSION: The analysis suggested that both modalities provide reasonable diagnostic accuracy in T stage without significant differences between them. We recommend that both modalities be considered based on local availability and practice for the diagnosis of primary CCA tumors. In N stage, the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis (N) of CCA is still limited by MRI and F-FDG PET/CT, due to unsatisfactory diagnostic accuracy of both. Nevertheless, F-FDG PET/CT can be used to confirm lymph node metastasis while a negative result may not rule out metastasis. Furthermore, F-FDG PET/CT have a low sensitivity and a high specificity for detection of distant metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Idoso , Colangiocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico por imagem , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21304, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871861

RESUMO

To determine the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) between young and old patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) in terms of tumor response and survival outcome.LARC patients undergoing NCRT and radical surgery from 2011 to 2015 were included and divided into: young (aged ≤50 years) and old group (aged >50 years). Multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for local recurrence. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator analysis was performed to identify risk factors for overall survival. Predicting nomograms and time-indepent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed to compare the models containing with/withour age groups.A total of 572 LARC patients were analyzed. The young group was associated with higher pathological TNM stage, poorly differentiated tumors, and higher rate of positive distal resection margin (P = .010; P = .019; P = .023 respectively). Young patients were associated with poorer 5-year disease-free survival and local recurrence rates (P = .023, P = .003 respectively). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that age ≤50 years (Hazard ratio = 2.994, P = .038) and higher pathological TNM stage (Hazard ratio = 3.261, P = .005) were significantly associated with increased risk for local recurrence. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator analysis and the time-indepent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that including the age group were superior than that without age group.Young patients were associated with poorer disease free survival (DFS) and a higher risk for local recurrence in LARC following NCRT. The predicting model basing based on the age group had a better predictive ability. More intense adjuvant treatment could be considered to improve DFS and local control for young patients with LARC following NCRT.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Nomogramas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 15-26, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994590

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore variations in the use of and timeliness of chemotherapy in patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer in New Zealand. METHODS: This study included patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer in New Zealand between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2016. The first chemotherapy regime was identified from Pharmaceutical Collection dataset. Logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio of having chemotherapy by subgroup after adjustment for other factors. RESULTS: 27.8% (6,737/24,217) of colon cancer patients and 43.8% (3,582/8,170) of rectal cancer patients received publicly funded chemotherapy. The uptake and timeliness of chemotherapy has been improving over time. Pacific people were the least likely to receive chemotherapy, followed by Maori and Asian. Younger patients, New Zealand European, patients with metastatic disease and patients in the Southern Cancer Network were more likely to have chemotherapy in less than 10 weeks post-diagnosis. Over half of the advanced colorectal cancer patients who did not receive chemotherapy were aged 80+ years or had a short life expectancy. CONCLUSIONS: Although the uptake and timeliness of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer has been improving, Maori, Pacific, Asian and older patients were less likely to receive chemotherapy and less likely to receive chemotherapy in a timely manner. There is a variation in use of chemotherapy by Region with patients in the Southern Cancer region appearing to be the most likely to receive chemotherapy and to receive it within a timely period.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Tratamento Farmacológico/economia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida/etnologia , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Nova Zelândia/etnologia , Fatores de Tempo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether whole-body MRI (WBMRI) with diffusion-weighted sequences, which is free of ionizing radiation, can perform as well as traditional methods when used alone for staging or follow-up of pediatric cancer patients. METHODS: After obtaining approval from our institutional research ethics committee and appropriate informed consent, we performed 34 examinations in 32 pediatric patients. The examinations were anonymized and analyzed by two radiologists with at least 10 years' experience. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity findings, respectively, were as follows: 100% and 100% for primary tumor; 100% and 86% for bone metastasis; 33% and 100% for lung metastasis; 85% and 100% for lymph node metastasis; and 100% and 62% for global investigation of primary or secondary neoplasias. We observed excellent interobserver agreement for WBMRI and excellent agreement with standard staging examination results. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that pediatric patients can be safely imaged with WBMRI, although not as the only tool but in association with low-dose chest CT (for subcentimeter pulmonary nodules). However, additional exams with ionizing radiation may be necessary for patients who tested positive to correctly quantify and locate the lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/patologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Imagem Corporal Total/métodos
6.
Am Surg ; 86(9): 1088-1090, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of flat epithelial atypia (FEA) on core needle biopsy remains controversial. The upstaging rates after surgical excision are variable. In this study, we seek to determine the upstaging rate of FEA at our institution. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of FEA were identified from the institution's pathology database from 2009 to 2018. Patients were included in the study if FEA alone, without atypia or cancer, was identified on core needle biopsy. Patient demographics, imaging, management, and pathology characteristics were obtained. Statistical analysis performed using IBM SPSS 26.0 (Armonk, NY, USA). RESULTS: FEA was diagnosed on core needle biopsy in 235 patients from 2009 to December 2018. Forty-eight patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients presented with calcifications on mammogram (n = 21, 64%) with the remainder as masses (n = 6, 18%) or architectural distortion (n = 6, 18%). Of those, 15 (31%) patients declined surgical excision, of which none developed cancer over a mean follow-up of 4.4 years. Of the 33 (69%) patients undergoing excisional biopsy, 17 (52%) confirmed FEA, 11 (33%) had benign findings, and 3 (9%) demonstrated atypical ductal hyperplasia on final pathology. One (3%) case revealed ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 1 (3%) was upgraded to invasive cancer for an overall upstaging rate of 4% (2/48). After a mean follow-up of 3.4 years, none of the excisional biopsy patients developed invasive breast cancer. Adjuvant therapy was used in the cases of DCIS and invasive cancer; however, chemoprevention with raloxifene or tamoxifen was not chosen by any of the remaining patients. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, expectant management of FEA alone appears to be a safe option as our upstaging rate to DCIS or invasive cancer for FEA diagnosed on core biopsy was only 4%. Our study suggests that close follow-up is a safe and feasible option for pure FEA without a radiographic discordance found on core biopsy.


Assuntos
Biópsia/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mama/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Am Surg ; 86(9): 1148-1152, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules recommended a comprehensive sonographic evaluation of thyroid nodules' characteristics and the presence of any suspicious cervical lymph nodes (LNs) in the central and lateral compartments. This detailed sonographic assessment is still not routinely performed. We hypothesized that an endocrine surgeon-performed ultrasound (SUS) significantly enhances the management of thyroid cancer patients when compared with referral ultrasound (RUS). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 267 consecutive thyroid surgery patients who were diagnosed with thyroid cancer on final pathology. All patients had undergone a SUS, but only 130 cohorts with both RUS and SUS were included. Features of thyroid nodules and LN and changes in the management plan were recorded. RESULTS: Based on SUS assessment, 26 patients (20%) were noted to have suspicious thyroid nodules which warranted a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and were missed in RUS. On FNA, there were 12 patients with Bethesda categories III/IV and 14 patients with Bethesda V/VI. Those 26 patients were found to have a malignancy in the final pathology assessment. Thirty-eight patients (29.2%) were noted to have suspicious central/lateral neck findings on SUS but were not reported in RUS. Additionally, 8 patients (6.1%) were found to have a parathyroid adenoma by SUS and required concurrent parathyroidectomy. DISCUSSION: A comprehensive neck ultrasound in thyroid cancer patients, performed by their endocrine surgeon, could enhance management planning and outcomes. This finding highlights the critical need for education and improvement of routine neck ultrasonographic examination performed in the community.


Assuntos
Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Cirurgiões , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21325, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791728

RESUMO

The present study aimed to retrospectively analyze the survival outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).Clinical data was collected from 691 patients with NPC receiving IMRT from January 2009 to August 2015. A survival analysis was performed and prognostic factors were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, the Cox proportional hazards regression model, and the log-rank test.The median follow-up time was 62.8 months. Sixty-three patients experienced relapse, 44 cases (70%) of which occurred within 3 years. Six cases (9.5%) remained in remission for over 5 years. Seventy-two patients developed metastasis, 63 cases (87.5%) of which occurred within 3 years and only 1 case occurred after 5 years (1.3%). Five-year disease special survival (DSS), progression free survival, locoregional recurrence free survival, and distant metastasis free survival were 86.5%, 82.5%, 90.7%, and 89.4%, respectively in patients with NPC. Patients with stage III NPC with and without induction chemotherapy had 5-year DSS rates of 95.8% and 89.3%, respectively (P = .00). Patients with stage IVa NPC with and without induction chemotherapy had 5-year DSS rates of 73.1% and 68.9%, respectively (P = .04). The 5-year DSS rates of patients with stage III with or without concurrent chemotherapy were 92.8% and 85.5%, respectively (P = .04). The 5-year DSS rates of patients with stage IV with or without concurrent chemotherapy were 72.7% and 53.0% (P = .02).IMRT improves the survival rate of patients with NPC. Recurrence and metastasis mainly occur within 2 to 3 years after radiotherapy. Induction and concurrent chemotherapy improve the 5-year DSS of patients with locally advanced NPC.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia de Indução/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Masculino , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/mortalidade , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e20963, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of study was to develop and validate nomograms for predicting overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) of patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) and compare the predictive accuracy with the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. METHODS: Data of 4959 PMP patients who underwent surgical resection were collected between 2004 and 2015 from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. All included patients were divided into training (n = 3307) and validation (n = 1652) cohorts. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model were applied. Nomograms were validated by discrimination and calibration. Finally, concordance index (C-index) was used to compare the predictive performance of nomograms with that of the AJCC staging system. RESULTS: According to the univariate and multivariate analyses of training sets, both nomograms for predicting OS and CSS combining age, grade, location, N stage, M stage, and chemotherapy were identified. Nomograms predicting OS also incorporated T stage and the number of lymph nodes removed (LNR). The calibration curves showed good consistency between predicted and actual observed survival. Moreover, C-index values demonstrated that the nomograms predicting both OS and CSS were superior to the AJCC staging system in both cohorts. CONCLUSION: We successfully developed and validated prognostic nomograms for predicting OS and CSS in PMP patients. Two nomograms were more accurate and applicable than the AJCC staging system for predicting patient survival, which may help clinicians stratify patients into different risk groups, tailor individualized treatment, and accurately predict patient survival in PMP.


Assuntos
Nomogramas , Neoplasias Peritoneais/diagnóstico , Pseudomixoma Peritoneal/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Pseudomixoma Peritoneal/mortalidade , Pseudomixoma Peritoneal/cirurgia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Programa de SEER , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21882, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846846

RESUMO

Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most well-known endocrine neoplasia as well as a common malignant tumor in the head and neck. Our study was designed to assess the prognostic meaningful of TNFRSF12A expression in TC dependent on data acquired from TCGA and so as to increase further knowledge into the biological pathways involved in TC pathogenesis related TNFRSF12A.Information on gene expression and comparing clinical data were identified and downloaded from TCGA. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) created an arranged list of all genes indicated by their connection with TNFRSF12A expression.Our study cohort included 370 (73.1%) female and 136 (26.9%) male patients. The scatter plot and paired plot showed the difference of TNFRSF12A expression between normal and tumor samples (P < .01). The univariate analysis suggested that TNFRSF12A-low associated essentially with age (HR: 1.15; 95%CI: 1.08-1.22; P < .01), stage (HR: 2.79; 95%CI: 1.43-5.46; I vs IV; P = .003) and tumor stage (HR: 2.39; 95%CI: 1.08-5.30; P = .031). The GSEA results show that type II diabetes mellitus, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, adipocytokine signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, mTOR signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, are enriched in TNFRSF12A low expression phenotype.TNFRSF12A expression may be a potential useful prognostic molecular biomarker of bad survival in thyroid cancer, in addition, PPAR signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, mTOR signaling pathway may be the key pathway controlled by TNFRSF12A in thyroid cancer. Further experimental ought to be performed to demonstrate the biologic effect of TNFRSF12A.


Assuntos
Transdução de Sinais , Receptor de TWEAK/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Adipocinas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20799, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702823

RESUMO

Sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) are precursors of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, there are limited data on detection rates of this premalignant lesion during colonoscopy surveillance in patients with a history of left side colonic resection for cancer. We aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors of SSAs in post-left side colectomy patients.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had undergone left side colectomy for colon and rectal cancer between September 2009 and September 2016 and had at least 1 follow-up colonoscopy. Patient baseline characteristics, SSA diagnoses and characteristics, and colonoscopy information were collected.In total, 539 patients were enrolled. At the first follow-up (mean duration 11.5 months), 98 SSAs were identified (22.2%). At the second follow-up (mean duration 25.8 months), 51 SSAs were identified in 212 patients (24.0%). Multivariate analysis showed that alcohol intake (hazard ratio [HR] 1.524; 95% confidence interval [CI] .963-2.411, P = .041), excellent bowel preparation (HR 2.081; 95% CI 1.214-3.567, P = .049), and use of a transparent cap (HR 1.702; 95% CI 1.060-2.735, P = .013) were associated with higher SSA incidence in the first surveillance colonoscopy, while body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25.0 (HR 1.602; 95% CI 1.060-2.836) was associated with a significantly increased risk of SSAs in the second surveillance.Considering the endoscopic appearance of SSAs, adequate bowel preparation and use of transparent caps during postoperative surveillance colonoscopy can increase the diagnosis rate. Modification of alcohol intake and BMI may reduce the incidence of SSAs in left side colon cancer patients.


Assuntos
Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Catárticos/efeitos adversos , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4741-4748, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of immune-cell therapy in terms of the survival of patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix (NECC), which lacks standardized therapeutic approaches. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 17 patients who were diagnosed as having NECC and treated with immune-cell therapy. The clinical characteristics of these patients were extracted from their records and their overall survival was measured. RESULTS: Of the 17 patients, two patients with early-stage NECC without recurrence and three patients with less than four treatments were excluded. The median survival times from the time of diagnosis and from the initial administration of immune-cell therapy were 49.7 and 24.4 months, respectively. The overall survival rates at 1, 2, and 5 years were 63.6%, 38.2%, and 25.5%, respectively. Long-term survival was observed in the patients with distant metastases. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results of this retrospective study suggested the potential efficacy of immune-cell therapy for NECC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/imunologia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/terapia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Adulto , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Prognóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
13.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3651-3658, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to conduct a review on less radical fertility-sparing surgical treatment for early-stage cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a Medline search from 2014 to 2018 regarding less radical fertility-sparing techniques, such as simple trachelectomy or cervical conization, with pelvic lymphadenectomy. We also assessed the impact of the removal of the parametrium on the obstetric and oncologic outcome, in women who desire to preserve their fertility. RESULTS: We analyzed studies about cervical conization and simple trachelectomy, together with pelvic lymphadenectomy in early-stage cervical cancer. We also assessed the importance of parametrial involvement in reducing morbidity, without jeopardizing the oncologic outcome of these patients. Studies demonstrate that in tumors ≤2 cm, without lymphovascular Space Invasion and without evidence of parametrial involvement, a less radical fertility-sparing surgical approach could increase pregnancy rates and have a positive effect on the quality of life of these patients. CONCLUSION: Standard fertility-sparing treatment for early-stage cervical cancer is still radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. However, studies suggest that the omission of parametrectomy is a feasible and safe option. Simple trachelectomy or cervical conization, both combined with pelvic lymphadenectomy are acceptable approaches in a selected group of patients with early-stage cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Feminino , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Traquelectomia/métodos
14.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 614-618, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727193

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the accuracy of abdominal enhanced CT and endoscopic ultrasound in the staging of gastric cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (yc stage). Methods: Clinic data of 86 locally advanced gastric cancer patients admitted in Gastrointestinal Cancer Center, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute from April 2015 to November 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. Totally 86 patients completed both abdominal enhanced CT and endoscopic ultrasound after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. There were 60 males and 26 females, aged (57.8±9.7) years (range: 32 to 76 years). The diagnostic accuracy of abdominal enhanced CT and endoscopic ultrasound for yc stage were calculated by the area under the multiclass receiver operation characteristic curve (M-AUC), retrospectively. McNemar test was used to compared the diagnostic sensitivity. Results: The M-AUC of ycT stage evaluated by abdominal enhanced CT (CT-ycT stage) and by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS-ycT stage) was 0.614 and 0.704, respectively. For middle and lower gastric cancer, the M-AUC of CT-ycT stage was 0.599 and 0.613, respectively, while EUS-ycT stage was 0.558 and 0.709, respectively. For tumor in the lesser and non-lesser curvature, the M-AUC of CT-ycT stage was 0.630 and 0.607, respectively, while EUS-ycT stage was 0.616 and 0.749, respectively. For patients in CT-ycT1-CT-ycT4, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensitivity between CT-ycT stage and EUS-ycT stage (2/18, 2/15, 52.8%(19/36), 8/13 vs. 0, 4/15, 55.6%(20/36), 7/13; χ(2)=2.00, P=0.157; χ(2)=2.00, P=0.157; χ(2)=0.08, P=0.782; χ(2)=0.33, P=0.564). The M-AUC of ycN stage evaluated by abdominal enhanced CT (CT-ycN stage) was 0.654, while ycN stage evaluated by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS-ycN stage) was 0.533. For patients in CT-ycN0, there was statistically significant difference in the sensitivity between CT-ycN stage and EUS-ycN stage (12.7%(7/55) vs. 5.5%(3/55); χ(2)=4.00, P=0.046). For patients in CT-ycN1, N2, and N3, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensitivity between CT-ycN stage and EUS-ycN stage (2/19, 1/10, 0 vs. 1/19, 1/10, 0; χ(2)=1.00, P=0.317; the other P cannot be estimated). Conclusions: There was no significant difference between the diagnostic efficacy of abdominal enhanced CT and endoscopic ultrasound for yc stage of gastric cancer. Considering the invasiveness of ultrasound gastroscopy, it should not be recommend for patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy routinely.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Endossonografia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Endossonografia/métodos , Endossonografia/normas , Feminino , Gastroscopia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235479, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603376

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The emergence of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) changed the approach to staging lung cancer. As a new method being incorporated, the use of EBUS may lead to a shift in clinical and costs outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to gather information to better understand the economic impact of implementing EBUS. METHODS: This review is reported according to the PRISMA statement and registered on PROSPERO (CRD42019107901). Search keywords were elaborated considering descriptors of terms related to the disease (lung cancer / mediastinal staging of lung cancer) and the technologies of interest (EBUS and mediastinoscopy) combined with a specific economic filter. The literature search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Cochrane Library of Trials, Web of Science, Scopus and National Health System Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) of the Center for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD). Screening, selection of articles, data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by two reviewers. RESULTS: Seven hundred and seventy publications were identified through the database searches. Eight articles were included in this review. All publications are full economic evaluation studies, one cost-effectiveness, three cost-utility, and four cost-minimization analyses. The costs of strategies using EBUS-TBNA were lower than the ones using mediastinoscopy in all studies analyzed. Two of the best quality scored studies demonstrate that the mediastinoscopy strategy is dominated by the EBUS-TBNA strategy. CONCLUSION: Information gathered in the eight studies of this systematic review suggest that EBUS is cost-effective compared to mediastinoscopy for mediastinal staging of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/economia , Mediastinoscopia/economia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Broncoscopia/economia , Broncoscopia/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/economia , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mediastinoscopia/métodos , Mediastino/diagnóstico por imagem , Mediastino/cirurgia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/economia
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD008946, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, a malignant, chronic disease initially affecting the skin. Several therapies are available, which may induce clinical remission for a time. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2012: we wanted to assess new trials, some of which investigated new interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions for MF in all stages of the disease. SEARCH METHODS: We updated our searches of the following databases to May 2019: the Cochrane Skin Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We searched 2 trials registries for additional references. For adverse event outcomes, we undertook separate searches in MEDLINE in April, July and November 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of local or systemic interventions for MF in adults with any stage of the disease compared with either another local or systemic intervention or with placebo. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The primary outcomes were improvement in health-related quality of life as defined by participants, and common adverse effects of the treatments. Key secondary outcomes were complete response (CR), defined as complete disappearance of all clinical evidence of disease, and objective response rate (ORR), defined as proportion of patients with a partial or complete response. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence and considered comparisons of psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) light treatment as most important because this is first-line treatment for MF in most guidelines. MAIN RESULTS: This review includes 20 RCTs (1369 participants) covering a wide range of interventions. The following were assessed as either treatments or comparators: imiquimod, peldesine, hypericin, mechlorethamine, nitrogen mustard and intralesional injections of interferon-α (IFN-α) (topical applications); PUVA, extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP: photochemotherapy), and visible light (light applications); acitretin, bexarotene, lenalidomide, methotrexate and vorinostat (oral agents); brentuximab vedotin; denileukin diftitox; mogamulizumab; chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, etoposide, and vincristine; a combination of chemotherapy with electron beam radiation; subcutaneous injection of IFN-α; and intramuscular injections of active transfer factor (parenteral systemics). Thirteen trials used an active comparator, five were placebo-controlled, and two compared an active operator to observation only. In 14 trials, participants had MF in clinical stages IA to IIB. All participants were treated in secondary and tertiary care settings, mainly in Europe, North America or Australia. Trials recruited both men and women, with more male participants overall. Trial duration varied from four weeks to 12 months, with one longer-term study lasting more than six years. We judged 16 trials as at high risk of bias in at least one domain, most commonly performance bias (blinding of participants and investigators), attrition bias and reporting bias. None of our key comparisons measured quality of life, and the two studies that did presented no usable data. Eighteen studies reported common adverse effects of the treatments. Adverse effects ranged from mild symptoms to lethal complications depending upon the treatment type. More aggressive treatments like systemic chemotherapy generally resulted in more severe adverse effects. In the included studies, CR rates ranged from 0% to 83% (median 31%), and ORR ranged from 0% to 88% (median 47%). Five trials assessed PUVA treatment, alone or combined, summarised below. There may be little to no difference between intralesional IFN-α and PUVA compared with PUVA alone for 24 to 52 weeks in CR (risk ratio (RR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87 to 1.31; 2 trials; 122 participants; low-certainty evidence). Common adverse events and ORR were not measured. One small cross-over trial found once-monthly ECP for six months may be less effective than twice-weekly PUVA for three months, reporting CR in two of eight participants and ORR in six of eight participants after PUVA, compared with no CR or ORR after ECP (very low-certainty evidence). Some participants reported mild nausea after PUVA but no numerical data were given. One participant in the ECP group withdrew due to hypotension. However, we are unsure of the results due to very low-certainty evidence. One trial comparing bexarotene plus PUVA versus PUVA alone for up to 16 weeks reported one case of photosensitivity in the bexarotene plus PUVA group compared to none in the PUVA-alone group (87 participants; low-certainty evidence). There may be little to no difference between bexarotene plus PUVA and PUVA alone in CR (RR 1.41, 95% CI 0.71 to 2.80) and ORR (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.44) (93 participants; low-certainty evidence). One trial comparing subcutaneous IFN-α injections combined with either acitretin or PUVA for up to 48 weeks or until CR indicated there may be little to no difference in the common IFN-α adverse effect of flu-like symptoms (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.88; 82 participants). There may be lower CR with IFN-α and acitretin compared with IFN-α and PUVA (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.84; 82 participants) (both outcomes: low-certainty evidence). This trial did not measure ORR. One trial comparing PUVA maintenance treatment to no maintenance treatment, in participants who had already had CR, did report common adverse effects. However, the distribution was not evaluable. CR and OR were not assessable. The range of treatment options meant that rare adverse effects consequently occurred in a variety of organs. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: ​​There is a lack of high-certainty evidence to support decision making in the treatment of MF. Because of substantial heterogeneity in design, missing data, small sample sizes, and low methodological quality, the comparative safety and efficacy of these interventions cannot be reliably established on the basis of the included RCTs. PUVA is commonly recommended as first-line treatment for MF, and we did not find evidence to challenge this recommendation. There was an absence of evidence to support the use of intralesional IFN-α or bexarotene in people receiving PUVA and an absence of evidence to support the use of acitretin or ECP for treating MF. Future trials should compare the safety and efficacy of treatments to PUVA, as the current standard of care, and should measure quality of life and common adverse effects.


Assuntos
Micose Fungoide/terapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Acitretina/efeitos adversos , Acitretina/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Bexaroteno/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Micose Fungoide/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Terapia PUVA/métodos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fotoferese/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
17.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(6): 474-479, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575943

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the prognostic values of three different staging schemes including the number of lymph node metastasis (N stage), lymph node ratio (LNR) and log odd of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) in pancreatic cancer patients after R0 resection. Methods: The clinical and pathological data of 307 pancreatic cancer patients who underwent R0 resection at Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 2010 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyze the independent prognostic factors. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the prognostic efficacy of different lymph node staging systems. Results: The median survival was 24.0 months, 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates were 72.0%, 35.5% and 24.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that CA199, differentiation, T stage, adjuvant therapy, N stage, LNR stage, and LODDS stage were independent prognostic factors for pancreatic cancer patients after R0 resection (P<0.05). The AUC values of the 1-year survival rate for N stage, LNR stage, and LODDS stage were 0.591, 0.592 and 0.609, respectively. The AUC values of the 3-year survival rate for N stage, LNR stage, and LODDS stage were 0.585, 0.588 and 0.593, respectively. The AUC values of the 5-year survival rate for N stage, LNR stage, and LODDS stage were 0.554, 0.557 and 0.589, respectively. The AUC values of the LODDS stage were the highest while the N stage were the lowest, but there was no significant difference among these three systems (P>0.05). For all patients, the LODDS staging system was slightly better than the N and LNR staging systems, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). For patients with N0 stage, the LODDS staging system showed better prediction performance than the N stage and LNR staging systems (P<0.05). Conclusions: The N stage, LNR stage, and LODDS stage are independent prognostic factors for pancreatic cancer patients after R0 resection. For patients without lymph node metastasis, LODDS staging system is superior to N and LNR staging systems in predicting prognosis.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1112): 20200116, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516554

RESUMO

The distinction of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and muscle-invasive bladder cancer is important for the selection of the optimal treatment. Multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) has been an useful modality for the T staging of bladder cancer, and a systematic evaluation of mp-MRI is needed. The Vesical Imaging Reporting and Data System was designed to standardize the scanning and reporting criteria based on mp-MRI for clinical and research applications. This review briefly describes the method, interpretation, and timing of mp-MRI examinations in the clinical settings. Validation studies of Vesical Imaging Reporting and Data System and future perspectives are also considered.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234464, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544187

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) recommended retrieval of at least 12 lymph nodes and firstly classified N category by the number of positive lymph nodes (PLNs) for Distal Cholangiocarcinoma (DCC). OBJECTIVE: The end of this cohort study was to explore the optimal cut-off values of the number of examined lymph nodes (ELNs) and PLNs to better stratify patients by utilizing a population-based database. METHODS: A number of 758 patients with DCC from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were enrolled in the study and comparing by the survival analysis. RESULTS: Survival analysis found that patients with ELNs < 5 had a lower 3-year disease-specific survival rate than ELNs ≥ 5 in N0M0 cohort (35.3% vs. 53.0%, P = 0.001) and in M0 cohort (42.7% vs. 32.8%, P = 0.006); survival curves between patients with ELNs < 12 and ELNs ≥ 12 were overlapped in N0M0 cohort (P = 0.256) and in M0 cohort (P = 0.233). Among patients with ELNs ≥ 5, using the optimal cut-off value of the number of PLNs (0, 2) could accurately stratify patients, but the recommendation of the number of PLNs (0, 3) by the AJCC could not. CONCLUSIONS: This study recommended examining at least 5 lymph nodes and defining PLNs = 1-2 as the N1 category and PLNs ≥ 3 as the N2 category, which may better stratify distal cholangiocarcinoma patients and improve the accuracy of the eighth edition AJCC staging.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/mortalidade , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/mortalidade , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Programa de SEER , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(9): 2319-2327, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592066

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG3) is an immunosuppressive checkpoint molecule expressed on T cells. The frequency and distribution of LAG3 expression in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is unknown. Aim of the study was the evaluation and distribution of LAG3 on tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and correlation with clinico-pathological and molecular data. METHODS: We analysed tumor tissue samples using immunohistochemistry, multi-colour immunofluorescence and mRNA in-situ technology. The analyses were performed on a multi-spot tissue microarray (TMA) with 165 samples, followed by an evaluation on a single-spot TMA with 477 samples. These results were correlated with clinical and molecular tumour data. RESULTS: LAG3 expression on TILs was detectable in 10.5% on the multi-spot TMA and 11.4% on the single-spot TMA. There was a strong correlation between protein expression and mRNA expression (p < 0.001) in TILs. LAG 3 expression was correlated with CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells within the tumor (p < 0.001). LAG3 expression showed an improved overall survival (OS) compared to patients without LAG3 expression (median OS 70.2 vs. 26.9 months; p = 0.046). The effect was even clearer in the group of patients with tumour stages > pT2 (70.2 vs 25.0 months; p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: This is the first description of LAG3 expression on TILs in EAC, underscoring the importance of immunomodulation in EAC. Our data suggest an impact of LAG3 in a relevant subset of EAC. Therapeutic studies investigating the efficacy of LAG3 inhibition in EAC will also provide predictive evidence and relevance of the immunohistochemical determination of LAG3 expression.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/fisiologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos
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