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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 691006, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746074

RESUMO

The Republic of Korea has a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and TB-specific mortality rate. In 2019, it had the second highest TB-specific mortality among Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Understanding the factors associated with TB-specific deaths may help eradicate the disease. Therefore, we aimed to identify the general characteristics associated with TB-specific mortality among Koreans. Using Causes of Death Statistics data from Statistics Korea, we assessed the year of death, sex, age, occupation, area of residence, marital status, and education level reported between 2008 and 2017. Patient characteristics associated with TB-specific deaths were analyzed using the Chi-squared test, while influencing factors of TB-specific mortality were analyzed using logistic regression analysis to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR). Female (AOR: 0.509, 95% CI: 0.493-0.526), those with a graduate degree or higher (AOR: 0.559, 95% CI: 0.474-0.660) had lower TB-specific mortality rates than those of their counterparts. Conversely, those aged ≥70 years (AOR: 1.239, 95% CI: 1.199-1.280), single (AOR: 1.355, 95% CI: 1.315-1.396), and skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers (AOR: 1.441, 95% CI: 1.359-1.529) had higher TB-specific mortality rates than those of their counterparts. In conclusion, TB-specific mortality rates differed according to the characteristics of the deceased patients. In order to establish effective TB control, multisectoral action on broader determinants should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Feminino , Humanos , Estado Civil , Razão de Chances , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27541, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731154

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects specific groups of people. The relationship between breakfast consumption frequency and the risk of IBS is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between breakfast consumption frequency and the risk of IBS among Chinese female college students.In this cross-sectional study (n = 706) conducted in October 2018, the frequency of breakfast consumption was categorized as 0 to 3 times/week, 4 to 6 times/week, or daily. IBS was diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria and was based on the presence of abdominal pain or discomfort for at least 3 months during the previous 6 months, with at least 2 or more of the following conditions: changes in frequency or form of stool and/or decrease in pain after defecation. We adjusted for confounding factors, including age, only child (yes or no), parents' educational levels (senior high school or below, college, or postgraduate), parents' marital status (married, widowed, or divorced), smoking status (smoker or nonsmoker), drinking status (drinker or nondrinker), body mass index, and depressive symptoms. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between breakfast frequency and the risk of IBS.Among 706 participants, 23.7% were the only child in their family, and the proportion of parents divorced or widowed was 18.5%. The proportion of fathers and mothers with high school education or above was 93.3% and 96.3%, respectively. The prevalence of IBS among the participants was 17.3% (122/706). Multivariate logistic regressions analysis showed that breakfast consumption frequency is negatively associated with the risk of IBS after adjusting for confounding factors. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for IBS in the breakfast frequency category of 0 to 3 times/week, 4 to 6 times/week, and daily were 1.00 (reference), 0.96 (0.58, 1.60), and 0.45 (0.26, 0.78), respectively (P = .002).Our data revealed that regular breakfast consumption is associated with a lower risk of IBS among Chinese college students. Future cohort and/or interventional studies should be conducted to further explore the association between breakfast consumption frequency and IBS.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Desjejum/etnologia , Economia/tendências , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Estado Civil , Pais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 201, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603582

RESUMO

Introduction: health-related quality of life (HRQoL) can be affected by the existence of long-term medical conditions. This study compared the HRQoL of male and female patients living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who sought care at the antiretroviral clinic in a tertiary hospital. Methods: a comparative cross-sectional study with 512 female and 512 male HIV outpatients receiving care at the antiretroviral clinic in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. The WHOQoL-HIV-BREF which conceptualized HRQoL as a function of six factors - physical, psychological, social, environment, independence and spiritual health was administered. The gender difference in HRQOL was determined by the independent sample t-test, mean difference and standardized mean difference in items and domain scores. Meta-analytic approach was used to deduce the overall potential effect of gender on HIV infection. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to control for potential confounders of HRQoL among the study participants. Results: the mean age of the sampled population was 35.9 ± 11.8 years for the male and 35.3 ± 9.8 years for the female category. Male HIV patients reported significantly higher mean HRQoL scores across all domains of the scale except the spiritual domain. The 4.51% (95% CI of 3.63 to 5.39%) overall difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Other factors associated with good HRQoL were marriage status, monogamous family type and a higher level of education. Conclusion: the significantly lower HRQoL among female HIV patients calls for a multiprong approach towards strengthening gender mainstreaming in the management and control of HIV patients in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
4.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 70(10): 1-17, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662268

RESUMO

Objectives-This report presents age-adjusted death rates by marital status (married, never married, widowed, and divorced) among adults aged 25 and over. Rates for all-cause mortality are presented for 2010-2019 and for the 10 leading causes of death for 2010 and 2019.


Assuntos
Divórcio , Casamento , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Estado Civil , Pessoa Solteira , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(2): 288-294, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance use among Bachelor level students have different risk and protective biological, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors. This study was conducted with the aim to explore the factors affecting psychoactive substance use among Bachelor level students of Nepalgunj sub-metropolitan city. METHODS: A qualitative cross-sectional study was conducted among Bachelor level students from different streams of Nepalgunj sub-metropolitan city. Pre-validated Interview Guidelines was used for 13 In-depth Interviews with Bachelor level students from different streams using psychoactive substances and 12 Key Informant Interviews with parents/guardians and teachers of some of the selected students. Deductive thematic analysis based on Domain model was done to explore the risk and protective factors for psychoactive substance use. RESULTS: The study identified different risk and protective factors affecting psychoactive substance use within each biological, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and sociocultural domain. Major risk factors identified were adolescence and teenage, male sex, curiosity and experimentation, use for fun, to relieve or cope stress/tension, inadequate awareness, peer influence and pressure, use of psychoactive substances in family, availability, advertisements, social acceptance, and lack of strict rules and regulations. Major protective factors identified were adequate awareness, negative perception, self-motivation, lack of free time/leisure, mentality/state of mind, personal responsibilities, guidance from family, negative perception of society, and reputation. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing awareness, developing positive attitudes, reducing social acceptance, and implementation of strict rules and regulations may help minimize and/or eliminate psychoactive substance use by Bachelor level students.


Assuntos
Motivação , Estudantes , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Nepal/epidemiologia
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 10, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650660

RESUMO

Introduction: healthcare workers are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection with ease of infection transmissibility to coworkers and patients. Vaccine hesitancy rates of 56% and up to 25% have been reported among healthcare workers in US and China respectively. Vaccination is known as the most effective strategy to combat infectious diseases. Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine plays a major role in combating the pandemic. This study assessed the sociodemographic factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers in Abia State. Methods: a cross-sectional study among 422 healthcare workers was conducted in Abia State with an online-based questionnaire. The questionnaire extracted information on socio-demographics and willingness to take vaccine uptake. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate frequencies and proportions. Bivariate analysis was used to test the association between the socio-demographic factors and the outcome variable (vaccine hesitancy). Logistic regression was conducted to identify the predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. The level of significance was 5%. Results: mean age of the respondents was 40.6 ± 9.5 years and 67.1% were females The COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy rate was 50.5% (95%CI: 45.6%-55.3%). Socio-demographic factors included age, marital status, location of practice, profession, and income. Vaccine Hesitancy was predicted significantly by younger age (aOR=9.34, 95%CI:2.01-43.39), marital status (single) (aOR=4.97, 95%CI:1.46-16.97), lower income (aOR=2.84, 95%CI:1.32-6.08), and profession - Doctor (aOR=0.28, 95%CI:0.11-0.70), Nurse (aOR=0.31, 95%CI:0.15-0.64) and other allied health professionals (aOR=0.22, 95%CI:0.10-0.44). Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was high among healthcare workers. Significant sociodemographic predictors influence the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine. We recommend that the Federal and State Ministries of Health conduct awareness campaigns targeting the younger age group, singles, lower income class, and non-clinical staff.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 261, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707762

RESUMO

Introduction: low- and middle-income countries are currently faced with a double burden of malnutrition. There has, however, been little focus on research and interventions for women with over-nutrition. We aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with over-nutrition among 20 to 49-year-old women in Uganda. Methods: we used the Uganda demographic and health survey (UDHS) 2016 data of 4,640 women. We analysed data using SPSS (version 25), and we used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with over-nutrition among 20 to 49-year-old women in Uganda. Results: the prevalence of over-nutrition was 28.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 26.8-29.4) with overweight at 19.3% and obesity at 8.9%. Women belonging to the poorer (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.63; 95% CI: 1.17-2.28), middle (AOR=2.24; 95% CI: 1.61-3.13), richer (AOR=3.02; 95% CI: 2.14-4.25) and richest (AOR=6.35; 95% CI: 4.52-8.93) wealth index quintiles were more likely to be over-nourished compared to women in the poorest wealth index quintile. Married women (AOR=1.52; 95% CI: 1.26-1.83) were more likely to be over-nourished compared to non-married women. Older women were more likely to be over-nourished compared to younger women. Women in the Western (AOR=2.12; 95% CI: 1.66-2.71), Eastern (AOR=1.40; 95% CI: 1.04-1.88) and Central (AOR=2.25; 95% CI: 1.69-2.99) regions were more likely to be over-nourished compared to women in the Northern region. Conclusion: the design of multi-faceted over-nutrition reduction programs with an emphasis on older, married, financially stable women, and those living in the Western, Eastern and Central regions of the country is needed.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574845

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the tendencies of change in suicide frequency among Polish adults aged 65 or older, recognize the importance of available socio-demographic data (age, sex, marital status, and education attainment level) and provide an in-depth psychological understanding of the obtained results. We analysed the influence of education and marital status on suicide risk in the Polish adult population aged 65 or older, which has not been previously presented in publications related to the Central Statistical Office or any other research. Our results indicated that male adults aged 65 or older that were single or divorced and with a lower education had a higher risk of death by suicide. In female adults aged 65 or older, those with higher education and who were divorced or married had a higher risk of fatal suicide behaviour meanwhile, single women and widows had a lower risk. The dominant method of suicide among Polish older adults was suicide by hanging, regardless of sex; female older adults were more likely to die by suicide by poisoning or jumping from a height, and male older adults were more likely to die by shooting with a firearm. Although data from recent years highlights a downward trend for suicide rates in Polish older adults, the problem cannot be considered solved.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Suicídio , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Polônia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e43, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505560

RESUMO

We explored post-traumatic growth (PTG) in older adults immediately after the forced lockdown in Spain during March to April, 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also tried to identify the variables that predict PTG, focusing on the experience of COVID, sociodemographic variables, and social resources. In total 1,009 people aged 55 years and older participated in the study and completed an online questionnaire comprising the following elements: The short form of the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI-SF), sociodemographic and social resources questions, and their experiences of COVID-19 (if they had been infected themselves or if they had experienced the loss of someone close). Results showed that only a quarter of the participants experienced higher PTG after the forced lockdown, with only age and social resources being correlated with scores on the PTGI-SF. Looking at the strengths that older adults put into action to combat the pandemic and its social and health consequences could be an important consideration when planning future social policies for this and other pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Idoso/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578884

RESUMO

This study investigated the association of hours of paid work with dietary intake and diet quality among Japanese married women. This cross-sectional study was a secondary analysis of a nationwide population survey in 2013. The analytic sample included 644 married women aged 20-59 years. The participants were categorized into five groups according to hours of paid work per week: 0 (housewives), 1-14, 15-34, 35-42, and ≥43 h. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered diet history questionnaire. The Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3) was used to measure the dietary quality. The association of hours of paid work with dietary intake and NRF9.3 score was assessed using a multivariable general linear regression analysis with adjustments for confounders. Hours of paid work were associated with a higher intake of rice and lower intake of vegetables, potatoes, soy products, and seaweeds and nutrients including protein, dietary fiber, and most vitamins and minerals. Hours of paid work were negatively associated with the NRF9.3 score. This study showed that Japanese married women engaging in paid work, especially those who work long hours, have less healthy diets. Efforts to improve the dietary intake of married women with paid work might be needed.


Assuntos
Dieta , Emprego , Comportamento Alimentar , Estado Civil , Valor Nutritivo , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/normas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(6): 2092-2103, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498734

RESUMO

Numerous studies have highlighted significant correlations between major psychiatric disorders and criminal behavior. However, the plethora of literature on criminality among patients with major psychiatric disorders originated in the West. The objective of the present paper is to review criminal behavior among individuals with mental illness in Arab countries. Attributes of individuals assessed by forensic psychiatric committees and identifying various aspects that may reinforce criminality among individuals with mental illness were considered. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review of literature from three databases (Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science) was carried out. A total of 20 articles were included. The publications span between 1975 and 2020 and originated in seven different Arab countries including Egypt, Kuwait, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, Jordan, and Algeria. Individuals evaluated by forensic psychiatric committees were predominantly males. Excluding substance use disorder, psychotic disorders were the most commonly diagnosed disorders among individuals evaluated by forensic psychiatry committees. Concerning schizophrenia, concomitant substance use and nonadherence to therapy were significantly associated with increased criminality. The review demonstrates that substance use is certainly linked to violence. There is a significant association between mental illness and criminal behavior. Therefore, awareness of different characteristics and risk factors behind criminal behavior among mentally ill offenders could allow us to design and implement effective preventative measures. The Arab's contribution in this field of forensic psychiatry is relatively small. Indeed, further investigation and contributions from the Arab world are required.


Assuntos
Mundo Árabe , Crime , Comportamento Criminoso , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Vítimas de Crime , Escolaridade , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Defesa por Insanidade , Estado Civil , Adesão à Medicação , Cooperação do Paciente , Prisioneiros , Distribuição por Sexo , Desemprego
12.
Health Psychol ; 40(7): 459-467, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is one biological pathway through which marital dissolution and marital discord may increase risk for chronic disease. The present study was conducted to investigate the cross-sectional association between marital dissolution, marital discord, and C-reactive protein (CRP), an indicator of inflammation, in a probability sample of Irish adults aged 50 years or older. METHOD: Data were drawn from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine (a) the association between marital dissolution and CRP values (N = 2,545), (b) the association between marital discord and CRP values (N = 1,949), and (c) whether these associations were moderated by gender. Subsequent models adjusted for demographic characteristics and health variables. RESULTS: With respect to marital dissolution, individuals who were separated or divorced had significantly higher CRP relative to married individuals. With respect to marital discord, gender significantly moderated the association between marital discord and CRP, such that marital discord was significantly and positively associated with CRP for men, whereas this association was not statistically significant for women. Results for marital dissolution and marital discord remained statistically significant when adjusting for demographic characteristics and health variables. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first studies to document a significant cross-sectional association between marital dissolution, marital discord, and CRP, incremental to demographic and health covariates, in a non-American probability sample. Results indicate that inflammation may be one pathway by which marital dissolution and marital discord contribute to risk for disease and early death. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 891, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colon cancer is largely implicated in elderly patients (age ≥ 60 years). The prognosis of patients diagnosed with the M1b stage is vastly poor. Marital and insurance status has been considered important prognostic factors in various cancer types. However, how these factors influence elderly patients with stage M1b colon cancer remains to be explored. This study aims to uncover the role of marital and insurance status in the survival of elderly patients with stage M1b colon cancer. METHODS: We retrieved data for patients diagnosed with stage M1b colon cancer between 2010 and 2016 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Our analysis of the clinicopathological features, overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) was based on the marital and insurance status, respectively. RESULTS: In sum, 5709 stage M1b colon cancer patients with complete information from SEER were enrolled for analysis. The OS and CSS of the Non-married group were poorer compared to that of the Married group. The OS and CSS of the Uninsured group were poorer than both of the Insured group and Medicaid group. However, OS was comparable between Uninsured group and Medicaid groups. The findings allude that marital and insurance status potentially impact the long-term survival of elderly patients with M1b colon cancer. The subgroup survival analyses revealed the lowest risk for death among the Insured Married group based on the comparison of the OS and CSS across all other groups. Moreover, Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed race, marital status, surgery, and chemotherapy as independent predictors for OS, whereas insurance status, surgery,and chemotherapy were independent predictors for CSS in elderly patients with M1b colon cancer. CONCLUSION: The marital and insurance status greatly impact the survival of elderly patients with M1b colon cancer. Therefore, it is imperative to provide more support to this vulnerable patient group who are lonely and uninsured, particularly in the psychological and health insurance aspect.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Cobertura do Seguro , Estado Civil , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Programa de SEER , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 965, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To develop nomograms for the prediction of the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) for patients with lymph node positive, luminal A breast cancer. METHODS: Thirty-nine thousand fifty-one patients from The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were included in our study and were set into a training group (n = 19,526) and a validation group (n = 19,525). Univariate analysis and Cox proportional hazards analysis were used to select variables and set up nomogram models on the basis of the training group. Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test were adopted in the survival analysis and curves plotting. C-index, calibration plots and ROC curves were used to performed internal and external validation on the training group and validation group. RESULTS: Following independent factors were included in our nomograms: Age, marital status, grade, ethnic group, T stage, positive lymph nodes numbers, Metastasis, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy. In both the training group and testing group, the calibration plots show that the actual and nomogram-predicted survival probabilities are consistent greatly. The C-index values of the nomograms in the training and validation cohorts were 0.782 and 0.806 for OS and 0.783 and 0.804 for BCSS, respectively. The ROC curves show that our nomograms have good discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: The nomograms may assist clinicians predict the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS and BCSS of patients with lymph node positive, luminal A breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/mortalidade , Carcinoma Lobular/mortalidade , Linfonodos/patologia , Nomogramas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/terapia , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256811, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464428

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the Kingdom of Bhutan. Thus, the early detection and prevention of hypertension is critical for reducing cardiovascular disease. However, the influence of sociocultural factors on vulnerability to hypertension needs further investigation. This study performed secondary data analysis on 1,909 individuals in a cross-sectional study (the National survey for noncommunicable disease risk factors and mental health using World Health Organization (WHO) STEPS approach in Bhutan- 2014). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated a significant association between gender with marital status and hypertension. Women had a higher odds ratio than men (Ref) when married (AOR: 1.27, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.23-1.31), and when separated, divorced, or widowed (AOR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.12-1.26). People who speak the Tshanglakha language scored the highest odds (AOR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.20-1.27), followed by Lhotshamkha (AOR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.06-1.12) and Dzongkha (Ref) after adjusting for various social and biomedical factors. Additionally, tobacco use displayed decreased odds for hypertension. To promote the early detection and prevention of hypertension, these cultural factors should be considered even within small geographic areas, such as Bhutan. It is necessary to strengthen hypertension preventive strategies for people who speak Tshanglakha and Lhotshamkha. Furthermore, careful consideration should be given to preventing hypertension among adults aged 40 years or more, women who are married, separated, divorced, or widowed, and men who never married in Bhutan.


Assuntos
Cultura , Hipertensão/etiologia , Estado Civil , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Butão/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etnologia , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Pessoa Solteira/estatística & dados numéricos , Viuvez/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Adv Gerontol ; 34(3): 446-453, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409825

RESUMO

The study of the living conditions of the elderly living alone or together with other family relatives is relevant to the organization of medical and social care and the strengthening of coordination between medical and social services. We analysed information of 1 261 people aged 80 years and older in ambulatory care settings, of whom 40% lived alone and 60% lived in the family. The proportion of single residents increases with age. It was determined several socio-demographic characteristics of patients, including age, gender, and household composition, calculated the prevalence of senile asthenia syndrome and the main chronic non-infectious diseases for single and family patients, and identified gender differences. Single men in the «Age is not a hindrance¼ screening more often revealed senile asthenia and had more severe pain syndrome compared to men living in a family. In contrast to men, senile asthenia and pain summation were more frequently registered for women living in a family than for women living alone. For the organization of medical and social care, it is important to consider the relationship between gender and marital status, as well as how this relationship changes over time.


Assuntos
Distância Psicológica , Características de Residência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Seguridade Social , Serviço Social
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6516202, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458369

RESUMO

In sub-Saharan Africa, improving equitable access to healthcare remains a major challenge for public health systems. Health policymakers encourage the adoption of health insurance schemes to promote universal healthcare. Nonetheless, progress towards this goal remains suboptimal due to inequalities health insurance ownership especially among women. In this study, we aimed to explore the sociodemographic factors contributing to health insurance ownership among women in selected francophone countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. This study is based on cross-sectional data obtained from Demographic and Health Surveys on five countries including Benin (n = 13,407), Madagascar (n = 12,448), Mali (n = 10,326), Niger (n = 12,558), and Togo (n = 6,979). The explanatory factors included participant age, marital status, type of residency, education, household wealth quantile, employment stats, and access to electronic media. Associations between health insurance ownership and the explanatory factors were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis, and effect sizes were reported in terms in average marginal effects (AMEs). Results. The highest percentage of insurance ownership was observed for Togo (3.31%), followed by Madagascar (2.23%) and Mali (2.2%). After stratifying by place of residency, the percentages were found to be significantly lower in the rural areas for all countries, with the most noticeable difference observed for Niger (7.73% in urban vs. 0.54% in rural women). Higher levels of education and wealth quantile were positively associated with insurance ownership in all five countries. In the pooled sample, women in the higher education category had higher likelihood of having an insurance: Benin (AME = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.27), Madagascar (AME = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.15), Mali (AME = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.24), Niger (AME = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.21), and Togo (AME = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.09, 1.26). Regarding wealth status, women from the households in the highest wealth quantile had 4% higher likelihood of having insurance in Benin and Mali and 6% higher likelihood in Madagascar and Togo. Conclusions. Percentage of women who reported having health insurance was noticeably low in all five countries. As indicated by the multivariate analyses, the actual situation is likely to be even worse due to significant socioeconomic inequalities in the distribution of women having an insurance plan. Increasing women's access to healthcare is an urgent priority for population health promotion in these countries, and therefore, addressing the entrenched sociodemographic disparities should be given urgent policy attention in an effort to strengthen universal healthcare-related goals.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Mulheres , Saúde da Mulher/economia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14613, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a significant public health problem. NCDs are the leading cause of death in Bangladesh. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of double burden of NCDs (DBNCDs) and triple burden of NCDs (TBNCDs) such as hypertension, diabetes and overweight or obesity and to explore the risk factors of DBNCDs and TBNCDs in Bangladesh. MATERAILS AND METHODS: This study included 12 685 participants (5465 male and 7220 female) from 2017 - 2018 nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the distribution and prevalence of DBNCDs and TBNCDs. Bivariate and multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to assess the individual- and community-level determinants of DBNCDs and TBNCDs. RESULTS: The prevalence of DBNCDs and TBNCDs was 21.4% and 6.1%, respectively. At individual-level, higher age, female, currently and formerly/ever married, richest, higher education were more likely to suffer from the DBNCDs and TBNCDs. Furthermore, at the community level, the division had a significant association with DBNCDs and TBNCDs. In addition, family size had a significant effect on DBNCDs, and caffeinate drinks and poverty significantly affected TBNCDs. CONCLUSION: Overall, there is a low prevalence of TBNCDs compared with DBNCDs in Bangladesh. Age, gender, marital status, wealth index, education level and division are significantly associated with DBNCDs and TBNCDs. The government and non-government health organisations should pay proper attention to handle the burden of NCDs in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 486, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy an important public health problem in Ethiopia. It is associated with adverse physical, mental, social and economic outcomes. Identifying factors associated with unintended pregnancy may help to reduce unintended pregnancy and hence adverse outcomes. There are few studies about the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Ethiopia. But these studies were based on small sample size and fragmented. Therefore, this analysis was done to identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy in Ethiopia based on nationally representative data. METHODS: The study used the 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data. The data was downloaded from The DHS program with permission. A total of 1135 women were included in the final model. Data was weighted to consider disproportionate sampling and non-response. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy among women. RESULT: About 30% (95% CI: 25.33-34.39) pregnancies were unintended. Married women (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR); 0.34; 95% CI: (0.01-0.14), woman living in developing regions AOR; 0.14; 95% CI: (0.07-0.27) and women who reported distance was not a big problem to get medical care AOR; 0.59; 95% CI: (0.36-0.99) had lower odds of unintended pregnancy. On the other hand, multiparous AOR; 3.77; 95% CI: (1.71-8.33), grand multiparous AOR; 6.72; 95% CI: (2.74-16.49) women and women who ever used contraceptives AOR; 1.86 95% CI: (1.06-3.26) had higher odds of unintended pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Although high, the magnitude of unintended pregnancy in Ethiopia was lower compared to the global level. Marital status, region, perceived distance to seek medical care, parity and history of contraceptive use were found significant predictors of unintended pregnancy in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez não Planejada , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Escolaridade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Paridade , Gravidez , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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