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1.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003648

RESUMO

The third coronavirus outbreak in the last two decades has caused significant damage to the world's economy and community health. The highly contagious COVID-19 infection has affected millions of people to date and has led to hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. Aside from the highly infectious nature of SARS-CoV-2, the lack of a treatment or vaccine has been the main reason for its spread. Thus, it has become necessary to find alternative methods for controlling SARS-CoV-2. For the present review, we conducted an online search for different available nutrition-based therapies for previously known coronavirus infections and RNA-based virus infections as well as general antiviral therapies. These treatments have promise for combating COVID-19, as various nutrients and minerals play direct and indirect roles in the control and prevention of this newly emerged viral infection. The patients' nutritional status with COVID-19 must be analyzed before administering any treatment, and nutritional supplements should be given to the affected individuals along with routine treatment. We suggest a potential interventional role of nutrients to strengthen the immune system against the emerging infection caused by COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Micronutrientes , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
2.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 561-565, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058648

RESUMO

Nutrition in sports. Recommendations for nutritional intake by athletes, whatever their sports level, first requires ensuring that daily energy expenditure is covered and that nutrition recommendations for health are applied. For endurance athletes, carbohydrate intake before and during exercise plays a decisive role in glucose availability and performance. In strength/power athletes, protein intake is important for optimizing the training responses. For all these athletes, nutritional intakes during recovery ensure good tolerance of training programs. Nutritional supplements are only justified on the basis of scientific evidence, and relate only to products available on the official market and produced in accordance with quality procedures.


Assuntos
Esportes , Atletas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
4.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 731-743, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feeding status of infants and their feeder's feeding literacy in poor rural areas of Gansu Province. METHODS: From November 2018 to January 2019, a multi-stage cluster random sampling method was used to select 1200 infant and child families aged 0 to 23 months in 40 villages of Gansu Province. A standardized questionnaire from the Chinese Nutrition Society(CNS)was used to investigate the basic situation of infant and young children's families, the situation of breastfeeding and the addition of supplementary food, and parents feeding knowledge, attitude behavior(KAP). Using chi-square test, logistic regression and other method to statistically describe and infer the collected data. RESULTS: A total of 1193 infants and 1165 feeders were investigated. The exclusive breastfeeding rate of infants and young children under the age of 6 months was 39. 02%. The rate of continuous breastfeeding at 1 year old was 37. 40%, and the rate of continuous breastfeeding at 2 years old was 20. 88%, the difference between the two was significant(χ~2=13. 498, P<0. 01). The supplementary food supplement rate of infants and children over 6 months was 94. 37%, the highest supplementary supplement for cereals and potatoes(98. 01%), and the lowest percentage for beans and nuts(23. 51%), and the distribution of supplementary foods at different ages was significantly different(χ~2=52. 336, P<0. 01). The qualification rate of infants and young children's minimum dietary diversity was 64. 13%, the minimum eating frequency qualification rate was 70. 64%, the minimum acceptable dietary intake qualification rate was 42. 16%, and the qualification rates of various indicators were significantly different between different months(χ~2=85. 421, P<0. 01;χ~2=19. 66, P<0. 01; χ~2=17. 261, P<0. 01). The KAP score passing rate of infant caregivers was 37. 34%, and there was a statistical difference between the age of infants and young children, the education level and the sex of the caregiver(χ~2=9. 411, P<0. 05;χ~2=25. 901, P<0. 01;χ~2=3. 874, P<0. 05). Taking low-month-old infants and young children, low education and male caregivers as controls, infants and young children aged over 12 months, high school education and female caregivers were the protective factors of KAP scores(P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: The problems of infant breastfeeding and supplementary feeding in poor rural areas of Gansu Province were serious, and the knowledge and skills of raising people were scarce, which were related to the age of infants and young children, the education and the sex of raising people.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , População Rural , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estado Nutricional
5.
Enferm. nefrol ; 23(3): 244-251, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193707

RESUMO

La prevalencia de malnutrición en paciente con Enfermedad Renal Crónica es elevada, aumentando en pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2. La relación existente entre inflamación y nutrición es conocida en la enfermedad renal, por lo que la presencia previa de cuadros de malnutrición empeora el pronóstico de la infección. El objetivo del presente artículo es la creación de recomendaciones dietéticas específicas para pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica e infección o post-infección por SARS-CoV-2, adaptadas al estadio de enfermedad y a la etapa del proceso de infección. El abordaje nutricional comienza por la valoración del estado nutricional, para lo que se recomiendan minimizar el contacto físico mediante la utilización de los criterios Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM), y el cuestionario rápido de sarcopenia (SARC-F). Las recomendaciones dietéticas deben considerar el estadio de enfermedad renal crónica, la etapa de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y las complicaciones surgidas que comprometan la ingesta oral, entre las más comunes se encuentran: anorexia, ageusia, disfagia y diarrea. En el presente documento se han elaborado tablas de raciones de ingestas diarias adaptadas a las diferentes situaciones. En aquellos pacientes que no cubran los requerimientos nutricionales se recomienda comenzar con la suplementación nutricional de manera precoz, considerando las consecuencias de la infección descrita. Debido al elevado riesgo de malnutrición en pacientes con enfermedad renal cónica e infección por SARS-CoV-2, se recomienda la adaptación de la valoración del estado nutricional y su tratamiento, así como realizar una monitorización tras la fase de infección activa


The prevalence of malnutrition in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease is high, increasing in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The relationship between inflammation and nutrition in kidney disease is known, so the previous presence of malnutrition conditions worsens the prognosis of infection. The objective of this article is the creation of specific dietary recommendations for patients with chronic kidney disease and infection or post-infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, adapted to the stage of the disease and the stage of the infection process. The nutritional approach begins with the assessment of nutritional status, recommending minimizing physical contact through the use of the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria and the rapid sarcopenia questionnaire (SARC-F). The dietary recommendations should consider the stage of chronic kidney disease, the stage of infection by SARS-CoV-2 and the complications arising that compromise oral intake, among the most common are: anorexia, ageusia, dysphagia and diarrhea. In this document, tables of daily intakes have been prepared adapted to different situations. In those patients who do not meet the nutritional requirements, it is recommended to start with an early nutritional supplementation, considering the consequences of the infection described. Due to the high risk of malnutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease and SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is recommended to adapt the assessment of nutritional status and treatment, as well as to carry out monitoring after the active infection phase


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003285, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biannual azithromycin distribution has been shown to reduce child mortality as well as increase antimicrobial resistance. Targeting distributions to vulnerable subgroups such as malnourished children is one approach to reaching those at the highest risk of mortality while limiting selection for resistance. The objective of this analysis was to assess whether the effect of azithromycin on mortality differs by nutritional status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A large simple trial randomized communities in Niger to receive biannual distributions of azithromycin or placebo to children 1-59 months old over a 2-year timeframe. In exploratory subgroup analyses, the effect of azithromycin distribution on child mortality was assessed for underweight subgroups using weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) thresholds of -2 and -3. Modification of the effect of azithromycin on mortality by underweight status was examined on the additive and multiplicative scale. Between December 2014 and August 2017, 27,222 children 1-11 months of age from 593 communities had weight measured at their first study visit. Overall, the average age among included children was 4.7 months (interquartile range [IQR] 3-6), 49.5% were female, 23% had a WAZ < -2, and 10% had a WAZ < -3. This analysis included 523 deaths in communities assigned to azithromycin and 661 deaths in communities assigned to placebo. The mortality rate was lower in communities assigned to azithromycin than placebo overall, with larger reductions among children with lower WAZ: -12.6 deaths per 1,000 person-years (95% CI -18.5 to -6.9, P < 0.001) overall, -17.0 (95% CI -28.0 to -7.0, P = 0.001) among children with WAZ < -2, and -25.6 (95% CI -42.6 to -9.6, P = 0.003) among children with WAZ < -3. No statistically significant evidence of effect modification was demonstrated by WAZ subgroup on either the additive or multiplicative scale (WAZ < -2, additive: 95% CI -6.4 to 16.8, P = 0.34; WAZ < -2, multiplicative: 95% CI 0.8 to 1.4, P = 0.50, WAZ < -3, additive: 95% CI -2.2 to 31.1, P = 0.14; WAZ < -3, multiplicative: 95% CI 0.9 to 1.7, P = 0.26). The estimated number of deaths averted with azithromycin was 388 (95% CI 214 to 574) overall, 116 (95% CI 48 to 192) among children with WAZ < -2, and 76 (95% CI 27 to 127) among children with WAZ < -3. Limitations include the availability of a single weight measurement on only the youngest children and the lack of power to detect small effect sizes with this rare outcome. Despite the trial's large size, formal tests for effect modification did not reach statistical significance at the 95% confidence level. CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality rates were higher in the underweight subgroups, this study was unable to demonstrate that nutritional status modified the effect of biannual azithromycin distribution on mortality. Even if the effect were greater among underweight children, a nontargeted intervention would result in the greatest absolute number of deaths averted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The MORDOR trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02047981.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/mortalidade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/mortalidade , Níger/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Magreza
9.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911778

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by the new coronavirus has caused shock waves in many countries, producing a global health crisis worldwide. Lack of knowledge of the biological mechanisms of viruses, plus the absence of effective treatments against the disease (COVID-19) and/or vaccines have pulled factors that can compromise the proper functioning of the immune system to fight against infectious diseases into the spotlight. The optimal status of specific nutrients is considered crucial to keeping immune components within their normal activity, helping to avoid and overcome infections. Specifically, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) evaluated and deems six vitamins (D, A, C, Folate, B6, B12) and four minerals (zinc, iron, copper and selenium) to be essential for the normal functioning of the immune system, due to the scientific evidence collected so far. In this report, an update on the evidence of the contribution of nutritional factors as immune-enhancing aspects, factors that could reduce their bioavailability, and the role of the optimal status of these nutrients within the COVID-19 pandemic context was carried out. First, a non-systematic review of the current state of knowledge regarding the impact of an optimal nutritional status of these nutrients on the proper functioning of the immune system as well as their potential role in COVID-19 prevention/treatment was carried out by searching for available scientific evidence in PubMed and LitCovid databases. Second, a compilation from published sources and an analysis of nutritional data from 10 European countries was performed, and the relationship between country nutritional status and epidemiological COVID-19 data (available in the Worldometers database) was evaluated following an ecological study design. Furthermore, the potential effect of genetics was considered through the selection of genetic variants previously identified in Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAs) as influencing the nutritional status of these 10 considered nutrients. Therefore, access to genetic information in accessible databases (1000genomes, by Ensembl) of individuals from European populations enabled an approximation that countries might present a greater risk of suboptimal status of the nutrients studied. Results from the review approach show the importance of maintaining a correct nutritional status of these 10 nutrients analyzed for the health of the immune system, highlighting the importance of Vitamin D and iron in the context of COVID-19. Besides, the ecological study demonstrates that intake levels of relevant micronutrients-especially Vitamins D, C, B12, and iron-are inversely associated with higher COVID-19 incidence and/or mortality, particularly in populations genetically predisposed to show lower micronutrient status. In conclusion, nutrigenetic data provided by joint assessment of 10 essential nutrients for the functioning of the immune system and of the genetic factors that can limit their bioavailability can be a fundamental tool to help strengthen the immune system of individuals and prepare populations to fight against infectious diseases such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Nutrigenômica , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Metais Pesados/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/genética , Estado Nutricional/imunologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Selênio/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927735

RESUMO

Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses an enormous challenge to health care systems throughout the world. Without causal treatment, identification of modifiable prognostic factors may help to improve outcomes. To explore possible associations of vitamin D (VitD) status with disease severity and survival, we studied 185 patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and treated at our center. VitD status at first presentation was assessed retrospectively using accredited laboratory methods. VitD deficiency was defined as serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D level < 12 ng/mL (<30 nM). Primary endpoint was severe course of disease (i.e., need for invasive mechanical ventilation and/or death, IMV/D). Within a median observation period of 66 days (range 2-92), 23 patients required IMV. A total of 28 patients had IMV/D, including 16 deaths. Ninety-three (50%) patients required hospitalization (inpatient subgroup). A total of 41 (22%) patients were VitD deficient. When adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities, VitD deficiency was associated with higher risk of IMV/D and death (HR 6.12, 95% CI 2.79-13.42, p < 0.001 and HR 14.73, 95% CI 4.16-52.19, p < 0.001, respectively). Similar correlations were observed in the inpatient subgroup. Our study demonstrates an association between VitD deficiency and severity/mortality of COVID-19, highlighting the need for interventional studies on VitD supplementation in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Deficiência de Vitamina D/mortalidade , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/virologia
11.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932831

RESUMO

The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global health concern. Vitamin D (VITD) deficiency has been suggested to alter SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and the course of disease. Thus, we aimed to investigate associations of VITD status to disease presentation within the CovILD registry. This prospective, multicenter, observational study on long-term sequelae includes patients with COVID-19 after hospitalization or outpatients with persistent symptoms. Eight weeks after PCR confirmed diagnosis, a detailed questionnaire, a clinical examination, and laboratory testing, including VITD status, were evaluated. Furthermore, available laboratory specimens close to hospital admission were used to retrospectively analyze 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at disease onset. A total of 109 patients were included in the analysis (60% males, 40% females), aged 58 ± 14 years. Eight weeks after the onset of COVID-19, a high proportion of patients presented with impaired VITD metabolism and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. PTH concentrations were increased in patients who needed intensive care unit (ICU) treatment, while VITD levels were not significantly different between disease severity groups. Low VITD levels at disease onset or at eight-week follow-up were not related to persistent symptom burden, lung function impairment, ongoing inflammation, or more severe CT abnormalities. VITD deficiency is frequent among COVID-19 patients but not associated with disease outcomes. However, individuals with severe disease display a disturbed parathyroid-vitamin-D axis within their recovery phase. The proposed significance of VITD supplementation in the clinical management of COVID-19 remains elusive.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/virologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
12.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(8): e00161320, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901703

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses one of this century's greatest public health challenges, with impacts on the health and living conditions of populations worldwide. The literature has reported that the pandemic affects the hegemonic food system in various ways. In Brazil, the pandemic amplifies existing social, racial, and gender inequalities, further jeopardizing the Human Right to Adequate Food (HRAF) and the attainment of food and nutritional security, especially among more vulnerable groups. In this context, the article aims to analyze the first measures by the Brazilian Federal Government to mitigate the pandemic's effects and that may have repercussions on food and nutritional security, considering the recent institutional changes in policies and programs. A narrative literature review was performed, and the information sources were the bulletins of the Center for Coordination of Operations by the Crisis Committee for Supervising and Monitoring the Impacts of COVID-19 and homepages of various government ministries, from March to May 2020. The actions were systematized according to the guidelines of the National Policy for Food and Nutritional Security. The analysis identified the creation of institutional crisis management arrangements. The proposed actions feature those involving access to income, emergency aid, and food, such as authorization for food distribution outside schools with federal funds from the National School Feeding Program. However, the setbacks and dismantlement in food and nutritional security may undermine the Federal Government's capacity to respond to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Governo Federal , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Populações Vulneráveis
13.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3421-3430, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876253

RESUMO

The emergence of COVID-19 in Brazil further explained the massive discrepancy between different social realities coexisting in the country, rekindling the discussions about food and nutrition security, similarly to what has been happening in other countries facing the same pandemic situation. In this paper, we argue that the risks to hunger and food security in Brazil have been present since 2016 and are now being exacerbated due to the emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic. This situation requires knowing the extent and magnitude of the issue and articulation of measures in the three governmental spheres(federal, municipal and state) to ensure access to adequate and healthy food and reduce the disease's adverse effectson the diet, health, and nutrition among the most vulnerable people. Thus, this work aims to contribute to the debate on the measures to be adopted by governments and society to promote and ensure food and nutrition security and prevent insecurity and the expansion of hunger during and after the social and health crisis created by the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Brasil , Dieta , Humanos , Fome , Pandemias , Política Pública , Populações Vulneráveis
14.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 114-120, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890373

RESUMO

Neuropsychiatric disorders are closely associated with a persistent low-grade inflammatory state. This suggests that the development of psychopathology is not only limited to the brain, but rather involves an additional systemic aspect, accounting for the large body of evidence demonstrating co-presentation of mental illness with chronic inflammatory conditions and metabolic syndromes. Studies have shown that inflammatory processes underlie the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms, with recent studies revealing not only correlative, but causative relationships between the immune system and psychopathology. Lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise may influence psychopathology, and this may occur via a bidirectional relationship. Mental illness may prevent health-seeking behaviours such as failing to maintain a balanced diet, whilst adopting a 'healthy' diet rich in fruits, vegetables and fish alongside nutritional supplementation correlates with a reduction in psychiatric symptoms in patients. Obesity and the gut microbiome have proven to be further factors which play an important role in inflammatory signalling and the development of psychiatric symptoms. In a related paper we focus on the role of exercise (another significant lifestyle factor) on mental health (Venkatesh et al. 2020). Lifestyle modifications which target diet and nutrition may prove therapeutically beneficial for many patients, especially in treatment-resistant subgroups. The current evidence base provides equivocal evidence, however future studies will prove significant, as this is a highly attractive therapeutic avenue, due to its cost efficacy, low side effect profile and preventative potential. By promoting lifestyle changes and addressing the limitations and barriers to adoption, these therapies may prove revolutionary for mental health conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Dieta , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
15.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992538

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high risk of malnutrition, primarily in older people; assessing nutritional risk using appropriate screening tools is critical. This systematic review identified applicable tools and assessed their measurement properties. Literature was searched in the MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS databases. Four studies conducted in China met the eligibility criteria. Sample sizes ranged from six to 182, and participants' ages from 65 to 87 years. Seven nutritional screening and assessment tools were used: the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), the MNA-short form (MNA-sf), the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), the Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), the Geriatric NRI (GNRI), and modified Nutrition Risk in the Critically ill (mNUTRIC) score. Nutritional risk was identified in 27.5% to 100% of participants. The NRS-2002, MNA, MNA-sf, NRI, and MUST demonstrated high sensitivity; the MUST had better specificity. The MNA and MUST demonstrated better criterion validity. The MNA-sf demonstrated better predictive validity for poor appetite and weight loss; the NRS-2002 demonstrated better predictive validity for prolonged hospitalization. mNUTRIC score demonstrated good predictive validity for hospital mortality. Most instruments demonstrate high sensitivity for identifying nutritional risk, but none are acknowledged as the best for nutritional screening in older adults with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Avaliação Geriátrica , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Avaliação Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5343-5349, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The present study aimed to examine the association of the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score with outcomes in patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal cancer (EC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review was carried out to investigate the impact of the CONUT score in EC. Next, meta-analysis of long-term outcomes was performed. RESULTS: The search found six eligible retrospective studies, and five studies with 952 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis found a significant association of the CONUT score with outcomes including overall survival [hazard ratio (HR)=2.51, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.75-3.60, p<0.001], cancer-specific survival (HR=2.60, 95%CI=1.53-4.41, p<0.001), and recurrence free survival (HR=2.08, 95%CI=1.39-3.12, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The CONUT score may be an independent predictor associated with prognosis in patients undergoing esophagectomy for EC. However, further studies are needed to clarify the association of the CONUT score with postoperative outcomes in EC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e21840, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in ovarian cancer (OC) is uncertain, and this study is aimed to clarify the prognostic significance. METHODS: We used 4 common databases for conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis, and eligible studies were included in the analysis. The association of preoperative PNI with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and clinicopathological parameters was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 2050 patients with OC receiving the surgical treatment were analyzed in this study. Patients with low PNI tended to have a shorter OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.30-2.55, P < .01) and PFS (HR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.53-2.39, P < .01) compared with those with high PNI. Besides, low PNI was significantly associated with more advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P < .01), the occurrence of ascites (P < .01), larger residual tumor (P < .01), insensitive to chemotherapy (P < .01), and higher CA125 (P < .01) compared with high PNI in OC. CONCLUSION: Low preoperative PNI is associated with shorter OS, shorter PFS, and worse clinicopathological parameters in OC. Low preoperative PNI is an unfavorable prognostic indicator of patients with OC.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Antígeno Ca-125/sangue , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
18.
Br J Community Nurs ; 25(Sup8): S6-S10, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936703

RESUMO

The impact of nutrition on recovery from various illnesses is well recognised. Malnutrition can affect duration of hospitalisation and impede recovery, and therefore it is important to monitor this condition, especially in at-risk groups, such as older adults and those with chronic disease. Underlying malnutrition impairs the immune system, potentially making people more vulnerable to infections such as COVID-19 and impacting recovery. Patients recovering from severe illness are likely to have muscle wasting or feel weak and may have increased protein needs. In addition individuals who have been discharged from hospital may need ongoing nutritional rehabilitation. This article explores the range of symptoms of COVID-19 that can interfere with dietary intake, such as respiratory issues, loss of taste and smell and fatigue and weakness. It goes on to describe how community nurses can identify risk of malnutrition and dietary issues when working remotely. Additionally, it signposts to a range of resources developed to assist patients and carers in accessing appropriate dietary advice.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Desnutrição/etiologia , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
19.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 525-546, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943305

RESUMO

Determining mineral status of production animals is important when developing an optimum health program. Nutrition is the largest expense in food animal production and has the greatest impact on health and productivity of the animals. Knowing the bioavailability of minerals in the diet is difficult. Evaluating fluid or tissues from animals is the optimum method to determine bioavailability. Evaluating the diet provides some information. Serum/blood or liver from the animal needs to be analyzed to determine bioavailability of vitamin and minerals in the diet. This article reviews how to sample and the function of these minerals in cattle.


Assuntos
Gado/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Gado/sangue , Minerais/análise , Estado Nutricional , Ruminantes/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue , Vitaminas/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238355, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attaining the recommended level of adequacy of the infant's diet remains a serious challenge in most developing countries. Complementary foods, particularly in developing countries, are inadequate in quality and quantity that can result in adverse health and nutrition consequences in infants. This could be not only because of lack of food but also associated with caregiver's poor knowledge, harmful cultural norms and behaviors on infant feeding. The promotion of optimal complementary feeding through behavior change interventions is a global health priority. However, many of the interventions targeted only mothers/caregivers of infants, and studies that engaged other family members are limited worldwide. Moreover, such interventions are scarce in developing countries, including Ethiopia. This trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of complementary feeding behavior change communication delivered through community-level actors on the dietary adequacy of infants. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural communities of West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Trial participants in the intervention clusters received complementary feeding behavior change communication for 9 months whereas those in the control clusters received only the usual care. Trained women development army leaders delivered the intervention. A pre-tested, structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Generalized estimating equations regression analyses adjusted for baseline covariates and clustering were used to test the intervention effects. RESULTS: The intervention showed positive statistically significant effects on the consumption of dairy products [RR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.04-3.13], eggs [RR = 3; 95% CI: 1.35-6.56], vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables [RR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.17-6.1], other fruits and vegetables [RR = 5; 95% CI: 2.49-10.58] and animal-source foods [RR = 2; 95% CI: 1.39-2.87]. The proportions of infants who achieved minimum dietary diversity [RR = 3; 95% CI: 1.34, 7.39], minimum meal frequency [RR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.37-4.29], and minimum acceptable diet [RR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.13-7.23] were significantly higher in the intervention as compared to control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Complementary feeding behavior change communication delivered through community-level actors significantly improved the dietary adequacy of infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03488680. Registered 5 April 2018- Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03488680.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Pré-Escolar , Laticínios/análise , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Estado Nutricional , População Rural , Resultado do Tratamento
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