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1.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 32(3): e1453, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: : Bariatric surgery promotes significant weight loss and improvement of associated comorbidities; however, nutrients deficiencies and weight regain may occur in the middle-late postoperative period. AIM: To investigate nutritional status in 10 years follow-up. METHODS: : Longitudinal retrospective study in which anthropometric, biochemical indicators and nutritional intake were assessed before and after one, two, three, four, five and ten years of Roux-en Y gastric bypass through analysis of medical records. RESULTS: : After ten years there was a reduction of 29.2% of initial weight; however, 87.1% of patients had significant weight regain. Moreover, there was an increase of incidence of iron (9.2% to 18.5%), vitamin B12 (4.2% to 11.1%) and magnesium deficiency (14.1% to 14.8%). Folic acid concentrations increased and the percentage of individuals with glucose (40.4% to 3.7%), triglycerides (38% to 7.4%), HDL cholesterol (31 % to 7.4%) and uric acid (70.5% to 11.1%) abnormalities reduced. Also, there is a reduction of food intake at first year postoperative. After 10 years, there was an increase in energy, protein and lipid intake, also a reduction in folid acid intake. CONCLUSIONS: : Roux-en Y gastric bypass is an effective procedure to promote weight loss and improve comorbidities associated with obesity. However, comparison between postoperative period of five and 10 years showed a high prevalence of minerals deficiency and a significant weight regain, evidencing the need for nutritional follow-up in the postoperative period.


Assuntos
Derivação Gástrica/reabilitação , Estado Nutricional/genética , Obesidade/cirurgia , Fenótipo , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Nutricionais/sangue , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Perda de Peso
2.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284450

RESUMO

This review discusses the personalised dietary approach with respect to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It identifies gene-nutrient interactions associated with the nutritional deficiencies that people with IBD commonly experience, and the role of the Western diet in influencing these. It also discusses food intolerances and how particular genotypes can affect these. It is well established that with respect to food there is no "one size fits all" diet for those with IBD. Gene-nutrient interactions may help explain this variability in response to food that is associated with IBD. Nutrigenomic research, which examines the effects of food and its constituents on gene expression, shows that-like a number of pharmaceutical products-food can have beneficial effects or have adverse (side) effects depending on a person's genotype. Pharmacogenetic research is identifying gene variants with adverse reactions to drugs, and this is modifying clinical practice and allowing individualised treatment. Nutrigenomic research could enable individualised treatment in persons with IBD and enable more accurate tailoring of food intake, to avoid exacerbating malnutrition and to counter some of the adverse effects of the Western diet. It may also help to establish the dietary pattern that is most protective against IBD.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/dietoterapia , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/dietoterapia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Nutrigenômica/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Deficiências Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/genética , Deficiências Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/genética , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/genética , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893897

RESUMO

The ability to detect changes in nutrient levels and generate an adequate response to these changes is essential for the proper functioning of living organisms. Adaptation to the high degree of variability in nutrient intake requires precise control of metabolic pathways. Mammals have developed different mechanisms to detect the abundance of nutrients such as sugars, lipids and amino acids and provide an integrated response. These mechanisms include the control of gene expression (from transcription to translation). This review reports the main molecular mechanisms that connect nutrients' levels, gene expression and metabolism in health. The manuscript is focused on sugars' signaling through the carbohydrate-responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in the response to fat and GCN2/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and mTORC1 pathways that sense amino acid concentrations. Frequently, alterations in these pathways underlie the onset of several metabolic pathologies such as obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases or cancer. In this context, the complete understanding of these mechanisms may improve our knowledge of metabolic diseases and may offer new therapeutic approaches based on nutritional interventions and individual genetic makeup.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Carboidratos/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Estado Nutricional/genética , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Humanos
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(9): 3805-3810, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808766

RESUMO

Adrenergic signaling profoundly modulates animal behavior. For example, the invertebrate counterpart of norepinephrine, octopamine, and its biological precursor and functional antagonist, tyramine, adjust motor behavior to different nutritional states. In Drosophila larvae, food deprivation increases locomotor speed via octopamine-mediated structural plasticity of neuromuscular synapses, whereas tyramine reduces locomotor speed, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We show that tyramine is released into the CNS to reduce motoneuron intrinsic excitability and responses to excitatory cholinergic input, both by tyraminehonoka receptor activation and by downstream decrease of L-type calcium current. This central effect of tyramine on motoneurons is required for the adaptive reduction of locomotor activity after feeding. Similarly, peripheral octopamine action on motoneurons has been reported to be required for increasing locomotion upon starvation. We further show that the level of tyramine-ß-hydroxylase (TBH), the enzyme that converts tyramine into octopamine in aminergic neurons, is increased by food deprivation, thus selecting between antagonistic amine actions on motoneurons. Therefore, octopamine and tyramine provide global but distinctly different mechanisms to regulate motoneuron excitability and behavioral plasticity, and their antagonistic actions are balanced within a dynamic range by nutritional effects on TBH.


Assuntos
Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Octopamina/genética , Receptores de Amina Biogênica/genética , Tiramina/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Locomoção/genética , Locomoção/fisiologia , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/genética , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Octopamina/metabolismo , Receptores de Amina Biogênica/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo , Sinapses/fisiologia
5.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 900, 2018 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reduce costs of rearing replacement heifers, researchers have focused on decreasing age at breeding and first calving. To increase returns upon initiation of lactation the focus has been on increasing mammary development prior to onset of first lactation. Enhanced plane of nutrition pre-weaning may benefit the entire replacement heifer operation by promoting mammary gland development and greater future production. METHODS: Twelve Holstein heifer calves (< 1 week old) were reared on 1 of 2 dietary treatments (n = 6/group) for 8 weeks: a control group fed a restricted milk replacer at 0.45 kg/d (R, 20% crude protein, 20% fat), or an accelerated group fed an enhanced milk replacer at 1.13 kg/d (EH, 28% crude protein, 25% fat). At weaning (8 weeks), calves were euthanized and sub-samples of mammary parenchyma (PAR) and mammary fat pad (MFP) were harvested upon removal from the body. Total RNA from both tissues was extracted and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. The Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) were used for pathway analysis and functions, gene networks, and cross-talk analyses of the two tissues. RESULTS: When comparing EH vs R 1561 genes (895 upregulated, 666 downregulated) and 970 genes (506 upregulated, 464 downregulated) were differentially expressed in PAR and MFP, respectively. DIA and IPA results highlight a greater proliferation and differentiation activity in both PAR and MFP, supported by an increased metabolic activity. When calves were fed EH, the PAR displayed transcriptional signs of greater overall organ development, with higher ductal growth and branching, together with a supportive blood vessel and nerve network. These activities were mediated by intracellular cascades, such as AKT, SHH, MAPK, and Wnt, probably activated by hormones, growth factors, and endogenous molecules. The analysis also revealed strong communication between MFP and PAR. CONCLUSION: The transcriptomics and bioinformatics approach highlighted key mechanisms that mediate the mammary gland response to a higher plane of nutrition in the pre-weaning period.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Desmame , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
6.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209617, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586462

RESUMO

During pond culture of Eriocheir sinensis, a high limb-impairment rate restricts the industry development and quality. Therefore, research on limb autotomy and regeneration has important practical significance for the industrial development and basic biology of E. sinensis. This study evaluated the changes in bud morphology, growth-related gene expression and nutritional status during cheliped regeneration in E. sinensis. The study found that the new cheliped was pre-formed in the bud and then regenerated with the completion of molting of E. sinensis. The new cheliped was similar in morphology to the normal cheliped after the first molting but smaller in size. The qRT-PCR results of growth-related genes showed that the expression levels of EcR-mRNA (ecdysteroid receptor) and Chi-mRNA (chitinase) were significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of MIH-mRNA (molt-inhibiting hormone) was significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). The nutritional status during the regeneration process showed that the hepatopancreas total lipid content decreased significantly within 28 days and was significantly lower in the autotomy group than in the control group at 14 d and 21 d (P < 0.05). The hepatopancreas fatty acid composition results showed that saturated fatty acids (SFA), highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) and n-3/n-6 were significantly higher in the autotomy group than in the control group at 21 d (P < 0.05), whereas the ∑ n-6 PUFA and ∑ n-3 PUFA at 1 d and 7 d, and the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) at 28 d in the autotomy group were significantly lower than in the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the levels of eicosatetraenoic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) showed that DHA was significantly lower at 7 d and significantly higher at 21 d in the autotomy group than in the control group (P < 0.05), whereas ARA and EPA were not significantly different between the two groups. Muscle L-tryptophan content was significantly lower at 1 d and significantly higher at 7 d in the autotomy group than in the control group (P < 0.05). These results indicate that during the cheliped regeneration process, crabs could accelerate molting and regeneration by regulating growth-related gene expression (e.g., EcR-mRNA and MIH-mRNA) and nutrient metabolism (e.g., lipid metabolism).


Assuntos
Braquiúros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Muda/genética , Estado Nutricional/genética , Regeneração/genética , Animais , Braquiúros/genética , Quitinases/genética , Extremidades/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Hormônios de Invertebrado/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Regeneração/fisiologia , Alimentos Marinhos
7.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518135

RESUMO

Vitamin E (VE) has a recognized leading role as a contributor to the protection of cell constituents from oxidative damage. However, evidence suggests that the health benefits of VE go far beyond that of an antioxidant acting in lipophilic environments. In humans, VE is channeled toward pathways dealing with lipoproteins and cholesterol, underlining its relevance in lipid handling and metabolism. In this context, both VE intake and status may be relevant in physiopathological conditions associated with disturbances in lipid metabolism or concomitant with oxidative stress, such as obesity. However, dietary reference values for VE in obese populations have not yet been defined, and VE supplementation trials show contradictory results. Therefore, a better understanding of the role of genetic variants in genes involved in VE metabolism may be crucial to exert dietary recommendations with a higher degree of precision. In particular, genetic variability should be taken into account in targets concerning VE bioavailability per se or concomitant with impaired lipoprotein transport. Genetic variants associated with impaired VE liver balance, and the handling/resolution of oxidative stress might also be relevant, but the core information that exists at present is insufficient to deliver precise recommendations.


Assuntos
Nutrigenômica , Estado Nutricional/genética , Obesidade , Vitamina E , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Vitamina E/genética , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Vitamina E/fisiologia
8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(5): 1129-1134, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475961

RESUMO

Background: Obesity is closely associated with bone health. Although diet and weight loss produce many metabolic benefits, studies of weight loss diets on bone health are conflicting. Genetic variations, such as vitamin D levels, may partly account for these conflicting observations by regulating bone metabolism. Objective: We investigated whether the genetic variation associated with vitamin D concentration affected changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in response to a weight-loss diet intervention. Design: In the 2-y Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) trial, BMD was measured for 424 participants who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets varying in macronutrient intakes. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on 3 genetic variants [i.e., 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) rs12785878, cytochrome P450 2R1 (CYP2R1) rs10741657 and group-specific component globulin (GC) rs2282679] related to circulating vitamin D levels. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed to assess changes in whole-body BMD over 2 y. The final analysis included 370 participants at baseline. Results: We found a significant interaction between dietary fat intake and vitamin D GRS on 2-y changes in whole-body BMD (P-interaction = 0.02). In the high-fat diet group, participants with higher GRS showed significantly less reduction in whole-body BMD than those with lower GRS, whereas the genetic associations were not significant in the low-fat diet group. We also found a significant interaction between dietary fat intake and the GRS on 6-mo change in femur neck BMD (P-interaction = 0.02); however, the interaction became nonsignificant at 2 y. Conclusion: Our data indicate that dietary fat intake may modify the effect of vitamin D-related genetic variation on changes in BMD. Overweight or obese patients predisposed to sufficient vitamin D may benefit more in maintaining BMD along with weight loss by eating a low-fat diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03258203.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Dieta Redutora , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/genética , Perda de Peso/genética , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Adulto , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Fêmur/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/genética , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Vitamina D/sangue , Proteína de Ligação a Vitamina D/genética
9.
Curr Nutr Rep ; 7(4): 294-302, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374755

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This narrative review describes the evidence for both genetic and environmental influences on child appetitive traits and suggests ways of thinking about how these interact and correlate to influence how a child eats. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging evidence from social network analysis, and from longitudinal studies questioning the direction of association between parent feeding behaviors and child obesity risk, suggest that children's genes may shape the environmental risk for obesity that they are exposed to. There is strong evidence that child appetitive traits are both heritable and shaped by the environment. Instead of thinking about how genetic and environmental factors operate independently on each appetitive trait, research needs to expand the current paradigm to examine how genes and environments interact and shape each other.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Poder Familiar , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Regulação do Apetite/genética , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil/genética , Pré-Escolar , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estado Nutricional/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Linhagem , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(6): 1334-1341, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339177

RESUMO

Background: Genetic polymorphisms can explain some of the population- and individual-based variations in nutritional status biomarkers. Objective: We sought to screen the entire human genome for common genetic polymorphisms that influence folate-status biomarkers in healthy individuals. Design: We carried out candidate gene analyses and genome-wide association scans in 2232 young, healthy Irish subjects to evaluate which common genetic polymorphisms influence red blood cell folate, serum folate, and plasma total homocysteine. Results: The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C→T (rs1801133) variant was the major genetic modifier of all 3 folate-related biomarkers in this Irish population and reached genome-wide significance for red blood cell folate (P = 1.37 × 10-17), serum folate (P = 2.82 × 10-11), and plasma total homocysteine (P = 1.26 × 10-19) concentrations. A second polymorphism in the MTHFR gene (rs3753584, P = 1.09 × 10-11) was the only additional MTHFR variant to exhibit any significant independent effect on red blood cell folate. Other MTHFR variants, including the 1298A→C variant (rs1801131), appeared to reach genome-wide significance, but these variants shared linkage disequilibrium with MTHFR 677C→T and were not significant when analyzed in MTHFR 677CC homozygotes. No additional non-MTHFR modifiers of red blood cell or plasma folate were detected. Two additional genome-wide significant modifiers of plasma homocysteine were found in the region of the dipeptidase 1 (DPEP1) gene on chromosome 16 and the Twist neighbor B (TWISTNB) gene on chromosome 7. Conclusions: The MTHFR 677C→T variant is the predominant genetic modifier of folate status biomarkers in this healthy Irish population. It is not necessary to determine MTHFR 677C→T genotype to evaluate folate status because its effect is reflected in concentrations of standard folate biomarkers. The MTHFR 1298A→C variant had no independent effect on folate status biomarkers. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide association study report on red blood cell folate and the first report of an association between homocysteine and TWISTNB.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Estado Nutricional/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Eritrócitos/química , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Irlanda , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int ; 17(4): 290-300, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) have a compromised nutritional status because of the liver crucial role in regulating metabolic homeostasis and energy balance. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of literature based on extensive relevant articles published from 2001 to 2017 in English in PubMed database was performed by searching keywords such as liver disease, non-alcoholic liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, malnutrition, epigenetics, gut microbiota, and probiotics. RESULTS: Liver transplantation would be one eligible therapy for ESLD patients, even if, the clinical outcome is negatively influenced by malnutrition and/or infections. The malnutrition is a condition of nutrient imbalance with a high incidence in ESLD patients. An accurate evaluation of nutritional status could be fundamental for reducing complications and prolonging the survival of ESLD patients including those undergoing liver transplantation. In addition, the interaction among nutrients, diet and genes via epigenetics has emerged as a potential target to reduce the morbidity and mortality in ESLD patients. The malnutrition induces changes in gut microbiota causing dysbiosis with a probable translocation of bacteria and/or pathogen-derived factors from the intestine to the liver. Gut microbiota contribute to the progression of chronic liver diseases as well as hepatocellular carcinoma. The administration of probiotics modulating gut microbiota could improve all chronic liver diseases. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides an update on malnutrition status linked to epigenetics and the potential benefit of some probiotics on the management of ESLD patients. In support of this view and to reveal the constant and growing interest in this field, some clinical trials are reported.


Assuntos
Bactérias/patogenicidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/microbiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Desnutrição/microbiologia , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Translocação Bacteriana , Disbiose , Doença Hepática Terminal/genética , Doença Hepática Terminal/fisiopatologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/terapia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Epigênese Genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Desnutrição/genética , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Desnutrição/terapia , Estado Nutricional/genética , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico
12.
J Nutr ; 148(9): 1408-1414, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184230

RESUMO

Background: The expression of certain genes involved in response to oxidative stress is likely related to aging-related outcomes, such as frailty in old age. Given nutrition's substantial impact in aging and age-related diseases, one of its mechanisms might be through influencing gene expression. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association between nutrition and the expression of 15 genes related to cellular response to stress in older community-dwelling individuals. Methods: A nested case-control study of 350 participants (mean ± SEM age: 76.5 ± 6.9 y, 42.9% men, 22% frail according to Fried's criteria) was selected from the Toledo Study for Healthy Aging. Blood-derived RNA was retro-transcribed into complementary DNA. TaqMan Arrays were used for determining gene expression. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea) questionnaire measured nutritional status and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), respectively. Data were reweighed so that inference from linear and logistic regression models applied to the original sampling population. Results: Higher MNA scores were associated with higher expressions of the gene coding for sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), regardless of age, sex, and Charlson comorbidity score (P = 0.04) and even after adjusting for frailty status (P = 0.016) and level of adherence to the MD (P = 0.04). Malnutrition risk and SIRT1 gene expression were inversely associated (P = 0.0045) independently of frailty status (P = 0.0045) and level of adherence to the MD (P = 0.0075). Conclusions: In older individuals, improvement in nutritional status is positively associated with SIRT1 gene expression independently of frailty status or adherence to the MD. These findings may provide potential biomarkers and targets for health interventions among the elderly.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/genética , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Nutrients ; 10(8)2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065157

RESUMO

Carotenoids have shown an interindividual variability that may be due to genetic factors. The only study that has reported heritability of serum α- and ß-carotene has not considered the environmental component. This study aimed to estimate the contribution of both genetic and common environmental effects to the variance of carotenoid concentrations and to test whether their phenotypic correlations with cardiometabolic risk factors are explained by shared genetic and environmental effects. Plasma carotenoid concentrations (α-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin, and total carotenoids) of 48 healthy subjects were measured. Heritability estimates of carotenoid concentrations were calculated using the variance component method. Lutein and lycopene showed a significant familial effect (p = 6 × 10-6 and 0.0043, respectively). Maximal heritability, genetic heritability, and common environmental effect were computed for lutein (88.3%, 43.8%, and 44.5%, respectively) and lycopene (45.2%, 0%, and 45.2%, respectively). Significant phenotypic correlations between carotenoid concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors were obtained for ß-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and zeaxanthin. Familial resemblances in lycopene concentrations were mainly attributable to common environmental effects, while for lutein concentrations they were attributable to genetic and common environmental effects. Common genetic and environmental factors may influence carotenoids and cardiometabolic risk factors, but further studies are needed to better understand the potential impact on disease development.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/sangue , Família , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estado Nutricional/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Fatores de Proteção , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0201672, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body size, nutrition and socioeconomic position (SEP) in early life have been associated with a wide range of long-term health effects. Epigenetics is one possible mechanism through which these early life exposures can impact later life health. We conducted a systematic review examining the observational evidence for the impact of body size, nutrition and SEP in early life on the epigenome in humans. METHODS: This systematic review is registered with the PROSPERO database (registration number: CRD42016050193). Three datasets were simultaneously searched using Ovid and the resulting studies were evaluated by at least two independent reviewers. Studies measuring epigenetic markers either at the same time as, or after, the early life exposure and have a measure of body size, nutrition or SEP in early life (up to 12 years), written in English and from a community-dwelling participants were included. RESULTS: We identified 90 eligible studies. Seventeen of these papers examined more than one early life exposure of interest. Fifty six papers examined body size, 37 nutrition and 17 SEP. All of the included papers examined DNA methylation (DNAm) as the epigenetic marker. Overall there was no strong evidence for a consistent association between these early life variables in DNAm which may be due to the heterogeneous study designs, data collection methods and statistical analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Despite these inconclusive results, the hypothesis that the early life environment can impact DNAm, potentially persisting into adult life, was supported by some studies and warrants further investigation. We provide recommendations for future studies.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Estado Nutricional/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Vida Independente , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Projetos de Pesquisa , Classe Social
15.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 499(2): 321-327, 2018 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588175

RESUMO

Given the important role of nutritional status for reproductive performance, we aimed to explore the potential microRNA (miRNA)-mRNA pairs and their regulatory roles associated with nutritional status in seasonal reproducing sheep. Individual ewes were treated with and without 0.3 kg/day concentrates, and the body condition score, estrus rate, and related miRNAs and target genes were compared. A total of 261 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, including 148 hypothalamus-expressed miRNAs and 113 ovary-expressed miRNAs, and 349 target genes were predicted to be associated with nutritional status and seasonal reproduction in sheep. Ultimately, the miR-200b-GNAQ pair was screened and validated as differentially expressed, and a dual luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-200b could bind to the 3'-untranslated region of GNAQ to mediate the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Thus, miR-200b and its target gene GNAQ likely represent an important negative feedback loop, providing a link between nutritional status and seasonal reproduction in sheep toward enhancing reproductive performance and productivity.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Estado Nutricional/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Estações do Ano , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Ciclo Estral/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Progesterona/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ovinos/sangue
16.
Int J Med Sci ; 15(5): 417-424, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559829

RESUMO

Background: Hyperadiponectinemia is an indicator of worse outcomes in advanced heart failure (HF), its role in de novo HF is less clear. Objective: Because this protein is a hormone with starvation properties, we wanted to know its association with nutritional state and its regulator factors in de novo HF. Methods: Adiponectin circulating levels were determined by ELISA at discharge in patients admitted for de novo HF (n=74). Nutritional status was determined by CONUT score. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were employed to calculate the estimated hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for death or all-cause readmission. Stromal vascular cells (SVC) of EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from patients (n=5) underwent heart surgery were induced to adipogenesis for 18 days. Then, cells were cultured with complete or starved medium for 8 hours. At the end, adiponectin expression levels were analysed by real time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Patients were grouped regarding nutritional status. There was a strong association between high adiponectin levels and failing nutritional status. Those patients with worse nutritional state had the highest adiponectin and proBNP levels at discharge (p<0.01). Both proteins were slightly correlated (p<0.05). However, only high adiponectin levels were independently associated with death or all-cause readmission. Nutrients starvation upregulated adiponectin expression levels in adipogenesis-induced SVC from EAT or SAT. Conclusions: Worse nutritional state in de novo HF patients is associated with higher adiponectin plasma levels. Their levels were upregulated in adipose cells after being nutrients-starved. These results may help us to understand the adiponectin paradox in HF.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/genética , Adiponectina/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adiponectina/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Idoso , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Feminino , Alimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/genética , Estado Nutricional/genética , Pericárdio/metabolismo , Pericárdio/patologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Células Estromais/patologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549916

RESUMO

Fatty acids and their derivatives play an important role in inflammation. Diet and genetics influence fatty acid profiles. Abnormalities of fatty acid profiles have been observed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), a group of complex diseases defined by chronic gastrointestinal inflammation. IBD associated fatty acid profile abnormalities were observed independently of nutritional status or disease activity, suggesting a common genetic background. However, no study so far has attempted to look for overlap between IBD loci and fatty acid associated loci or investigate the genetics of fatty acid profiles in IBD. To this end, we conducted a comprehensive genetic study of fatty acid profiles in IBD using iCHIP, a custom microarray platform designed for deep sequencing of immune-mediated disease associated loci. This study identifies 10 loci associated with fatty acid profiles in IBD. The most significant associations were a locus near CBS (p = 7.62 × 10-8) and a locus in LRRK2 (p = 1.4 × 10-7). Of note, this study replicates the FADS gene cluster locus, previously associated with both fatty acid profiles and IBD pathogenesis. Furthermore, we identify 18 carbon chain trans-fatty acids (p = 1.12 × 10-3), total trans-fatty acids (p = 4.49 × 10-3), palmitic acid (p = 5.85 × 10-3) and arachidonic acid (p = 8.58 × 10-3) as significantly associated with IBD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/genética , Metionina Sulfóxido Redutases/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ácido Araquidônico/genética , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Masculino , Estado Nutricional/genética , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ácidos Graxos Trans/genética , Ácidos Graxos Trans/metabolismo
18.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 59(5): 386-400, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29569270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, high concentrations of arsenic have been documented in ground waters of Southern Assam, India. Indiscriminate smokeless tobacco consumption is a common practice in this region. Correlation between nutritional status and arsenic and smokeless tobacco-induced health effects has not been taken up in humans or other test systems. METHODS: Mice were divided into groups based on protein (casein) content in the diet: High protein (40%), optimum protein (20%), and low protein (5%). Simultaneous chronic exposure (90 days) to arsenic and smokeless tobacco (sadagura) orally was given to evaluate the extent of the cytological and genotoxicological damage. Micronucleus assay and Comet assay of the femur bone marrow cells were conducted. Germ cell toxicity was evaluated by recording the sperm head abnormalities and total sperm count. Cell cycle analysis was performed in femur bone marrow cells using flow cytometer. Hepatic, renal, and intestinal tissues were analyzed for various oxidative stress evaluations. Histological examination of liver and kidney was performed. RESULTS: Notably, high protein diet groups had lower arsenic and sadagura induced genotoxicity, germ cell abnormalities and oxidative stress as compared to optimum protein and low protein diet counterparts. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that sufficient levels of dietary protein appear to reduce the long-term arsenic and smokeless tobacco-induced toxicity in mice test system, as compared to lower or deficient amount of protein in the diet. This observation has implications and invites further studies especially epidemiological studies in the human population exposed to arsenic in South East Asian countries. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:386-400, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco sem Fumaça/toxicidade , Animais , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Estado Nutricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Estado Nutricional/genética , Espermatozoides , Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
19.
Am J Hum Biol ; 30(3): e23105, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: General health status is reflected in measures of height, weight, and BMI. Assessing sources of variation in these outcomes reveals population-specific variables of importance to health and nutrition. We characterize the impacts of socioeconomic variables related to the nuclear family on health outcomes of boat-dwelling Shodagor children, mothers, and fathers, and to estimate the proportion of variation in height, weight, and BMI influenced by both genetic variation and nongenetic variation among household environments. METHODS: Bayesian linear mixed models (LMMs) estimate heritability and household-effect variance components among the Shodagor. These models also assess the influences of specific socioeconomic predictor variables on different types of individuals within the household (children, mothers, and fathers). RESULTS: Overall, models explain 61.7% of variation in height, 59.4% in weight, and 65.8% in BMI for this sample of Shodagor. Mother's decision-making and household income have expected, positive associations with children's weight and BMI. Number of children has an unexpected positive relationship to children's height and a negative relationship to father's BMI. Genetic variation explains less than 26% of phenotypic variation for each of these traits on average. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that resource flows and distributions within Shodagor households account for a significant amount of variance in nutritional outcomes. Problems commonly associated with increasing market integration may lead to negative outcomes for children, while mother's autonomy may lead to positive outcomes. Our models also indicate that environmental factors account for more variation in these outcomes than expected, relative to genetics, and we discuss the implications.


Assuntos
Hereditariedade , Habitação , Núcleo Familiar , Estado Nutricional , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/genética , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Navios , Adulto Jovem
20.
Physiol Rev ; 98(2): 667-695, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29442595

RESUMO

Epigenetics is the study of heritable mechanisms that can modify gene activity and phenotype without modifying the genetic code. The basis for the concept of epigenetics originated more than 2,000 yr ago as a theory to explain organismal development. However, the definition of epigenetics continues to evolve as we identify more of the components that make up the epigenome and dissect the complex manner by which they regulate and are regulated by cellular functions. A substantial and growing body of research shows that nutrition plays a significant role in regulating the epigenome. Here, we critically assess this diverse body of evidence elucidating the role of nutrition in modulating the epigenome and summarize the impact such changes have on molecular and physiological outcomes with regards to human health.


Assuntos
Dieta , Epigênese Genética/genética , Transtornos Nutricionais/genética , Estado Nutricional/genética , Animais , Epigenômica , Humanos , Fenótipo
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