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1.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271964, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumothorax has been increasingly observed among patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, specifically in those patients who develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In this study, we sought to determine the incidence and potential risk factors of pneumothorax in critically ill adults with COVID-19. METHOD: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to one of the adult intensive care units of a tertiary, academic teaching hospital from May 2020 through May 2021. RESULTS: Among 334 COVID-19 cases requiring ICU admission, the incidence of pneumothorax was 10% (33 patients). Patients who experienced pneumothorax more frequently required vasopressor support (28/33 [84%] vs. 191/301 [63%] P = 0.04), were more likely to be proned (25/33 [75%] vs. 111/301 [36%], P<0.001), and the presence of pneumothorax was associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation; 21 (1-97) versus 7 (1-79) days, p<0.001 as well as prolonged hospital length of stay (29 [9-133] vs. 15 [1-90] days, P<0.001), but mortality was not significantly different between groups. Importantly, when we performed a Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) model of multivariate parameters, we found that administration of tocilizumab significantly increased the risk of developing pneumothorax (HR = 10.7; CI [3.6-32], P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Among 334 critically ill patients with COVID-19, the incidence of pneumothorax was 10%. Presence of pneumothorax was associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay. Strikingly, receipt of tocilizumab was associated with an increased risk of developing pneumothorax.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumotórax , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumotórax/epidemiologia , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ann Saudi Med ; 42(4): 236-245, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few clinical studies have addressed nutritional risk assessment in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). OBJECTIVES: Assess the nutritional risk status of the critically ill COVID-19 pneumonia patients admitted to the ICU, and compare the nutritional risk screening tools. DESIGN: Medical record review SETTING: Tertiary critical care unit PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included adult (age >18 years) PCR-confirmed critically ill COVID-19 pneumonia cases admitted to the ICU between August 2020 and September 2021. Scoring systems were used to assess COVID-19 severity and nutritional status (mNUTRIC: modified Nutrition Risk in Critically Ill, NRS2002: Nutritional Risk Screening 2002). The 30-day mortality prediction performance of nutritional scores and survival comparisons between clinical and demographic factors were assessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Compare the nutrition risk tools SAMPLE SIZE: 281 patients with a mean (SD) age of 64.3 (13.3) years; 143 (50.8%) were 65 years and older. RESULTS: The mean mNUTRIC score of the cases was 3.81 (1.66) and the mean NRS-2002 score was 3.21 (0.84.), and 101 (35.9%) were at high risk of malnutrition according to the mNUTRIC score and 229 (81.4%) according to the NRS 2002 score. In cases at high risk of malnutrition by the mNUTRIC score there was a greater need for invasive mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, and renal replacement therapy (P<.001 for all comparisons). The mNUTRIC score was superior to the NRS-2002 score in estimating 30-day mortality. In patients who died within 30 days, the mNUTRIC score and NRS-2002 score on the day of hospitalization were significantly higher (P<.001), and the proportion of patients with NRS-2002 score ≥3 and mNUTRIC score ≥5 was significantly higher in the non-surviving group (P<.001). In addition, patients with a high risk of malnutrition had a shorter survival time. The mNUTRIC score was an independent and important prognostic factor for 30-day mortality, and patients with an mNUTRIC score ≥5 had a 6.26-fold risk for 30-day mortality in the multivariate Cox regression. CONCLUSION: One third of critical COVID-19 pneumonia cases hospitalized in the ICU due to acute respiratory failure have a high risk of malnutrition, and a high mNUTRIC score is associated with increased mortality. LIMITATIONS: Single center retrospective study. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desnutrição , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/terapia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
3.
Ann Saudi Med ; 42(4): 276-287, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents mainly with mild symptoms and involvement of the respiratory system. Acute pancreatitis has also been reported during the course of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to review and analyze all reported cases of COVID-19 associated acute pancreatitis, reporting the demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging findings, comorbidities and outcomes. DATA SOURCES: We conducted a systematic search of Pubmed/MEDLINE, SciELO and Google Scholar to identify case reports and case series, reporting COVID-19 associated acute pancreatitis in adults. STUDY SELECTION: There were no ethnicity, gender or language restrictions. The following terms were searched in combination:"COVID-19" OR "SARS-CoV-2" OR "Coronavirus 19" AND "Pancreatic Inflammation" OR "Pancreatitis" OR "Pancreatic Injury" OR "Pancreatic Disease" OR "Pancreatic Damage". Case reports and case series describing COVID-19 associated acute pancreatitis in adults were included. COVID-19 infection was established with testing of nasal and throat swabs using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was confirmed in accordance to the revised criteria of Atlanta classification of the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group. Exclusion of other causes of acute pancreatitis was also required for the selection of the cases. DATA EXTRACTION: The following data were extracted from each report: the first author, year of publication, age of the patient, gender, gastrointestinal symptoms due to acute pancreatitis, respiratory-general symptoms, COVID-19 severity, underlying diseases, laboratory findings, imaging features and outcome. DATA SYNTHESIS: Finally, we identified and analyzed 31 articles (30 case reports and 1 case series of 2 cases), which included 32 cases of COVID-19 induced acute pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 associated acute pancreatitis affected mostly females. The median age of the patients was 53.5 years. Concerning laboratory findings, lipase and amylase were greater than three times the ULN while WBC counts and CRP were elevated in the most of the cases. The most frequent gastrointestinal, respiratory and general symptom was abdominal pain, dyspnea and fever, respectively. The most common imaging feature was acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis and the most frequent comorbidity was arterial hypertension while several patients had no medical history. The outcome was favorable despite the fact that most of the patients experienced severe and critical illness. LIMITATIONS: Our results are limited by the quality and extent of the data in the reports. More specifically, case series and case reports are unchecked, and while they can recommend hypotheses they are not able to confirm robust associations. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 2022: 6057115, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935331

RESUMO

Tracheal intubation is an important access to general anesthesia surgery or respiratory support in critically ill patients. Orotracheal intubation is the most common method of establishing artificial airways in clinical practice. Tracheal intubation and mechanically assisted breathing are among the important steps in the clinical rescue of critically ill patients. During tracheal intubation, it easily causes iatrogenic skin damage, unclear mouth, ulcer, and other oral mucosal complications due to the improper fixation method and excellent dental pads. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to design a novel oral suction device for patients with orotracheal intubation and explore its safety, convenience, and comfort in the clinical application of orotracheal intubation patients. From October 2016 to April 2017, a total of 232 patients with mechanical ventilation through orotracheal intubation in the Department of Surgery and Critical Care Medicine were selected by the convenience sampling method. According to the random number table method, 232 cases were divided into the experimental group and control group, with 116 cases in each group. The experimental group used a self-designed oral fluid suction device to fix the tracheal intubation; the control group used the traditional method, placing ordinary disposable tooth pads, and then using 3M tape to fix the tracheal intubation. The incidence of oral mucosa and lip pressure ulcers, patient comfort, and tracheal tube displacement were observed and compared between the two groups. The incidence of oral mucosa and lip pressure ulcers in the observation group using the self-designed oral fluid suction device to fix the tracheal intubation was significantly lower than that in the control group. At the same time, the comfort of the patients was significantly higher than that of the control group, the incidence of tracheal tube displacement was significantly lower than that of the control group, and the differences between the above indicators were statistically significant (P < 0.05). For patients with orotracheal intubation, using a new oral fluid suction device to fix the tracheal intubation can effectively prevent the displacement of the tracheal intubation, protect the oral mucosa and lips, and reduce the pain of the patient. At the same time, the oral fluid suction device designed in this study has low production cost, strong practicability, and is suitable for clinical promotion.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Lesão por Pressão , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Sucção
5.
F1000Res ; 11: 642, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928248

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, particularly critically ill patients. It poses a public health challenge in resource-constrained settings due to high administrative costs. AKI is commonly misdiagnosed due to its painless onset and late disruption of serum creatinine, which is the gold standard biomarker for AKI diagnosis. There is increasing research into the use of early biomarkers and the development of predictive models for early AKI diagnosis using clinical, laboratory, and imaging data. This field note provides insight into the challenges of using available AKI prediction models in resource-constrained environments, as well as perspectives that practitioners in these settings may find useful.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Biomarcadores , Creatinina , Estado Terminal , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2225980, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947384

RESUMO

Importance: Genomic medicine holds promise to revolutionize care for critically ill infants by tailoring treatments for patients and providing additional prognostic information to families. However, measuring the utility of genomic medicine is not straightforward and has important clinical and ethical implications. Objective: To review the ways that researchers measure or neglect to measure the utility of genomic medicine for critically ill infants. Evidence Review: This systematic review included prospective full-text studies of genomic medicine of both whole exome and genome sequencing in critically ill infants younger than 1 year. PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the ClinicalTrials.gov register were searched with an English language restriction for articles published from the inception of each database through May 2022. Search terms included variations of the following: gene, sequencing, intensive care, critical care, and infant. From the included articles, information on how utility was defined and measured was extracted and synthesized. Information was also extracted from patient cases that authors highlighted by providing additional information. Spearman rank-order correlation was used to evaluate the association between study size and utility. Findings: Synthesized data from the 21 included studies reflected results from 1654 patients. A mean of 46% (range, 15%-72%) of patients had a positive genetic test result, and a mean of 37% (range, 13%-61%) met the criteria for experiencing utility. Despite heterogeneity in how studies measured and reported utility, a standardized framework was created with 5 categories of utility: treatment change, redirection of care, prognostic information, reproductive information, and screening or subspecialty referral. Most studies omitted important categories of utility, notably personal utility (patient-reported benefits) (20 studies [95%]), utility of negative or uncertain results (15 [71%]), and disutility (harms) (20 [95%]). Studies disproportionally highlighted patient cases that resulted in treatment change. Larger studies reported substantially lower utility (r = -0.65; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: This systematic review found that genomic medicine offered various categories of utility for a substantial proportion of critically ill infants. Studies measured utility in heterogeneous ways and focused more on documenting change than assessing meaningful benefit. Authors' decisions about which cases to highlight suggest that some categories of utility may be more important than others. A more complete definition of utility that is used consistently may improve understanding of potential benefits and harms of genetic medicine.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Medicina Genômica , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Prospectivos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
7.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 240, 2022 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical research on nutritional and metabolic interventions in critically ill patients is heterogenous regarding time points, outcomes and measurement instruments used, impeding intervention development and data syntheses, and ultimately worsening clinical outcomes. We aimed to identify and develop a set of core outcome domains and associated measurement instruments to include in all research in critically ill patients. METHODS: An updated systematic review informed a two-stage modified Delphi consensus process (domains followed by instruments). Measurement instruments for domains considered 'essential' were taken through the second stage of the Delphi and a subsequent consensus meeting. RESULTS: In total, 213 participants (41 patients/caregivers, 50 clinical researchers and 122 healthcare professionals) from 24 countries contributed. Consensus was reached on time points (30 and 90 days post-randomisation). Three domains were considered 'essential' at 30 days (survival, physical function and Infection) and five at 90 days (survival, physical function, activities of daily living, nutritional status and muscle/nerve function). Core 'essential' measurement instruments reached consensus for survival and activities of daily living, and 'recommended' measurement instruments for physical function, nutritional status and muscle/nerve function. No consensus was reached for a measurement instrument for Infection. Four further domains met criteria for 'recommended,' but not 'essential,' to measure at 30 days post-randomisation (organ dysfunction, muscle/nerve function, nutritional status and wound healing) and three at 90 days (frailty, body composition and organ dysfunction). CONCLUSION: The CONCISE core outcome set is an internationally agreed minimum set of outcomes for use at 30 and 90 days post-randomisation, in nutritional and metabolic clinical research in critically ill adults.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Estado Terminal , Adulto , Estado Terminal/terapia , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221116249, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920044

RESUMO

This case involves a patient with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and massive pulmonary embolism requiring mechanical ventilation. His clinical course was complicated by delirium likely triggered by his critical illness and failed initial extubation, isolation from family, and escalating fear and desperation. In hopeful preparation for subsequent successful extubation, a unique approach was taken to decrease the risk of panic, delirium, and decompensation leading to reintubation. As a means of orienting him to his treatment pathway and to provide encouragement for continued recovery, an impromptu patient-directed checklist was constructed. The recovery checklist, written in simplified language, outlined the stages of severe illness that the patient had overcome after his emergent intubation. The list also outlined the tasks he needed to complete prior to hospital discharge. Unexpectedly, the checklist received a great deal of engagement from both the patient and medical team and played an important role in this patient's successful recovery and rehabilitation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Delírio , Lista de Checagem , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino
9.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 237, 2022 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate the role of gene expression and plasma levels of the muscular protein myostatin in intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). This was performed to evaluate a potential clinical and/or pathophysiological rationale of therapeutic myostatin inhibition. METHODS: A retrospective analysis from pooled data of two prospective studies to assess the dynamics of myostatin plasma concentrations (day 4, 8 and 14) and myostatin gene (MSTN) expression levels in skeletal muscle (day 15) was performed. Associations of myostatin to clinical and electrophysiological outcomes, muscular metabolism and muscular atrophy pathways were investigated. RESULTS: MSTN gene expression (median [IQR] fold change: 1.00 [0.68-1.54] vs. 0.26 [0.11-0.80]; p = 0.004) and myostatin plasma concentrations were significantly reduced in all critically ill patients when compared to healthy controls. In critically ill patients, myostatin plasma concentrations increased over time (median [IQR] fold change: day 4: 0.13 [0.08/0.21] vs. day 8: 0.23 [0.10/0.43] vs. day 14: 0.40 [0.26/0.61]; p < 0.001). Patients with ICUAW versus without ICUAW showed significantly lower MSTN gene expression levels (median [IQR] fold change: 0.17 [0.10/0.33] and 0.51 [0.20/0.86]; p = 0.047). Myostatin levels were directly correlated with muscle strength (correlation coefficient 0.339; p = 0.020) and insulin sensitivity index (correlation coefficient 0.357; p = 0.015). No association was observed between myostatin plasma concentrations as well as MSTN expression levels and levels of mobilization, electrophysiological variables, or markers of atrophy pathways. CONCLUSION: Muscular gene expression and systemic protein levels of myostatin are downregulated during critical illness. The previously proposed therapeutic inhibition of myostatin does therefore not seem to have a pathophysiological rationale to improve muscle quality in critically ill patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN77569430 -13th of February 2008 and ISRCTN19392591 17th of February 2011.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Miostatina , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular , Miostatina/genética , Miostatina/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 236, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic presented major challenges for critical care facilities worldwide. Infections which develop alongside or subsequent to viral pneumonitis are a challenge under sporadic and pandemic conditions; however, data have suggested that patterns of these differ between COVID-19 and other viral pneumonitides. This secondary analysis aimed to explore patterns of co-infection and intensive care unit-acquired infections (ICU-AI) and the relationship to use of corticosteroids in a large, international cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a multicenter, international, observational study, including adult patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis admitted to ICUs at the peak of wave one of COVID-19 (February 15th to May 15th, 2020). Data collected included investigator-assessed co-infection at ICU admission, infection acquired in ICU, infection with multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) and antibiotic use. Frequencies were compared by Pearson's Chi-squared and continuous variables by Mann-Whitney U test. Propensity score matching for variables associated with ICU-acquired infection was undertaken using R library MatchIT using the "full" matching method. RESULTS: Data were available from 4994 patients. Bacterial co-infection at admission was detected in 716 patients (14%), whilst 85% of patients received antibiotics at that stage. ICU-AI developed in 2715 (54%). The most common ICU-AI was bacterial pneumonia (44% of infections), whilst 9% of patients developed fungal pneumonia; 25% of infections involved MDRO. Patients developing infections in ICU had greater antimicrobial exposure than those without such infections. Incident density (ICU-AI per 1000 ICU days) was in considerable excess of reports from pre-pandemic surveillance. Corticosteroid use was heterogenous between ICUs. In univariate analysis, 58% of patients receiving corticosteroids and 43% of those not receiving steroids developed ICU-AI. Adjusting for potential confounders in the propensity-matched cohort, 71% of patients receiving corticosteroids developed ICU-AI vs 52% of those not receiving corticosteroids. Duration of corticosteroid therapy was also associated with development of ICU-AI and infection with an MDRO. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe COVID-19 in the first wave, co-infection at admission to ICU was relatively rare but antibiotic use was in substantial excess to that indication. ICU-AI were common and were significantly associated with use of corticosteroids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04836065 (retrospectively registered April 8th 2021).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Pneumonia Bacteriana , Pneumonia Viral , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
11.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221116350, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924413

RESUMO

Objective: To compare Anti-Xa directed thromboprophylaxis using low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (anti-Xa peak goal 0.2-0.5 IU/mL) to alternative anticoagulation strategies in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Methods: This was a retrospective, multicenter, single health-system study. Primary outcomes were thromboembolic events and clinically important bleeding events. Secondary outcomes included dosing comparisons between LMWH cohorts. Main Results: A total of 695 patients were included. No differences were found in the incidence of thrombotic events with any of the dosing strategies. The incidence of major bleeding was significantly higher in the standard dose thromboprophylaxis, intermediate dose subcutaneous heparin (SQH), and therapeutic anticoagulation cohorts. Forty-nine percent of patients within the anti-Xa directed group had their first anti-Xa peak at goal, while 43% were above goal. Patients who had levels above goal had dose modifications made, therefore anti-Xa directed LMWH resulted in significantly lower total daily doses compared to intermediate dose LMWH. Conclusions: Anti-Xa directed LMWH dosing provided comparable thromboprophylaxis with lower total daily doses of LMWH in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tromboembolia Venosa , Anticoagulantes , Estado Terminal , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
12.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 18(6): 413-421, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912845

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatic drug metabolism is important in improving drug dosing strategies in sepsis. Pharmacokinetics in the critically ill population are severely altered due to changes in absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolization. Hepatic drug metabolism might be altered due to changes in hepatic blood flow, drug metabolizing protein availability, and protein binding. The purpose of this review is to examine evidence on whether hepatic drug metabolism is significantly affected in septic patients, and to provide insights in the need for future research. AREAS COVERED: This review describes the effect of sepsis on hepatic drug metabolism in humans. Clinical trials, pathophysiological background information and example drug groups are further discussed. The literature search has been conducted in Embase, Medline ALL Ovid, and Cochrane CENTRAL register of trials. EXPERT OPINION: Limited research has been conducted on drug metabolism in the sepsis population, with some trials having researched healthy individuals using endotoxin injections. Notwithstanding this limitation, hepatic drug metabolism seems to be decreased for certain drugs in sepsis. More research on the pharmacokinetic behavior of hepatic metabolized drugs in sepsis is warranted, using inflammatory biomarkers, hemodynamic changes, mechanical ventilation, organ support, and catecholamine infusion as possible confounders.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Sepse , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
13.
BMC Emerg Med ; 22(1): 138, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, maintenance of essential healthcare systems became very challenging. We describe the triage system of our institute, and assess the quality of care provided to critically ill non-COVID-19 patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) during the pandemic. METHODS: We introduced an emergency triage pathway early in the pandemic. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who received CRRT in our hospital from January 2016 to March 2021. We excluded end-stage kidney disease patients on maintenance dialysis. Patients were stratified as medical and surgical patients. The time from hospital arrival to intensive care unit (ICU) admission, the time from hospital arrival to intervention/operation, and the in-hospital mortality rate were compared before (January 2016 to December 2019) and during (January 2021 to March 2021) the pandemic. RESULTS: The mean number of critically ill patients who received CRRT annually in the surgical department significantly decreased during the pandemic in (2016-2019: 76.5 ± 3.1; 2020: 56; p < 0.010). Age, sex, and the severity of disease at admission did not change, whereas the proportions of medical patients with diabetes (before: 44.4%; after: 56.5; p < 0.005) and cancer (before: 19.4%; after: 32.3%; p < 0.001) increased during the pandemic. The time from hospital arrival to ICU admission and the time from hospital arrival to intervention/operation did not change. During the pandemic, 59.6% of surgical patients received interventions/operations within 6 hours of hospital arrival. In Cox's proportional hazard modeling, the hazard ratio associated with the pandemic was 1.002 (0.778-1.292) for medical patients and 1.178 (0.783-1.772) for surgical patients. CONCLUSION: Our triage system maintained the care required by critically ill non-COVID-19 patients undergoing CRRT at our institution.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , COVID-19 , Terapia de Substituição Renal Contínua , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 3823368, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942131

RESUMO

Objective: This study focused on elucidating the influence of early multidisciplinary collaboration on preventing intensive care unit- (ICU-) acquired weakness (AW) in critically ill patients (CIPs). Methods: Ninety-five CIPs admitted between December 2018 and December 2021 were selected and assigned to the following two groups according to the intervention pattern: the control group (the Con; n = 40) treated with routine early rehabilitation intervention, and the research group (the Res; n = 55) intervened by early multidisciplinary collaborative intervention. The incidence of complications (ICU-AW, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pressure ulcers (PSs)) and recovery indices (days of ventilator use, ICU treatment time, and length of hospital stay (LOS)) were recorded. Besides, patients' activity function and quality of life (QoL) were evaluated and compared, among which the former was evaluated by the Barthel Index (BI), ICU Mobility Scale (IMS), and Medical Research Council (MRC) Scale, and the latter was assessed by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (100-item version) (WHOQOL-100). Results: The data identified statistically a lower incidence of complications (ICU-AW, DVT, and PSs) and shorter time of ventilator use, ICU residence, and LOS in the Res compared with the Con. In addition, BI, IMS, MRC, and WHOQOL-100 scores in the Res elevated statistically after treatment and were higher than those of the Con. Conclusions: Early multidisciplinary collaboration can validly prevent ICU-AW in CIPs, reduce the incidence of DVT and PSs, and promote patients' rehabilitation, mobility, and QoL.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Debilidade Muscular/prevenção & controle
16.
Ren Fail ; 44(1): 1263-1279, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nafamostat mesilate (NM), a broad-spectrum and potent serine protease inhibitor, can be used as an anticoagulant during extracorporeal circulation, as well as a promising drug effective against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a systematic meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of NM administration in critically ill patients who underwent blood purification therapy (BPT). METHODS: The Cochrane Library, Web of Science and PubMed were comprehensively searched from inception to August 20, 2021, for potential studies. RESULTS: Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and seven observational studies with 2723 patients met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis demonstrated that conventional therapy (CT) significantly increased hospital mortality compared with NM administration (RR = 1.25, p = 0.0007). In subgroup analyses, the in-hospital mortality of the NM group was significantly lower than that of the anticoagulant-free (NA) group (RR = 1.31, p = 0.002). The CT interventions markedly elevated the risk ratio of bleeding complications by 45% (RR = 1.45, p = 0.010) compared with NM interventions. In another subgroup analysis, NM used exhibited a significantly lower risk of bleeding complications than those of the low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) used (RR = 4.58, p = 0.020). The filter lifespan was decreased significantly (MD = -10.59, p < 0.0001) in the NA groups compared with the NM groups. Due to the poor quality of the included RCTs, these results should be interpreted with caution. CONCLUSION: Given the better survival outcomes, lower risk of bleeding, NM anticoagulation seems to be a safe and efficient approach for BPT patients and could yield a favorable filter lifespan. More multi-center RCTs with large samples are required for further validation of this study.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estado Terminal , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Benzamidinas , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal/terapia , Guanidinas , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos
17.
Ren Fail ; 44(1): 1326-1337, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most frequent complications of critical illness. We aimed to explore the predictors of renal function recovery and the short-term reversibility after AKI by comparing logistic regression with four machine learning models. METHODS: We reviewed patients who were diagnosed with AKI in the MIMIC-IV database between 2008 and 2019. Recovery from AKI within 72 h of the initiating event was typically recognized as the short-term reversal of AKI. Conventional logistic regression and four different machine algorithms (XGBoost algorithm model, Bayesian networks [BNs], random forest [RF] model, and support vector machine [SVM] model) were used to develop and validate prediction models. The performance measures were compared through the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AU-ROC), calibration curves, and 10-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: A total of 12,321 critically ill adult AKI patients were included in our analysis cohort. The renal function recovery rate after AKI was 67.9%. The maximum and minimum serum creatinine (SCr) within 24 h of AKI diagnosis, the minimum SCr within 24 and 12 h, and antibiotics usage duration were independently associated with renal function recovery after AKI. Among the 8364 recovered patients, the maximum SCr within 24 h of AKI diagnosis, the minimum Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, the maximum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) within 24 h, vasopressin and vancomycin usage, and the maximum lactate within 24 h were the top six predictors for short-term reversibility of AKI. The RF model presented the best performance for predicting both renal functional recovery (AU-ROC [0.8295 ± 0.01]) and early recovery (AU-ROC [0.7683 ± 0.03]) compared with the conventional logistic regression model. CONCLUSIONS: The maximum SCr within 24 h of AKI diagnosis was a common independent predictor of renal function recovery and the short-term reversibility of AKI. The RF machine learning algorithms showed a superior ability to predict the prognosis of AKI patients in the ICU compared with the traditional regression models. These models may prove to be clinically helpful and can assist clinicians in providing timely interventions, potentially leading to improved prognoses.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Curva ROC , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13483, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931737

RESUMO

COVID-19 has caused the recent pandemic of respiratory infection, which threatened global health. The severity of the symptoms varies among affected individuals, from asymptotic or mild signs to severe or critical illness. Genetic predisposition explains the variation in disease severity among patients who suffer from severe symptoms without any known background risk factors. The present study was performed to show the association between APOE genotype and the severity of COVID-19 disease. The APOE genotype of 201 COVID-19 patients (101 patients with asymptomatic to mild form of the disease as the control group and 100 patients with severe to critical illness without any known background risk factors as the case group) were detected via multiplex tetra-primer ARMS-PCR method. Results showed that the e4 allele increased the risk of the COVID-19 infection severity more than five times and the e4/e4 genotype showed a 17-fold increase in the risk of severe disease. In conclusion, since our study design was based on the exclusion of patients with underlying diseases predisposing to severe form of COVID-19 and diseases related to the APOE gene in the study population, our results showed that the e4 genotype is independently associated with the severity of COVID-19 disease. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings in other nations and to demonstrate the mechanisms behind the role of these alleles in disease severity.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E , COVID-19 , Alelos , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , COVID-19/genética , Estado Terminal , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 239, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no consensus exists regarding the association between oxygen exposure (arterial oxygen tension or fraction of inspired oxygen) and outcomes for patients with mechanical ventilation. Additionally, whether the association remains persistent over time is unknown. We aimed to explore the association between exposure to different intensities of oxygen exposure over time and 28-day mortality in patients with mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We obtained data from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care IV (MIMIC-IV), which included adult (≥ 18 years) patients who received invasive mechanical ventilation for at least 48 h. We excluded patients who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or who initiated ventilation more than 24 h after ICU admission. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Piece-wise exponential additive mixed models were employed to estimate the strength of associations over time. RESULTS: A total of 7784 patients were included in the final analysis. Patients had a median duration of invasive mechanical ventilation of 8.1 days (IQR: 3.8-28 days), and the overall 28-day mortality rate was 26.3%. After adjustment for baseline and time-dependent confounders, both daily time-weighted average (TWA) arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) were associated with increased 28-day mortality, and the strength of the association manifested predominantly in the early-middle course of illness. A significant increase in the hazard of death was found to be associated with daily exposure to TWA-PaO2 ≥ 120 mmHg (Hazard ratio 1.166, 95% CI 1.059-1.284) or TWA-FiO2 ≥ 0.5 (Hazard ratio 1.496, 95% CI 1.363-1.641) during the entire course. A cumulative effect of harmful exposure (TWA-PaO2 ≥ 120 mmHg or TWA-FiO2 ≥ 0.5) was also observed. CONCLUSION: PaO2 and FiO2 should be carefully monitored in patients with mechanical ventilation, especially during the early-middle course after ICU admission. Cumulative exposure to higher intensities of oxygen exposure was associated with an increased risk of death.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Respiração Artificial , Adulto , Gasometria , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Oxigênio , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272373, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients frequently require mechanical ventilation (MV) and undergo prolonged periods of bed rest with restriction of activities during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Our aim was to address the degree of mobilization in critically ill patients with COVID-19 undergoing to MV support. METHODS: Retrospective single-center cohort study. We analyzed patients' mobility level, through the Perme ICU Mobility Score (Perme Score) of COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. The Perme Mobility Index (PMI) was calculated [PMI = ΔPerme Score (ICU discharge-ICU admission)/ICU length of stay], and patients were categorized as "improved" (PMI > 0) or "not improved" (PMI ≤ 0). Comparisons were performed with stratification according to the use of MV support. RESULTS: From February 2020, to February 2021, 1,297 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to the ICU and assessed for eligibility. Out of those, 949 patients were included in the study [524 (55.2%) were classified as "improved" and 425 (44.8%) as "not improved"], and 396 (41.7%) received MV during ICU stay. The overall rate of patients out of bed and able to walk ≥ 30 meters at ICU discharge were, respectively, 526 (63.3%) and 170 (20.5%). After adjusting for confounders, independent predictors of improvement of mobility level were frailty (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.94; p = 0.03); SAPS III Score (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.57-0.99; p = 0.04); SOFA Score (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.43-0.78; p < 0.001); use of MV after the first hour of ICU admission (OR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.17-0.99; p = 0.04); tracheostomy (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.95; p = 0.03); use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05-0.8; p = 0.03); neuromuscular blockade (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.3-0.95; p = 0.03); a higher Perme Score at admission (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.28-0.43; p < 0.001); palliative care (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.16; p < 0.001); and a longer ICU stay (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.61-0.97; p = 0.04) were associated with a lower chance of mobility improvement, while non-invasive ventilation within the first hour of ICU admission and after the first hour of ICU admission (OR: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.59-3.81; p < 0.001) and (OR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.56-3.26; p < 0.001), respectively; and vasopressor use (OR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.07-5.5; p = 0.03) were associated with a higher chance of mobility improvement. CONCLUSION: The use of MV reduced mobility status in less than half of critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Respiração Artificial , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
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