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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e042008, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402406

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In December 2019, the first cases of COVID-19 associated with SARS-CoV-2 viral infection were described in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Since then, it has spread rapidly affecting 188 countries and was declared a pandemic by the WHO on 11 March 2020. Preliminary reports suggest up to 30% of patients require intensive care unit (ICU) admission and case fatality rate estimate is 2.3%-7.2%. The primary reason for ICU admission is hypoxaemic respiratory failure, while factors associated with ICU admission include increased age, presence of comorbidities and cytokine storm. Case series and retrospective trials initially assessed proposed treatments with randomised controlled trials now reporting early outcomes. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify epidemiological factors, treatments and complications that predict mortality among critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Our comprehensive search strategy was developed in consultation with a research librarian. We will search electronic databases: Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, Ovid Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Wiley Cochrane Library. The search strategy combines concepts from COVID-19, validated COVID-19 search filters and geographical locations of large outbreaks. Citation screening, selection, quality assessment and data abstraction will be performed in duplicate. Clinically homogenous epidemiological characteristics, interventions and complications will be pooled in statistical meta-analysis. Within the framework of a living systematic review, the search and data analysis will be updated every 6 months. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Our systematic review will synthesise literature on risk factors and interventions associated with mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Results will be presented at national and international conferences and submitted for peer-reviewed publication. The pooled analysis can provide guidance to inform clinical guidelines for care of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Iterative updates will be made public through open access. Research ethics approval is not required. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020176672.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Comorbidade , Humanos
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e044497, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408218

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Accurate triage is an important first step to effectively manage the clinical treatment of severe cases in a pandemic outbreak. In the current COVID-19 global pandemic, there is a lack of reliable clinical tools to assist clinicians to perform accurate triage. Host response biomarkers have recently shown promise in risk stratification of disease progression; however, the role of these biomarkers in predicting disease progression in patients with COVID-19 is unknown. Here, we present a protocol outlining a prospective validation study to evaluate the biomarkers' performance in predicting clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective validation study assesses patients infected with COVID-19, in whom blood samples are prospectively collected. Recruited patients include a range of infection severity from asymptomatic to critically ill patients, recruited from the community, outpatient clinics, emergency departments and hospitals. Study samples consist of peripheral blood samples collected into RNA-preserving (PAXgene/Tempus) tubes on patient presentation or immediately on study enrolment. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) will be performed on total RNA extracted from collected blood samples using primers specific to host response gene expression biomarkers that have been previously identified in studies of respiratory viral infections. The RT-PCR data will be analysed to assess the diagnostic performance of individual biomarkers in predicting COVID-19-related outcomes, such as viral pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome or bacterial pneumonia. Biomarker performance will be evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This research protocol aims to study the host response gene expression biomarkers in severe respiratory viral infections with a pandemic potential (COVID-19). It has been approved by the local ethics committee with approval number 2020/ETH00886. The results of this project will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed scientific journals.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Triagem/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(2): 233-240, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380235

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Montefiore Medical Center (MMC) in the Bronx, New York, was subjected to an unprecedented surge of critically ill patients with COVID-19 disease during the initial outbreak of the pandemic in New York State in the spring of 2020. It is important to describe our experience in order to assist hospitals in other areas of the country that may soon be subjected to similar surges. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the expansion of critical care medicine services at Montefiore during the COVID-19 surge in terms of space, staff, stuff, and systems. In addition, we report on a debriefing session held with a multidisciplinary group of frontline CCM providers at Montefiore. FINDINGS: The surge of critically ill patients from COVID-19 disease necessitated a tripling of critical care bed capacity at (MMC), with attendant increased needs for staffing, equipment, and systematic innovations to increase efficiency and effectiveness. Feedback from a multidisciplinary group of frontline providers revealed multiple opportunities for improvement for the next potential surge at MMC as well as guidance for other hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Given increasing cases and burden of critical illness from COVID-19 across the US, engineering safe and effective expansions of critical care capacity will be crucial. We hope that our description of what worked and what did not at MMC will help guide other hospitals in their pandemic preparedness.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243710, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cohorts of severely ill patients with COVID-19 have been described in several countries around the globe, but to date there have been few published reports from the United Kingdom (UK). Understanding the characteristics of the affected population admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in the UK is crucial to inform clinical decision making, research and planning for future waves of infection. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of all patients with COVID-19 admitted to a large UK ICU from March to May 2020 with follow-up to June 2020. Data were collected from health records using a standardised template. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyse the factors associated with ICU survival. RESULTS: Of the 156 patients included, 112 (72%) were male, 89 (57%) were overweight or obese, 68 (44%) were from ethnic minorities, and 89 (57%) were aged over 60 years of age. 136 (87%) received mechanical ventilation, 77 (57% of those intubated) were placed in the prone position and 95 (70% of those intubated) received neuromuscular blockade. 154 (99%) patients required cardiovascular support and 44 (28%) required renal replacement therapy. Of the 130 patients with completed ICU episodes, 38 (29%) died and 92 (71%) were discharged alive from ICU. In multivariable models, age (OR 1.13 [95% CI 1.07-1.21]), obesity (OR 3.06 [95% CI 1.16-8.74]), lowest P/F ratio on the first day of admission (OR 0.82 [95% CI 0.67-0.98]) and PaCO2 (OR 1.52 [95% CI 1.01-2.39]) were independently associated with ICU death. CONCLUSIONS: Age, obesity and severity of respiratory failure were key determinants of survival in this cohort. Multiorgan failure was prevalent. These findings are important for guiding future research and should be taken into consideration during future healthcare planning in the UK.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , /terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/complicações , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/virologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/virologia , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
J Clin Ethics ; 31(4): 340-352, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259339

RESUMO

The number of children with chronic critical illness (CCI) is a growing population in the United States. A defining characteristic of this population is a prolonged hospital stay. Our study assessed the proportion of pediatric patients with chronic critical illness in U.S. hospitals at a specific point in time, and identified a subset of children whose hospital stay lasted for months to years. The potential harms of a prolonged hospitalization for children with CCI, which include over treatment, infection, disruption of family life, and the intensive utilization of resources-combined with the moral distress experienced by the clinicians who care for the children, suggest the need for ethical analysis of this growing issue to identify actions that could be taken at the clinical and health systems levels to reduce the harms associated with prolonged hospital stay. In this article we present three real cases from our study that involved a very long hospital stay. We applied a framework developed by Mackenzie, Rogers, and Dodds to analyze inherent, situational, and pathogenic vulnerabilities to examine the ways that interventions intended to remedy one source of harm for the children in our cohort inadvertently created other harms. We examined the complex ways that children with protracted hospitalization are vulnerable to the choices made by their family and clinicians, as well as by healthcare systems and communities. Finally, we used this analysis to summarize actions and ethical responses to this growing patient population. Such an understanding is essential to make clinical and ethical decisions that arise for children who are at risk for a very long stay in the hospital.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e039813, 2020 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361074

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With the threat of a worldwide pandemic of COVID-19, it is important to identify the prognostic factors for critical conditions among patients with non-critical COVID-19. Prognostic factors and models may assist front-line clinicians in rapid identification of high-risk patients, early management of modifiable factors, appropriate triaging and optimising the use of limited healthcare resources. We aim to systematically assess the clinical, laboratory and imaging predictors as well as prediction models for severe or critical illness and mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: All peer-reviewed and preprint primary articles with a longitudinal design that focused on prognostic factors or models for critical illness and mortality related to COVID-19 will be eligible for inclusion. A systematic search of 11 databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Data, SinoMed, bioRxiv, Arxiv and MedRxiv will be conducted. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Data extraction will be performed using the modified version of the Critical Appraisal and Data Extraction for Systematic Reviews of Prediction Modelling Studies checklist and quality will be evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Quality In Prognosis Studies tool. The association between prognostic factors and outcomes of interest will be synthesised and a meta-analysis will be conducted with three or more studies reporting a particular factor in a consistent manner. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was not required for this systematic review. We will disseminate our findings through publication in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD 42020178798.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Pandemias , /epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
9.
Fertil Steril ; 114(6): 1242-1249, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate, with pre-COVID-19 data, whether parental exposure to severe systemic infections near the time of conception is associated with pregnancy outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Population-based study covering births within the United States from 2009 to 2016. PARTICIPANTS: The IBM MarketScan Research database covers reimbursed health care claims data on inpatient and outpatient encounters that are privately insured through employment-sponsored health insurance. Our analytic sample included pregnancies to paired fathers and mothers. INTERVENTIONS(S): Parental preconception exposure (0-6 months before conception) to severe systemic infection (e.g., sepsis, hypotension, respiratory failure, critical care evaluation). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Preterm birth (i.e., live birth before 37 weeks) and pregnancy loss. RESULT(S): A total of 999,866 pregnancies were recorded with 214,057 pregnancy losses (21.4%) and 51,759 preterm births (5.2%). Mothers receiving intensive care in the preconception period had increased risk of pregnancy loss, as did fathers. Mothers with preconception sepsis had higher risk of preterm birth and pregnancy loss, and paternal sepsis exposure was associated with an increased risk of pregnancy loss. Similar results were noted for hypotension. In addition, a dose response was observed for both mothers and fathers between preconception time in intensive care and the risk of preterm birth and pregnancy loss. CONCLUSION(S): In a pre-COVID-19 cohort, parental preconception severe systemic infection was associated with increased odds of preterm birth and pregnancy loss when conception was soon after the illness.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Pais , Resultado da Gravidez , Sepse/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos , Pai , Feminino , Fertilização , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 676, 2020 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence for enhanced blood coagulation in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients, with thromboembolic complications contributing to morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying this prothrombotic state remain enigmatic. Further data to guide anticoagulation strategies are urgently required. METHODS: We used viscoelastic rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in a single-center cohort of 40 critically ill COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Clear signs of a hypercoagulable state due to severe hypofibrinolysis were found. Maximum lysis, especially following stimulation of the extrinsic coagulation system, was inversely associated with an enhanced risk of thromboembolic complications. Combining values for maximum lysis with D-dimer concentrations revealed high sensitivity and specificity of thromboembolic risk prediction. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies a reduction in fibrinolysis as an important mechanism in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. The combination of ROTEM and D-dimer concentrations may prove valuable in identifying patients requiring higher intensity anticoagulation.


Assuntos
/complicações , Fibrinólise/fisiologia , Tromboelastografia/métodos , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/métodos , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/normas , /fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/normas , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/estatística & dados numéricos , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico por imagem , Substâncias Viscoelásticas/análise , Substâncias Viscoelásticas/uso terapêutico
12.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e926941, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND At present, the relationships among COVID-19 disease progression, patient prognosis, and immune status are unclear. This single-center retrospective study evaluated the correlation between serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels at admission with the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia, as determined by admission to the intensive Care Unit (ICU). MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College in Bengbu City, Anhui Province, China, in January and February 2020 for COVID-19 pneumonia were enrolled in this study. COVID-19 infection was confirmed by the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in throat swab samples using real-time fluorescent reverse transcription PCR. Serum IL-6 concentrations at admission were measured by ELISA. Correlations between serum IL-6 concentrations and ICU admission due to the development of severe COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated. RESULTS This study enrolled 68 patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia. IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with more severe than less severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Eight of 40 patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia became critically ill and required ICU admission. IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who were than who were not treated in the ICU. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.816 (P<0.01), indicating that IL-6 was prognostic of disease severity in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS Serum IL-6 concentration is closely associated with the severity of COVID-19. Continuous monitoring of IL-6 has clinical value in evaluating patient condition.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Interleucina-6/sangue , /imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , /epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , /isolamento & purificação
13.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(10): 2101-2109, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184025

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Influenza has been linked to the crowding in emergency departments (ED) across the world. The impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on China EDs has been quite different from those during past influenza outbreaks. Our objective was to determine if COVID-19 changed ED visit disease severity during the pandemic. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross sectional study conducted in Nanjing, China. We captured ED visit data from 28 hospitals. We then compared visit numbers from October 2019 to February 2020 for a month-to-month analysis and every February from 2017 to 2020 for a year-to-year analysis. Inter-group chi-square test and time series trend tests were performed to compare visit numbers. The primary outcome was the proportion of severe disease visits in the EDs. RESULTS: Through February 29 th 2020, there were 93 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients in Nanjing, of which 40 cases (43.01%) were first seen in the ED. The total number of ED visits in Nanjing in February 2020, were dramatically decreased (n = 99,949) in compared to January 2020 (n = 313,125) and February 2019 (n = 262,503). Except for poisoning, the severe diseases in EDs all decreased in absolute number, but increased in proportion both in year-to-year and month-to-month analyses. This increase in proportional ED disease severity was greater in higher-level referral hospitals when compared year by year. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 outbreak has been associated with decreases in ED visits in Nanjing, China, but increases in the proportion of severe ED visits.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , China/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 2145-2153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204079

RESUMO

Purpose: This study is to investigate the risk prediction of severe or critical events of COVID-19 in older adults in China and provide the evidence to support the management of older adults with COVID-19. Materials and Methods: The clinical data of older adults with COVID-19 admitted to the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center during January 20, 2020 to March 16, 2020 were collected. The possible risk factors of severe or critical illness were investigated with Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression models for univariate and multivariate analyses to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For the prediction indicators, optimum cut-off points were determined by calculating Youden's index. The efficacy of risk prediction of severe or critical illness was examined through the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: A total of 110 older adults with COVID-19 were included, in which 21 (19.1%) patients had severe or critical illness of COVID-19. Multivariable regression analysis showed that CD4 cells and D-dimer were independent risk factors. D-dimer, CD4 cells, and CD cells/D-dimer ratio with cut-off values of 0.65 (mg/L), 268 (cell/µL) and 431 were in the prediction of severe or critical illness of older adults with COVID-19. The AUC value of D-dimer, CD4 cells, CD4 cells/D-dimer ratio, the tandem combination and the parallel combination to predict severe or critical illness of the older adults with COVID-19 were 0.703, 0.804, 0.794, 0.812 and 0.694, respectively. Conclusion: D-dimer and CD4 cells either by themselves or in combination have demonstrated predictive value in risk stratification as well as established the prognosis of severe or critical illness in older adults with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Estado Terminal , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Medição de Risco , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193951

RESUMO

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging health threat outbreak. It may cause severe viral pneumonia with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome requiring critical care. Aim: to describe clinical features and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: it was a retrospective study carried out in the medical ICU of Farhat Hached teaching hospital between March 11 and May 7, 2020. All consecutive patients with RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 were included. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were collected by reviewing medical records. Results: during the study period, 10 critically ill patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. Mean age, 51.8±6.3 years; 8(80%), male. The most common comorbidities were; diabetes mellitus, 6(60%), obesity 2(20%), chronic kidney disease 2(20%) and hypertension 1(10%). Mean SAPS II, 23.2±1.8. The mean arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen ratio at admission was 136.2±79.7. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation was used in 4(40%) patients and 7(70%) received invasive mechanical ventilation. Tidal volume and PEEP were set respectively within the median [IQR] of, 5.7[5.6-6.3]ml/Kg and 10.7[6.5-11.7]cm H2O. Plateau pressure was monitored in the median [IQR] of 27.9 [25.9-28.5] cm H2O. Four patients received hydroxychloroquine alone and five hydroxychloroquine associated with an antiviral. Five patients developed respectively hyperactive (n=2), hypoactive (n=2) and mixed delirium (n=1). Mortality rate was at 70%. Conclusion: this study demonstrated a particular profile of COVID-19 in the critically ill as a severe presentation in aged males with comorbidities presenting with an ARDS-like and neurological impairment with poor prognosis. The only survivals seem to have benefited from noninvasive ventilatory support.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Delírio/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escala Psicológica Aguda Simplificada , Tunísia/epidemiologia
16.
BMC Med Ethics ; 21(1): 117, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Authors have laid out an analysis of Italian COVID-19 confirmed data and fatality rates, pointing out how a dearth of health care resources in northern regions has resulted in hard, ethically challenging decisions in terms of granting patient access to intensive care units (ICU). MAIN TEXT: Having to make such decisions certainly entails substantial difficulties, and that has led many health care professional to seek ethical guidance. The Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI) has attempted to meet that growing need by a set of recommendations, applying "clinical soundness" as a beacon standard; that approach tends to prioritize patients with higher life expectancy, which could be characterized as a "moderately utilitarian" approach. Yet, such a selection has engendered daunting ethical quandaries. The authors believe it can only be warranted and acceptable if rooted in a transparent decision-making process and verifiable, reviewed criteria. Moreover, the authors have stressed how clinical experimentation in a pandemic setting is a subtext of great interest from an ethical perspective. In Italy, no drug therapy and trials were undertaken for COVID-19 patients for a rather long period of time. When the epidemic was already circulating, an intervention proved necessary on the system of administrative procedures, aimed at expediting the authorization and validation of protocols, then bogged down by bureaucracy. A new system has since been instituted by a government decree that was signed about one month after the first Covid-19 case was officially recorded in the country. Such a swift implementation, which took just a few weeks, is noteworthy and proves that clinical trials can be initiated in a timely fashion, even with a pandemic unfolding. The concerted, action of supportive care and RCTs is the only way to attain effective forms of treatments for COVID-19 and any other future outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: The authors have arrived at the conclusion that the most effective and ethically sound response on the part of any national health care system would be to adequately reconfigure its organizational mechanisms, by making clinical trials and all related administrative procedures consistent with the current state of emergency.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/ética , Ética Médica , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20191, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214648

RESUMO

COVID-19 is characterized by marked variability in clinical severity. Vitamin D had recently been reviewed as one of the factors that may affect the severity in COVID-19. The objective of current study is to analyze the vitamin D level in COVID-19 patients and its impact on the disease severity. After approval from Ethics Committee, M.L.B Medical College the current study was undertaken as continuous prospective observational study of 6 weeks. Participants were COVID-19 patients of age group 30-60 years admitted during the study period of 6 weeks. Study included either asymptomatic COVID-19 patients (Group A) or severely ill patients requiring ICU admission (Group B). Serum concentration of 25 (OH)D, were measured along with serum IL-6; TNFα and serum ferritin. Standard statistical analysis was performed to analyze the differences. Current Study enrolled 154 patients, 91 in Group A and 63 patients in Group B. The mean level of vitamin D (in ng/mL) was 27.89 ± 6.21 in Group A and 14.35 ± 5.79 in Group B, the difference was highly significant. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 32.96% and 96.82% respectively in Group A and Group B. Out of total 154 patients, 90 patients were found to be deficient in vitamin D (Group A: 29; Group B: 61). Serum level of inflammatory markers was found to be higher in vitamin D deficient COVID-19 patients viz. IL-6 level (in pg/mL) 19.34 ± 6.17 vs 12.18 ± 4.29; Serum ferritin 319.17 ± 38.21 ng/mL vs 186.83 ± 20.18 ng/mL; TNFα level (in pg/mL) 13.26 ± 5.64 vs 11.87 ± 3.15. The fatality rate was high in vitamin D deficient (21% vs 3.1%). Vitamin D level is markedly low in severe COVID-19 patients. Inflammatory response is high in vitamin D deficient COVID-19 patients. This all translates into increased mortality in vitamin D deficient COVID-19 patients. As per the flexible approach in the current COVID-19 pandemic authors recommend mass administration of vitamin D supplements to population at risk for COVID-19.


Assuntos
/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , /patologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
18.
Hepatol Int ; 14(5): 723-732, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a major international public health concern. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of COVID-19-associated liver injury. METHODS: A fraction of 657 COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were derived from electronic medical records and compared between patients with or without liver injury. Multivariate logistic regression method was used to analyze the risk factors for liver injury. RESULTS: Among 657 patients, 303 (46.1%) patients had liver injury with higher rate in severe/critically ill patients [148/257 (57.6%)] than those in moderate cases [155/400 (38.8%)]. The incidence of liver injury was much higher in male [192/303 (63.4%)] than female [111/303 (36.6%)], and in severe/critical patients [148/303 (48.8%)] with percutaneous oxygen saturation ≤ 93% [89/279 (31.9%)] or peak body temperature ≥ 38.5 °C [185/301 (61.5%)] on admission. Liver injury-related inflammations included increased white blood cells, neutrophils and decreased lymphocytes. More patients with liver injury than without had increased serum IL-2R, TNFα, ferritin, hsCRP, PCT, ESR, γ-GT, and LDH. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that increasing odds of liver injury were related to male, higher serum hsCRP (≥ 10 mg/L), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (≥ 5). Moreover, more deceased patients (14/82 (17%)) had significantly elevated serum TBIL than discharged patients [25/532 (4.7%)]. CONCLUSION: Liver injury is a common complication in COVID-19 patients. The potential risk factors of liver injury include male, hsCRP and NLR score. A close monitor of liver function should be warned in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe/critical individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Citocinas/sangue , Insuficiência Hepática , Contagem de Leucócitos/métodos , Testes de Função Hepática , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Insuficiência Hepática/sangue , Insuficiência Hepática/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Testes de Função Hepática/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Acad Emerg Med ; 27(12): 1260-1269, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite reported higher rates and worse outcomes due to COVID-19 in certain racial and ethnic groups, much remains unknown. We explored the association between Hispanic ethnicity and outcomes in COVID-19 patients in Long Island, New York. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 2,039 Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 between March 7 and May 23, 2020, at a large suburban academic tertiary care hospital near New York City. We explored the association of ethnicity with need for intensive care unit (ICU), invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and mortality. RESULTS: Of all patients, 1,079 (53%) were non-Hispanic Caucasians and 960 (47%) were Hispanic. Hispanic patients presented in higher numbers than expected for our catchment area. Compared with Caucasians, Hispanics were younger (45 years vs. 59 years), had fewer comorbidities (66% with no comorbidities vs. 40%), were less likely to have commercial insurance (35% vs. 59%), or were less likely to come from a nursing home (2% vs. 10%). In univariate comparisons, Hispanics were less likely to be admitted (37% vs. 59%) or to die (3% vs. 10%). Age, shortness of breath, congestive heart failure (CHF), coronary artery disease (CAD), hypoxemia, and presentation from nursing homes were associated with admission. Male sex and hypoxemia were associated with ICU admission. Male sex, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypoxemia were associated with IMV. Male sex, CHF, CAD, and hypoxemia were associated with mortality. After other factors were adjusted for, Hispanics were less likely to be admitted (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% confidence interval = 0.52 to 0.92) but Hispanic ethnicity was not associated with ICU admission, IMV, or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Hispanics presented at higher rates than average for our population but outcomes among Hispanic patients with COVID-19 were similar to those of Caucasian patients.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos
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