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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18499, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported the association between Mycoplasma fermentans (M. fermentans) and the risk of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection, but the results were inconsistent. The present study aims to systematically review reported studies on M. fermentans and its association with HIV-1 infection, as well as to summarize the findings using a meta-analysis. METHODS: Studies meeting the inclusion criteria in the PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang Data, and Chongqing VIP databases up to March 2019 were identified. Cochran Q and I statistics were used to assess heterogeneity. Additionally, pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and displayed by Forest plots. Also, the funnel plot, Begg test, and Egger test were used to evaluate potential publication bias. In addition, the source of heterogeneity was investigated by subgroup and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies comprising 1028 HIV-1-positive patients and 1298 controls were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. Our results indicated that M. fermentans could increase the risk of HIV-1 infection among humans (OR = 3.66, 95%CI 1.26-10.64). Subgroup analysis showed that the risk of HIV-1 infection associated with M. fermentans was, based on the geographical distribution, 1.19 (95%CI 0.33-4.33) in Europe, 2.83 (95%CI 0.94-8.52) in United States, 11.92 (95%CI 3.93-36.15) in Asia; based on the source of the sample, 2.97 (95%CI 0.89-9.95) in blood samples, 4.36 (95%CI 1.63-11.68) in urine samples; based on the detection method, 2.80 (95%CI 0.72-10.96) with the polymerase chain reaction method, 5.54 (95%CI 1.21-25.28) with other detection methods; based on the source of controls, 1.91 (95%CI 0.53-6.89) in sexually transmitted diseases individuals, and 8.25 (95%CI 2.16-31.60) in health individuals. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed evidence of the association between M. fermentans and HIV-1 infection. Considering the heterogeneity, further studies are warranted to understand the relationship between M. fermentans and HIV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/complicações , Mycoplasma fermentans/metabolismo , Ásia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Soropositividade para HIV/complicações , Soropositividade para HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma fermentans/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18525, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914025

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is important for prevention and treatment. Ending the HIV epidemic is unattainable if significant proportions of people living with HIV remain undiagnosed, making HIV testing critical for prevention and treatment. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HIV testing for persons aged 13 to 64 years in all health care settings. This study builds on prior research by estimating the extent to which HIV testing occurs during physician office and emergency department (ED) post 2006 CDC recommendations.We performed an unweighted and weighted cross-sectional analysis using pooled data from 2 nationally representative surveys namely National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2009 to 2014. We assessed routine HIV testing trends and predictive factors in physician offices and ED using multi-stage statistical survey procedures in SAS 9.4.HIV testing rates in physician offices increased by 105% (5.6-11.5 per 1000) over the study period. A steeper increase was observed in ED with a 191% (2.3-6.7 per 1000) increase. Odds ratio (OR) for HIV testing in physician offices were highest among ages 20 to 29 ([OR] 7.20, 99% confidence interval [CI: 4.37-11.85]), males (OR 1.34, [CI: 0.91-0.93]), African-Americans (OR 2.97, [CI: 2.05-4.31]), Hispanics (OR 1.80, [CI: 1.17-2.78]), and among visits occurring in the South (OR 2.06, [CI: 1.23-3.44]). In the ED, similar trends of higher testing odds persisted for African Americans (OR 3.44, 99% CI 2.50-4.73), Hispanics (OR 2.23, 99% CI 1.65-3.01), and Northeast (OR 2.24, 99% CI 1.10-4.54).While progress has been made in screening, HIV testing rates remains sub-optimal for ED visits. Populations visiting the ED for routine care may suffer missed opportunities for HIV testing, which delays their entry into HIV medical care. To end the epidemic, new approaches for increasing targeted routine HIV testing for populations attending health care settings is recommended.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consultórios Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 30-34, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945030

RESUMO

Each year, excessive drinking accounts for one in 10 deaths among U.S. adults aged 20-64 years (1), and approximately 90% of adults who report excessive drinking* binge drink (i.e., consume five or more drinks for men or four or more drinks for women on a single occasion) (2). In 2015, 17.1% of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years reported binge drinking approximately once a week and consumed an average of seven drinks per binge drinking episode, resulting in 17.5 billion total binge drinks, or 467 total binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking (3). CDC analyzed 2011-2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data to assess trends in total annual binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking in the United States overall and in the individual states. The age-adjusted† total annual number of binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking increased significantly from 472 in 2011 to 529 in 2017. Total annual binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking also increased significantly from 2011 to 2017 among those aged 35-44 years (26.7%, from 468 to 593) and 45-64 years (23.1%, from 428 to 527). The largest percentage increases in total binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking during this period were observed among those without a high school diploma (45.8%) and those with household incomes <$25,000 (23.9%). Strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force§ for reducing excessive drinking (e.g., regulating alcohol outlet density) might reduce binge drinking and related health risks.


Assuntos
Bebedeira/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 35-39, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945033

RESUMO

Transgender women* in the United States are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection because of multiple factors, including stigma related to gender identity, unstable housing, limited employment options, and high-risk behaviors, such as sex work, unprotected receptive anal intercourse, and injection drug use, that tend to increase their vulnerability to becoming infected with HIV (1,2). In a recent meta-analysis of 88 U.S. studies conducted during 2006-2017, the mean estimated laboratory-confirmed prevalence of HIV infection among transgender women was 14.2%, and the mean self-reported prevalence estimate was 21.0% (3). The Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative calls for accelerating the implementation of evidence-based strategies in the right geographic areas targeted to the right persons to end the HIV epidemic in the United States (4). HIV partner services are effective strategies offered by public health workers to persons with a diagnosis of HIV infection (index persons) and their sex or needle-sharing partners (partners), who are notified of potential HIV exposure and offered HIV testing and related services. CDC analyzed HIV partner services data submitted by 61 health departments† during 2013-2017. Among 208,304 index persons, 1,727 (0.8%) were transgender women. Overall, 71.5% of index transgender women were interviewed for partner services, which was lower than that for all index persons combined (81.1%). Among 1,089 transgender women named as partners by index persons, 71.2% were notified of potential HIV exposure, which was lower than that for all partners combined (77.1%). Fewer than half (46.5%) of notified transgender women partners were tested for HIV, and approximately one in five (18.6%) of those who were tested received a new diagnosis of HIV infection, slightly higher than for all partners combined (17.6%). Additional efforts are needed to effectively implement partner services among transgender women and identify those whose infection with HIV is undiagnosed, provide timely prevention and care services, reduce HIV transmission, and contribute to ending the HIV epidemic.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Parceiros Sexuais , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(53): 1201-1205, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945036

RESUMO

Control of communicable diseases in children, including respiratory and diarrheal illnesses that affect U.S. school-aged children, might require public health preventive efforts both in the home and at school, a primary setting for transmission. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data on school absenteeism and gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses in the United States during 2010-2016 were analyzed to examine their associations with income. Prevalence of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses (queried for the 2 weeks preceding the survey) increased as income decreased. The likelihood of missing any school days during the past year decreased with reduced income. However, among children who missed school, those from low-income households missed more days of school than did children from higher income households. Although the reason for absenteeism cannot be ascertained from this analysis, these data underscore the importance of preventive measures (e.g. hand hygiene promotion and education) and the opportunity for both homes and schools to serve as important points for implementation of public health preventive measures, including improved hand hygiene practices.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 25-29, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945037

RESUMO

Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States, accounting for 20.6% of infant deaths in 2017 (1). Rates of infant mortality attributable to birth defects (IMBD) have generally declined since the 1970s (1-3). U.S. linked birth/infant death data from 2003-2017 were used to assess trends in IMBD. Overall, rates declined 10% during 2003-2017, but decreases varied by maternal and infant characteristics. During 2003-2017, IMBD rates decreased 4% for infants of Hispanic mothers, 11% for infants of non-Hispanic black (black) mothers, and 12% for infants of non-Hispanic white (white) mothers. In 2017, these rates were highest among infants of black mothers (13.3 per 10,000 live births) and were lowest among infants of white mothers (9.9). During 2003-2017, IMBD rates for infants who were born extremely preterm (20-27 completed gestational weeks), full term (39-40 weeks), and late term/postterm (41-44 weeks) declined 20%-29%; rates for moderate (32-33 weeks) and late preterm (34-36 weeks) infants increased 17%. Continued tracking of IMBD rates can help identify areas where efforts to reduce IMBD are needed, such as among infants born to black and Hispanic mothers and those born moderate and late preterm (32-36 weeks).


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/mortalidade , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anormalidades Congênitas/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Criança Pós-Termo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 44-49, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945038

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders continue to investigate a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). EVALI patients in Illinois, Utah, and Wisconsin acquired tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products primarily from informal sources (2,3). This report updates demographic characteristics and self-reported sources of THC- and nicotine-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products derived from EVALI patient data reported to CDC by state health departments. As of January 7, 2020, among 1,979 (76%) patients with available data on substance use, a total of 1,620 (82%) reported using any THC-containing products, including 665 (34%) who reported exclusive THC-containing product use. Use of any nicotine-containing products was reported by 1,128 (57%) patients, including 264 (13%) who reported exclusive nicotine-containing product use. Among 809 (50%) patients reporting data on the source of THC-containing products, 131 (16%) reported acquiring their products from only commercial sources (i.e., recreational dispensaries, medical dispensaries, or both; vape or smoke shops; stores; and pop-up shops), 627 (78%) from only informal sources (i.e., friends, family, in-person or online dealers, or other sources), and 51 (6%) from both types of sources. Among 613 (54%) EVALI patients reporting nicotine-containing product use with available data on product source, 421 (69%) reported acquiring their products from only commercial sources, 103 (17%) from only informal sources, and 89 (15%) from both types of sources. Adolescents aged 13-17 years were more likely to acquire both THC- and nicotine-containing products from informal sources than were persons in older age groups. The high prevalence of acquisition of THC-containing products from informal sources by EVALI patients reinforces CDC's recommendation to not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC, especially those acquired from informal sources. Although acquisition of nicotine-containing products through informal sources was not common overall, it was common among persons aged <18 years. While the investigation continues, CDC recommends that the best way for persons to ensure that they are not at risk is to consider refraining from the use of all e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dronabinol/efeitos adversos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917782

RESUMO

In May 2018, a study of birth defects in infants born to women with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Botswana reported an eightfold increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) among births with periconceptional exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) compared with other ART regimens (1). The World Health Organization* (WHO) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services† (HHS) promptly issued interim guidance limiting the initiation of DTG during early pregnancy and in women of childbearing age with HIV who desire pregnancy or are sexually active and not using effective contraception. On the basis of additional data, WHO now recommends DTG as a preferred treatment option for all populations, including women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Similarly, the U.S. recommendations currently state that DTG is a preferred antiretroviral drug throughout pregnancy (with provider-patient counseling) and as an alternative antiretroviral drug in women who are trying to conceive.§ Since 1981 and 1994, CDC has supported separate surveillance programs for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (2) and birth defects (3) in state health departments. These two surveillance programs can inform public health programs and policy, linkage to care, and research activities. Because birth defects surveillance programs do not collect HIV status, and HIV surveillance programs do not routinely collect data on occurrence of birth defects, the related data have not been used by CDC to characterize birth defects in births to women with HIV. Data from these two programs were linked to estimate overall prevalence of NTDs and prevalence of NTDs in HIV-exposed pregnancies during 2013-2017 for 15 participating jurisdictions. Prevalence of NTDs in pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection was 7.0 per 10,000 live births, similar to that among the general population in these 15 jurisdictions, and the U.S. estimate based on data from 24 states. Successful linking of data from birth defects and HIV/AIDS surveillance programs for pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection suggests that similar data linkages might be used to characterize possible associations between maternal diseases or maternal use of medications, such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors used to manage HIV, and pregnancy outcomes. Although no difference in NTD prevalence in HIV-exposed pregnancies was found, data on the use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors in pregnancy are needed to understand the safety and risks of these drugs during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nursing ; 50(1): 39-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855986

RESUMO

Measles has re-emerged in the US for a variety of reasons, including misinformation spread by antivaccination advocates and imported cases from countries where infected children may be too young for immunization. Prompt diagnosis and isolation can help reduce measles transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/enfermagem , Sarampo/enfermagem , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/fisiopatologia , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(1): 36-41, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although traumatic injuries to the superior mesenteric vein (SMV), portal vein (PV), and hepatic vein (HV) are rare, their impact is significant. Small single center reports estimate mortality rates ranging from 29% to 100%. Our aim is to elucidate the incidence and outcomes associated with each injury due to unique anatomic positioning and varied tolerance of ligation. We hypothesize that SMV injury is associated with a lower risk of mortality compared to HV and PV injury in adult trauma patients. METHODS: The Trauma Quality Improvement Program database (2010-2016) was queried for patients with injury to either the SMV, PV, or HV. A multivariable logistic regression model was used for analysis. RESULTS: From 1,403,466 patients, 966 (0.07%) had a single major hepatoportal venous injury with 460 (47.6%) involving the SMV, 281 (29.1%) involving the PV, and 225 (23.3%) involving the HV. There was no difference in the percentage of patients undergoing repair or ligation between SMV, PV, and HV injuries (P > .05). Compared to those with PV and HV injuries, patients with SMV injury had a higher rate of concurrent bowel resection (38.5% vs 12.1% vs 7.6%, P < .001) and lower mortality (33.3% vs 45.9% vs 49.3%, P < .01). After controlling for covariates, traumatic SMV injury increased the risk of mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.59, confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-2.54, P = .05) in adult trauma patients; however, this was less than PV injury (OR = 2.77, CI = 1.56-4.93, P = .001) and HV injury (OR = 2.70, CI = 1.46-4.99, P = .002). CONCLUSION: Traumatic SMV injury had a lower rate of mortality compared to injuries of the HV and PV. SMV injury increased the risk of mortality by 60% in adult trauma patients, whereas PV and HV injuries nearly tripled the risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Veias Hepáticas/lesões , Veia Porta/lesões , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Veias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veia Porta/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Porta/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/mortalidade , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
12.
JAMA ; 322(24): 2389-2398, 2019 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860047

RESUMO

Importance: The prevalence of diabetes among Hispanic and Asian American subpopulations in the United States is unknown. Objective: To estimate racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of diabetes among US adults 20 years or older by major race/ethnicity groups and selected Hispanic and non-Hispanic Asian subpopulations. Design, Setting, and Participants: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2016, cross-sectional samples representing the noninstitutionalized, civilian, US population. The sample included adults 20 years or older who had self-reported diagnosed diabetes during the interview or measurements of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG). Exposures: Race/ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic and Hispanic subgroups (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban/Dominican, Central American, and South American), non-Hispanic Asian and non-Hispanic Asian subgroups (East, South, and Southeast Asian), and non-Hispanic other. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosed diabetes was based on self-reported prior diagnosis. Undiagnosed diabetes was defined as HbA1c 6.5% or greater, FPG 126 mg/dL or greater, or 2hPG 200 mg/dL or greater in participants without diagnosed diabetes. Total diabetes was defined as diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes. Results: The study sample included 7575 US adults (mean age, 47.5 years; 52% women; 2866 [65%] non-Hispanic white, 1636 [11%] non-Hispanic black, 1952 [15%] Hispanic, 909 [6%] non-Hispanic Asian, and 212 [3%] non-Hispanic other). A total of 2266 individuals had diagnosed diabetes; 377 had undiagnosed diabetes. Weighted age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of total diabetes was 12.1% (95% CI, 11.0%-13.4%) for non-Hispanic white, 20.4% (95% CI, 18.8%-22.1%) for non-Hispanic black, 22.1% (95% CI, 19.6%-24.7%) for Hispanic, and 19.1% (95% CI, 16.0%-22.1%) for non-Hispanic Asian adults (overall P < .001). Among Hispanic adults, the prevalence of total diabetes was 24.6% (95% CI, 21.6%-27.6%) for Mexican, 21.7% (95% CI, 14.6%-28.8%) for Puerto Rican, 20.5% (95% CI, 13.7%-27.3%) for Cuban/Dominican, 19.3% (95% CI, 12.4%-26.1%) for Central American, and 12.3% (95% CI, 8.5%-16.2%) for South American subgroups (overall P < .001). Among non-Hispanic Asian adults, the prevalence of total diabetes was 14.0% (95% CI, 9.5%-18.4%) for East Asian, 23.3% (95% CI, 15.6%-30.9%) for South Asian, and 22.4% (95% CI, 15.9%-28.9%) for Southeast Asian subgroups (overall P = .02). The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 3.9% (95% CI, 3.0%-4.8%) for non-Hispanic white, 5.2% (95% CI, 3.9%-6.4%) for non-Hispanic black, 7.5% (95% CI, 5.9%-9.1%) for Hispanic, and 7.5% (95% CI, 4.9%-10.0%) for non-Hispanic Asian adults (overall P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this nationally representative survey of US adults from 2011 to 2016, the prevalence of diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes varied by race/ethnicity and among subgroups identified within the Hispanic and non-Hispanic Asian populations.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Americanos Asiáticos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e17175, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860944

RESUMO

Annual pancreatic tumor incidence rates have been increasing. We explored pancreatic tumor incidence trends by treatment and clinicopathologic features.Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) was retrieved to evaluate temporal trends and pancreatic cancer rates from 2000 to 2015. Joinpoint regression analyses were carried out to examine trend differences.Overall, the incidence of pancreatic cancer was on the increase. The initial APC increased at a rate of 2.22% from 2000 to 2012, and increased from 2012 to 2015 at a rate of 9.05%. Joinpoint analyses revealed that trends within different demographics of pancreatic cancer showed different characteristics. The rate of pancreatic cancer also varied with histologic types. In addition, the trends by cancer stage showed significant increase incidences of stage I and II pancreatic cancer from 2000 to 2013 (stage I: APC: 2.71%; stage II: APC: 4.87%). Incidences of patients receiving surgery increased from 2000 to 2008 (APC: 7.55%), 2008 to 2011 (APC: 2.17%) and then there was a significant acceleration from 2011 to 2015 (APC: 10.51%). The incidence of cases in stage II receiving surgery increased significantly from 2004 to 2009 (APC: 9.28%) and 2009 to 2013 (APC: 2.57%). However, for cases in stage I, the incidence of cases with surgery decreased significantly since 2009 (APC: -4.14%). Patients undergoing surgical treatment without chemotherapy and radiotherapy had the higher rates compared with those who received other combined treatments.Pancreatic cancer has been increasing overall, but patterns differ by demographics and clinicopathologic features. Efforts to identify and treat more eligible candidates for curative therapy could be beneficial.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Pancreatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Terapia Combinada , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Demografia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pancreatectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18232, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852085

RESUMO

Transgender people continue to be at high-risk for HIV acquisition, but little is known about the characteristics of their sexual partners. To address this gap, we examined sociodemographic and sexual characteristics of cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reporting transgender sexual partners.A cohort of 392 MSM in southern California in a randomized clinical trial for PrEP adherence were followed from 2013 to 2016. Multivariable generalized estimating equation and logistic models identified characteristics of MSM reporting transgender sexual partners and PrEP adherence.Only 14 (4%) MSM reported having transgender sexual partners. MSM were more likely to report transgender partners if they were African American, had incident chlamydia, reported injection drug-using sexual partners, or received items for sex. Most associations remained significant in the multivariable model: African American (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 11.20, P = .01), incident chlamydia (AOR 3.71, P = .04), and receiving items for sex (AOR 5.29, P = .04). There were no significant differences in PrEP adherence between MSM reporting transgender partners and their counterpart.MSM who report transgender sexual partners share characteristics associated with individuals with high HIV prevalence. Identifying this group distinct from larger cohorts of MSM could offer new HIV prevention opportunities for this group of MSM and the transgender community.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
N Engl J Med ; 381(25): 2440-2450, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the national obesity epidemic has been well documented, less is known about obesity at the U.S. state level. Current estimates are based on body measures reported by persons themselves that underestimate the prevalence of obesity, especially severe obesity. METHODS: We developed methods to correct for self-reporting bias and to estimate state-specific and demographic subgroup-specific trends and projections of the prevalence of categories of body-mass index (BMI). BMI data reported by 6,264,226 adults (18 years of age or older) who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey (1993-1994 and 1999-2016) were obtained and corrected for quantile-specific self-reporting bias with the use of measured data from 57,131 adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We fitted multinomial regressions for each state and subgroup to estimate the prevalence of four BMI categories from 1990 through 2030: underweight or normal weight (BMI [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], <25), overweight (25 to <30), moderate obesity (30 to <35), and severe obesity (≥35). We evaluated the accuracy of our approach using data from 1990 through 2010 to predict 2016 outcomes. RESULTS: The findings from our approach suggest with high predictive accuracy that by 2030 nearly 1 in 2 adults will have obesity (48.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 47.7 to 50.1), and the prevalence will be higher than 50% in 29 states and not below 35% in any state. Nearly 1 in 4 adults is projected to have severe obesity by 2030 (24.2%; 95% CI, 22.9 to 25.5), and the prevalence will be higher than 25% in 25 states. We predict that, nationally, severe obesity is likely to become the most common BMI category among women (27.6%; 95% CI, 26.1 to 29.2), non-Hispanic black adults (31.7%; 95% CI, 29.9 to 33.4), and low-income adults (31.7%; 95% CI, 30.2 to 33.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates that the prevalence of adult obesity and severe obesity will continue to increase nationwide, with large disparities across states and demographic subgroups. (Funded by the JPB Foundation.).


Assuntos
Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade Mórbida/etnologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(50): 1153-1157, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856145

RESUMO

In the United States, driving while impaired is illegal. Nonetheless, an estimated 10,511 alcohol-impaired driving deaths occurred in 2018.* The contribution of marijuana and other illicit drugs to these and other impaired driving deaths remains unknown. Data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) indicated that in the United States during 2014, 12.4% of all persons aged 16-25 years reported driving under the influence of alcohol, and 3.2% reported driving under the influence of marijuana (1). The impairing effects of alcohol are well established, but less is known about the effects of illicit substances or other psychoactive drugs (e.g., marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamines, and opioids, including heroin). This report provides the most recent national estimates of self-reported driving under the influence of marijuana and illicit drugs among persons aged ≥16 years, using 2018 public-use data from NSDUH. Prevalences of driving under the influence of marijuana and illicit drugs other than marijuana were assessed for persons aged ≥16 years by age group, sex, and race/ethnicity. During 2018, 12 million (4.7%) U.S. residents reported driving under the influence of marijuana in the past 12 months; 2.3 million (0.9%) reported driving under the influence of illicit drugs other than marijuana. Driving under the influence was more prevalent among males and among persons aged 16-34 years. Effective measures that deter driving under the influence of drugs are limited (2). Development, evaluation, and further implementation of strategies to prevent alcohol-impaired,† drug-impaired, and polysubstance-impaired driving, coupled with standardized testing of impaired drivers and drivers involved in fatal crashes, could advance understanding of drug- and polysubstance-impaired driving and support prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Dirigir sob a Influência/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(40): 873, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851655

RESUMO

National Latinx AIDS Awareness Day, October 15, is observed each year to focus on the continuing and disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) on Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. In 2017, 26% of newly diagnosed HIV infections occurred in Hispanics/Latinos (1). Seventy-five percent of these newly diagnosed HIV infections in Hispanics/ Latinos were in men who have sex with men (MSM), and an additional 3% were in MSM who inject drugs (1).


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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