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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199895

RESUMO

While men and women make up a similar number of COVID-19 cases, and are equally likely to know someone who has become ill due to the virus, the gendered and systemic implications of immigration during public health emergencies among minority groups in the United States are empirically underexplored. Using the SOMOS COVID-19 Crisis National Latino Survey, we conduct a series of intersectional analyses to understand the extent to which personal experiences with COVID-19, gendered structural factors, and spillover effects of US immigration policies impact the mental health of US Latina/os during a public health emergency. The results show that among Latinas, knowing an undocumented immigrant and someone ill with COVID-19 increases the probability of reporting worse mental outcomes by 52 percent. Furthermore, being a woman increases the probability of reporting the highest level of mental health problems by 30 percent among Hispanic people who know someone with COVID-19 and an undocumented immigrant. These findings indicate that the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak among US Latinas and Latinos are entrenched in gendered and systemic inequalities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigração e Imigração , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13678, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211001

RESUMO

During the unfolding of a crisis, it is crucial to forecast its severity at an early stage , yet access to reliable data is often challenging early on. The wisdom of crowds has been effective at forecasting in similar scenarios. We investigated whether the initial regional social media reaction to the emerging COVID-19 pandemic in three critically affected countries has significant relations with their observed mortality a month later. We obtained COVID-19 related regionally geolocated tweets from Italian, Spanish, and United States regions. We quantified the predictive power of the wisdom of the crowds using correlations and regressions of geolocated Tweet Intensity (TI) during the initial social media attention peak versus the cumulative number of deaths a month ahead. We found that the intensity of initial COVID-19 related tweet attention at the beginning of the pandemic across Italian, Spanish, and United States regions is significantly related (p < 0.001) to the extent to which these regions had been affected by the pandemic a month later. This association is most striking in Italy as when at its peak of TI in late February 2020 only two of its regions had reported mortality. The collective wisdom of the crowds at early stages of the pandemic, when information on the number of infections was not broadly available, strikingly predicted the extent of mortality reflecting the regional severity of the pandemic almost a month later. Our findings could underpin the creation of real-time novelty detection systems aimed at early reporting of the severity of crises impacting a territory leading to early activation of control measures at a stage when available data is extremely limited.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais , Previsões , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 91, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) provides numerous health benefits relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, concerns exist that PA levels may have decreased during the pandemic thus exacerbating health disparities. This study aims to determine changes in and locations for PA and reasons for decreased PA during the pandemic. METHODS: Reported percentage of changes in and locations for PA and reasons for decreased PA were examined in 3829 US adults who completed the 2020 SummerStyles survey. RESULTS: Overall, 30% reported less PA, and 50% reported no change or no activity during the pandemic; percentages varied across subgroups. Adults who were non-Hispanic Black (Black) or Hispanic (vs. non-Hispanic White, (White)) reported less PA. Fewer Black adults (vs. White) reported doing most PA in their neighborhood. Concern about exposure to the virus (39%) was the most common reason adults were less active. CONCLUSIONS: In June 2020, nearly one-third of US adults reported decreased PA; 20% reported increased PA. Decreased activity was higher among Black and Hispanic compared to White adults; these two groups have experienced disproportionate COVID-19 impacts. Continued efforts are needed to ensure everyone has access to supports that allow them to participate in PA while still following guidance to prevent COVID-19 transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(7): 249-254, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242090

RESUMO

Approximately 1.2 million people are living with HIV in the United States, with 16,000 in San Francisco. Many HIV-positive individuals have difficulty maintaining follow-up clinic visits under normal circumstances, and this is complicated by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as many institutions transition to a telehealth-focused model of care to maintain patient and provider safety. However, it was unknown how telehealth would impact patient attendance and perceptions about their care, particularly in populations at high risk of appointment nonattendance. To quantify the impact of telehealth on retention in care for a vulnerable HIV-infected population and to identify patient perspectives of telehealth and its effect on appointment attendance, we studied patients at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) 360 Wellness Center, an HIV primary care clinic in urban San Francisco, California. Anonymous surveys were conducted to assess patient perceptions of telehealth, and 21% of patients sent surveys responded. Appointment attendance rates for all visits were analyzed before and after the shelter-in-place order in San Francisco on March 16, 2020. With the transition to telehealth, the overall nonattendance rate decreased by ∼3%. Most common perceived strengths of telehealth included convenience and safety, whereas disadvantages included technical barriers and unfamiliarity. Despite barriers and disadvantages listed by patients, a majority are willing to attend telehealth visits, as 80.5% of respondents reported being equally or more likely to attend telehealth visits. This is a critical finding during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond; we believe that telehealth can improve appointment attendance for vulnerable populations who often face barriers to receiving health care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Telemedicina , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(7): 1758-1769, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the joint associations of amounts of alcohol consumed and drinking habits with the risks of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 316,627 healthy current drinkers, with baseline measurements between March 13, 2006, and October 1, 2010, were included in this study. We newly created a drinking habit score (DHS) according to regular drinking (frequency of alcohol intake ≥3 times/wk) and whether consuming alcohol with meals (yes). RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, we documented 8652 incident cases of all-cause death, including 1702 cases of cardiovascular disease death, 4960 cases of cancer death, and 1990 cases of other-cause death. After adjustment confounders and amount of alcohol consumed, higher DHS was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, cancer mortality, or other-cause mortality (Ptrend<.001, Ptrend=.03, Ptrend<.001, and Ptrend<.001, respectively). We observed that the amount of alcohol consumed have different relationships with the risks of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality among participants with distinct drinking habits, grouped by DHS. For example, in the joint analyses, a J-shaped association between the amount of alcohol consumed and all-cause mortality was observed in participants with unfavorable DHS (Pquadratictrend=.02) while the association appeared to be U-shaped in participants with favorable DHS (Pquadratictrend=.003), with lower risks in those consuming greater than or equal to 50 g/wk and less than 300 g/wk. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that alcohol consumption levels have different relationships with the risk of mortality among current drinkers, depending on their drinking habits.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Etanol , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Causas de Morte , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Correlação de Dados , Etanol/metabolismo , Etanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hormese , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
J Correct Health Care ; 27(2): 89-102, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232781

RESUMO

During a pandemic, basic public health precautions must be taken across settings and populations. However, confinement conditions change what can be done in correctional settings. Correctional nursing (CN) care, like all nursing care, needs to be named and encoded to be recognized and used to generate data that will advance the discipline and maintain standards of care. The Omaha System is a standardized interprofessional terminology that has been used since 1992 to guide and document care. In 2019, a collaboration between the newly formed American Correctional Nurses Association and the Omaha System Community of Practice began a joint effort with other stakeholders aimed at encoding evidence-based pandemic response interventions used in CN. The resulting guidelines are included and illustrated with examples from CN practice.


Assuntos
COVID-19/enfermagem , Estabelecimentos Correcionais/normas , Documentação/normas , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/normas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/organização & administração , Cuidados de Enfermagem/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS Med ; 18(7): e1003693, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the availability of multiple Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines and the predicted shortages in supply for the near future, it is necessary to allocate vaccines in a manner that minimizes severe outcomes, particularly deaths. To date, vaccination strategies in the United States have focused on individual characteristics such as age and occupation. Here, we assess the utility of population-level health and socioeconomic indicators as additional criteria for geographical allocation of vaccines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: County-level estimates of 14 indicators associated with COVID-19 mortality were extracted from public data sources. Effect estimates of the individual indicators were calculated with univariate models. Presence of spatial autocorrelation was established using Moran's I statistic. Spatial simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models that account for spatial autocorrelation in response and predictors were used to assess (i) the proportion of variance in county-level COVID-19 mortality that can explained by identified health/socioeconomic indicators (R2); and (ii) effect estimates of each predictor. Adjusting for case rates, the selected indicators individually explain 24%-29% of the variability in mortality. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and proportion of population residing in nursing homes have the highest R2. Mortality is estimated to increase by 43 per thousand residents (95% CI: 37-49; p < 0.001) with a 1% increase in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and by 39 deaths per thousand (95% CI: 34-44; p < 0.001) with 1% increase in population living in nursing homes. SAR models using multiple health/socioeconomic indicators explain 43% of the variability in COVID-19 mortality in US counties, adjusting for case rates. R2 was found to be not sensitive to the choice of SAR model form. Study limitations include the use of mortality rates that are not age standardized, a spatial adjacency matrix that does not capture human flows among counties, and insufficient accounting for interaction among predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Significant spatial autocorrelation exists in COVID-19 mortality in the US, and population health/socioeconomic indicators account for a considerable variability in county-level mortality. In the context of vaccine rollout in the US and globally, national and subnational estimates of burden of disease could inform optimal geographical allocation of vaccines.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 25(4): 361-362, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269344

RESUMO

Now that the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its variants have altered clinical oncology practice as we know it, let's return to a familiar focus from the Core Curriculum for Oncology Nursing-pain management. Much has happened during the past two years that influences the effective management of pain in patients with cancer-not the least of which is a clinical environment that has been changed by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Oncologia/normas , Enfermagem Oncológica/normas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Manejo da Dor/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E66, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197283

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 illness in adults has been linked to underlying medical conditions. This study identified frequent underlying conditions and their attributable risk of severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We used data from more than 800 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR) to describe hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate adjusted risk of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death associated with frequent conditions and total number of conditions. RESULTS: Among 4,899,447 hospitalized adults in PHD-SR, 540,667 (11.0%) were patients with COVID-19, of whom 94.9% had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Essential hypertension (50.4%), disorders of lipid metabolism (49.4%), and obesity (33.0%) were the most common. The strongest risk factors for death were obesity (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), anxiety and fear-related disorders (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25-1.31), and diabetes with complication (aRR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24-1.28), as well as the total number of conditions, with aRRs of death ranging from 1.53 (95% CI, 1.41-1.67) for patients with 1 condition to 3.82 (95% CI, 3.45-4.23) for patients with more than 10 conditions (compared with patients with no conditions). CONCLUSION: Certain underlying conditions and the number of conditions were associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Hypertension and disorders of lipid metabolism were the most frequent, whereas obesity, diabetes with complication, and anxiety disorders were the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. Careful evaluation and management of underlying conditions among patients with COVID-19 can help stratify risk for severe illness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações do Diabetes , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Multimorbidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Obesidade , Transtornos Fóbicos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbidade , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E65, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197284

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Telehealth plays a role in the continuum of care, especially for older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our objective was to examine factors associated with the accessibility of telehealth services during the COVID-19 pandemic among older adults. METHODS: We analyzed the nationally representative Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey COVID-19 Rapid Response Supplement Questionnaire of beneficiaries aged 65 years or older. Two weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations between usual providers who offered telehealth 1) during the COVID-19 pandemic and 2) to replace a regularly scheduled appointment. We examined factors including sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, and digital access and literacy. RESULTS: Of the beneficiaries (n = 6,172, weighted n = 32.4 million), 81.2% reported that their usual providers offered telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among those offered telehealth services, 56.8% reported that their usual providers offered telehealth to replace a regularly scheduled appointment. Disparities in accessibility of telehealth services by sex, residing area (metropolitan vs nonmetropolitan), income level, and US Census region were observed. Beneficiaries who reported having internet access (vs no access) (OR, 1.75, P < .001) and who reported ever having participated in video, voice, or conference calls over the internet before (vs not) (OR, 2.18, P < .001) were more likely to report having access to telehealth. Non-Hispanic Black beneficiaries (versus White) (OR, 1.57, P = .007) and beneficiaries with comorbidities (vs none) (eg, 2 or 3 comorbidities, OR, 1.25, 95% P = .044) were more likely to have their usual provider offer telehealth to replace a regularly scheduled appointment. CONCLUSION: Although accessibility of telehealth has increased, inequities raise concern. Educational outreach and training, such as installing and launching an online web conferencing platform, should be considered for improving accessibility of telehealth to vulnerable populations beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Acesso à Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200600

RESUMO

Long-term PM2.5 exposure might predispose populations to SARS-CoV-2 infection and intervention policies might interrupt SARS-CoV-2 transmission and reduce the risk of COVID-19. We conducted an ecologic study across the United States, using county-level COVID-19 incidence up to 12 September 2020, to represent the first two surges in the U.S., annual average of PM2.5 between 2000 and 2016 and state-level facemask mandates and stay home orders. We fit negative binomial models to assess COVID-19 incidence in association with PM2.5 and policies. Stratified analyses by facemask policy and stay home policy were also performed. Each 1-µg/m3 increase in annual average concentration of PM2.5 exposure was associated with 7.56% (95% CI: 3.76%, 11.49%) increase in COVID-19 risk. Facemask mandates and stay home policies were inversely associated with COVID-19 with adjusted RRs of 0.8466 (95% CI: 0.7598, 0.9432) and 0.9193 (95% CI: 0.8021, 1.0537), respectively. The associations between PM2.5 and COVID-19 were consistent among counties with or without preventive policies. Our study added evidence that long-term PM2.5 exposure increased the risk of COVID-19 during each surge and cumulatively as of 12 September 2020, in the United States. Although both state-level implementation of facemask mandates and stay home orders were effective in preventing the spread of COVID-19, no clear effect modification was observed regarding long-term exposure to PM2.5 on the risk of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Incidência , Máscaras , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202168

RESUMO

Investigating the spatial distribution patterns of disease and suspected determinants could help one to understand health risks. This study investigated the potential risk factors associated with COVID-19 mortality in the continental United States. We collected death cases of COVID-19 from 3108 counties from 23 January 2020 to 31 May 2020. Twelve variables, including demographic (the population density, percentage of 65 years and over, percentage of non-Hispanic White, percentage of Hispanic, percentage of non-Hispanic Black, and percentage of Asian individuals), air toxins (PM2.5), climate (precipitation, humidity, temperature), behavior and comorbidity (smoking rate, cardiovascular death rate) were gathered and considered as potential risk factors. Based on four geographical detectors (risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector, and interaction detector) provided by the novel Geographical Detector technique, we assessed the spatial risk patterns of COVID-19 mortality and identified the effects of these factors. This study found that population density and percentage of non-Hispanic Black individuals were the two most important factors responsible for the COVID-19 mortality rate. Additionally, the interactive effects between any pairs of factors were even more significant than their individual effects. Most existing research examined the roles of risk factors independently, as traditional models are usually unable to account for the interaction effects between different factors. Based on the Geographical Detector technique, this study's findings showed that causes of COVID-19 mortality were complex. The joint influence of two factors was more substantial than the effects of two separate factors. As the COVID-19 epidemic status is still severe, the results of this study are supposed to be beneficial for providing instructions and recommendations for the government on epidemic risk responses to COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205293

RESUMO

We examined the associations of dietary cholesterol and egg intakes with cardiometabolic and all-cause mortality among Chinese and low-income Black and White Americans. Included were 47,789 Blacks, 20,360 Whites, and 134,280 Chinese aged 40-79 years at enrollment. Multivariable Cox models with restricted cubic splines were applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality outcomes using intakes of 150 mg cholesterol/day and 1 egg/week as the references. Cholesterol intake showed a nonlinear association with increased all-cause mortality and a linear association with increased cardiometabolic mortality among Black Americans: HRs (95% CIs) associated with 300 and 600 mg/day vs. 150 mg/day were 1.07 (1.03-1.11) and 1.13 (1.05-1.21) for all-cause mortality (P-linearity = 0.04, P-nonlinearity = 0.002, and P-overall < 0.001) and 1.10 (1.03-1.16) and 1.21 (1.08-1.36) for cardiometabolic mortality (P-linearity = 0.007, P-nonlinearity = 0.07, and P-overall = 0.005). Null associations with all-cause or cardiometabolic mortality were noted for White Americans (P-linearity ≥ 0.13, P-nonlinearity ≥ 0.06, and P-overall ≥ 0.05 for both). Nonlinear inverse associations were observed among Chinese: HR (95% CI) for 300 vs. 150 mg/day was 0.94 (0.92-0.97) for all-cause mortality and 0.91 (0.87-0.95) for cardiometabolic mortality, but the inverse associations disappeared with cholesterol intake > 500 mg/day (P-linearity ≥ 0.12; P-nonlinearity ≤ 0.001; P-overall < 0.001 for both). Similarly, we observed a positive association of egg intake with all-cause mortality in Black Americans, but a null association in White Americans and a nonlinear inverse association in Chinese. In conclusion, the associations of cholesterol and egg intakes with cardiometabolic and all-cause mortality may differ across ethnicities who have different dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risk profiles. However, residual confounding remains possible.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ovos , Síndrome Metabólica/mortalidade , Mortalidade/etnologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Homem , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher
16.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205308

RESUMO

Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests that optimal diet quality helps to improve preservation of lung function and to reduce chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but no study has investigated the association of food insecurity (FI) and lung health in the general population. Using data from a representative sample of US adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012 cycles, we investigated the association between FI with lung function and spirometrically defined COPD in 12,469 individuals aged ≥ 18 years of age. FI (high vs. low) was defined using the US Department of Agriculture's Food Security Scale). Population-weighted adjusted regression models were used to investigate associations between FI, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), their ratio, and spirometrically defined restriction (FVC below the lower limit of normal) and airflow obstruction (COPD). The prevalence of household FI was 13.2%. High household FI was associated with lower FVC (adjusted ß-coefficient -70.9 mL, 95% CI -116.6, -25.3), and with higher odds (OR) of spirometric restriction (1.02, 95% CI 1.00, 1.03). Stratified analyses showed similar effect sizes within specific ethnic groups. High FI was associated with worse lung health in a nationally representative sample of adults in the US.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta Saudável , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fumar/epidemiologia , Espirometria , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Capacidade Vital
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206293

RESUMO

An international online patient community, Carenity, conducted a patient study in two independent waves among adults affected by non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Europe and in the United States of America (USA). The study aimed to assess the real time impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the medical conditions of patients with NCDs, their access to health care, and their adaptation to daily life as well as to describe their sources of information on COVID-19 and their needs for specific information and support. During the pandemic, 50% of the patients reported a worsening of their medical condition, and 17% developed a new disease. Additionally, 26% of the respondents reported an impact of the pandemic on regular/long-term treatment intake. 54% of the patients felt very or completely socially isolated and reported a strong impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their stress level and state of mind, with higher levels observed in the USA compared to Europe. 59% of the respondents wished to have received additional information regarding the risks associated to their medical condition during the pandemic. Television was the most used source of information, whereas physicians were the most trusted one. This study describes the substantial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on NCD patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Adulto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to examine the temporal relationship between COVID-19 infections among prison staff, incarcerated individuals, and the general population in the county where the prison is located among federal prisons in the United States. METHODS: We employed population-standardized regressions with fixed effects for prisons to predict the number of active cases of COVID-19 among incarcerated persons using data from the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) for the months of March to December in 2020 for 63 prisons. RESULTS: There is a significant relationship between the COVID-19 prevalence among staff, and through them, the larger community, and COVID-19 prevalence among incarcerated persons in the US federal prison system. When staff rates are low or at zero, COVID-19 incidence in the larger community continues to have an association with COVID-19 prevalence among incarcerated persons, suggesting possible pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic transmission by staff. Masking policies slightly reduced COVID-19 prevalence among incarcerated persons, though the association between infections among staff, the community, and incarcerated persons remained significant and strong. CONCLUSION: The relationship between COVID-19 infections among staff and incarcerated persons shows that staff is vital to infection control, and correctional administrators should also focus infection containment efforts on staff, in addition to incarcerated persons.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Prisões , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207590

RESUMO

The opioid epidemic in the United States has led to a quadrupling of opioid overdoses since the 1990s. Stigmas exist among healthcare professionals, and it is essential to educate the next generation of pharmacy technicians regarding opioid use disorder. The main objective of this study was to characterize the phenomenon of stigma through the pharmacy technician lens when taking care of patients who are using opioid medications. Grounded in Van Manen's phenomenological approach and the Link and Phelan stigmatization model, a qualitative study was conducted from February to June 2020 to understand pharmacy technicians' perceptions and attitudes towards patients using opioid medications. Focus groups (n = 46) with pharmacy technicians were conducted in-person and online over five months in 2020. Thematic analysis identified three themes that characterize the stigma and the relationship between pharmacy technicians and patients taking opioid medications: (1) pharmacy technician perspectives on stigma and patients with addictive opioid-use behavior; (2) current approaches of pharmacy technicians towards patients with addictive opioid-use behavior; (3) future approaches of pharmacy technicians towards patients with addictive opioid-use behavior. The findings highlight an "ever-present" negative connotation associated with the stigma that is formed from patient interaction. It is necessary to develop proper resources and educational materials to manage the stigma that exists in pharmacies throughout the nation. These resources will facilitate how to address and prevent the stigma among pharmacy technicians in the U.S.


Assuntos
Fadiga por Compaixão , Farmácias , Farmácia , Analgésicos Opioides , Humanos , Epidemia de Opioides , Farmacêuticos , Técnicos em Farmácia , Papel Profissional , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lockdown measures because of COVID-19 are likely to result in deteriorating physical and mental health. In this study, our aim was to assess the impact of media exposure on increases in substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A nationally representative online survey of 1264 adults was collected during the pandemic in the United States. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between an increase in substance use since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and exposure to cable news or social media together with COVID-19 knowledge, while controlling for covariates. RESULTS: In the multivariable-adjusted models, participants with the highest exposure to social media (at least daily) and low knowledge of COVID-19 were 9.9 times more likely to experience an increase in substance use since the pandemic began (OR = 9.90, 95% CI = 4.27-23.06). Participants with the highest exposure to cable news and low knowledge of COVID-19 were over 11 times more likely to experience an increase in substance use (OR = 11.64, 95% CI = 4.01-24.45). CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, we recommend that media organizations should aim to reduce uncertainty and also provide positive coverage to counter the negative information associated with pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mídias Sociais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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