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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22219, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991415

RESUMO

Short stature is reportedly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the mechanism underlying this intriguing epidemiological finding is unclear. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of vascular stiffness, is a predictor of future CVD. Therefore, PWV may be affected by height even before overt CVD occurs. Here, we investigated the association between adult height and PWV in subjects without overt CVD.A total of 1019 subjects (48 ±â€Š12 years old; 509 men, 21 with diabetes mellitus, 209 with hypertension) without overt CVD were enrolled, all of whom underwent brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) measurements. The subjects were divided into 3 groups by height. A multiple regression model was used to estimate baPWV values among heights after the adjustment for confounders.Mean baPWV value was highest in the group with the shortest height for both sexes (both P < .001). Bivariate correlation analysis between height and baPWV showed significant correlations in men (r = -0.131, P = .003) and women (r = -0.180, P < .001). In the multiple regression analysis with adjustment for identified confounders, group height was a predictor of baPWV (P for trend = .003) in younger men (<50 years old) but not in older men, while group height was correlated with baPWV in older women (≥50 years old, P for trend = .014) but not in younger women.Height is inversely correlated with baPWV in subjects without overt CVD, especially in younger men and older women. This may explain the historical epidemiological observation of an inverse relationship between height and CVD.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais
2.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003305, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many maternal traits are associated with a neonate's gestational duration, birth weight, and birth length. These birth outcomes are subsequently associated with late-onset health conditions. The causal mechanisms and the relative contributions of maternal and fetal genetic effects behind these observed associations are unresolved. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Based on 10,734 mother-infant duos of European ancestry from the UK, Northern Europe, Australia, and North America, we constructed haplotype genetic scores using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated with adult height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Using these scores as genetic instruments, we estimated the maternal and fetal genetic effects underlying the observed associations between maternal phenotypes and pregnancy outcomes. We also used infant-specific birth weight genetic scores as instrument and examined the effects of fetal growth on pregnancy outcomes, maternal BP, and glucose levels during pregnancy. The maternal nontransmitted haplotype score for height was significantly associated with gestational duration (p = 2.2 × 10-4). Both maternal and paternal transmitted height haplotype scores were highly significantly associated with birth weight and length (p < 1 × 10-17). The maternal transmitted BMI scores were associated with birth weight with a significant maternal effect (p = 1.6 × 10-4). Both maternal and paternal transmitted BP scores were negatively associated with birth weight with a significant fetal effect (p = 9.4 × 10-3), whereas BP alleles were significantly associated with gestational duration and preterm birth through maternal effects (p = 3.3 × 10-2 and p = 4.5 × 10-3, respectively). The nontransmitted haplotype score for FPG was strongly associated with birth weight (p = 4.7 × 10-6); however, the glucose-increasing alleles in the fetus were associated with reduced birth weight through a fetal effect (p = 2.2 × 10-3). The haplotype scores for T2D were associated with birth weight in a similar way but with a weaker maternal effect (p = 6.4 × 10-3) and a stronger fetal effect (p = 1.3 × 10-5). The paternal transmitted birth weight score was significantly associated with reduced gestational duration (p = 1.8 × 10-4) and increased maternal systolic BP during pregnancy (p = 2.2 × 10-2). The major limitations of the study include missing and heterogenous phenotype data in some data sets and different instrumental strength of genetic scores for different phenotypic traits. CONCLUSIONS: We found that both maternal height and fetal growth are important factors in shaping the duration of gestation: genetically elevated maternal height is associated with longer gestational duration, whereas alleles that increase fetal growth are associated with shorter gestational duration. Fetal growth is influenced by both maternal and fetal effects and can reciprocally influence maternal phenotypes: taller maternal stature, higher maternal BMI, and higher maternal blood glucose are associated with larger birth size through maternal effects; in the fetus, the height- and metabolic-risk-increasing alleles are associated with increased and decreased birth size, respectively; alleles raising birth weight in the fetus are associated with shorter gestational duration and higher maternal BP. These maternal and fetal genetic effects may explain the observed associations between the studied maternal phenotypes and birth outcomes, as well as the life-course associations between these birth outcomes and adult phenotypes.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Biodemography Soc Biol ; 65(2): 97-118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432935

RESUMO

When traditional measures for material and economic welfare are scarce or unreliable, height and the body mass index (BMI) are now widely accepted measures that represent cumulative and current net nutrition in development studies. However, as the ratio of weight to height, BMI does not fully isolate the effects of current net nutrition. After controlling for height as a measure for current net nutrition, this study uses the weight of a sample of international men in US prisons. Throughout the late 19th- and early-20th centuries, individuals with darker complexions had greater weights than individuals with fairer complexions. Mexican and Asian populations in the US had lower weights and reached shorter statures. Black and white weights stagnated throughout the late 19th- and early-20th centuries. Agricultural workers' had greater weights than workers in other occupations.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estatura/etnologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estado Nutricional/etnologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/etnologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230502, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271790

RESUMO

Early identification of children <5 years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a high priority to reduce child mortality and improved health outcomes. Current WHO guidelines for community screening for SAM recommend a Mid-Upper-Arm Circumference (MUAC) of less than 115 mm to identify children with SAM, but this cut-off does not identify a significant number of children with a weight-for-height Z-score <-3. To establish new specific MUAC cut-offs, pooled data was obtained for 25,755 children from 49 SMART recent surveys in Ethiopia (2016-2019). Sensitivity, proportion of false positive, and areas under receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. MUAC below 115mm alone identified 55% of children with SAM identified with both methodologies. MUAC was worse in identifying older children (21%), those from a pastoral region (42%) and boys (41%). Using current WHO cut-offs, the sensitivity (Se) of MUAC below 115mm to identify the children severly malnourished screened through Weight-for-height below-3 was 16%. Analysing the ROC curve and Youden Index, Se and Specificity (Sp) were maximal at a MUAC < 133 mm cut-off to identify SAM (respectively Se 61.1%, Sp 81.4%). However, given the high proportion of false-positive children, according to gender, region and age groups, a cut-off around 125 mm to screen SAM could be the optimal one. In Ethiopia, implementation of a MUAC-only screening program for the identification of severe acute malnutrition with the actual cut-off of 115 mm would be unethical as it will lead to many children remaining undiagnosed and untreated. In addition, future study on implementation challenge on screening children with a higher cut-off or gender/age sensitive ones should be assessed with the collection of mortality and morbidity data to ensure that the most in need are being taking care of.


Assuntos
Braço/anatomia & histologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Viés , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gráficos de Crescimento , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
7.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231449, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human height is a simple measure with great applicability. Usually, stadiometers are used to measure height accurately. However, these may be impractical to transport and expensive. Therefore, we developed a portable and low-cost laser height metre (LHM). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to (1) determine intrarater and interrater reliability of our LHM and compare it to a wall-fixed stadiometer, (2) examine its agreement with the same stadiometer, and (3) determine the minimum number of recordings needed to obtain an accurate and reliable height measurement using the LHM. METHODS: We recruited 32 participants (18+ years)-both men and women. Two raters performed assessments on the same day blinded to each other and their reference standard measurements. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), standard error of measurement (SEM), and Bland-Altman plots with limits of agreement (LOA). RESULTS: For both the LHM and stadiometer, we found ICC values of 0.99-1.00 (95% CI: 0.997-1.000) for both intrarater and interrater reliability. Regarding LHM intrarater reliability, SEM, CV, and LOA were 0.34 cm, 0.16%, and -1.07 to 0.73 cm, respectively. In terms of LHM interrater reliability, SEM, CV, and LOA were 0.27 cm, 0.12%, and -0.32 to 0.84 cm, respectively. As to agreement with stadiometers using one measurement, the mean difference was -0.14 cm and LOA ranged from -0.81 to 0.77 cm. CONCLUSION: A portable and low-cost LHM, for measuring body height once, showed an excellent reproducibility within and between raters along with an acceptable agreement with a stadiometer thereby representing a suitable alternative.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lasers , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 39(1): 5, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether or not the breakpoint (BP), at which the proportion of each of fat mass (FM) and fat-free soft tissue mass (FFSTM) to body mass (BM) alter, exists in male athletes. We examined the hypothesis that in male athletes, the regional FM and FFSTM-BM relationships have a BP, but the body mass at BP (BMBP) differs among the arms, trunk, and legs. METHODS: By using a dual X-ray absorptiometry, whole-body and regional FMs and FFSTMs in the arms, trunk, and legs were estimated in 198 male athletes (20.8 ± 2.1 years; 1.73 ± 0.07 m; 72.7 ± 14.8 kg). To detect the BP in the relationship between each of FM and FFSTM and BM, a piecewise linear regression analysis was used. If a BP was detected in the corresponding relationship, the significant difference between the regression slopes above and below the BP was examined. RESULTS: The regression analysis indicated that the BMBP existed in the FM- and FFSTM-BM relationships regardless of region and whole body. For the whole body, BMBP was 81.8 kg for FM and 82.2 kg for FFSTM. In regional FM-BM relationships, BMBP was 80.5 kg for arms, 82.6 kg for trunk, and 63.3 kg for legs, and the regression slopes above the BMBP became higher than those below the BP, and vice versa in regional FFSTM-BM relationships (BMBP 104.6 kg for arms, 80.9 kg for trunk, and 79.0 kg for legs). The relative differences in the slopes between below and above BMBP in the regional FM-BM relationships were higher in the arms and trunk than in the legs, and those in the regional FFSTM-BM relationships in the legs than in the trunk. CONCLUSION: Whole-body and regional FM- and FFSTM-BM relationships for male athletes have breakpoints at which the proportion of the tissue masses to BM alters. The BMBP and differences in the distribution of regional FM and FFSTM around the breakpoint are region specific.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
9.
Lipids Health Dis ; 19(1): 47, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While in the general paediatric population the presence of abnormal lipid values is estimated at 8-20%, depending on the population, accepted norms and age, it was shown that in the population of lean children the prevalence of dyslipidemia is lower than in obese children, in whom it ranges from 20 to over 40%. Until now, however, no results of similar studies on a large sample of children form a Central or Eastern European country have been published. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of lipid disorders in overweight and obese children and adolescents participating in an integrated weight reduction programme. METHODS: According to the "6-10-14 for Health" programme implementation schedule, the programme accepted patients living in Gdansk, aged 6, 9-11 and 14 years old, with BMI above the 85th percentile for age and sex, according to the Polish percentile charts. During the first visit, each of the participants underwent basic anthropometric examinations - body weight, body height, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure and body composition by bioelectrical impedance were measured. Blood samples were taken to assess lipid, glucose and insulin levels as well as alanine transaminase (ALT) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) activity. RESULTS: 1948 patients underwent full anthropomethric and blood work measurements. At least one of the lipid disorders occurred in 38.23% of girls and 40.51% of boys with overweight and obesity. The most common lipid disorderswere decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (present in 20.55% of the girls and 23.79% of the boys) and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (present in 15.31% of the girls and 14.25% of the boys). There was no strong association between lipid disorders and age, sex, birth weight, gestational age at birth or body composition. CONCLUSIONS: Such a frequent occurrence of lipid disorders in the population of children and adolescents should be an important warning signal both at the individual and population level. Not only effective screening methods for overweight and obese children should be implemented from an early age but also therapeutic measures are required. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered under the Local Ethics Committee at Medical University of Gdansk, decision No. NKBBN/228/2012 from 25 June 2012.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Criança , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Polônia
10.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(3): 194-200, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135590

RESUMO

Objective: To survey the children under 7 years of age in nine cities of China for a better understanding of the current situation of childhood stunting. Methods: According to a stratified cluster sampling design, a cross-sectional survey on children under 7 years of age was carried out in 9 cities (Beijing, Harbin and Xi'an in northern China; Shanghai, Nanjing and Wuhan in central China; and Guangzhou, Fuzhou and Kunming in southern China) from June to November in 2016. A total of 110 499 children were recruited. Height of children was evaluated using the growth standards for Chinese children (2009 edition) .Children with height less than the 3rd percentile of the growth standards were considered as stunting, and children with height between the 3rd and 10th percentiles of the growth standards were considered as relatively short stature. Chi-square test was used for comparison between data of boys and girls, urban and suburban, as well as among different ages and regions. Results: Totally 113 084 children under 7 years of age should be investigated and actually 110 499 children were investigated, with a rate of 97.7%. The prevalence of stunting was 1.9% (2 141/110 499) among all the children. The prevalence of stunting in urban children (1.6%, 904/55 524) was lower than that in suburban children (2.3%, 1 237/54 975, χ(2)=56.246, P<0.01). The gender difference in stunting prevalence was not statistically significant (1.9% (1 121/57 921) in boys and 1.9% (1 020/52 578) in girls, χ(2)=0.003, P=0.965). The prevalence of stunting decreased with age for children younger than 3 years, from 1.8% (312/17 080) in 0-<1 year of age group to 1.2% (168/13 740) in 2-<3 years of age group, but increased to 2.2% (240/11 073) at 6-<7 years group. Comparison among different regions showed that the stunting prevalence in southern region was higher than those in the central and northern regions (0.9% (193/20 374) in northern urban, 0.8% (154/18 486) in central urban, and 3.3% (557/16 664) in southern urban children), showing a statistical significance (χ(2)=437.736, P<0.01); 1.1% (241/21 924) in northern suburban, 1.4% (227/16 775) in central suburban and 4.7% (769/16 276) in southern suburban children, showing a statistical significance (χ(2)=646.533, P<0.01). In urban areas, the difference between the central and northern regions showed no statistical significance (χ(2)=1.429, P=0.232) and the stunting prevalence of central Chinese children was slightly higher than that of northern Chinese children in suburban areas (χ(2)=5.130, P=0.024). Among the nine cities, the stunting prevalence of Guangzhou (6.1%, 613/10 019) was higher than those of other cities (χ(2)=1 559.64, P<0.01). Among the stunting children, 78.4% (1 679/2 141) were classified as borderline or mild and only 7.2% (154/2 141) were classified as severe. The prevalence of relatively short stature was 5.2% (5 721/110 499). Conclusions: The prevalence of stunting among children under 7 years of age in nine cities of China is low and most of the stunting children were classified as mild; the prevalence of stunting in suburban children is higher than that in urban children; the gender difference show no statistical significance; and the prevalence of stunting in southern Chinese children is higher than those in central and northern Chinese children.


Assuntos
Estatura , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Pequim , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(3): 206-212, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135592

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the timing of permanent tooth emergence and its association with physical growth among children aged 4-7 years in 9 cities of China, and to analyze the trend of permanent teeth development. Methods: According to a stratified cluster sampling design, a cross-sectional survey on the timing of permanent tooth emergence children aged 4-7 years was carried out in 9 cities (Beijing, Harbin and Xi'an in northern China; Shanghai, Nanjing and Wuhan in central China; Guangzhou, Fuzhou and Kunming in southern China) from June to October in 2015. A total of 37 973 children (19 035 boys and 18 938 girls) were recruited and were divided into different age groups (4.0-<4.5, 4.5-5.0, 5.0-5.5 and 6.0-<7.0 years of age). The situation of the exfoliation of primary teeth and the eruption of permanent teeth were investigated. Height and weight were measured using the standardized methods. Z-scores of physical growth indicators were calculated using the growth standards for Chinese children in 2009. Probit regression analysis was used to determine the median and percentile age of transition from deciduous to permanent teeth. Chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data and t test was used for comparison of measurement data between boys and girls, urban and suburban as well as among different ages and regions. Meanwhile, the data from the national survey on physical growth and development of children under 7 years of age in 9 cities of China in 1995 were used to analyze the trends of the permanent teeth development. Results: The rate of transition from deciduous to permanent teeth in 37 973 children aged 4-7 years was higher with age, which was 0.6% (42/7 568) in 4.0-<4.5 years of age group, 30.3% (2 295/7 583) in 5.5-<6.0 years of age group, and 74.5% (5 680/7 627) in 6.0-<7.0 years of age group. The rates of transition from deciduous to permanent teeth in boys were all lower than those of girls except for children aged 4.0-<4.5 years (all P<0.01). The rate of transition from deciduous to permanent teeth in urban children was higher than that in suburban children for older than 5.5-6.0 years of age group in boys and older than 4.5-5.0 years of age group in girls, which was 74.2% (1 427/1 924) in urban boys aged 6.0-<7.0 years and 69.2% (1 305/1 885) in suburban boys aged 6.0-<7.0 years (χ(2)=11.446, P<0.01). The age of transition from deciduous to permanent teeth was 6.00 (95%CI: 5.98-6.01) years and the range of the 3-97 percentile was 4.88-7.11 years of age. The median permanent tooth emergence age of girls was lower than that of boys (5.94 vs. 6.06 years) and the median age of urban children was lower than that of suburban children (5.94 vs. 6.05 years). The median permanent tooth emergence age of southern Chinese children (6.05 years) was higher than that of northern (5.97 years) and central Chinese children (5.97 years). The weight for age Z-scores (WAZ), height for age Z-scores (HAZ) and body mass index for age Z-scores (BMIZ) of children with transition from deciduous to permanent teeth (0.35±1.17, 0.32±1.00, 0.23±1.16) were significantly higher than those of children without transition from deciduous to permanent teeth (0.03±1.13, 0.03±1.02, 0.04±1.13, t=20.81,21.67,12.09, all P<0.05). In comparison with the data in 1995, data in 2015 showed that the rate of transition from deciduous to permanent teeth was higher, for example, the rate of urban boys aged 6.0-<7.0 years group was 63.8% (1 146/1 796) in 1995, and increased to 74.2% (1 427/1 924) in 2015 (χ(2)=46.748, P<0.01). The median permanent tooth emergence age decreased by 0.24 years in 2015 as compared with that in 1995. Conclusions: The development of permanent teeth is earlier in girls than in boys, earlier in urban children than in suburban children and slightly delay in southern children than in central and northern Chinese children. In addition, the development of permanent teeth, which is related to the physical growth, slightly accelerate in China during the past 20 years.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Erupção Dentária , Dente Decíduo , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995184

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Body mass index percentiles are widely used to determine overweight and obesity status in children and adolescents. Their limitations in clinical settings can be addressed. OBJECTIVE: Reference ranges for the tri-ponderal mass index percentiles of Korean children and adolescents are presented for a comparison of their clinical variables with those of body mass index. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2016. PATIENTS: Korean children and adolescents aged 10 to 20 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The age- and sex-specific least mean square parameters (skewness, median, and coefficient of variation) for the tri-ponderal mass index of 9749 subjects aged 10 to 20 years. RESULTS: The factors associated with metabolic syndrome, except diastolic blood pressure, were more likely to be worse in the subjects with tri-ponderal mass index values indicative of overweight status than in those with normal tri-ponderal mass index values. Body mass index tends to underestimate obesity-related comorbidities more than tri-ponderal mass index does. CONCLUSION: The tri-ponderal mass index standard deviation score may be advantageous when defining overweight and obesity in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Homo ; 71(1): 37-42, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939993

RESUMO

Anatomical stature estimation methods reconstruct stature for skeletal specimens by adding up the heights of skeletal elements contributing to stature. In addition, these estimations factor in a certain amount of soft tissue known as "soft tissue correction". Our study focuses on the relationship between living stature and one of the major soft tissue contributors to stature: the intervertebral disc thickness/height. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether intervertebral disc thickness is greater in tall individuals and whether there is a linear correlation between stature and intervertebral disc height. To conduct this study, we utilized a subsample of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1966 (n = 12,058) with known stature. We measured vertebral heights and intervertebral disc heights from low back MRI examination performed at the age of 46 years (n = 200). All subjects were considered healthy with no spinal injuries or pathologies. Our results clearly indicate that stature and intervertebral disc height have positive, statistically significant association. According to our results it is advisable to take into account the individual's skeletal height when soft tissue corrections for anatomical stature estimations are performed. Further studies utilizing full body MRI are needed to produce more accurate soft tissue corrections.


Assuntos
Antropologia Física/métodos , Estatura/fisiologia , Disco Intervertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 38: e2018185, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review studies that evaluate the correspondence between the estimate height via segmental measures and the actual height of children with cerebral palsy. DATA SOURCES: Systematic literature review between 1995-2018, guided by the PRISMA criteria (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses), in PubMed, BVS, MEDLINE and Lilacs databases. The descriptors, connected by the AND Boolean Operators, were: anthropometry, cerebral palsy, child and body height. The research comprised papers in Portuguese, English and Spanish, with Qualis-CAPES equal or superior to B3 that addressed the question: "Is there any correlation between estimate height by equations and direct height measures in children with cerebral palsy?" 152 studies were recovered and seven were selected. Their methodological quality was assessed by the scale of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). DATA SYNTHESIS: Most studies showed no correspondence between estimated and real height. Studies that showed coincidence of the measures contain limitations that could jeopardize the results (sample losses, small samples and exclusion of patients with severe contractures, scoliosis and severe cerebral palsy). Japanese researchers developed an equation which harmoniously aligns the statures; the study comprised only Japanese patients, though. CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of accuracy in height measures to evaluate infant health, it is crucial to carry out more researches in order to safely establish an association between both estimate and real statures. The development of anthropometric protocols, emerged from such researches, would benefit the follow-up of children with severe psychomotor disabilities.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatura/fisiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde do Lactente/normas , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(3): 417-421, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cooper Test, is a field test, simple and useful in the school context. The aim of this research was the definition of the trend in Cooper endurance test along with the growth. In particular, through the scaling method (allometric). METHODS: A total of 556 of European sedentary children aged 11-13 years (282 boys; 274 girls) were involved. All subjects were evaluated through the Endurance Cooper test (12 min run test). To identify the most appropriate body size and shape characteristics as well as any categorical differences (sex, age) associated with the measure of the Cooper test, a multiplicative model with allometric body-size components was applied. RESULTS: The multiplicative model relating to the Cooper test and the body-size components was: Cooper test = a · mass-0.325 · height0.878 with the mass and height exponents being k1=-0.325 (SEE=0.40) and k2= 0.878 (SEE=0.141), respectively. The adjusted coefficient of determination (adj R2) was 32.3%, with a log-transformed error ratio of 0.136 or 14.5% having taken antilogs. Significant differences in the constant 'a' parameter were identified by sex (P<0.001) and age (P<0.001) while the interaction of sex per age was not significant (P=0.761). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that the scaling method identified the optimal height-to-body mass ratios associated with Cooper endurance test corresponding to ectomorph body shape. Furthermore, growth fluctuations become important to avoid alarming judgment in case children will be poorly evaluated.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estatura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Crescimento/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Somatotipos/fisiologia
16.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 91(3): 425-432, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906807

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the individual contributions of chronological age, somatic maturation, body size and composition, and training experience as indicators of performance in neuromuscular and judo-specific assessments in young athletes. Methods: Sixty-six youth judo athletes performed anthropometric measurements, neuromuscular tests-standing long jump test (SLJ), medicine ball throw test (MBT), handgrip strength test (HGS), and judo-specific tests-Special Judo Fitness test (SJFT) and Judogi Grip Isometric Strength Test (JGSTISO). A multiple linear regression was used with the level of significance set at 5%. Results: The main results showed age-peak height velocity (PHV), body fat and training experience explained close to 20% of SJFT performance. Chronological age, age-PHV, height, body mass and body fat accounted for 42% of variance in JGSTISO. Chronological age, body fat and training experience explained 35% of the variance in SLJ, while chronological age, body mass and body fat explained 53% of the variance in MBT. Finally, age-PHV, body mass and height explained 54% of the variance in HGS. Conclusion: Estimated age-PHV and growth variables explained moderate to large proportions of the variance in neuromuscular tests (with exception of SLJ), while both estimated age-PHV, training and growth variables were predictors of judo-specific performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Estatura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Análise de Regressão
17.
Transplantation ; 104(1): 137-144, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved management of growth impairment might have resulted in less growth retardation after pediatric kidney transplantation (KT) over time. We aimed to analyze recent longitudinal growth data after KT in comparison to previous eras, its determinants, and the association with transplant outcome in a large cohort of transplanted children using data from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association and European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry. METHODS: A total of 3492 patients transplanted before 18 years from 1990 to 2012 were included. Height SD scores (SDS) were calculated using recent national or European growth charts. We used generalized equation models to estimate the prevalence of growth deficit and linear mixed models to calculate adjusted mean height SDS. RESULTS: Mean adjusted height post-KT was -1.77 SDS. Height SDS was within normal range in 55%, whereas 28% showed moderate, and 17% severe growth deficit. Girls were significantly shorter than boys, but catch-up growth by 5 years post-KT was observed in both boys and girls. Children <6 years were shortest at KT and showed the greatest increase in height, whereas there was no catch-up growth in children transplanted >12. CONCLUSIONS: Catch-up growth post-KT remains limited, height SDS did not improve over time, resulting in short stature in nearly half of transplanted children in Europe.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Anormalidades Urogenitais/cirurgia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/cirurgia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Anormalidades Urogenitais/complicações , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/complicações
18.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(3): 229-235, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Rojiroti microfinance, for poor Indian women, improves child nutrition. DESIGN: Cluster randomised trial. SETTING: Tolas (village communities) in Bihar State. PARTICIPANTS: Women and children under 5 years. INTERVENTIONS: With Rojiroti microfinance, women form self-help groups and save their money to provide loans to group members. After 6 months, they receive larger external loans. Tolas were randomised to receive Rojiroti immediately or after 18 months. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary analysis compared the mean weight for height Z score (WHZ) of children under 5 years in the intervention versus control tolas who attended for weight and height measurement 18 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes were weight for age Z score (WAZ), height for age Z score, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), wasting, underweight and stunting. RESULTS: We randomised 28 tolas to each arm and collected data from 2469 children (1560 mothers) at baseline and 2064 children (1326 mothers) at follow-up. WHZ was calculated for 1718 children at baseline and 1377 (674 intervention and 703 control) at follow-up. At 18 months, mean WHZ was significantly higher for intervention (-1.02) versus controls (-1.37; regression coefficient adjusted for clustering ß=0.38, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.61, p=0.001). Significantly fewer children were wasted in the intervention group (122, 18%) versus control (200, 29%; OR=0.46, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.74, p=0.002). Mean WAZ was better in the intervention group (-2.13 vs -2.37; ß=0.27, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.43, p=0.001) as was MUAC (13.6 cm vs 13.4 cm; ß=0.22, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.40, p=0.02). In an analysis adjusting for baseline nutritional measures (259 intervention children and 300 control), only WAZ and % underweight showed significant differences in favour of the intervention. CONCLUSION: In marginalised communities in rural India, child nutrition was better in those who received Rojiroti microfinance, compared with controls. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01845545.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/economia , Financiamento Pessoal/economia , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/economia , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Pobreza , Características de Residência , Saúde da População Rural/economia , Grupos de Autoajuda , Resultado do Tratamento , Síndrome de Emaciação/economia , Síndrome de Emaciação/prevenção & controle
19.
J Sports Sci ; 38(3): 264-272, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774369

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) is essential for development of fundamental motor skills (FMS) in children, but it is uncertain which PA intensities are most influential. A limitation to current evidence is the reliance on analytic approaches that cannot handle collinearity. The aim of this study was to determine the PA signature related to FMS in preschoolers, by investigating the association pattern for the whole spectrum of PA intensities using multivariate pattern analysis. We used a sample of N = 1081 Norwegian preschoolers (4.7 yr; 52% boys) who provided valid accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) and FMS data (TGMD-3, modified version). We created 33 PA variables (from 0-100 to ≥15,000 counts per minute [cpm]), and used partial least squares regression to analyse the associations between PA and FMS, after controlling for potential covariates. PA was positively associated with locomotor- and object control skills (explained variances for vertical axes; R2 = 9.7% and 3.9%, respectively). The strongest associations were found for PA between 5000-8000 cpm. No association pattern was found for PA and balance skills. This study is the first to determine the multivariate PA intensity signature related to FMS. This approach shows that PA within the vigorous range is strongest related to FMS in preschoolers.Abbreviations: FMS: fundamental motor skills; PA: Physical activity; TPA: total physical activity; SED: Sedentary behaviour; LPA: Light physical activity; MPA: Moderate physical activity; VPA: Vigorous physical activity; MVPA: Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; Min: minutes; cpm: counts per minute; SD: standard deviation; SES: Socioeconomic status; BMI: Body Mass Index.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Estatura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Noruega , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Classe Social
20.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(2): 185, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770102

RESUMO

Context: Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism/Kallmann syndrome (CHH/KS) is a rare condition characterized by gonadotropin deficiency and pubertal failure. Adult height (AH) in patients with CHH/KS has not been well studied. Objective: To assess AH in a large cohort of patients with CHH/KS. Patients: A total of 219 patients (165 males, 54 females). Parents and siblings were included. Methods: AH was assessed in patients and family members. AH was compared to the general French population, mid parental target height (TH) and between patients and same-sex siblings. Delta height (∆H) was considered as the difference between AH and parental TH. ∆H was compared between patients and siblings, normosmic CHH and KS (CHH with anosmia/hyposmia), and according to underlying genetic defect. We examined the correlations between ∆H and age at diagnosis and therapeutically induced individual statural gain. Results: Mean AH in men and women with CHH/KS was greater than that in the French general population. Patients of both sexes had AH > TH. Males with CHH/KS were significantly, albeit moderately, taller than their brothers. ∆H was higher in CHH/KS compared to unaffected siblings (+6.2 ± 7.2 cm vs +3.4 ± 5.2 cm, P < 0.0001). ∆H was positively correlated with age at diagnosis. Neither olfactory function (normosmic CHH vs KS) nor specific genetic cause impacted ∆H. Individual growth during replacement therapy inversely correlated with the age at initiation of hormonal treatment (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: CHH/KS is associated with higher AH compared to the general population and mid-parental TH. Greater height in CHH/KS than siblings indicates that those differences are in part independent of an intergenerational effect.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Síndrome de Kallmann/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Feminino , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Síndrome de Kallmann/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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