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2.
Am Heart J ; 228: 57-64, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828047

RESUMO

AIMS: Data regarding outcomes for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) with concomitant aortic insufficiency (AI), undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are limited. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of severe AS with concomitant AI among patients undergoing TAVR and outcomes of TAVR in this patient group. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from the STS/ACC-TVT Registry, we identified patients with severe AS with or without concomitant AI who underwent TAVR between 2011 and 2016. Patients were categorized based on the severity of pre-procedural AI. Multivariable proportional hazards regression models were used to examine all-cause mortality and heart failure (HF) hospitalization at 1-year. Among 54,535 patients undergoing TAVR, 42,568 (78.1%) had severe AS with concomitant AI. Device success was lower in patients with severe AS with concomitant AI as compared with isolated AS. The presence of baseline AI was associated with lower 1 year mortality (HR 0.94 per 1 grade increase in AI severity; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98, P < .001) and HF hospitalization (HR 0.87 per 1 grade increase in AI severity; 95% CI, 0.84-0.91, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Severe AS with concomitant AI is common among patients undergoing TAVR, and is associated with lower 1 year mortality and HF hospitalization. Future studies are warranted to better understand the mechanisms underlying this benefit. SHORT ABSTRACT: In this nationally representative analysis from the United States, 78.1% of patients undergoing TAVR had severe AS with concomitant AI. Device success was lower in patients with severe AS with concomitant AI as compared with isolated AS. The presence of baseline AI was associated with lower 1 year mortality (HR 0.94 per 1 grade increase in AI severity; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98, P < .001) and HF hospitalization (HR 0.87 per 1 grade increase in AI severity; 95% CI, 0.84-0.91, P < .001).


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica , Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Valva Aórtica , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 84-91, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650929

RESUMO

Valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is defined as AF in the presence of mitral stenosis or mechanical valve prosthesis. However, there are patients with AF who have significant native valvular heart disease (VHD) others than mitral stenosis that are classified as nonvalvular AF. The characteristics and prognostic implications of these entities have not been extensively studied. Of 1,885 AF patients referred for electrical cardioversion (64 ± 13years, 71% male), 171 (9.1%) had valvular AF (any grade of mitral stenosis or mechanical/biological valve prostheses) and 1,714 patients were identified as nonvalvular AF, of whom 329 (17.5%) had significant left-sided VHD. Patients with nonvalvular AF but with significant left-sided VHD were older, more frequently women and had more co-morbidities compared with the other groups. Furthermore, nonvalvular AF patients with significant left-sided VHD showed the worst left ventricular systolic function and largest left atrial volumes. During a median follow-up of 64 months (interquartile range: 33 to 96 months), 488 patients presented with the combined endpoint of all-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalization, and ischemic stroke. Patients with nonvalvular AF and with significant left-sided VHD had more events of heart failure whereas patients with valvular AF had higher all-cause mortality events. There were no differences in ischemic stroke events. Type of AF was not associated with outcomes after correcting for echocardiographic variables. In conclusion, the frequency of AF patients with significant VHD is relatively high. The consequences of VHD and AF on cardiac structure and function are more important determinants of adverse outcome than the type of AF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Anuloplastia da Valva Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte , Ecocardiografia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Mortalidade , Prognóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
4.
Ann Hematol ; 99(9): 2081-2084, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691113

RESUMO

Aortic valve disease (AVD) has similarities to atherosclerosis in the case of aortic stenosis. The important role of platelet in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is known. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether platelet disorders play any role in aortic valve disease. We used patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) for this study. We evaluated any association between ITP and AVD using a large inpatient database. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for ITP and AVD from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database were used for this study. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed on data from 2002 to 2011 to evaluate any association between ITP and AVD. In the 2002 database, AVD was present in 1.73% of ITP patients versus 1.12% in the control population (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-1.81; p < 0.001). In the 2011 database, AVD was present in 1.96% of ITP patients versus 1.33% in the control population (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.30-1.68; p < 0.001). ITP remained independently associated with AVD following a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in 2002 (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16-1.57; p < 0.001) with a trend of this association in 2011 (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.98-1.27; p = 0.096). ITP was strongly associated with AVD over the 10-year period analyzed in a large inpatient database. The reason for this association is not known warranting further investigations.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/epidemiologia , Idoso , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Prevalência , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Am J Cardiol ; 129: 95-101, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624190

RESUMO

The high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in elderly patients is well known. However, much remains unknown about those population. We sought to find the clinical characteristics of echocardiographic PH and the prognostic factors in patients ≥90 years of age. We retrospectively reviewed 310 patients ≥90 years of age (median age 92 years, 64% women) diagnosed as echocardiographic PH (peak systolic pulmonary arterial pressure ≥40 mm Hg) with normal left ventricular systolic function. We defined left heart disease (LHD) as significant left-sided valve diseases, left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction by using echocardiography. The endpoint was all-cause death at 2,000 days after diagnosis. LHD was found in 92% of patients. During the median follow-up of 367 days (interquartile range, 39-1,028 days), 151 all-cause deaths (49%) occurred. Multivariable Cox regression analysis demonstrated that right ventricular fraction area change <35% (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.31; p <0.001), pericardial effusion (adjusted HR: 2.28; p <0.001), serum albumin <3.5 g/dL (adjusted HR: 1.76; p = 0.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (adjusted HR: 1.93; p = 0.001) and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class ≥II (adjusted HR: 1.73; p = 0.004) were associated with mortality after adjusted for age. In conclusion, LHD was significantly associated with echocardiographic PH in most patients ≥90 years of age. Also, the co-morbid factors at diagnosis (right ventricular systolic dysfunction, pericardial effusion, hypoalbuminemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and NYHA class ≥II) were independently associated with mortality.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Diástole , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipoalbuminemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Mitral/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Derrame Pericárdico/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pericárdico/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Albumina Sérica , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/epidemiologia
7.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 63(4): 496-502, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526213

RESUMO

Calcific aortic valve stenosis (AS) is the most common form of acquired valvular heart disease needing intervention and our understanding of this disease has evolved from one of degenerative calcification to that of an active process driven by the interplay of genetic factors and chronic inflammation modulated by risk factors such as smoking, hypertension and elevated cholesterol. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp (a)] is a cholesterol rich particle secreted by the liver which functions as the major lipoprotein carrier of phosphocholine-containing oxidized phospholipids. Lp(a) levels are largely genetically determined by polymorphisms in the LPA gene. While there is an extensive body of evidence linking Lp(a) to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, emerging evidence now suggests a similar association of Lp(a) to calcific AS. In this article, we performed a systematic review of all published literature to assess the association between Lp(a) and calcific aortic valve (AV) disease. In addition, we review the potential mechanisms by which Lp(a) influences the progression of valve disease. Our review identified a total of 21 studies, varying from case-control studies, prospective or retrospective observational cohort studies to Mendelian randomized studies that assessed the association between Lp(a) and calcific AS. All but one of the above studies demonstrated significant association between elevated Lp(a) and calcific AS. We conclude that there is convincing evidence supporting a causal association between elevated Lp(a) and calcific AS. In addition, elevated Lp(a) predicts a faster hemodynamic progression of AS, and increased risk of AV replacement, especially in younger patients. Further research into the clinical utility of Lp(a) as a marker for predicting the incidence, progression, and outcomes of sclerodegenerative AV disease is needed.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/sangue , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Calcinose/sangue , Calcinose/epidemiologia , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Calcinose/patologia , Humanos
8.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 210-215, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534732

RESUMO

The clinical and imaging differences between bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) patients with medically managed asymptomatic moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis (AS) have not been studied previously. We aim to characterize these differences and their clinical outcomes in this study. A retrospective observational study was conducted on 836 consecutive cases of isolated asymptomatic moderate-to-severe AS, with median follow-up of 3.4 years. Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics were compared between BAV and TAV patients. Subgroup analysis stratified by AS severity were performed. Survival analysis of all-cause mortality was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards model. Compared to BAV patients, TAV patients were older (76 ± 11 vs 55 ± 16 years, p <0.001) and had more co-morbidities including hypertension (78% vs 56%; p <0.001), diabetes (41% vs 24%; p <0.001), and chronic kidney disease (20% vs 3%; p = 0.001). TAV patients had less severe aortic valve disease than BAV patients, with a higher aortic valve area index (0.71 ± 0.20 cm2/m2 vs 0.61 ± 0.18 cm2/m2, p <0.001) and less aortic dilation (sinotubular junction: 23.7 ± 4.0 mm vs 26.9 ± 4.8 mm, p <0.001; mid-ascending aorta: 31.4 ± 4.7 mm vs 36.3 ± 6.3 mm, p <0.001). TAV patients were more likely to have eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy and less likely to have a normal geometry (p = 0.003). Competing risk analysis identified increased age (hazard ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.05, p <0.001) and LVEF (hazard ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.97 to 0.99, p <0.001) as independent risk factors of all-cause mortality. Valve morphology was not a significant independent risk factor for aortic valve replacement or mortality. In conclusion, asymptomatic TAV patients had more cardiovascular risk factors, less severe aortic valve disease, less sinotubular and mid-ascending aortic dilation, more severe LV remodeling.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doenças Assintomáticas , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/epidemiologia , Doenças da Aorta/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Dilatação Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Dilatação Patológica/epidemiologia , Dilatação Patológica/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico
9.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 755-762, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546993

RESUMO

Introduction: Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a common cardiac screening test before hip fracture surgery. However, the general TTE test delays surgery, so it would be meaningful if we could simplify the TTE by only assessing cardiac abnormality specifically. Therefore, we aimed to establish the most clinically relevant abnormality by comparing the predictive value of each major cardiac abnormality in postoperative cardiac complications and mortality in elderly hip fracture patients. Patients and Methods: From January 2014 to January 2019, the medical records of all surgically treated elderly patients (>65 years) with hip fracture were analyzed. The major TTE abnormalities were defined as left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure >25 mm Hg, moderate-severe valve abnormality, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50%, and pericardial effusion. The outcomes were postoperative cardiac complications and in-hospital mortality. Results: There were 354 patients involved finally. Postoperative cardiac complications were encountered in 7.6% (n=27) of patients. The mortality rate was 2.8% (n=10). History of coronary artery disease (CAD) (OR: 3.281, 95% CI: 1.332-8.079, p=0.010) and presence of aortic stenosis (AS) (OR:5.656, 95% CI: 1.869-17.117, p=0.002) were independent predictors of postoperative cardiac complications. In addition, age (OR: 1.264, 95% CI: 1.047-1.527, p=0.015), history of CAD (OR: 19.290, 95% CI: 2.002-185.885, p=0.010), presence of AS (OR:7.164, 95% CI: 1.988-51.413, p=0.040) and LVEF <50% (OR:8.803, 95% CI: 1.115-69.472, p=0.039) were independent predictors of mortality. However, the rest of preoperative TTE abnormalities were not associated with postoperative cardiac complications or mortality. Conclusion: Among the TTE abnormalities presented by elderly patients with hip fracture, moderate-severe AS was the predictor of postoperative cardiac complications. Moreover, moderate-severe AS and LVEF <50% were the predictors of in-hospital mortality. Therefore, we could simplify the TTE process by assessing aortic valve and LVEF specifically on focused echocardiography, which could avoid surgery delay.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ecocardiografia , Fixação de Fratura , Fraturas do Quadril , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ecocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fixação de Fratura/efeitos adversos , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
10.
Am J Cardiol ; 129: 79-86, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540167

RESUMO

According to the Valve Academic Resortium, underweight is one parameter in the definition of frailty, which is associated with increased mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Aims of our study were (1) to examine the impact of underweight on mortality after TAVI and SAVR and (2) to determine the effect of intervention mode (TAVI vs SAVR) on mortality in underweight patients from the German Aortic Valve Registry. Overall, 35,109 patients treated with TAVI or SAVR were studied. Outcomes of underweight (body mass index [BMI] <20 kg/m2) TAVI and SAVR patients were compared using propensity score weighting. Prevalence of underweight was 5.7% in patients who underwent TAVI and 2.9% in patients who underwent SAVR. Underweight patients had significantly increased mortality rates for both treatment strategies compared with normal weight patients (BMI 20 to 30 kg/m2). Comparing underweight TAVI and SAVR-patients using propensity score weighting, no statistically significant differences regarding mortality rates were observed. Subgroup analysis of severely underweight patients (BMI <18.5 kg/m²) revealed no significant increase of mortality after TAVI compared with underweight patients (BMI <20 kg/m2), whereas severely underweight SAVR patients showed twofold increased mortality rates. In conclusion, underweight in patients who underwent TAVI or SAVR is rare, but it is associated with increased mortality. Especially severely underweight SAVR patients showed excess mortality rates.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico
11.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 22(5): 17, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451750

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize epidemiology, pathophysiology, prognostic relevance, and treatment options of coronary artery disease (CAD) when coupled with severe aortic stenosis (SAS). In regard to treatment options, we focused on the most recently adopted therapeutic approaches and on the future perspectives in light of the latest percutaneous and surgical technical improvements in the field of both CAD and SAS management. RECENT FINDINGS: Nowadays, SAS is the most common valve disease requiring intervention, either surgical or percutaneous. On the other side, CAD is one of the leading causes of death in the developed countries. CAD and degenerative SAS share several predisposing factors and are often concurrently found in clinical practice. Despite in the last years the transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been deeply changing the therapeutic approach to SAS, the correct management of patients with concomitant CAD remains controversial due to limited and heterogeneous data in the literature. Coronary revascularization is often performed in patients with concomitant CAD and SAS. Complete surgical approach is still the standard of care according to international guidelines. However, in light of the recent results of TAVR trials, the therapeutic approach is expected to change. To date, percutaneous coronary intervention performed before TAVR is safe and feasible even if the optimal timing for revascularization remains debated. Due to the great complexity of the patients affected by SAS and CAD and until unquestionable truths will come from large randomized trials, the role of the Heart Team in the decision-making process is of primary importance to guarantee the best tailored therapeutic strategy for the single patient.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(11): 1673-1677, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291092

RESUMO

Our study was to apply the 2015 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Athletic Participation Guidelines to a group of otherwise healthy school age children and young adults with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and describe the potential competitive sports restriction as they age. We performed a retrospective chart review of children and young adults aged 5 to 22 years with isolated BAV with at least two echocardiograms between 2000 and 2013. Using task force guidelines, exercise restriction was recommended for any of the following: (1) any dilation of the aortic root, (2) any dilation of the ascending aorta, (3) moderate aortic stenosis, (4) severe aortic regurgitation; (5) left ventricular dilation or (6) reduced shortening fraction. Of the 345 patients with isolated BAV, 202 were considered restricted at study entry. The final cohort included 123 children and young adults. Over the course of follow up, 36% (44 of 123) met restriction criteria. The most likely cause for restriction was aortic dilation (34%). Progression of aortic valve disease occurred in a minority of patients (3%). There were no reports of death, dissection or catheter or surgical based intervention. In conclusion, we found that strict adherence to current guidelines would result in restriction of more than 1/3 of school age children and young adults with BAV from some form of competitive athletics during school age years. Strict application of the current guidelines in this age group may lead to over-restriction of youths from competitive sports.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Exercício Físico , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Esportes , Adolescente , Doenças da Aorta/epidemiologia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dilatação Patológica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Progressão da Doença , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 63(3): 219-227, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277995

RESUMO

Elevated circulating concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is strongly associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and degenerative aortic stenosis. This relationship was first observed in prospective observational studies, and the causal relationship was confirmed in genetic studies. Everybody should have their Lp(a) concentration measured once in their lifetime. CVD risk is elevated when Lp(a) concentrations are high i.e. > 50 mg/dL (≥100 mmol/L). Extremely high Lp(a) levels >180 mg/dL (≥430 mmol/L) are associated with CVD risk similar to that conferred by familial hypercholesterolemia. Elevated Lp(a) level was previously treated with niacin, which exerts a potent Lp(a)-lowering effect. However, niacin is currently not recommended because, despite the improvement in lipid profile, no improvements on clinical outcomes have been observed. Furthermore, niacin use has been associated with severe adverse effects. Post hoc analyses of clinical trials with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have shown that these drugs exert clinical benefits by lowering Lp(a), independent of their potent reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). It is not yet known whether PCSK9 inhibitors will be of clinical use in patients with elevated Lp(a). Apheresis is a very effective approach to Lp(a) reduction, which reduces CVD risk but is invasive and time-consuming and is thus reserved for patients with very high Lp(a) levels and progressive CVD. Studies are ongoing on the practical application of genetic approaches to therapy, including antisense oligonucleotides against apolipoprotein(a) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology, to reduce the synthesis of Lp(a).


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/sangue , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Artérias/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/sangue , Calcinose/sangue , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica , Animais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/terapia , Artérias/patologia , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Aterosclerose/terapia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Calcinose/epidemiologia , Calcinose/patologia , Calcinose/terapia , Humanos , Lipoproteína(a)/química , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Regulação para Cima
14.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(8): 1216-1221, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087995

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the burden of coronary artery disease (CAD) using the computed tomography (CT) Leaman score in low-risk transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) patients. The extent of CAD in low-risk patients with aortic stenosis who are candidates for TAVI has not been accurately quantified. The CT Leaman score was developed to quantify coronary CT angiography (CCTA) atherosclerotic burden and has been validated to evaluate the extent of CAD. CT Leaman score >5 has been associated with an increase in major adverse cardiac events over long-term follow-up. The study population included patients enrolled in the Low Risk TAVI trial who underwent CCTA before the procedure. For the CT Leaman score, we used 3 sets of weighting factors: (1) location of coronary plaques, (2) type of plaque, and (3) degree of stenosis. A total of 200 patients were enrolled in the Low Risk TAVI trial. Excluded were 31 patients who had no analyzable CCTA imaging. For the remaining 169 patients, the mean CT Leaman score was 6.27 ± 0.27, of whom 102 (60.4%) had CT Leaman score >5. Nearly all analyzed patients (97%) had coronary plaques. Furthermore, 33 patients (19.5%) had potentially obstructive coronary plaques (>50% stenosis by CCTA) in proximal segments. Most low-risk TAVI patients have significant CAD burden by CCTA. It should be a priority for future TAVI devices to guarantee unimpeded access to the coronary arteries for selective angiography and interventions.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Estenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/epidemiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Comorbidade , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Prevalência , Ajuste de Prótese , Medição de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(8): 1209-1215, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087996

RESUMO

New-generation devices such as Evolut and Portico have provided favorable results in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for aortic stenosis, but their comparative effectiveness remains debated, despite its relevance when envisioning TAVI in low-risk patients. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of 2 leading TAVI devices (Evolut and Portico) used by the same team of experienced TAVI operators, focusing on long-term outcomes, including major adverse events (i.e., the composite of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, major vascular complication, or major bleeding). Unadjusted and propensity score-adjusted analyses were carried out. A total of 233 patients were included, 119 (51.1%) receiving Evolut and 114 (49%) Portico. Baseline and procedural data showed significant between-device differences, including functional class, surgical risk, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal function, transesophageal guidance, device size, postdilation, and procedural time (all p <0.05). Yet, acute and in-hospital outcomes were not significantly different (all p >0.05). Follow-up status was ascertained in 228 (98%) patients after 15.0 ± 7.6 months. Unadjusted analysis showed similar rates of major adverse events, as well as the individual risk of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, major vascular complication, major bleeding, and pacemaker implantation (all p >0.05). Even at propensity score-adjusted analysis outcomes were not significantly different with Evolut and Portico (all p >0.05). In conclusion, Evolut and Portico devices yield similarly favorable results at long-term follow-up when used by experienced TAVI operators.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Duração da Cirurgia , Pontuação de Propensão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos
16.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(6): 1041-1050, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056088

RESUMO

New-onset left bundle branch block (LBBB) is a frequent complication after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and provides an opportunity to study dyssynchrony immediately following acute LBBB. This study aims to (1) assess echocardiographic dyssynchrony in acute TAVR-induced LBBB (TAVR-LBBB), and (2) compare dyssynchrony parameters among different patient groups with LBBB. The study enrolled all TAVR-LBBB patients at Ghent University Hospital between 2013 and 2019. First, acute TAVR-LBBB dyssynchrony was assessed by: (1) septal flash (SF); (2) interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD; cut-off ≥ 40 ms) and (3) presence of 'classical dyssynchronous strain pattern' assessed with speckle tracking. Secondly, acute TAVR-LBBB patients with SF (LBBBTAVR+SF) were compared to randomly selected LBBB-SF patients with preserved (LBBBSF+PEF) ànd reduced ejection fraction (LBBBSF+REF). In TAVR-LBBB patients (n = 25), SF was detected in 72% of patients, whereas only 5% of TAVR-LBBB patients showed a classical dyssynchronous strain pattern. IVMD in these TAVR-LBBB patients was 39 ms. In 90% of LBBBTAVR+SF patients, SF was observed within 24 h after LBBB onset. Among LBBB-SF patients, a classical strain pattern was more prevalent in LBBBSF+REF patients compared to LBBBTAVR+SF patients (80% vs. 7%; p < 0.001). IVMD was significantly longer in LBBBSF+PEF patients (52 ms; p = 0.002) and LBBBSF+REF patients (57 ms; p = 0.009) compared to LBBBTAVR+SF patients (37 ms). SF is an early and prevalent marker of LV dyssynchrony in acute TAVR-LBBB, whereas strain-based measures and IVMD do not appear to capture dyssynchrony at this early stage. Our findings from the comparative analysis generate the hypothesis that progressive LBBB-induced LV remodeling may be required for a 'classical dyssynchrony strain pattern' or significant IVMD to occur in TAVR-LBBB patients.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bloqueio de Ramo/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Septos Cardíacos/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Bloqueio de Ramo/epidemiologia , Bloqueio de Ramo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Septos Cardíacos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Remodelação Ventricular
17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(2): 163-176, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Causal risk factors for aortic valve stenosis are poorly understood, limiting the possibility of preventing the most common heart valve disease. OBJECTIVES: The hypothesis was tested that genetically based obesity measured by body mass index is causally associated with risk of aortic valve stenosis and replacement. METHODS: The authors included 108,211 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study. Participants had measurements of body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and waist circumference, and information on 5 genetic variants associated with obesity. A Mendelian randomization design was used to investigate genetic and observational associations of obesity with incident aortic valve stenosis (n = 1,215) and replacement (n = 467) for a median follow-up time of 8.7 years. RESULTS: Genetically increased body mass index was causally associated with increased risk of aortic valve stenosis. Compared with an unweighted allele score of 0 to 3, individuals with an allele score 7 to 10 had a mean increase in body mass index of 0.87 kg/m2, and the age and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for aortic valve stenosis was 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 1.7) for allele score 4, 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1 to 1.8) for allele score 5 to 6, and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3 to 2.1) for allele score 7 to 10 (p for trend: 9 × 10-5). A 1-kg/m2 increase in body mass index was associated with causal risk ratios for aortic valve stenosis and replacement, respectively, of 1.52 (95% CI: 1.23 to 1.87) and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.07 to 2.08) genetically, and with corresponding hazard ratios of 1.06 (95% CI: 1.05 to 1.08) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.03 to 1.08) observationally. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity from human genetics was causally associated with higher risk of aortic valve stenosis and replacement.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/genética , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
18.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(1): 57-68, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902429

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of body mass index (BMI) with short- and long-term outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The relationship between BMI and baseline characteristics and procedural characteristics was assessed for 31,929 patients who underwent TAVR between November 1, 2011, and March 31, 2015, from the STS/ACC TVT Registry. Registry data on 20,429 patients were linked to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to assess the association of BMI with 30-day and 1-year mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The effect of BMI on mortality was also assessed with BMI as a continuous variable. Restricted cubic regression splines were used to model the effect of BMI and to determine appropriate cut points of BMI. RESULTS: Among 31,929 patients, 806 (2.5%) were underweight (BMI, <18.5 kg/m2), 10,755 (33.7%) had normal weight (BMI, 18.5- 24.9 kg/m2), 10,691 (33.5%) were overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9 kg/m2), 5582 (17.5%) had class I obesity (BMI, 30.0-34.9 kg/m2), 2363 (7.4%) had class II obesity (BMI, 35.0-39.9 kg/m2), and 1732 (5.4%) had class III obesity (BMI, ≥40 kg/m2). Patients in various BMI categories were different in most baseline and procedural characteristics. On multivariable analysis, compared with normal-weight patients, underweight patients had higher mortality at 30 days and at 1 year after TAVR (hazard ratio [HR], 1.35; 95% CI, 1.02-1.78 and HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.17-1.69, respectively), whereas overweight patients and those with class I and II obesity had a decreased risk of mortality at 1 year (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.95, HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72-0.89, and HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.98, respectively). For BMI of 30 kg/m2 or less, each 1-kg/m2 increase was associated with a 2% and 4% decrease in the risk of 30-day and 1-year mortality, respectively; for BMI greater than 30 kg/m2, a 1-kg/m2 increase was associated with a 3% increased risk of 30-day mortality but not with 1-year mortality. CONCLUSION: Results of this large registry study evaluating the relationship of BMI and outcomes after TAVR support the existence of an obesity paradox among patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/mortalidade , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(5): 788-794, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924319

RESUMO

Acute kidney recovery (AKR) is a recently described phenomenon observed after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and is more frequent than acute kidney injury (AKI). To determine the incidence and predictors of AKR between surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and TAVR, we examined patients with chronic kidney disease and severe aortic stenosis who underwent SAVR or TAVR procedure between 2007 and 2017; excluding age <65 or >90, dialysis, endocarditis, non-aortic valve stenosis, or patients died within 48-hours postprocedure. AKR was defined as an increase of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >25% and AKI as decrease in eGFR >25% at discharge. Stroke, mortality, major bleeding, transfusion, and length of stay were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine predictors of AKR. There were 750 transcatheter and 1,062 surgical patients and 319 pairs after propensity matching. AKR was observed in 26% TAVR versus 23.2% SAVR, p = 0.062. Highest recovery was in patients with eGFR <30 for both TAVR (33.7%) and SAVR (34.5%) patients. Independent predictors of AKR were ejection fraction <50% (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 2.71, p = 0.042), female gender (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5, p = 0.015), and obesity (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.04-2.3, p = 0.032). Diabetes was a negative predictor of AKR (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.84, p = 0.005). AKR was associated with improved secondary clinical outcomes compared with AKI. In conclusion, AKR is a generalizable phenomenon occurring frequently and similarly among transcatheter or surgical aortic valve patients. Diabetes is a negative predictor of AKR, possibly indicative of less reversible kidney disease.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(8): 1533-1540, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of aortic stenosis (AS) in older patients admitted to non-cardiologic acute hospital wards and the effect of AS on mid-term survival are incompletely reported. In a cohort of very old patients admitted to an acute geriatric unit (AGU), we aimed to assess: (1) the prevalence of newly and previously diagnosed AS; and (2) the association between AS severity and patients' 6-month mortality. METHODS: The patients consecutively admitted in two AGU rooms from February 2016 to February 2018 were assessed with echocardiography and AS severity was defined according to standard criteria. We assessed frailty using a 34-item Frailty Index (34-FI), which was operationalized using health variable information, and the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Vital status at 6 months was extracted from Regional Register of Birth and Death. RESULTS: Two hundred and three patients (mean age 84.5 ± 6.0 SD, female gender 56.1%) were included. Of these, 57 (28.1%) had AS, mild in 9 (4.5%), moderate in 32 (16.1%) and severe in 16 (8.1%). A new diagnosis of AS was obtained in 42 (73.7%) patients, of whom 33 (78.6%) had moderate or severe AS. At 6 months, 61 (28.9%) patients died. In multiple regression models, after adjusting for covariates, frailty, as assessed with both FI and CFS, was independent predictor of 6-month mortality whereas AS was not. CONCLUSIONS: Among older patients admitted to non-cardiologic acute hospital wards, AS was common and frequently underdiagnosed. The severity of AS was not associated with increased 6-month mortality, whereas frailty was the most important predictor.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Fragilidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
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