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2.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 961-969, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921672

RESUMO

Left ventricular (LV) remodeling with aortic stenosis (AS) appears to differ according to sex, but reverse remodeling after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has not been elucidated in a Japanese population. This study aims to determine whether any sex-related differences in LV or reverse remodeling after TAVI exist in the context of severe AS.Of 208 patients who received TAVI for severe AS in our institution, 100 (men, 42; mean age, 83.0 ± 4.9 years) underwent transthoracic echocardiography before and 3 months after TAVI. Despite similar valvular gradients, women with severe AS had lower indexed LV mass (LVMi) than did men (152.3 ± 35.4 versus 173.2 ± 44.6 g/m2, P = 0.005), with smaller indexed LV end-diastolic (LVEDVi) (50.2 ± 13.3 versus 61.4 ± 20.7 mL/m2, P = 0.001) and end-systolic (LVESVi; 17.9 ± 8.7 versus 24.3 ± 13.8 mL/m2, P = 0.006) volumes. After TAVI, women (-6.0% ± 14.4%) had higher reduction in the rate of change of relative wall thickness (RWT) than did men (4.4% ± 19.0%, P = 0.003). Men (-8.9% ± 3.9%) had higher reduction in the rate of change of LVEDVi than did women (1.5% ± 3.3%, P = 0.045). Incidence of LV reverse remodeling defined as a reduction in LVESV of >15% was significantly higher in men (50%) than in women (26%, P = 0.013).In addition to sex differences in the pattern of LV remodeling with AS, reverse LV remodeling after TAVI also differed between sexes.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Japão , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 291-295, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879194

RESUMO

We report a case of a 77-year-old male who had been diagnosed with normal-flow high-pressure gradient severe aortic stenosis (AS) two years previously. In accordance with his wishes, it was decided not to perform surgery. He visited our hospital with anorexia and weight loss and was diagnosed with gastric cancer. Echocardiography showed a change to paradoxical low-flow low-pressure gradient severe AS (PLFLPG AS). A decrease in stroke volume is typically associated with a smaller LV size, but the reason for a smaller LV size in PLFLPG AS remains unclear. In this case, the change to PLFLPG AS was thought to be due to a decrease in whole body oxygen consumption, and this may help to understand the pathology.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Baixo Débito Cardíaco , Progressão da Doença , Ecocardiografia , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Neoplasias Gástricas/complicações , Volume Sistólico
4.
Am Heart J ; 228: 27-35, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that transcatheter (TAVR) as compared with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) may be more effective in female than male patients. To date, most evidence is derived from subgroup analyses of large trials, and a dedicated randomized trial evaluating whether there is a difference in outcomes between these interventions in women is warranted. The RHEIA trial will compare the safety and efficacy of TAVR with SAVR in women with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis requiring aortic valve intervention, irrespective of surgical risk. METHODS/DESIGN: The RHEIA trial is a prospective, randomized, controlled study that will enroll up to 440 patients across 35 sites in Europe. Women with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis, with any but prohibitive surgical risk status, will be randomized 1:1 to undergo aortic valve intervention with either transfemoral TAVR with the SAPIEN 3 or SAPIEN 3 Ultra device or SAVR and followed up for 1 year. The objective is to determine whether TAVR is non-inferior to SAVR in this patient population and, if this is fulfilled whether TAVR is actually superior to SAVR. The primary safety/efficacy endpoint is a composite of all-cause mortality, all stroke, and re-hospitalization (for valve or procedure-related symptoms or worsening congestive heart failure) at 1 year post-procedure. Other outcomes (assessed at 30 days and/or 1 year) include all-cause mortality; bleeding, vascular, cardiac, cerebrovascular and renal complications; aortic valve prosthesis and left ventricular function; cognitive function, health status, and quality of life. DISCUSSION: The RHEIA study has been designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TAVR compared with SAVR specifically in women with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis, irrespective of the level of surgical risk. The results will be the first to provide specific randomized evidence to guide treatment selection in female patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04160130.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Valva Aórtica , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Qualidade de Vida , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/psicologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/classificação , Humanos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos
5.
Int Heart J ; 61(4): 720-726, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684592

RESUMO

Hemodialysis (HD) is one of the important risks for the development of cardiovascular disease, including aortic valve stenosis (AS). Although aortic valve replacement (AVR) is a beneficial treatment for AS, HD patients are known to show a high rate of mortality after AVR than non-HD patients.We retrospectively studied 109 patients who underwent AVR for severe AS, 18 of which were HD patients. Survival rate after AVR, preoperative clinical data, and surgical procedure were investigated.In preoperative clinical features, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was larger, intraventricular septum thickness (IVST) was thicker, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was higher, left ventricular ejection fraction was lower, E/e' was higher, and pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) was higher in the HD group than in the non-HD group. During a follow-up period of 3.2 ± 2.3 years after AVR, patients receiving HD had a worse prognosis than those without HD treatment: the 3-year survival rate after surgery in the HD group was 36.2% and that in the non-HD group was 84.9%. With regard to prognostic factors in the whole cohort, significant differences were found in IVST, LVMI, E/e', PAWP, and HD. In patients receiving HD, abnormally high PAWP for their right atrial pressure (RAP) was observed, suggesting that PAWP and RAP were discordant, and univariate analysis revealed that high PAWP was the only predictor of mortality in HD patients after surgery.Preoperative PAWP with a discordant pattern in HD patients might be an important prognostic predictor after AVR.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 16(2): 106-113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670470

RESUMO

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as the gold standard in assessing ventricular mass, volume, and systolic function. Due to these and other strengths, CMR has increasingly been used to study valvular heart disease (VHD) and resultant cardiac remodeling. By using CMR to assess flow, limitations in echocardiographic assessment of VHD can be overcome, particularly in regurgitant lesions. The following article reviews the current role of CMR imaging in studying disease severity and myocardial remodeling in patients with VHD.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Remodelação Ventricular , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 151-158, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650909

RESUMO

Normal-flow low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (NF-LG-SAS), defined by an aortic valve area (AVA) <1 cm², mean pressure gradient (MPG) <40 mm Hg and indexed stroke volume ≥35 ml/m², is the most prevalent form of low-gradient aortic stenosis (AS) with preserved ejection fraction (PEF). However, the true severity of AS in these patients is controversial. The aim of this Doppler echocardiographic study was to investigate changes over time in the hemodynamic severity of patients with NF-LG-SAS with PEF. We retrospectively identified 96 patients who had 2 Doppler echocardiographic examinations without an intervening event. After a median follow-up of 25 (interquartile range 15 to 52) months, progression was observed, with increased transaortic MPG (from 28 [25 to 33] to 39 [34 to 50] mm Hg; p<0.001), peak aortic jet velocity (from 3.46 [3.20 to 3.64] to 4.01 [3.70 to 4.39] m/s; p<0.001), and decreased AVA (from 0.87 [0.82 to 0.94] to 0.72 [0.62 to 0.81] cm²; p<0.001). Median annual rates of progression were 4.3 (1.7 to 8.1) mm Hg/year, 0.25 (0.08 to 0.44) m/s/year, and -0.05 (-0.10 to -0.02) cm²/year, respectively. There was no significant change in left ventricular ejection fraction over time (p = 0.74). At follow-up, 46 patients (48%) acquired the features of classical high-gradient severe AS (MPG ≥40 mm Hg). This study shows that most patients with NF-LG-SAS with PEF exhibit significant hemodynamic progression of AS severity without EF impairment. These findings suggest that NF-LG-SAS with PEF is an "intermediate" stage between moderate AS and classical high-gradient severe AS requiring close monitoring.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Progressão da Doença , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Pressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Life Sci ; 257: 118086, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679147

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the role of PP2A in calcified aortic valve disease (CAVD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expressions of PP2A subunits were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot in aortic valves from patients with CAVD and normal controls, the activities of PP2A were analyzed by commercial assay kit at the same time. Aortic valve calcification of mice was evaluated through histological and echocardiographic analysis. ApoE-/- mice and ApoE-/- mice injected intraperitoneally with PP2A inhibitor LB100 were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 24 weeks. Immunofluorescent staining was used to locate the cell-type in which PP2A activity was decreased, the PP2A activity of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) treated with osteogenic induction medium was assessed by western blot and commercial assay kit. After changing the activity of VICs through pharmacologic and genetic intervention, the osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were assessed by western blot and Alizarin Red staining. Finally, the mechanism was clarified by using several specific inhibitors. KEY FINDINGS: PP2A activity was decreased both in calcified aortic valves and human VICs under osteogenic induction. The PP2A inhibitor LB100 aggravated the aortic valve calcification of mice. Furthermore, PPP2CA overexpression inhibited osteogenic differentiation of VICs, whereas PPP2CA knockdown promoted the process. Further study revealed that the ERK/p38 MAPKs signaling pathways mediated the osteogenic differentiation of VICs induced by PP2A inactivation. SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrated that PP2A plays an important role in CAVD pathophysiology, PP2A activation may provide a novel strategy for the pharmacological treatment of CAVD.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Calcinose/fisiopatologia , Osteogênese/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Animais , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/genética , Calcinose/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
10.
Am J Cardiol ; 130: 137-142, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703525

RESUMO

Patients with Shone complex (SC) have multiple left-sided obstructive lesions and thus are at risk for left ventricular (LV) remodeling, LV diastolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Yet, to date, there has been no description of hemodynamics in adults with SC. Retrospective chart review of 25 patients with SC who underwent cardiac catheterization at Mayo Clinic, MN between 2002 and 2019 was performed. SC was defined as multiple left-sided obstructive lesions in the presence of an anatomically abnormal mitral valve. Median age was 32 years (22.5, 42) and 15 patients (60%) were female. The majority of patients (84%) had history of coarctation of the aorta, 10 (40%) had subaortic stenosis, 11 (44%) had prior aortic valve replacement, and 10 (40%) had prior mitral valve replacement. Structural disease at the time of catheterization which warranted intervention within the next year was present in 13 patients (52%). The mean LV end-diastolic pressure was 21.3 ± 9.0 mm Hg (>15 mm Hg in 71%), pulmonary artery peak systolic pressure was 55.4 ± 13.4 mm Hg, and the pulmonary artery mean pressure was 37.0 ± 9.4 mm Hg (>20 mm Hg in 96%). During a mean follow-up of 8.3 ± 4.4 years, there were 7 deaths (28%) and 3 additional patients (12%) underwent cardiac transplantation. In conclusion, adults with SC who underwent catheterization showed significant left-sided heart and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Elevated LV end-diastolic pressure and pulmonary artery pressures were highly prevalent. There were high mortality and cardiac transplant rates in our cohort.


Assuntos
Coartação Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Valva Mitral/anormalidades , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Coartação Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(11): 2291-2297, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621038

RESUMO

To determine the potential impact of automated computed tomography (CT) software used for aortic annular sizing for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) on paravalvular leak (PVL) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) as compared to standard CT manual measurement. In 60 TAVR patients (84 ± 7 years, 60% male), we evaluated the preprocedural CT scans. For the standard manual measurement, we measured the perimeter and area from a single cardiac phase deemed to be of maximum systolic opening. Valve type and size were determined by a multidisciplinary TAVR team per clinical routine. From the dynamic automated software, we determined the aortic annular perimeter and area as the maximum value from an entire cardiac cycle. Valve size was readjudicated by a blinded interventional cardiologist who was provided with valve type and automated values. Clinical endpoints were adjudicated for presence of at least mild PVL and MACE at 30 days. There were 16 (28%) patients with PVL and 4 (7%) with 30-day MACE. When reclassifying valve size using dynamic automated values, 12 (20%) patients were undersized and 3 (5%) patients were oversized. Undersized patients were more likely to have mild-to-moderate PVL at 30 days (27% vs 4%, p = 0.04) than those not undersized. Of the 5 (45%) undersized patients with at least mild PVL, all were balloon-expandable valves. Automated dynamic CT annular measurements have the potential to reclassify patients with PVL with larger TAVR valve size, particularly balloon-expandable valves.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Automação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Desenho de Prótese , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Software , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(10): 1897-1905, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556718

RESUMO

This study applies L-wave measurements of mid-diastolic trans-mitral flow. Although considered to be a marker of elevated filling pressure or delayed myocardial relaxation, its clinical and prognostic value is yet to be completely elucidated. It has been shown that transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) induces reverse remodeling and improves diastolic function and prognosis in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Our purpose was to evaluate the prognostic value of L-wave following TAVR. We examined clinical and echocardiographic data of patients undergoing TAVR. L-Wave presence and velocity were recorded at baseline and at 1 month and 6 months following TAVR. The effect of the procedure on L-wave measurements and its impact on mortality and other clinical outcomes were analyzed. A total of 502 patients (mean age 82.58 ± 5.9) undergoing TAVR were included. Patients with baseline L-wave (n = 68, 12%) had a smaller stroke volume index by 5.7 ± 2.3 ml/m2 (p = 0.01) as compared to patients without L-wave at baseline. L-waves disappeared In 35% and 70% of patients at 1 month and at 6 months respectively. Baseline L-wave velocity was 34.8 ± 11.5 (cm/s) and decreased significantly at follow-up examinations. Patients with persistent L-wave following TAVR had higher 3-year adjusted mortality rates (HR 5.7, 95% CI 3.7-8.9, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis of survival was also statistically significant (p < 0.001). TAVR induces L-wave disappearance and a decrease in L-wave velocity in patients with severe AS. L-wave persistence following TAVR is an independent risk factor for mortality.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia Doppler de Pulso , Hemodinâmica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Diástole , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Am Heart J ; 225: 138-148, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to high gradient aortic stenosis (AS), patients with low-flow, low-gradient AS have higher mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), but distinct outcome predictors in this patient subset are yet to be determined. The present study investigated the prognostic impact of aortic valve calcification (AVC) in patients with low-flow, low-gradient AS undergoing TAVR. METHODS: This retrospective single-center analysis includes all patients undergoing TAVR for severe low-flow, low-gradient AS (n = 526), ie, low EF low gradient AS (LEF-LG AS; n = 290) and paradoxical low-flow, low-gradient AS (PLF-LG AS; n = 236), in whom AVC was quantified from contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography images. AVCdensity was defined as calcium volume per annulus area. Patients were trichotomized according to sex-specific AVCdensity tertiles in both subgroups. All-cause mortality was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analyses and independent outcome predictors were determined by multivariable analyses. RESULTS: In both subgroups, patients with high AVCdensity had higher mean transvalvular gradients at baseline and higher rates of PVL after TAVR. High AVCdensity was associated with lowest 1- and 3-year mortality after TAVR in the LEF-LG AS but not in the PLF-LG AS group. According to multivariable analysis AVCdensity was independently associated with better survival in LEF-LG AS patients (HR 0.73 [0.60-0.88], P = .0011), but not in those with PLF-LG AS (HR 0.91 [0.73-1.14], P = .42). CONCLUSIONS: Quantification of AVC may not only be of diagnostic but also of prognostic value, as it facilitates the selection of LEF-LG AS patients with higher probability of beneficial outcome after TAVR.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Calcinose/classificação , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/patologia , Calcinose/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 210-215, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534732

RESUMO

The clinical and imaging differences between bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) patients with medically managed asymptomatic moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis (AS) have not been studied previously. We aim to characterize these differences and their clinical outcomes in this study. A retrospective observational study was conducted on 836 consecutive cases of isolated asymptomatic moderate-to-severe AS, with median follow-up of 3.4 years. Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics were compared between BAV and TAV patients. Subgroup analysis stratified by AS severity were performed. Survival analysis of all-cause mortality was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards model. Compared to BAV patients, TAV patients were older (76 ± 11 vs 55 ± 16 years, p <0.001) and had more co-morbidities including hypertension (78% vs 56%; p <0.001), diabetes (41% vs 24%; p <0.001), and chronic kidney disease (20% vs 3%; p = 0.001). TAV patients had less severe aortic valve disease than BAV patients, with a higher aortic valve area index (0.71 ± 0.20 cm2/m2 vs 0.61 ± 0.18 cm2/m2, p <0.001) and less aortic dilation (sinotubular junction: 23.7 ± 4.0 mm vs 26.9 ± 4.8 mm, p <0.001; mid-ascending aorta: 31.4 ± 4.7 mm vs 36.3 ± 6.3 mm, p <0.001). TAV patients were more likely to have eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy and less likely to have a normal geometry (p = 0.003). Competing risk analysis identified increased age (hazard ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.05, p <0.001) and LVEF (hazard ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.97 to 0.99, p <0.001) as independent risk factors of all-cause mortality. Valve morphology was not a significant independent risk factor for aortic valve replacement or mortality. In conclusion, asymptomatic TAV patients had more cardiovascular risk factors, less severe aortic valve disease, less sinotubular and mid-ascending aortic dilation, more severe LV remodeling.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doenças Assintomáticas , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/epidemiologia , Doenças da Aorta/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Dilatação Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Dilatação Patológica/epidemiologia , Dilatação Patológica/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico
16.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 41, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is increasingly used to treat patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) provides reliable and reproducible estimates for assessment of cardiac structure and function after TAVR. The goal of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to assess left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass and function by CMR after TAVR. METHODS: Using Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines, we searched PubMed and Embase for studies reporting CMR findings before and at least 1 month after TAVR. Main factors of interest were LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVi), LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVi), LV mass index (LVMi), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Standardized mean differences (SMD) were pooled by random effects meta-analytic techniques. RESULTS: Of 453 screened publications, 10 studies (published between 2012 and 2018) were included. A total of 305 patients completed pre- and post-TAVR follow-up CMR (mean age range 78.6-85.0 years, follow-up range 6-15 months). Random effects analysis showed TAVR resulted in reduced LVEDVi (SMD: -0.25, 95% CI: - 0.43 to - 0.07, P = 0.006), LVESVi (SMD: -0.24, 95% CI: - 0.44 to - 0.05, P = 0.01), LVMi (SMD: -0.82, 95% CI: - 1.0 to - 0.63, P < 0.001) and increased LVEF (SMD: 22, 95% CI: 6 to 38%, P = 0.006). Heterogeneity across studies was low (I2: 0%, Pheterogeneity > 0.05 for all). The median reduction was 4 ml/m2 (IQR: 3.1 to 8.2) for LVEDVi, 5 ml/m2 (IQR: 3.0 to 6.0) for LVESVi, and 15.1 g/m2 (IQR: 11.8 to 18.3) for LVMi. The median increase for LVEF was 3.4% (IQR 1.0 to 4.6%). CONCLUSIONS: CMR demonstrates reverse LV remodeling occurrs within 6-15 months after TAVR, with reductions in LVEDVi, LVESVi and LVMi, and increased LVEF.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 45, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the average age of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who receive procedural intervention continue to age, the need for non-invasive modalities that provide accurate diagnosis and operative planning is increasingly important. Advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) over the past two decades mean it is able to provide haemodynamic data at the aortic valve, along with high fidelity anatomical imaging. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for studies comparing CMR to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the diagnosis of AS. Studies were included only if direct comparison was made on matched patients, and if diagnosis was primarily through measurement of aortic valve area (AVA). RESULTS: Twenty-three relevant, prospective articles were included in the meta-analysis, totalling 1040 individual patients. There was no significant difference in AVA measured as by CMR compared to TEE. CMR measurements of AVA size were larger compared to TTE by an average of 10.7% (absolute difference: + 0.14cm2, 95% CI 0.07-0.21, p < 0.001). Reliability was high for both inter- and intra-observer measurements (0.03cm2 +/- 0.04 and 0.02cm2 +/- 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis demonstrates the equivalence of AVA measurements using CMR compared to those obtained using TEE. CMR demonstrated a small but significantly larger AVA than TTE. However, this can be attributed to known errors in derivation of left ventricular outflow tract size as measured by TTE. By offering additional anatomical assessment, CMR is warranted as a primary tool in the assessment and workup of patients with severe AS who are candidates for surgical or transcatheter intervention.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemodinâmica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 46, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is a major determinant of outcome in aortic stenosis (AS). Novel fast real-time (RT) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) mapping techniques allow comprehensive quantification of fibrosis but have not yet been compared against standard techniques and histology. METHODS: Patients with severe AS underwent CMR before (n = 110) and left ventricular (LV) endomyocardial biopsy (n = 46) at transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Midventricular short axis (SAX) native, post-contrast T1 and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) maps were generated using commercially available modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (MOLLI) (native: 5(3)3, post-contrast: 4(1)3(1)2) and RT single-shot inversion recovery Fast Low-Angle Shot (FLASH) with radial undersampling. Focal late gadolinium enhancement was excluded from T1 and ECV regions of interest. ECV and LV mass were used to calculate LV matrix volumes. Variability and agreements were assessed between RT, MOLLI and histology using intraclass correlation coefficients, coefficients of variation and Bland Altman analyses. RESULTS: RT and MOLLI derived ECV were similar for midventricular SAX slice coverage (26.2 vs. 26.5, p = 0.073) and septal region of interest (26.2 vs. 26.5, p = 0.216). MOLLI native T1 time was in median 20 ms longer compared to RT (p < 0.001). Agreement between RT and MOLLI was best for ECV (ICC > 0.91), excellent for post-contrast T1 times (ICC > 0.81) and good for native T1 times (ICC > 0.62). Diffuse collagen volume fraction by biopsies was in median 7.8%. ECV (RT r = 0.345, p = 0.039; MOLLI r = 0.40, p = 0.010) and LV matrix volumes (RT r = 0.45, p = 0.005; MOLLI r = 0.43, p = 0.007) were the only parameters associated with histology. CONCLUSIONS: RT mapping offers fast and sufficient ECV and LV matrix volume calculation in AS patients. ECV and LV matrix volume represent robust and universally comparable parameters with associations to histologically assessed fibrosis and may emerge as potential targets for clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Miocárdio/patologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Biópsia , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Remodelação Ventricular
19.
Am J Cardiol ; 129: 87-94, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593432

RESUMO

Several studies have reported aortic dilation and increased stiffness of the ascending aorta in patients after repair of congenital heart disease (CHD), which may be a predominant cardiovascular risk. However, the clinical significance has not been described in detail. In this retrospective study, 175 repaired patients with complex CHD achieving biventricular circulation and age-matched 39 control subjects were reviewed (median age: 14.9 and 15.7 years, respectively). We measured the diameters of the ascending aorta and descending aorta from catheterization angiograms to yield Z-scores and stiffness indexes (ß) using diameter fluctuations corresponding to pulsatile pressures. Clinical profile, peak oxygen uptake during the cardiopulmonary exercise test, and incidence of unscheduled hospitalization during follow-up was also reviewed. Compared with controls, patients with complex CHD, except for those with aortic coarctation, exhibited significant dilation and increased stiffness of the aortic root and ascending aorta, but not of the descending aorta. In this CHD population (n = 147, including 112 conotruncal anomalies), exercise capacities correlated independently with the diameter Z-score and stiffness index of the ascending aorta along with the history of repetitive thoracotomies, reduced forced vital capacity, and right ventricular hypertension. During a follow-up period (median 15.6 years), either dilation (Z-score >3.5) or increased stiffness (ß >6.0) of the ascending aorta stratified morbidity, but no synergistic impact was detected. In conclusion, in repaired patients with complex CHD, a stiffened and dilated ascending aorta was frequently found, exerting significant adverse impacts on diminished exercise capacity and morbidity.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Aorta/fisiopatologia , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Coartação Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Coartação Aórtica/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Transposição das Grandes Artérias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Dilatação Patológica/fisiopatologia , Dupla Via de Saída do Ventrículo Direito/fisiopatologia , Dupla Via de Saída do Ventrículo Direito/cirurgia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tetralogia de Fallot/fisiopatologia , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/fisiopatologia , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/cirurgia , Persistência do Tronco Arterial/fisiopatologia , Persistência do Tronco Arterial/cirurgia
20.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 150, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal aortic stenosis may progress to hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), which carries a poor prognosis. We report two infants with fetal aortic stenosis successfully treated with fetal aortic valvuloplasty (FAV) using balloon dilatation. CASE PRESENTATION: Of five fetuses with aortic stenosis fulfilling the FAV criteria of severe aortic stenosis with a left ventricular length Z-score of ≥ - 2, retrograde flow in the transverse aortic arch, left-to-right flow across the foramen ovale, monophasic mitral inflow, and significant left ventricular dysfunction, we obtained permission for FAV in two fetuses. FAV was performed successfully under echocardiographic guidance using balloon dilatation. Both fetuses survived to birth. During FAV, mild pericardial effusion developed when introducing the stylet needle in the second fetus, and this resolved within 48 h. No intraprocedural complications occurred in the first patient, and no maternal complications occurred. The first infant underwent the Ross procedure after birth and is currently 7 years old and doing well. The second patient underwent aortic and mitral valve repair with endocardial fibroelastosis resection approximately 2 weeks after birth, which temporarily addressed the mitral valve stenosis; high doses of inotropes were subsequently required. The infant died of sepsis at 2 months of age. CONCLUSION: FAV using balloon dilatation to treat fetal aortic stenosis was successful in our two patients, with subsequent neonatal biventricular repair resulting in long-term survival in one patient and death secondary to sepsis in the second patient.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valvuloplastia com Balão/métodos , Doenças Fetais/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Criança , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/etiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia
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