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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328209

RESUMO

Pachydermodactyly (PDD) is a rare, benign disease associated with progressive swelling of the periarticular soft tissue of phalangeal hand joints typically treated with local steroid injections. We present a case of a 37-year-old man with PDD treated with local steroid injections. He later developed heterotopic ossification and para-articular calcifications in the injection sites. Heterotopic ossification is not associated with PDD nor is it a recognised complication of local steroid injections. This is the first case in literature of heterotopic ossification occurring after local steroid injection and brings to attention a new potential complication of a widely performed procedure.


Assuntos
Articulações dos Dedos/patologia , Deformidades Articulares Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Ossificação Heterotópica/induzido quimicamente , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Masculino , Ilustração Médica , Esteroides/administração & dosagem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22895, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditionally, S1 transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) has been performed using an anteroposterior (AP) fluoroscopic view. In 2007, the oblique "Scotty dog" (OS) approach was introduced as an alternative technique. We compared passage time of the needle into S1 foramen (Tf) between the anteroposterior (AP) and oblique "Scotty dog" (OS) approach during S1 TFESI. METHODS: In this prospective randomized controlled trial, seventy patients scheduled S1 TFESI were randomly allocated into AP or OS groups. In the AP group, a slight cephalad-caudad tilt was used. In the OS group, the C-arm was rotated ipsilateral oblique degrees to view the S1 Scotty dog. Both groups received injection of steroid mixed with local anesthetics. We measured the passage time of the needle into S1 foramen (Tf), primary outcome, and total procedure time (Tt) between the groups. We also recorded presence of intravascular injection, patients-assessed pain relief for one month and complications. RESULTS: The Tf and Tt were shorter in the OS than in the AP group (24.4 ±â€Š24.0 s vs 47. 8 ±â€Š53.2seconds; 93.3 ±â€Š35.0 seconds vs 160.0 ±â€Š98.7 seconds, P < .001, both). Incidence of intravascular injection (AP, 8 [22.8%]; OS, 4 [11.4%], P = .205), pain score, and complication rates were not statistically different between the two groups. In logistic regression analysis, the body mass index (BMI) was a risk factor for longer Tt (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.02-1.58, P = .030). CONCLUSION: The passage time of the needle into S1 foramen was shorter in OS approach and the OS approach reduced the procedure time compared with the AP approach during S1 TFESI. The practitioners should note that procedure time can be prolonged in obese patients.


Assuntos
Fluoroscopia/instrumentação , Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Erros Médicos/efeitos adversos , Radiculopatia/terapia , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Injeções Epidurais/efeitos adversos , Região Lombossacral/diagnóstico por imagem , Região Lombossacral/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agulhas/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Distúrbios Somatossensoriais/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD008333, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) are a group of rare auto-inflammatory diseases that affects mainly small vessels. AAV includes: granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). Anti-cytokine targeted therapy uses biological agents capable of specifically targeting and neutralising cytokine mediators of the inflammatory response. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of anti-cytokine targeted therapy for adults with AAV. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2019, Issue 7), MEDLINE and Embase up to 16 August 2019. We also examined reference lists of articles, clinical trial registries, websites of regulatory agencies and contacted manufacturers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials of targeted anti-cytokine therapy in adults (18 years or older) with AAV compared with placebo, standard therapy or another modality and anti-cytokine therapy of different type or dose. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included four RCTs with a total of 440 participants (mean age 48 to 56 years). We analysed the studies in three groups: 1) mepolizumab (300 mg; three separate injections every four weeks for 52 weeks) versus placebo in participants with relapsing or refractory EGPA; 2) belimumab (10 mg/kg on days 0, 14, 28 and every 28 days thereafter until 12 months after the last participant was randomised) or etanercept (25 mg twice a week) with standard therapy (median 25 months) versus placebo with standard therapy (median 19 months) in participants with GPA/MPA; and 3) infliximab (3 mg/kg on days 1 and 14, before the response assessment on day 42) versus rituximab (0.375g/m2 on days 1, 8, 15 and 22) in participants with refractory GPA for up to 12 months. None of the studies were assessed as low risk of bias in all domains: one study did not report randomisation or blinding methods clearly. Three studies were at high risk and one study was at unclear risk of bias for selective outcome reporting. One trial with 136 participants with relapsing or refractory EGPA compared mepolizumab with placebo during 52 weeks of follow-up and observed one death in the mepolizumab group (1/68, 1.5%) and none in the placebo group (0/68, 0%) (Peto odds ratio (OR) 7.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 372.38; low-certainty evidence). Low-certainty evidence suggests that more participants in the mepolizumab group had ≥ 24 weeks of accrued remission over 52 weeks compared to placebo (27.9% versus 2.9%; risk ratio (RR) 9.5, 95% CI 2.30 to 39.21), and durable remission within the first 24 weeks sustained until week 52 (19.1% mepolizumab versus 1.5% placebo; RR 13.0, 95% CI 1.75 to 96.63; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 6, 95% Cl 4 to 13). Mepolizumab probably decreases risk of relapse (55.8% versus 82.4%; RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.86; NNTB 4, 95% CI 3 to 9; moderate-certainty evidence). There was low-certainty evidence regarding similar frequency of adverse events (AEs): total AEs (96.9% versus 94.1%; RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.11), serious AEs (17.7% versus 26.5%; RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.28) and withdrawals due to AEs (2.9% versus 1.5%; RR 2.00, 95% CI 0.19 to 21.54). Disease flares were not measured. Based on two trials with different follow-up periods (mean of 27 months for etanercept study; up to four years for belimumab study) including people with GPA (n = 263) and a small group of participants with MPA (n = 22) analysed together, we found low-certainty evidence suggesting that adding an active drug (etanercept or belimumab) to standard therapy does not increase or reduce mortality (3.4% versus 1.4%; Peto OR 2.45, 95% CI 0.55 to 10.97). Etanercept may have little or no effect on remission (92.3% versus 89.5%; RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.07), durable remission (70% versus 75.3%; RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.11; low-certainty evidence) and disease flares (56% versus 57.1%; RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.27; moderate-certainty evidence). Low-certainty evidence suggests that belimumab does not increase or reduce major relapse (1.9% versus 0%; RR 2.94, 95% CI 0.12 to 70.67) or any AE (92.5% versus 82.7%; RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.29). Low-certainty evidence suggests a similar frequency of serious or severe AEs (47.6% versus 47.6%; RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.27), but more frequent withdrawals due to AEs in the active drug group (11.2%) compared to the placebo group (4.2%), RR 2.66, 95% CI 1.07 to 6.59). One trial involving 17 participants with refractory GPA compared infliximab versus rituximab added to steroids and cytotoxic agents for 12 months. One participant died in each group (Peto OR 0.88, 95% CI, 0.05 to 15.51; 11% versus 12.5%). We have very low-certainty evidence for remission (22% versus 50%, RR 0.44, 95% Cl 0.11 to 1.81) and durable remission (11% versus 50%, RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.60), any severe AE (22.3% versus 12.5%; RR 1.78, 95% CI 0.2 to 16.1) and withdrawals due to AEs (0% versus 0%; RR 2.70, 95% CI 0.13 to 58.24). Disease flare/relapse and the frequency of any AE were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found four studies but concerns about risk of bias and small sample sizes preclude firm conclusions. We found moderate-certainty evidence that in patients with relapsing or refractory EGPA, mepolizumab compared to placebo probably decreases disease relapse and low-certainty evidence that mepolizumab may increase the probability of accruing at least 24 weeks of disease remission. There were similar frequencies of total and serious AEs in both groups, but the study was too small to reliably assess these outcomes. Mepolizumab may result in little to no difference in mortality. However, there were very few events. In participants with GPA (and a small subgroup of participants with MPA), etanercept or belimumab may increase the probability of withdrawal due to AEs and may have little to no impact on serious AEs. Etanercept may have little or no impact on durable remission and probably does not reduce disease flare.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/mortalidade , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/tratamento farmacológico , Etanercepte/administração & dosagem , Etanercepte/efeitos adversos , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Infliximab/administração & dosagem , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Poliangiite Microscópica/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Números Necessários para Tratar , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Prevenção Secundária , Esteroides/administração & dosagem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21283, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous systemic reviews have examined the efficacy of individual therapeutic agents, but which type of treatment is superior to another has not been pooled or analyzed. The objective of the current study was to compare the clinical effectiveness of epidural steroid injection (ESI) versus conservative treatment for patients with lumbosacral radicular pain. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted with MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases with a double-extraction technique for relevant studies published between 2000 and January 10, 2019. The randomized controlled trials which directly compared the efficacy of ESI with conservative treatment in patients with lumbosacral radicular pain were included. Outcomes included visual analog scale, numeric rating scale, Oswetry disability index, or successful events. Two reviewers extracted data and evaluated the methodological quality of papers using the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. A meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.2 software. The heterogeneity of the meta-analysis was also assessed. RESULTS: Of 1071 titles initially identified, 6 randomized controlled trials (249 patients with ESI and 241 patients with conservative treatment) were identified and included in this meta-analysis. The outcome of the pooled analysis showed that ESI was beneficial for pain relief at short-term and intermediate-term follow-up when compared with conservative treatment, but this effect was not maintained at long-term follow-up. Successful event rates were significantly higher in patients who received ESI than in patients who received conservative treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in functional improvement after ESI and conservative treatment at short-term and intermediate-term follow-up. The limitations of this meta-analysis resulted from the variation in types of interventions and small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of this meta-analysis, the use of ESI is more effective for alleviating lumbosacral radicular pain than conservative treatments in terms of short-term and intermediate-term. Patients also reported more successful outcomes after receiving ESI when compared to conservative treatment. However, this effect was not maintained at long-term follow-up. This meta-analysis will help guide clinicians in making decisions for the treatment of patients with lumbosacral radicular pain, including the use of ESI, particularly in the management of pain at short-term.


Assuntos
Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Radiculopatia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Região Lombossacral/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Esteroides/administração & dosagem
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD009510, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is one of the most commonly occurring retinal vascular abnormalities. The most common cause of visual loss in people with BRVO is macular oedema (MO). Grid or focal laser photocoagulation has been shown to reduce the risk of visual loss. Limitations to this treatment exist, however, and newer modalities may have equal or improved efficacy. Antiangiogenic therapy with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) has recently been used successfully to treat MO resulting from a variety of causes. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy and gather evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the potential harms of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents for the treatment of macular oedema (MO) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2019, Issue 6); MEDLINE Ovid; Embase Ovid; the ISRCTN registry; ClinicalTrials.gov; and the WHO ICTRP. The date of the last search was 12 June 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating BRVO. Eligible trials had to have at least six months' follow-up where anti-VEGF treatment was compared with another treatment, no treatment, or placebo. We excluded trials where combination treatments (anti-VEGF plus other treatments) were used; and trials that investigated the dose and duration of treatment without a comparison group (other treatment/no treatment/sham). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted the data using standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with an improvement from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity of greater than or equal to 15 letters (3 lines) on the Early Treatment in Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) Chart at six months and 12 months of follow-up. The secondary outcomes were the proportion of participants who lost greater than or equal to 15 ETDRS letters (3 lines) and the mean visual acuity (VA) change at six and 12 months, as well as the change in central retinal thickness (CRT) on optical coherence tomography from baseline at six and 12 months. We also collected data on adverse events and quality of life (QoL). MAIN RESULTS: We found eight RCTs of 1631 participants that met the inclusion criteria after independent and duplicate review of the search results. These studies took place in Europe, North America, Eastern Mediterranean region and East Asia. Included participants were adults aged 18 or over with VA of 20/40 or worse. Studies varied by duration of disease but permitted previously treated eyes as long as there was sufficient treatment-free interval. All anti-VEGF agents (bevacizumab, ranibizumab and aflibercept) and steroids (triamcinolone and dexamethasone) were included. Overall, we judged the studies to be at moderate or unclear risk of bias. Four of the eight studies did not mask participants or outcome assessors, or both. One trial compared anti-VEGF to sham. At six months, eyes receiving anti-VEGF were significantly more likely to have a gain of 15 or more ETDRS letters (risk ratio (RR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19 to 2.49; 283 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Mean VA was better in the anti-VEGF group at six months compared with control (mean difference (MD) 7.50 letters, 95% CI 5.29 to 9.71; 282 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Anti-VEGF also proved more effective at reducing CRT at six months (MD -57.50 microns, 95% CI -108.63 to -6.37; 281 participants; lower CRT is better; moderate-certainty evidence). There was only very low-certainty evidence on adverse effects. There were no reports of endophthalmitis. Mean change in QoL (measured using the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire VFQ-25) was better in people treated with anti-VEGF compared with people treated with sham (MD 7.6 higher score, 95% CI 4.3 to 10.9; 281 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Three RCTs compared anti-VEGF with macular laser (total participants = 473). The proportion of eyes gaining 15 or more letters was greater in the anti-VEGF group at six months (RR 2.09, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.05; 2 studies, 201 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Mean VA in the anti-VEGF groups was better than the laser groups at six months (MD 9.63 letters, 95% CI 7.23 to 12.03; 3 studies, 473 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There was a greater reduction in CRT in the anti-VEGF group compared with the laser group at six months (MD -147.47 microns, 95% CI -200.19 to -94.75; 2 studies, 201 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There was only very low-certainty evidence on adverse events. There were no reports of endophthalmitis. QoL outcomes were not reported. Four studies compared anti-VEGF with intravitreal steroid (875 participants). The proportion of eyes gaining 15 or more ETDRS letters was greater in the anti-VEGF group at six months (RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.10; 2 studies, 330 participants; high-certainty evidence) and 12 months (RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.28; 1 study, 307 participants; high-certainty evidence). Mean VA was better in the anti-VEGF group at six months (MD 8.22 letters, 95% CI 5.69 to 10.76; 2 studies, 330 participants; high-certainty evidence) and 12 months (MD 9.15 letters, 95% CI 6.32 to 11.97; 2 studies, 343 participants; high-certainty evidence). Mean CRT also showed a greater reduction in the anti-VEGF arm at 12 months compared with intravitreal steroid (MD -26.92 microns, 95% CI -65.88 to 12.04; 2 studies, 343 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). People receiving anti-VEGF showed a greater improvement in QoL at 12 months compared to those receiving steroid (MD 3.10, 95% CI 0.22 to 5.98; 1 study, 307 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Moderate-certainty evidence suggested increased risk of cataract and raised IOP with steroids. There was only very low-certainty evidence on APTC events. No cases of endophthalmitis were observed. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The available RCT evidence suggests that treatment of MO secondary to BRVO with anti-VEGF improves visual and anatomical outcomes at six and 12 months.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/complicações , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Fotocoagulação a Laser , Terapia a Laser , Edema Macular/etiologia , Edema Macular/cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ranibizumab/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Pain Physician ; 23(4): 335-348, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic neck pain is reportedly considered the fourth leading cause of disability. Cervical interlaminar epidural injections are among the commonly administered nonsurgical interventions for managing chronic neck pain, secondary to disc herniation and radiculitis, spinal stenosis, or chronic neck pain of discogenic origin. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the differences in the effectiveness of cervical epidural injections with local anesthetics with or without steroids for the management of chronic neck pain. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the literature of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared epidural injections with local anesthetic with or without steroids was performed, including a search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for all years up to May 2019. Meta-analysis was done for pain relief based on the Numeric Rating Scale, functional status based on the Neck Disability Index, and opioid intake dosage. RESULTS: Four studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 370 patients were divided into 2 groups: the experimental group received cervical epidural injection with steroid and local anesthetic, and the control group received injection with local anesthetic only. Regrading pain relief, no significant difference was observed between both groups (weighted mean difference [WMD], -0.006; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.275 to 0.263; P = 0.963; I² = 0.0% at 12 months). There was also no significant difference in the improvement of the functional status (WMD, 0.159; 95% CI, -1.231 to 1.549; P = 0.823; I² = 9.8% at 12 months). Similarly, there was no significant difference in opioid dosage (WMD, -0.093; 95% CI, -5.952 to 5.766; P = 0.975; I² = 0.0% at 12 months). LIMITATIONS: Only a few studies on this premise were found in the literature. There was also a lack of heterogeneity of the included RCT studies. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of steroids to anesthetic injectates was not associated with better pain and functional score outcomes compared with anesthetic injectate alone in patients with chronic neck pain. KEY WORDS: Chronic neck pain, cervical radiculopathy, cervical disc disease, spinal stenosis, facet joint pathology, cervical epidural injections, steroid injections, local anesthetic injections, systematic review, meta-analysis, randomized control trial.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Cervicalgia/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Cervicalgia/diagnóstico , Manejo da Dor/efeitos adversos , Radiculopatia/diagnóstico , Radiculopatia/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Pain Physician ; 23(4): 365-374, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses examined only the short-term differences between lidocaine and steroids vs lidocaine alone in treating lumbar degenerative diseases. Long-term outcomes (1-2 years) in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) and lumbar central spinal stenosis (LCSS) have not yet been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess quantitatively the difference in efficacy at 1 to 2 years between lidocaine alone vs lidocaine and steroids for the management of LDH or LCSS. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library were electronically searched up to July 22, 2016, for randomized controlled trials comparing lidocaine alone vs in combination with steroids for the treatment of LDH and LCSS. Effective pain relief (EPR), Numeric Rating Scale (NRS-11), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), opioid intake (OI), and total employed increased rate (TEIR) were the endpoints. Risk ratios (RRs) or weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and the pooled analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.2. RESULTS: Seven trials were included. EPR was not significantly different at 1 and 2 years, with RR = 1.08 (95% CI, 0.90-1.30; P = .39) and RR = 1.04 (95% CI, 0.92-1.18; P = .51), respectively, in patients treated with lidocaine alone vs in combination with steroids. The NRS-11 was also similar at 1 and 2 years. ODI and OI were not significantly different at 1 and 2 years. A similar TEIR effect was also observed for the 2 treatments. LIMITATIONS: This meta-analysis relied on a small sample size of trials. Significant heterogeneity among studies was observed. Several significant differences in terms of age of the patients were reported in one included trial. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis confirmed the similar effects associated with lidocaine alone vs in combination with steroids for the management of LDH and LCSS. Studies with longer follow-up periods are still recommended. KEY WORDS: Effective pain relief, lidocaine, long-term, lumbar central spinal stenosis, lumbar disc herniation, Numeric Rating Scale, opioid intake, Oswestry Disability Index, steroids, total employed increased rate.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Vértebras Lombares , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Estenose Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Injeções Epidurais/tendências , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/tendências , Estenose Espinal/diagnóstico , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Pain Physician ; 23(4): E417-E424, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidural steroid injection (ESI) is a common practice for pain treatment since 1953. In 2014, the FDA issued a warning about ESI. Studies have focused on the effect of the particle size and their ability to generate harmful aggregates. Although steroid aggregates provide longer times for reabsorption, therefore a longer anti-inflammatory effect, they are potentially harmful to the central nervous system via embolic mechanisms.Previous studies have established that steroidal aggregates with asizes over 100 mu m are potentially able to occlude blood vessels. Studies by Tiso et al and Benzon et al addressed the role of steroids on CNS adverse events, with similar outcomes. The main difference was on the role of aggregates with a size over 100 mu m, which Benzon et al. attributed to the ability of certain steroid preparations to rapidly precipitate and form large aggregates. OBJECTIVES: Studying the effect of the time elapsed between mixing the steroid preparation and injection on the number and size of aggregates with sizes above 100 mu m. STUDY DESIGN: Original study in basic science. SETTING: Basic scienceMETHODS: Steroids evaluated are commonly used in Spain for ESI: betamethasone, triamcinolone, and dexamethasone. The size and number of the aggregates was determined for undiluted commercial steroid preparations in the usual amount for a single and double dosage used for ESI.Samples were examined with a Leica TCS-SP2 microscope at the first, the fifth and the 30th minute after shaking the preparations. Aggregates observed in the different preparations were manually counted and grouped in the following size range: 0-20, 20-50, 50-100, 100-300, 300-500 and > 500 mu m.Statistical analysis was carried out using the R software. Nonparametric techniques were used in the comparison of aggregate size. Global comparison of the groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test and post-hoc comparisons using the Wilcoxon test, adjusting P-values by the Holm method for multiple comparisonsRESULTS: Aggregates present in triamcinolone and betamethasone samples were statistically larger than in dexamethasone samples. Triamcinolone suspensions produced significantly larger aggregates than betamethasone five minutes after mixing. Triamcinolone preparations produced greater particle aggregates (> 500 mu m), which were not present in dexamethasone and betamethasone preparations. LIMITATIONS: Study how the human internal factors like blood elements and spinal fluid could interact with steroids and influence the size of the aggregates formed. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the size of the particles injected depends on the type of steroid and the time allowed between mixing and injecting. The results demonstrate that waiting longer than 5 minutes between mixing and injecting can predispose the formation of potentially harmful aggregates in triamcinolone and betamethasone samples. The presence of greater particle aggregates (> 500 mu m) may occlude some important vessels and arteries with serious adverse results. Vigorous shaking of the injectable could prevent such events. KEY WORDS: Epidural steroid injection, triamcinolone, betamethasone, dexamethasone, steroid aggregates.


Assuntos
Tamanho da Partícula , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Esteroides/química , Betametasona/administração & dosagem , Betametasona/química , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/química , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/química , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Triancinolona/administração & dosagem , Triancinolona/química
9.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(6): 835-841, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525120

RESUMO

Aims: This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) in patients with lumbar radicular pain or radiculopathy caused by different spinal pathologies. Methods: One hundred and seventy seven patients who underwent single transforaminal epidural steroid injection were included in the study group and divided into 3 subgroups (central spinal stenosis + lateral recess stenosis, foraminal stenosis, lumbar disc herniation) according to existing spinal pathology. Patients' visuel analogue scale (VAS) measures and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were recorded and the patients who give favourable response to treatment were called respondents and who were not called as non-respondents. Subgroups were compared statistically at the end of 12 months. Results: Sixty patients (33.9%) were considered as respondents and 117 patients (66.1%) were non-respondents in the entire study group. Patients with foraminal stenosis included the vast majority of the respondents and showed better results of pain relief as opposed to patients of other groups at the end of 12 months (P < 0.001). Conclusion: TFESI was an effective treatment modality for pain relief and functional improvement in patients with foraminal stenosis. However, it could not produce the same results in patients with central spinal stenosis and lumbar disc herniations.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/tratamento farmacológico , Injeções Epidurais/efeitos adversos , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Radiculopatia/tratamento farmacológico , Estenose Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Dor nas Costas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/efeitos dos fármacos , Região Lombossacral/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estenose Espinal/complicações , Estenose Espinal/diagnóstico , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Escala Visual Analógica
10.
Neurology ; 95(2): e111-e120, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-immunoglobulin G (MOG-IgG) associated disorder (MOGAD) often manifests with recurrent CNS demyelinating attacks. The optimal treatment for reducing relapses is unknown. To help determine the efficacy of long-term immunotherapy in preventing relapse in patients with MOGAD, we conducted a multicenter retrospective study to determine the rate of relapses on various treatments. METHODS: We determined the frequency of relapses in patients receiving various forms of long-term immunotherapy for MOGAD. Inclusion criteria were history of ≥1 CNS demyelinating attacks, MOG-IgG seropositivity, and immunotherapy for ≥6 months. Patients were reviewed for CNS demyelinating attacks before and during long-term immunotherapy. RESULTS: Seventy patients were included. The median age at initial CNS demyelinating attack was 29 years (range 3-61 years; 33% <18 years), and 59% were female. The median annualized relapse rate (ARR) before treatment was 1.6. On maintenance immunotherapy, the proportion of patients with relapse was as follows: mycophenolate mofetil 74% (14 of 19; ARR 0.67), rituximab 61% (22 of 36; ARR 0.59), azathioprine 59% (13 of 22; ARR 0.2), and IV immunoglobulin (IVIG) 20% (2 of 10; ARR 0). The overall median ARR on these 4 treatments was 0.3. All 9 patients treated with multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying agents had a breakthrough relapse on treatment (ARR 1.5). CONCLUSION: This large retrospective multicenter study of patients with MOGAD suggests that maintenance immunotherapy reduces recurrent CNS demyelinating attacks, with the lowest ARR being associated with maintenance IVIG therapy. Traditional MS disease-modifying agents appear to be ineffective. Prospective randomized controlled studies are required to validate these conclusions.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/imunologia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Desmielinizantes/imunologia , Doenças Desmielinizantes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Desmielinizantes/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(9): 874-878, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal synovial cysts are fluid-filled sacs that develop after facet joint degeneration and can give rise to radicular pain. If resistant to conservative management, surgical decompression or percutaneous steroid treatment is usually recommended. Percutaneous treatment minimizes the risk of spinal instability, but it has been uncertain whether it provides any long-term symptom relief. Moreover, it is unclear whether cyst rupture provides any added benefit. OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term pain relief in patients with spinal synovial cysts who were treated with percutaneous intra-articular steroid treatment without cyst rupture. METHODS: A population-based cohort-study was conducted of all patients with symptomatic synovial cysts who were treated with percutaneous intra-articular steroid treatment without cyst rupture between 1995 and 2014. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients were included. All patients had variations of lower back and radicular pain. Intra-articular access was achieved in 35 (92%) patients, and there were no treatment-related complications. At short-term assessment, 30 (79%) had pain relief. During the median follow-up of 11 years, 12 (32%) patients showed sustained pain relief without the need for decompressive surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous intra-articular steroid treatment without cyst rupture is a safe treatment for symptomatic spinal synovial cysts and eliminates the need for surgery in a substantial number of patients. It can be suggested as a first line of treatment.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Vigilância da População , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Cisto Sinovial/diagnóstico por imagem , Cisto Sinovial/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/tendências , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G25-G32, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379699

RESUMO

We provide guidance on prevention of adrenal crisis during the global COVID-19 crisis, a time with frequently restricted access to the usual level of healthcare. Patients with adrenal insufficiency are at an increased risk of infection, which may be complicated by developing an adrenal crisis; however, there is currently no evidence that adrenal insufficiency patients are more likely to develop a severe course of disease. We highlight the need for education (sick day rules, stringent social distancing rules), equipment (sufficient glucocorticoid supplies, steroid emergency self-injection kit) and empowerment (steroid emergency card, COVID-19 guidelines) to prevent adrenal crises. In patients with adrenal insufficiency developing an acute COVID-19 infection, which frequently presents with continuous high fever, we suggest oral stress dose cover with 20 mg hydrocortisone every 6 h. We also comment on suggested dosing for patients who usually take modified release hydrocortisone or prednisolone. In patients with adrenal insufficiency showing clinical deterioration during an acute COVID-19 infection, we advise immediate (self-)injection of 100 mg hydrocortisone intramuscularly, followed by continuous i.v. infusion of 200 mg hydrocortisone per 24 h, or until this can be established, and administration of 50 mg hydrocortisone every 6 h. We also advise on doses for infants and children.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Doença Aguda , Insuficiência Adrenal/virologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Endocrinologia/métodos , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/administração & dosagem , Lactente , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Esteroides/administração & dosagem
14.
Value Health ; 23(5): 632-641, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To qualitatively explore patient experiences of severe, recurrent, bilateral nasal polyps (NP). METHODS: A targeted literature review of published qualitative studies and online blogs describing patient experiences of NP was conducted. Semistructured concept elicitation interviews were conducted in the United States and Germany with participants ≥18 years with severe, recurrent, bilateral NP to explore their symptom experience and impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQoL; NCT03221192). A subset of 10 participants reported symptoms and impacts using a smartphone or tablet application (app) over a 10-day period. RESULTS: A paucity of qualitative evidence regarding patient experience of NP was identified from the literature or blog review. Twenty-seven participant interviews were conducted. Thirty-six symptoms were identified, including 7 primary symptoms (nasal congestion [n = 27 of 27], breathing difficulties [n = 27 of 27], postnasal drip [n = 25 of 27], runny nose [n = 24 of 27], head/facial pressure [n = 23 of 27], loss of smell [n = 23 of 27], loss of taste [n = 22 of 27]) and 29 secondary symptoms (the most common were mucus/catarrh and nose bleeds [both n = 20 of 27]). Most symptoms were reported to vary both within and between days. Sixty impacts of severe NP were reported, including impacts on sleep (n = 22 of 27), physical functioning (n = 21 of 27), activities of daily living (n = 21 of 27), emotional well-being (n = 27 of 27), treatment (n = 23 of 27), social life (n = 26 of 27), and work (n = 19 of 27). Symptoms/impacts reported using the app were consistent with interview findings, although new symptoms were identified (ear pain, throat pain, nasal scabs, and nasal burning). These results supported the development of a conceptual model outlining concepts related to symptoms, impacts, and treatment of NP. CONCLUSIONS: Severe, recurrent, bilateral NP are associated with a range of symptoms that have significant detrimental impact on HRQoL.


Assuntos
Pólipos Nasais/complicações , Pólipos Nasais/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Rinite/complicações , Sinusite/complicações , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pólipos Nasais/tratamento farmacológico , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Rinite/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos
16.
CJEM ; 22(5): 591-594, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438948

RESUMO

A 53-year-old male presents with cough, fever, and myalgias for 7 days. Vitals include temperature, 38.0°C; heart rate, 110; blood pressure, 118/70 mm Hg; respiration rate, 28; and oxygen saturation 83% on room air. His only past medical history is hypertension. Your community is in the midst of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The patient is hypoxic but responds to oxygen supplementation with nasal cannula and a face mask. His chest x-ray demonstrates multifocal infiltrates. Are there any therapeutic agents currently available for COVID-19?


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Esteroides/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 51(11): 1096-1104, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term outcome of patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) responding to intravenous steroids (IVS) has been poorly reported. AIMS: To assess relapse-free survival in patients with ASUC responding to IVS. METHODS: Between January 2006 and December 2017, 142 consecutive patients with ASUC (according to modified Truelove-and-Witts criteria) responding to IVS were included in this multicentre retrospective study. Relapse was defined by a partial Mayo Clinic score >4 and/or the need for another maintenance therapy. RESULTS: Among the 142 included patients (100 naïve of immunomodulator and/or biological agent) hospitalised for ASUC, 59 (41.5%) were treated at discharge with 5-aminosalicylic acid, 60 (42%) with immunomodulators, 18 (13%) with anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents and 5 (3.5%) with vedolizumab. After a median follow-up of 4.8 (2.6-7.3) years, 90 (63.4%) had relapsed and 12 (8.5%) had required colectomy. The probabilities of relapse-free survival were 58%, 48% and 40% at 1, 2 and 5 years respectively. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients with <6 liquid stools per day at day 3 (hazard ratio 0.56, 95%CI [0.34-0.91]), a partial Mayo Clinic score <2 at day 5 (0.41 [0.21-0.80]) and anti-TNF maintenance therapy (0.37 [0.16-0.87]) were less likely to relapse. The probabilities of colectomy-free survival were 96%, 95% and 91% at 1, 2 and 5 years respectively. CONCLUSION: Despite a high relapse rate, patients with ASUC responding to IVS had a low rate of colectomy after 5 years of follow-up. Early response to IVS and maintenance therapy with biological agents were associated with a lower rate of relapse.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Turk Neurosurg ; 30(3): 387-393, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239482

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the efficacy of percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy with and without epidural steroid application in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 101 patients who had indications for percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether epidural steroids were applied following the surgical procedure. Each patient in group A received an epidural injection of 40mg triamcinolone acetonide through the working sleeve following the surgical procedure. However, patients in group B were not given the drug. Preoperative and postoperative radicular pain was measured with the visual analogue scale (VAS). Functional and satisfaction outcomes were measured with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the modified MacNab criteria, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients had a complete follow-up of longer than two years without recurrence. The sample sizes of group A and group B were 56 and 41. The VAS scores and ODI scores at each postoperative follow-up point were significantly lower than the preoperative values (p < 0.001). However, there were no significant between-group differences (p > 0.05). The secondary outcomes of the changes in the VAS and ODI scores were also equivalent between the groups at the 3-month and 2-year follow-ups (p > 0.05). No significant difference was observed in the modified MacNab criteria between the groups at 2 years (p=0.7715). CONCLUSION: Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is a safe and effective minimally invasive surgery for radiculopathy caused by lumbar disc herniation. Epidural steroid injection following the surgical procedure offered no benefit compared with surgery alone.


Assuntos
Discotomia Percutânea/métodos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Neuroendoscopia/métodos , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Discotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Discotomia Percutânea/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/tendências , Neuroendoscopia/efeitos adversos , Neuroendoscopia/tendências , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
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