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1.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 27(3)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recent outbreak of respiratory illness caused by COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, has received global attention as it has infected thousands of individuals there, and later it has also been reported from other countries internationally. This study aims at performing an exploratory study on Twitter to understand the information shared among the community regarding the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: COVID-19 related tweets were collected from Twitter using keywords from 18 January to 25 January 2020. Top-ranking tweets were taken as samples and then categorised based on the content. Expressions or opinion tweets were analysed qualitatively to understand the mindset of the people regarding the outbreak. Theme wise reachability evaluation of the messages was also performed. RESULTS: Based on the content of the tweets, five themes were evolved: (1) general information; (2) health information; (3) expressions; (4) humour and (5) others. 57.42% of messages are general information followed by expressive tweets (24.12%). Humorous messages were liked the most, whereas health information tweets were retweeted the maximum. Fear was the predominant emotion expressed in the messages. CONCLUSION: The results of the study would be useful to focus on the dissemination of the right information and effective communication on Twitter related to health and outbreak management.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pandemias , Estigma Social
2.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3351, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174991

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to describe attributes associated with the Quality of Life of Brazilian transgender children and adolescents according to their own perception. METHOD: descriptive study conducted with 32 participants between eight and 18 years old, who were either interviewed or participated in focus groups. The statements were transcribed, grouped with the aid of the Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires software, version 0.7 alpha 2 and described according to the definition of Quality of Life by the World Health Organization concerning to the mental, physical, and social dimensions. RESULTS: it was possible to identify the family nucleus as the main social support for transgender children and adolescents. However, the experience of prejudice and discrimination were negative attributes associated with Quality of Life. CONCLUSION: the statements indicate that lives of transgender children and adolescents are impacted by social, physical, and mental factors due to the stigma and discrimination experienced. It is expected to contribute to the formulation of public policies related to transgender children and adolescents and expand the discussion on the citizens' duties and rights in relation to transsexuality.


Assuntos
Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193945

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has strained health care systems beyond capacity resulting in many people not having access to life-sustaining measures even in well-resourced countries. Palliative and end-of-life care are therefore essential to alleviate suffering and ensure a continuum of care for patients unlikely to survive. This is challenging in sub-Saharan Africa where lack of trained teams on basic palliative care and reduced access to opioids limit implementation of palliative and end-of-life care. At the same time, health care providers have to cope with local cultural conceptions of death and absence of advance care directives.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Assistência Terminal/organização & administração , Diretivas Antecipadas , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Analgésicos Opioides/provisão & distribução , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Atitude Frente a Morte , Barreiras de Comunicação , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Cultura , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Estigma Social , Assistência Terminal/psicologia
5.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e177, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148367

RESUMO

AIMS: Time to Change, an anti-stigma programme in England, has worked to reduce stigma relating to mental illness in many facets of life. Newspaper reports are an important factor in shaping public attitudes towards mental illnesses, as well as working as a barometer reflecting public opinion. This study aims to assess the way that coverage of mental health topics and different mental illnesses has changed since 2008. METHOD: Articles covering mental health in 18 different newspapers were retrieved using keyword searches on two randomly chosen days of each month in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2013, 2014, 2016 and 2019. A content analysis approach using a structured coding framework was used to extract information from the articles. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the change in odds of each hypothesised stigmatising or anti-stigmatising element occurring in 2019 compared to 2008 and 2016 with a Wald test to assess the overall significance of year as a predictor in the model. Further logistic regression models were used to assess the association between the diagnosis that an article was about and the odds that it was stigmatising, and whether this relationship is moderated by year of publication. RESULTS: A total of 6731 articles were analysed, and there was a significant increase in anti-stigmatising articles in 2019 compared to 2008 (OR 3.16 (2.60-3.84), p < 0.001) and 2016 (OR 1.40 (1.16-1.69), p < 0.001). Of the 5142 articles that specified a diagnosis, articles about schizophrenia were 6.37 times more likely to be stigmatising than articles about other diagnoses (OR 6.37 (3.05-13.29) p < 0.001), and there was evidence that the strength of this relationship significantly interacted with the year an article was published (p = 0.010). Articles about depression were significantly less likely to be stigmatising (OR 0.59 (0.69-0.85) p = 0.018) than those about other diagnoses, while there was no difference in coverage of eating disorders v. other diagnoses (OR 1.37 (0.67-2.80) p = 0.386); neither of these relationships showed an interaction with the year of publication. CONCLUSION: Anti-stigma programmes should continue to work with newspapers to improve coverage of mental illness. However, interventions should consider providing specific guidance and promote awareness of rarer mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, and evaluation should examine whether reductions in stigma extend to people with all mental illness diagnoses.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comunicação em Saúde/tendências , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Jornais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Inglaterra , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental
6.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e3, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181874

RESUMO

The 2019 corona virus disease (COVID-19) has wreaked havoc on countries, communities and households. Its effect on individuals and their families, although enormous, has not been adequately explored. We thus present a report on the illness experiences of three families in Ghana who had at least one member diagnosed with COVID-19. We interviewed them and recorded their commonest fears, such as death, stigmatisation and collapse of family business. Respondents had a fair idea about symptoms of COVID-19, mode of transmission and safety precautions. Family separation and loss of income were some of the adverse effects expressed. Majority of them were hopeful that family members with COVID-19 would recover and be reunited. The biopsychosocial impact of COVID-19 is tremendous and family physicians and other primary care workers have an essential role to play in addressing this.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Emoções , Características da Família , Família , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Medo , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Esperança , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239767, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044968

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV status disclosure in children is one of acontroversial issue in current health. Over 44,000 children in Ethiopia were living with HIV in the year 2019 with a variable level of disclosure, which ranges from 16.3% to 49%. Therefore, this study aimed to assess HIV-positive status disclosure and associated factors among HIV-infected children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in ten public health facilities providing pediatric antiretroviral therapy services. Systematic random sampling was used to select 221 caregivers of children aged 6-15 years. Face-to-face interviews were employed to generate the data. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the association between HIV-positive status disclosure to children and independent variables with statistical significance set at p-value <0.05. RESULTS: Out of the total, 134 (60.6%) of HIV-infected children knew about their HIV status. The mean age at disclosure was 10.71 years. Children aged older than 10 years [AOR = 22, 95% CI: 5.3-79.2], female children [AOR = 3; 95% CI = 1.2-8.7], children lost their family member by HIV [AOR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.2-10], caregiver's perception of child did not get stigmatized [AOR = 4, 95% CI: 1.6-11], and children's responsible for anti-retroviral therapy [AOR = 16, 95% CI: 5-50] were significantly associated with HIV positive status disclosure compared to their counterpart respectively. Children who stayed on anti-retroviral for 10-15 years were [AOR = 7; 95% CI: 2-27] more likely to know their HIV positive status compared to those staying on anti-retroviral therapy for <6 years. CONCLUSION: The proportion of disclosure of HIV-positive status among HIV-infected children was low. Factors associated were the age of the child, sex, existence of parent, stigma, ART duration, and responsibility of the child for his/her drugs. HIV care providers should consider these factors while supporting disclosure.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239914, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112868

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that menstruation-related teasing is a common experience among adolescent girls with ramifications on their school participation, yet empirical evidence on the prevalence and determinants of period teasing in schools remain scarce. Menstrual hygiene research and policies almost exclusively focus on girls and women, leading to a dearth of knowledge of male attitudes. We conducted the first quantitative survey of period teasing in schools in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on 432 male and 524 female students in four co-educational secondary schools in northern Tanzania. Period teasing is prevalent; 13% of girls have experienced period teasing, and more than 80% fear being teased, especially by male classmates. Girls' fears are associated with insufficient menstrual hygiene management resources and practices. Girls cope by reducing school attendance, participation, and concentration in the classroom during periods. Boys engage in period teasing because they perceive periods as embarrassing, especially visible markers of periods (odor or stains). Social norms, such as peer behavior and home restrictions on menstruating women, are associated with more teasing. Boys believe it is strongly inappropriate for girls to reveal period status or to discuss periods with males, including male teachers. In contrast, boys are well informed about basic biological facts of menstruation (scoring 60% on a knowledge quiz, not statistically different from the girls) and have received information from school curricula and health workers. Lack of suitable menstrual hygiene practices and restrictive social norms is correlated with period teasing, which hinders gender equality in educational opportunities. Providing narrowly bio-medical focused education about menstruation may not be enough to reduce period teasing in contexts with period stigma.


Assuntos
Atitude , Bullying , Homens/psicologia , Menstruação/psicologia , Normas Sociais , Estigma Social , Mulheres/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/provisão & distribução , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239936, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057379

RESUMO

Article 8 of the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities requires governments around the globe to raise awareness on issues of disability in their societies, combatting stereotypes, prejudices and harmful practices. Little comparative data is available on lay people's social representations of intellectual disability and associated stigma, which could inform actions in line with the convention. The present study compared intellectual disability literacy and stigma among adults in the general population in the UK, Austria and Germany (N = 1046), and examined the effects of providing an intellectual disability label on these outcomes. Although participants came from highly developed European countries and prior contact with people with intellectual disabilities was common, the findings pointed to some striking differences between countries. Participants in Austria and Germany were much less likely than those in the UK to identify symptoms of a possible intellectual disability in an unlabelled vignette. They were also much more hostile towards social contact, a difference that was maintained when participants were informed of the intellectual disability label. Labelling showed controversial effects on stigma, both in its effects on social distance and on beliefs about suitable causes and interventions. Overall, the social acceptance of people with intellectual disabilities appears to be much less advanced in Austria and Germany than in the UK, and awareness of intellectual disability much lower, indicating a need for action at societal level.


Assuntos
Atitude , Deficiência Intelectual , Preconceito , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Áustria , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Distância Social , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(10): e25632, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119183

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Key populations at elevated risk to contract or transmit HIV may also be at higher risk of COVID-19 complications and adverse outcomes associated with public health prevention measures. However, the conditions faced by specific populations vary according to social, structural and environmental factors, including stigma and discrimination, criminalization, social and economic safety nets and the local epidemiology of HIV and COVID-19, which determine risk of exposure and vulnerability to adverse health outcomes, as well as the ability to comply with measures such as physical distancing. This commentary identifies common vulnerabilities and cross-cutting themes in terms of the impacts of COVID-19 on key populations before addressing issues and concerns specific to particular populations. DISCUSSION: Cross-cutting themes include direct impacts such as disrupted access to essential medicines, commodities and services such as anti-retroviral treatment, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis, opioid agonist treatment, viral load monitoring, HIV and sexually transmitted infections testing, condoms and syringes. Indirect impacts include significant collateral damage arising from prevention measures which restrict human rights, increase or impose criminal penalties, and expand police powers to target vulnerable and criminalized populations. Significant heterogeneity in the COVID-19 pandemic, the underlying HIV epidemic and the ability of key populations to protect themselves means that people who inject drugs and sex workers face particular challenges, including indirect impacts as a result of police targeting, loss of income and sometimes both. Geographical variations mean that transgender people and men who have sex with men in regions like Africa and the middle east remain criminalized, as well as stigmatized and discriminated against, increasing their vulnerability to adverse outcomes in relation to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Disruptions to both licit and illicit supply chains, loss of income and livelihoods and changes in behaviour as a result of lockdowns and physical distancing have the potential to exacerbate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on key populations. While these impacts will vary significantly, human-rights approaches to COVID-19 emergency laws and public health prevention measures that are population-specific and sensitive, will be key to reducing adverse health outcomes and ensuring that no one is left behind.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Populações Vulneráveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Prisioneiros , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Profissionais do Sexo , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Estigma Social , Carga Viral
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238651, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976504

RESUMO

How do candidates' status and social proximity to members of the evaluating audience interact to shape recognition in peer-based evaluative settings? In this study, we shed light on this question by adopting a mixed-method approach. We first examined field data on the conferral of awards in a peer-based evaluative contest-"The Silver Tag"-which is one of the most prestigious digital advertising awards contests in Norway. The field study revealed the existence of a negative interaction between status and social proximity on the allocation of awards. We then conducted two experiments to probe the mechanisms responsible for this finding. In the first experiment, we replicated the main pattern observed in the field study. In the second experiment, we showed that the interaction effect is contingent on the nature of the evaluative setting. When audience members' decisions were in the public domain (i.e., the other audience members knew them), social proximity tempered the effect of status on candidates' recognition, but it did not when decisions were private (i.e., the other audience members did not know them). We conclude by discussing several implications of our study for research on the socio-psychological processes underlying evaluative outcomes in tournament rituals.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Estigma Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão
17.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 130-134, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890375

RESUMO

Mental health problems are over-represented in doctors and medical students. However, stigma and 'a culture of shame' are formidable barriers to mental health services and consequently many doctors and medical students with mental health difficulties continue to suffer in silence despite the availability of effective treatment. Indeed, a recent study on over 2100 female physicians who met the diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder revealed that 50% were reluctant to seek professional help due to fear of exposure to stigma. Left untreated or undertreated, mental health problems in doctors can result in impairment of occupational functioning, compromise patient safety and place considerable strain on the economy (by increasing the amount of sick leave taken). Moreover, the consequences of mental health stigma in the medical profession can be fatal. Dr Daksha Emson, a psychiatrist with bipolar affective disorder, tragically killed herself and her baby daughter during a psychotic episode. An independent inquiry into Dr Emson's death concluded that she was the victim of stigma in the National Health Service. The mental health of medical students and doctors, in all of its aspects, must therefore be addressed with the urgency that it demands. Stephanie Knaak and colleagues conducted a data synthesis of evaluative studies on anti-stigma programmes for healthcare providers and identified six key ingredients one of which was a personal testimony from a trained speaker who has lived experience of mental illness. In this paper we outline a study protocol with the aim of answering the following research question, 'Does attending an anti-stigma programme comprised of a medic with first-hand experience of a mental health condition cause immediate and sustained reductions in mental health stigma from medical students and doctors towards their peers with mental health difficulties?'


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Médicos , Estigma Social , Estudantes de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Médicos/psicologia , Medicina Estatal , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
18.
Glob Public Health ; 15(12): 1917-1923, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985374

RESUMO

COVID-19 'lockdown' policies may have unintended consequences for individuals, households and country economies. Hence lockdown may be unsustainable despite the risk of a resurgence of new COVID-19 infections. The repeal and alteration of lockdown policies mark a symbolic transfer of responsibility for epidemic control from state to individual. This has the potential to catalyse fear, blame and judgement within and between populations. We draw on experience from the HIV pandemic to show that this will worsen during later phases of the pandemic if COVID-19 stigma increases, as we fear it could. We suggest policy recommendations for 'lockdown lifting' to limit COVID-19 stigma. We suggest three policy priorities to minimise potential increases in COVID-19 stigma: limit fear by strengthening risk communication, engage communities to reduce the emergence of blaming, and emphasise social justice to reduce judgement. 'Lockdown' policies cannot continue uninterrupted. However, lifting lockdown without unintended consequences may prove harder than establishing it. This period has the potential to see the emergence of fear, blame and judgement, intersecting with existing inequalities, as governments seek to share responsibility for preventing further Sars-Cov-2 transmission. As we have learned from HIV, it is critical that a wave of COVID-19 stigma is prevented from flourishing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Controle Social Formal/métodos , Estigma Social , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Quarentena , Isolamento Social
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1780-1782, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940202

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a global health emergency facing many countries around the world. Sex workers in Africa are among one of the vulnerable populations disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic on the continent. Sex workers are excluded from African government safety net, and this may force some sex workers back to sex work amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Because of the nature of sex work, physical distancing and other precautionary measures are impossible to observe, further compromising COVID-19 response. Sex workers in Africa have been known to face high levels of stigma and discrimination, including limited access to healthcare services. Disruption in HIV care and prevention services due to the pandemic among this key population may have negative impacts on the hard-won achievements in HIV response in Africa. In addition, stigma and discrimination toward sex workers could also make contact tracing challenging and limit access to COVID-19 testing among this vulnerable group. With the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for the UN Development Program, UN member states all pledged to ensure "no one will be left behind" and to "endeavor to reach the furthest behind first." This could not be more important than now as sex workers as a part of the population are left behind in COVID-19 response in Africa. It is important that the African government should ensure collective and inclusive response in the fight against COVID-19. Sex workers should not be forgotten in Africa's COVID-19 response because no one is safe, until all are safe.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Profissionais do Sexo , África , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Estigma Social , Populações Vulneráveis
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932667

RESUMO

This systematic review examines and consolidates existing evidence on stigma associated with the top four non-communicable diseases (NCDs)-cancers, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes-and its impact on the lives of people affected. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, JSTOR, Science Direct, and Web of Science for original research in English that explored health-related stigma among people living with either of the four NCDs. A three-step integrative synthesis of data was conducted. Twenty-six articles (qualitative = 15; quantitative = 11) were selected, with most (n = 15) related to cancers, followed by diabetes (n = 7), chronic respiratory diseases (n = 3), and cardiovascular diseases (n = 1). Blame, shame, and fear were the main causes of stigma, the origin and nature of which differed according to the disease-specific features. The manifestations (enacted and felt stigma) and consequences (social, behavioral, psychological, and medical) of stigma across NCDs were similar. Inconsistencies existed in the conceptualization of stigma processes. To fill this gap, we developed an NCD-related stigma framework. People living with NCDs can experience stigma, which can negatively impact their health, management of their disease, and quality of life. The new framework can help in improving the understanding of the processes and experiences of stigma related to NCDs.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estigma Social , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vergonha
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