Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.404
Filtrar
1.
Surg Clin North Am ; 99(5): 1029-1035, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446908

RESUMO

Burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment. All physicians, and especially surgeons, are at risk for developing burnout. The best strategies for mitigating burnout mimic a modern approach to medicine: the development of preventive practices to protect, promote, and maintain health and well-being. Job satisfaction, job engagement, and compassion satisfaction help protect from burnout. Individual commitment to self-care in conjunction with support from within health care organizations create the optimal framework in which burnout can be mitigated.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Fadiga por Compaixão/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Fatores de Risco , Autocuidado
2.
BMJ ; 366: l4414, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between the Life Simple 7 cardiovascular health score at age 50 and incidence of dementia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Civil service departments in London (Whitehall II study; study inception 1985-88). PARTICIPANTS: 7899 participants with data on the cardiovascular health score at age 50. EXPOSURES: The cardiovascular health score included four behavioural (smoking, diet, physical activity, body mass index) and three biological (fasting glucose, blood cholesterol, blood pressure) metrics, coded on a three point scale (0, 1, 2). The cardiovascular health score was the sum of seven metrics (score range 0-14) and was categorised into poor (scores 0-6), intermediate (7-11), and optimal (12-14) cardiovascular health. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident dementia, identified through linkage to hospital, mental health services, and mortality registers until 2017. RESULTS: 347 incident cases of dementia were recorded over a median follow-up of 24.7 years. Compared with an incidence rate of dementia of 3.2 (95% confidence interval 2.5 to 4.0) per 1000 person years among the group with poor cardiovascular health, the absolute rate differences per 1000 person years were -1.5 (95% confidence interval -2.3 to -0.7) for the group with intermediate cardiovascular health and -1.9 (-2.8 to -1.1) for the group with optimal cardiovascular health. Higher cardiovascular health score was associated with a lower risk of dementia (hazard ratio 0.89 (0.85 to 0.95) per 1 point increment in the cardiovascular health score). Similar associations with dementia were observed for the behavioural and biological subscales (hazard ratios per 1 point increment in the subscores 0.87 (0.81 to 0.93) and 0.91 (0.83 to 1.00), respectively). The association between cardiovascular health at age 50 and dementia was also seen in people who remained free of cardiovascular disease over the follow-up (hazard ratio 0.89 (0.84 to 0.95) per 1 point increment in the cardiovascular health score). CONCLUSION: Adherence to the Life Simple 7 ideal cardiovascular health recommendations in midlife was associated with a lower risk of dementia later in life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Demência/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Demência/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(4): 328-333, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore participation, consistency of demographic and health profiles, and short-term impacts across six Aboriginal Knockout Health Challenge (KHC) team-based weight loss competitions, 2012 to 2015. METHODS: Data comprised one competition each from 2012 and 2013 and two per year in 2014 and 2015. We compared baseline and change (pre- to post-competition) in weight, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and waist circumference (baseline only) across competitions using mixed models. RESULTS: Numbers of teams and participants increased from 2012 to 2015 from 13 and 324 to 33 and 830, respectively. A total of 3,625 participants registered, representing 2,645 unique people (25.4% repeat participation). Participants were mainly female and >90% were classified obese at baseline. Baseline weight and weight lost (between 1.9% and 2.5%) were significantly lower in subsequent competitions compared with the first. Improvements in fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity were comparable across competitions. CONCLUSION: The KHC has increasing and sustained appeal among Aboriginal communities, attracting those at risk from lifestyle-associated chronic disease and effectively reducing weight and promoting healthy lifestyles in the short term. Implications for public health: Community-led programs generated by, and responsive to, Aboriginal Australians' needs can demonstrate consistent community reach and sustained program-level lifestyle improvements.


Assuntos
Exercício , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16272, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277151

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As aging is associated with functional decline, preventing functional limitations and maintaining independence throughout later life has emerged as an important public health goal. Research indicates that sedentary behavior (prolonged sitting) is associated with functional loss and diminished ability to carry out activities of daily living. Despite many efforts to increase physical activity, which can be effective in countering functional loss, only an estimated 8% of older adults meet national physical activity guidelines. Thus, shifting the focus to reducing sitting time is emerging as a potential new intervention strategy but little research has been conducted in this area. With community support and funding, we developed and pilot tested a 4-week "Stand Up and Move More" intervention and found decreases in sedentary behavior, increases in physical activity, and improvements in mobility and vitality in a small sample of older adults. The purpose of this project is to expand upon these pilot results and examine the effectiveness and feasibility of translating a "Stand Up and Move More" intervention by State Aging Units to older adults in underserved communities. Eighty older adults from 4 counties across Wisconsin predominantly made up of rural older adults and older African American adults are randomly assigned to intervention (n = 40) or wait-list control (n = 40) groups. The intervention consists of 4 weekly sessions plus a refresher session at 8 weeks, and is delivered by community partners in each county. The sessions are designed to elicit ideas from older adults regarding how they can reduce their sitting time, help them set practical goals, develop action plans to reach their goals, and refine their plans across sessions to promote behavior change. Sedentary behavior, physical activity levels, functional performance, and health-related quality of life are assessed before and after the intervention to examine the effectiveness of the program. Feasibility of implementing the program by our community partners is assessed via semi-structured interviews. Strengths of this project include strong community collaborations and a high need given that the older adult population is projected to increase substantially in the next 15 years. CONCLUSION: This project will provide an important step in developing effective strategies for maintaining independence in older adults through determining the feasibility and impact of a community-based intervention to break up sitting time.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2543-2554, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Today there exists few intervention researches on cerebro-vascular function in populations at high risk of stroke in China. METHODS: Patients more than 40 years old, with at least 1 of stroke risk factors were recruited from outpatient department in 3 hospitals. A quasi-experimental design was performed by assigning participants into 3 groups: comprehensive intervention group, health education group, and control group. Participants in the control group received no intervention but were informed of risk factors of stroke. For health education group, a health education class was performed. Except to the health education program, participants in the comprehensive intervention group received an additional health life and behavior guidance. RESULTS: After the intervention, the Cerebro-Vascular Function Scores (CVFS) had significant differences among 3 groups (F = 5.252, P < 0.05). There was a significant increase in CVFS compared to the control group (P = 0.003, 95%CI: 1.552-8.493). Significantly changes in obesity were observed in comprehensive intervention group before and after the intervention (χ2 = 9.0747, P = 0.0026). The results of logistic regression showed that comprehensive intervention group had a significant decrease in prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.482, 95% CI: 0.242-0.961) compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Health education on stroke in a high-risk population combined with guidance on proper health life and behavior can be effective in preventing stroke.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(6): 295-305, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231099

RESUMO

Objectives The goal of this study was to determine whether experiencing Japan's specific medical checkup is associated with a health promotion lifestyle, health literacy (HL), and social capital (SC) by type of healthcare coverage.Methods The subjects were 1,048 residents of A City aged 40 through 74 years. Individuals who had experienced more than one medical checkup during the past two years were categorized as "Consultation." Individuals without that experience were categorized as "No consultation." Data were collected via an anonymous self-administered mail questionnaire survey. Health promotion lifestyles were assessed using a Japanese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP II). HL was measured with the 14-item Health Literacy Scale. The SC was measured following Hanibuchi's six-item scale.Results The response rates were 34.4% for males and 39.6% for females. Of the males covered by National Health Insurance (NHI), 68.8% were Consultation. Of the females covered by NHI, 79.4% were Consultation. Of the males covered by social insurance, 91.7% were Consultation, and 72.6% of the females covered by social insurance were Consultation. The consultation ratio of males covered by NHI was significantly lower among those without a co-residential spouse than among those living with a spouse. The physical activity score (a HPLP II subscale) of the females covered by NHI was significantly lower among those without compared to those with consultation. Among the males covered by social insurance, the nutrition score (a HPLP II subscale) was significantly higher among those without compared to those with consultation, and the number of neighbors providing companionship (an item in the SC scale) was larger. Among the females covered by social insurance, the health responsibility score (a HPLP II subscale) was significantly lower among those without than among those with consultation.Conclusion There were significant relationships between experiencing more than one medical checkup during the past two years and health promotion lifestyles and between that experience and social capital, except for males covered by NHI. Policies based on these results are encouraged to increase participation in medical checkups. Regarding males covered by NHI, support of their participation in medical checkups by people close to them would be an effective way to increase participation.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Seguro Saúde , Exame Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Capital Social , Adulto , Idoso , Conscientização , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/classificação , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(3): 308-318, jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003709

RESUMO

RESUMEN La obesidad es un problema de salud pública, siendo especialmente importante entre mujeres jóvenes. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la vivencia corporal, los hábitos saludables y regulación emocional entre mujeres jóvenes chilenas con obesidad y normopeso. El estudio tuvo un enfoque cualitativo, de alcance exploratorio y diseño descriptivo-analítico. Para describir la muestra se usó el Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) que mide imagen corporal, el Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) para evaluar ingesta emocional, y el Derogatis Symptom Checklist (SCL-90), que mide sintomatología psicológica. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad, que fueron analizadas utilizando codificación abierta de la Grounded Theory. Los resultados indican que ambos grupos presentan insatisfacción con la forma y peso de sus cuerpos, predominando en las participantes con obesidad al percibir limitaciones corporales. Las mujeres con obesidad describieron que regularon emociones negativas a través de la alimentación. Las participantes normopeso se caracterizaron por hábitos saludables, como actividad física y alimentación balanceada y en ambos grupos valorizan el cuidado del cuerpo y la estética personal, aunque sólo participantes normopeso presentaron conductas de cuidado efectivas.


ABSTRACT Obesity is a public health problem and is especially important among young women. The objective of this study was to compare the body experience, food habits and emotional regulation among young women with and without obesity. The study had a qualitative approach, was exploratory in scope and had a descriptive-analytical design. To describe the sample, the Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) was used to measure body image, the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) to assess emotional intake, and the Derogatis Symptom Checklist (SCL-90), which measures psychological symptoms. In-depth interviews were conducted, which were analyzed using Grounded Theory's open theory. The results indicated that both groups showed dissatisfaction with the shape and weight of their bodies, with women with obesity reporting perceived body limitations. Women with obesity reported regulating negative emotions through food. Non-obese participants reported healthy habits, such as physical activity and a balanced diet, and in both groups, body care and personal aesthetics were valued, although only non-obese participants reported effective care behaviors.


Assuntos
Mulheres , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Peso Corporal Ideal , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Obesidade
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 664, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Social Engagement Framework for Addressing the Chronic-disease-challenge (SEFAC) project intends to empower citizens at risk of or with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) to self-manage their chronic conditions through the SEFAC intervention. The intervention combines the concepts of mindfulness, social engagement and information and communication technology support, in order to reduce the burden of citizens with chronic conditions and to increase the sustainability of the health system in four European countries. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with a 6-month pre-post design will be conducted in four European countries: Croatia, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. A total of 360 community-dwelling citizens ≥50 years of age will be recruited; 200 citizens at risk of T2DM and/or CVD in the next 10 years (50 participants in each country) and 160 citizens with T2DM and/or CVD (40 participants in each country). Effects of the intervention in terms of self-management, healthy lifestyle behavior, social support, stress, depression, sleep and fatigue, adherence to medications and health-related quality of life will be assessed. In addition, a preliminary cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a societal and healthcare perspective. DISCUSSION: The SEFAC project will further elucidate whether the SEFAC intervention is feasible and (cost-) effective among citizens at risk of and suffering from T2DM and/or CVD in different settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry number is ISRCTN11248135 . Date of registration is 30/08/2018 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Atenção Plena , Autogestão/psicologia , Participação Social/psicologia , Doença Crônica , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 751, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-promoting behaviour is an important concept for health education. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of validated instruments to measure levels of health-promoting behaviour in the Malaysian context. The purpose of this study was to validate a Malay-language version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II) using a confirmatory approach. METHODS: Participants were 997 university undergraduate students, with a mean age of 21 years (SD = 1.58). The majority of the participants (80.4%) were female. Health-promoting behaviour was assessed using the 52-item HPLP-II, which measures six components of health-promoting behaviour outcomes. HPLP-II was translated into the Malay language using standard forward and backward translation procedures. Participants then completed the HPLP-II Malay version (HPLP-II-M). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted using Mplus 8.0 software on the six domains of HPLP-II-M model. RESULTS: The CFA result based on the hypothesised measurement model of six factors was aligned with the original HPLP-II, except for two low loading items which were subsequently removed from the CFA analysis. The final CFA measurement model with 50 items resulted in a good fit to the data based on RMSEA and SRMR fit indices (RMSEA = 0.046, 90%CI = 0.045, 0.048, SRMR = 0.062). The construct reliabilities for the HPLP-II-M subscales were acceptable, ranging from 0.737 to 0.878. CONCLUSION: The HPLP-II-M with six components of health-promoting behaviour outcomes and 50 items was considered valid and reliable for the present Malaysian sample.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida Saudável , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 784, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A community-based approach can be a promising strategy for implementing school-based health promotion aimed at stimulating healthy physical activity and dietary behaviour. Such an approach builds on the community capacity of multiple stakeholders, empowering them to design and implement tailored activities, supported by the whole school community. This paper describes the background and evaluation design of the community-based school intervention 'Fit Lifestyle at School and at Home' (FLASH) in four prevocational schools. FLASH includes four strategies for building the community capacity of students, school personnel and parents: 1) identifying leaders in each stakeholder group, 2) stimulating a school culture of participation, 3) having stakeholders design and implement tailored activities and 4) creating a network of local partners for structural embedding. The objective is to monitor the capacity-building processes of the FLASH intervention and to explore if these processes contribute to changes in community capacity. In addition, we will explore if the FLASH intervention is related to changes in PA, dietary behaviours and BMI of students. METHODS: This study has a mixed methods design and uses a participatory action-oriented approach to monitor and evaluate changes in community capacity, tailored health-promotion activities and implementation processes. Methods include semi-structured interviews, focus groups, journals, document analysis and observational scans of the physical environment. In addition, changes in BMI, physical activity and dietary behaviours of prevocational students will be explored by comparing the four intervention schools to four control schools. Data are collected by questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. DISCUSSION: The main strength of this study is its use of mixed methods to evaluate real-life processes of creating a healthy-school community. This will provide valuable information on capacity-building strategies for the structural embedding of health-promotion activities within school settings. The results could help schools become more empowered to adapt and adopt integral health-promotion interventions in daily practice that suit the needs of their communities, that are expected to be sustainable and that could lead to favourable changes in the PA and dietary behaviour of students. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN67201841 ; date registered: 09-05-2019, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida Saudável , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Saudi Med J ; 40(6): 568-574, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and related factors in individuals aged ≥65 years living in the Bornova district of Izmir, Turkey. Sarcopenia is one of the most serious health problems among elderly individuals. METHODS:  This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Bornova district of Izmir, Turkey, between February-July 2015. This study participants were comprised of 909 individuals aged ≥65 years. The dependent variable was the presence of sarcopenia and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) approach was used for determining sarcopenia. The independent variables were socio-demographic and economic characteristics, healthy life behaviors and health status/condition. Data were collected at home through face-to-face interviews and measurements, analysed using chi-square test, t-test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:  The participants' mean age was 72.8±6.2 (range: 65-100) years, and 60.2% were female (n=582). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 5.2% and that of low gait speed was 41.0%, low grip strength was 57.0%, low calf circumference was 6.1% and the combination of low gait speed and low grip strength was 14.3%. Risk factors of sarcopenia included increasing age, physical inactivity, low body mass index and the presence or risk of malnutritionConclusion: The prevalence of sarcopenia was 5.2% in this population and increased with age, physical inactivity, low body mass index and the presence or risk of malnutrition.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Desnutrição , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Turquia/epidemiologia
13.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 26(3): 227-237, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228169

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Contribution of risk factors for cardiovascular-related deaths in the Eastern Mediterranean Region Organization (EMRO) is not estimated quantitatively. AIM: To determine the avoidable burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) due to hypertension, diabetes, smoking, overweight, and obesity in countries of EMRO of the WHO. METHODS: The comparative risk assessment methodology was used to calculate the potential impact fraction (PIF) and percentage of the avoidable burden of CVD-related death due to associated risk factors. Population exposure levels for CVDs and corresponding measures of association were extracted from published studies. The attributable burden was calculated by multiplying the Disability-Adjusted Life-Years (DALYs) for CVDs by the estimated impact fraction of risk factors. DALYs of the CVDs in all countries of the EMRO were extracted from the GBD official website in 2016. RESULTS: Following reduction of the current prevalence of smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and overweight to a feasible minimum risk exposure level in Lebanon, about 12.4%, 4.2%, 10.2%, 3.8%, and 5.7% of the burden of CVD-related mortality could be avoidable, respectively. The corresponding values of avoidable burden in selected EMRO countries were 5.1%, 3.5%, 9.4%, 5.9% and 5.3% in Iran and 9.5%, 4.1%, 11%, 8.2% and 5.4% in Egypt. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that health policy makers of all EMRO countries should take into account the attributable burden of CVD-related mortality due to associated risk factors to effectively develop preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Hipertensão/terapia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/mortalidade , Obesidade/terapia , Prevalência , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Prognóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/mortalidade , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
14.
BMJ ; 365: l2323, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective associations of baseline and long term trajectories of physical activity on mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Adults from the general population in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 14 599 men and women (aged 40 to 79) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort, assessed at baseline (1993 to 1997) up to 2004 for lifestyle and other risk factors; then followed to 2016 for mortality (median of 12.5 years of follow-up, after the last exposure assessment). MAIN EXPOSURE: Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) derived from questionnaires, calibrated against combined movement and heart rate monitoring. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Multivariable proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for age, sex, sociodemographics, and changes in medical history, overall diet quality, body mass index, blood pressure, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels. RESULTS: During 171 277 person years of follow-up, 3148 deaths occurred. Long term increases in PAEE were inversely associated with mortality, independent of baseline PAEE. For each 1 kJ/kg/day per year increase in PAEE (equivalent to a trajectory of being inactive at baseline and gradually, over five years, meeting the World Health Organization minimum physical activity guidelines of 150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity physical activity), hazard ratios were: 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.82) for all cause mortality, 0.71 (0.62 to 0.82) for cardiovascular disease mortality, and 0.89 (0.79 to 0.99) for cancer mortality, adjusted for baseline PAEE, and established risk factors. Similar results were observed when analyses were stratified by medical history of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Joint analyses with baseline and trajectories of physical activity show that, compared with consistently inactive individuals, those with increasing physical activity trajectories over time experienced lower risks of mortality from all causes, with hazard ratios of 0.76 (0.65 to 0.88), 0.62 (0.53 to 0.72), and 0.58 (0.43 to 0.78) at low, medium, and high baseline physical activity, respectively. At the population level, meeting and maintaining at least the minimum physical activity recommendations would potentially prevent 46% of deaths associated with physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Middle aged and older adults, including those with cardiovascular disease and cancer, can gain substantial longevity benefits by becoming more physically active, irrespective of past physical activity levels and established risk factors. Considerable population health impacts can be attained with consistent engagement in physical activity during mid to late life.


Assuntos
Exercício , Mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
Implement Sci ; 14(1): 68, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive weight gain among young adult women age 18-45 years is an alarming and overlooked trend that must be addressed to reverse the epidemics of obesity and chronic disease. During this vulnerable period, women tend to gain disproportionally large amounts of weight compared to men and to other life periods. Healthy Eating and Active Living Taught at Home (HEALTH) is a lifestyle modification intervention developed in partnership with Parents as Teachers (PAT), a national home visiting, community-based organization with significant reach in this population. HEALTH prevented weight gain, promoted sustained weight loss, and reduced waist circumference. PAT provides parent-child education and services free of charge to nearly 170,000 families through up to 25 free home visits per year until the child enters kindergarten. METHODS: This study extends effectiveness findings with a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate dissemination and implementation (D&I) of HEALTH across three levels (mother, parent educator, PAT site). The trial will evaluate the effect of HEALTH and the HEALTH training curriculum (implementation strategy) on weight among mothers with overweight and obesity across the USA (N = 252 HEALTH; N = 252 usual care). Parent educators from 28 existing PAT sites (14 HEALTH, 14 usual care) will receive the HEALTH training curriculum through PAT National Center, using PAT's existing training infrastructure, as a continuing education opportunity. An extensive evaluation, guided by RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance), will determine implementation outcomes (acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, feasibility, fidelity, and adaptation) at the parent educator level. The Conceptual Framework for Implementation Research will characterize determinants that influence HEALTH D&I at three levels: mother, parent educator, and PAT site to enhance external validity (reach and maintenance). DISCUSSION: Embedding intervention content within existing delivery channels can help expand the reach of evidence-based interventions. Interventions, which have been adapted, can still be effective even if the effect is reduced and can still achieve population impact by reaching a broader set of the population. The current study will build on this to test not only the effectiveness of HEALTH in real-world PAT implementation nationwide, but also elements critical to D&I, implementation outcomes, and the context for implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03758638 . Registered 29 November 2018.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Mães , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos , Ganho de Peso
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 841, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to determine the influence of the HealtheSteps™ lifestyle prescription program on physical activity and modifiable risk factors for chronic disease in individuals at risk. METHODS: One hundred eighteen participants were recruited from 5 sites in Southwestern Ontario, Canada and randomized to either the intervention (HealtheSteps™ program, n = 59) or a wait-list control group (n = 59). The study comprised three phases: an Active Phase (0 to 6 months) consisted of bi-monthly in-person lifestyle coaching with access to a suite of eHealth technology supports (Heathesteps app, telephone coaching and a private HealtheSteps™ social network) followed by a Minimally-Supported Phase I (6 to 12 months), in which in-person coaching was removed, but participants still had access to the full suite of eHealth technology supports. In the final stage, Minimally-Supported Phase II (12 to 18 months), access to the eHealth technology supports was restricted to the HealtheSteps™ app. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. The study primary outcome was the 6-month change in average number of steps per day. Secondary outcomes included: self-reported physical activity and sedentary time; self-reported eating habits; weight and body composition measures; blood pressure and health-related quality of life. Data from all participants were analyzed using an intent-to-treat approach. We applied mixed effects models for repeated measurements and adjusted for age, sex, and site in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: Participants in HealtheSteps™ increased step counts (between-group [95% confidence interval]: 3132 [1969 to 4294], p < 0.001), decreased their sitting time (- 0.08 [- 0.16 to - 0.006], p = 0.03), and improved their overall healthful eating (- 1.5 [- 2.42 to - 0.58], p = 0.002) to a greater extent compared to control at 6 months. Furthermore, exploratory results showed that these individuals maintained these outcomes 12 months later, after a minimally-supported phase; and retained improvements in sedentary time and improved healthful eating after 18 months. No differences in self-reported physical activity, health-related quality of life, weight, waist circumference or blood pressure were observed between groups at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that HealtheSteps™ is effective at increasing physical activity (i.e., step counts per day), decreasing weekday sitting time, and improving healthful eating in adults at increased risk for chronic disease after 6 months; however, we did not see change in other risk factors. Nonetheless, the maintenance of these behaviours with minimal support after 12 and even 18 months indicates the promise of HealtheSteps™ for long-term sustainability. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on April 6, 2015 with ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT02413385 ).


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Exercício/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
17.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1603491, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062667

RESUMO

During the past decades innovative research has shown that exposure to harmful events during pregnancy and early infancy ('the first 1000 days') has an impact on health at subsequent stages of the life course and even across generations. Recently it has been shown that even the pre-conception period is of outmost importance, and other scholars have made the case that the 1000 days should be extended to a period of 8000 days post-conception. The present contribution aims to bridge further the gap between research evidence and public health policy by applying a holistic 'full-cycle' perspective. Thus, a conceptual framework is suggested for guiding public health prioritization, including the variables of 'impact on the next generation', 'plasticity' and 'available interventions with documented impact'. This framework could guide decision makers in selecting at which stages of the life course to invest (and not), and furthermore it points to some pertinent research priorities.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Pais/educação , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Política Pública , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(21): e15704, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124947

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mibyeongbogam (MBBG) is a mobile application developed for subhealth status self-management in the Republic of Korea. It aims to assess a user's subhealth status, and then to recommend relevant traditional Korean medicine (TKM)-based health-promoting strategies. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of MBBG's employment for the subhealth management of general healthy adults. METHODS: This is a prospective, open-label, parallel group, randomized controlled trial that will seek to enroll 150 healthy adults, aged 30 to 49 years old, from 2 hospitals in the Republic of Korea. The eligible participants will then be randomly allocated to either the MBBG or control group, at a 1:1 allocation ratio. The MBBG group will use the application for 12 weeks, while the control group will undergo no intervention. The awareness of subhealth status will be primarily assessed. Health promoting behaviors, quality of life, TKM-based health questionnaires, and physical examination results will be assessed as secondary outcomes. DISCUSSION: The primary endpoint will be tested with a 2-sample t test, or a Wilcoxon rank sum test. Any other continuous variables will be tested via an analysis of covariance, while categorical variables will be tested by a Chi-squared or Fisher exact test. Repeated measure analysis of variance will be performed to explore any in-group differences. The results will be addressed with a 95% confidence interval. We expect that MBBG will be the 1st TKM-based mobile application to be feasible for primary care in subhealth management. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRIS (Clinical Research Information Service), KCT0003488, February 11, 2019.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Aplicativos Móveis , Autocuidado/métodos , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia , Projetos de Pesquisa
19.
Endokrynol Pol ; 70(2): 198-212, 2019.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039273

RESUMO

Women with PCOS are characterised by ovarian hyperandrogenism, which, apart from fertility problems, hirsutism, acne, and androgenic alopecia, also leads to the development of central (android) obesity and its adverse metabolic consequences. Additionally, women with PCOS have intrinsic insulin resistance (IR) with its consequent hyperinsulinaemia, which leads to the development of atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which give rise to cardiovascular disease (CVD), being the main cause of death among women. Although there are several publications on the topic of life-style changes in women with PCOS to normalise body weight and thus to reduce the adverse metabolic consequences of obesity, such as T2DM and CVD, the number of randomised studies that would enable the formation of strong recommendations is very limited. Nevertheless, taking into consideration the pathophysiology, any intervention implementing healthy dietary habits leading to the reduction of body weigh should be the core of non-pharmacological treatment in women with PCOS. The aim of the given recommendations herein is to point out and systemise the interventions on lifestyle change in women with PCOS as well as to form a practical guideline for the health care specialists, dieticians, and mental-therapists (psychologist) who take care of women with this syndrome.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde/normas , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Saúde da Mulher/normas , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/prevenção & controle , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Perda de Peso
20.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43, may 2019https://doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2019.48.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-50995

RESUMO

[Excerpt]. In recent years, Peru has had pivotal health achievements. For example, for the population overall, coverage with either private or public health insurance increased from 37% to 76% over a 13-year period (1). In addition, for the period of 2016–2017, the mortality rate for children under 5 years old and for neonates was, respectively, 18 and 10 deaths per 1 000 newborns, both of which were below the corresponding Sustainable Development Goals thresholds, of 25 and 12 deaths per 1 000 newborns (2)...


Assuntos
Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Tecnologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA