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1.
J UOEH ; 43(3): 341-348, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483193

RESUMO

This paper provides a picture of the observations made over three hundred years ago by Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) in light of current topical issues ranging from health problems related to work and lifestyle habits to the current burdensome COVID-19 pandemic. The main aspects of his work consist of descriptions of disorders linked to environmental risks, suggestions for measures for risk protection, and recommendations for healthy living. This paper focuses on Ramazzini's most relevant achievements by (1) analyzing the episodes that stimulated the composition of his main work and highlighting some observations on which current epidemiological and toxicological studies are based; (2) reviewing his work showing not only the systematic descriptions of work-related illnesses caused by occupational factors but also his sound etiological and physiopathological contributions to the field of occupational lung diseases, breast cancer, and environmental disorders; and (3) remarking on his main observations in the fields of risk prevention and health promotion, also in the light of some highly topical issues related to unhealthy lifestyle habits and the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Promoção da Saúde/história , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/história , Saúde do Trabalhador/história , Medicina do Trabalho/história , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Risco
2.
Trials ; 22(1): 648, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper describes the statistical analysis plan for a randomised controlled trial of a Healthy Lifestyle Program (HeLP) for low back pain targeting multiple health risks and behaviours, weight, physical activity, diet and smoking, to improve disability. We describe the methods for the main analyses and economic analysis of the trial. METHODS AND DESIGN: The trial is a two-arm pragmatic randomised controlled trial comparing the effect of the HeLP intervention to usual care on low back pain disability at 26 weeks. A total of 346 adults with low back pain were recruited from the Newcastle and Hunter region between September 2017 and November 2019 and randomised to either HeLP or usual care. HeLP is a 6-month intervention with participant outcomes measured at weeks 6, 12, 26 and 52 post randomisation. This statistical analysis plan describes data integrity, handling and preparation of data for analyses and methods for analyses. The primary endpoint for the trial is disability at 26 weeks using the 24-item self-report Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. The primary analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle using linear mixed regression models. DISCUSSION: The statistical analysis plan for this trial was produced to reduce outcome reporting bias arising from knowledge of the study findings. Any deviations will be described and justified in the final report. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12617001288314 . Registered on 6 September 2017.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Adulto , Austrália , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Pediatr Dent ; 43(4): 301-306, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467848

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative pilot study was to investigate caregivers' attitudes about healthy lifestyles and weight-related discussions during dental visits. Methods: Twenty-one caregivers of children younger than six years old at two community dental clinics in Washington State-a rural community clinic serving children of seasonal farmworkers and an urban clinic primarily serving children with special health care needs-were interviewed using a semi-structured guide. Interview data were analyzed inductively via thematic content analysis. Results: Three themes emerged from the data: (1) supporting conversations about healthy lifestyles in the dental office; (2) crafting the conversation and identifying next steps; and (3) ensuring that the dentist is perceived as a caregiver ally. Caregivers were supportive of healthy lifestyle conversations with dentists. Concerns about weight-specific discussions were expressed. Conclusion: Caregivers' attitudes indicated support for conversations on healthy lifestyles. A future workaround incorporating healthy lifestyle discussion into pediatric dental visits is warranted.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Criança , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
Lima; OPS; 2021-09-20. (OPS/PER/21-0004).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54861

RESUMO

[Introducción]. La prevalencia de las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT) incluyendo las enfermedades cardiovasculares, el cáncer, la diabetes, y las enfermedades pulmonares crónicas, han aumentado en todos los grupos de edad y son una causa importante de discapacidad y muerte prematura en las Américas. La alimentación no saludable, es decir, el consumo habitual de productos procesados y ultraprocesados con alto contenido calórico y bajo valor nutricional, que tienen altos niveles de azúcar, sal, y grasas, contribuye de una manera importante a la epidemia de sobrepeso, obesidad, ENT, y también a mantener deficiencias de nutrientes esenciales. Su consumo habitual, ha hecho que las Américas sea la región con mayor prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad del mundo. Por ese motivo, los países miembros de la OPS/OMS se han comprometido entre otras acciones, a legislar para hacer frente a esta epidemia. El Perú, en ese sentido, se encuentra implementando la Ley 30021, Ley de promoción de la alimentación saludable para niños, niñas y adolescentes. Para llegar a ese punto, el Perú ha experimentado una serie de acontecimientos importantes que han ido más allá del ámbito puramente sanitario, exponiéndose a escenarios políticos, económicos, comerciales y publicitarios para poder legislar sobre la alimentación saludable de su población. Esta experiencia es motivo de la presente sistematización que busca compartir con otros países todo el proceso que experimentó el Perú, aprender de las experiencias vivencias, y contar con un registro histórico. Para ello, se realizó una búsqueda de información de bases de datos, páginas web, archivos electrónicos y documentos impresos de contenidos relacionados a la Ley 30021 y las políticas e iniciativas para afrontar el sobrepeso y la obesidad en la niñez y adolescencia, desde el año 2011 (cuando la OPS/OMS recibió una solicitud de apoyo técnico sobre el tema, por parte del Poder Legislativo) hasta el año 2019. La información recopilada se organizó cronológicamente, distinguiendo los contenidos y actividades identificadas de acuerdo con sus fuentes y los actores involucrados: Poder Ejecutivo, Poder Legislativo, sector académico, sociedad civil organizada, sector industrial/empresarial y otros actores, incluyendo las alianzas estratégicas que se fueron estableciendo en el periodo. Y para complementar la información obtenida, se entrevistó a algunos actores e informantes clave que participaron en la elaboración, aprobación e implementación de la Ley.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Indústria Alimentícia , Sobrepeso , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco , Programas e Políticas de Nutrição e Alimentação , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Saúde do Adolescente , Saúde da Criança , América , Peru
6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2605-2611, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To analyze lifestyle habits and weight evolution during the COVID-19 pandemic-associated lockdown, in diabetes and overweight/obesity patients (body mass index (BMI) [25-29.9] and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively). METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected information on participants' characteristics and behavior regarding lifestyle before and during the lockdown, through the CoviDIAB web application, which is available freely for people with diabetes in France. We stratified the cohort according to BMI (≥25 kg/m2vs < 25 kg/m2) and examined the determinants of weight loss (WL), WL > 1 kg vs no-WL) in participants with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 5280 participants (mean age, 52.5 years; men, 49%; diabetes, 100% by design), 69.5% were overweight or obese (mean BMI, 28.6 kg/m2 (6.1)). During the lockdown, patients often quit or decreased smoking; overweight/obese participants increased alcohol consumption less frequently as compared with normal BMI patients. In addition, overweight/obese patients were more likely to improve other healthy behaviors on a larger scale than patients with normal BMI: increased intake of fruits and vegetables, reduction of snacks intake, and reduction of total dietary intake. WL was observed in 18.9% of people with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, whereas 28.6% of them gained weight. Lifestyle favorable changes characterized patients with WL. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of overweight/obese patients with diabetes seized the opportunity of lockdown to improve their lifestyle and to lose weight. Identifying those people may help clinicians to personalize practical advice in the case of a recurrent lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Obesidade/terapia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hábitos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444357

RESUMO

Youth suicidality is considerably prevalent in low- and middle-income countries, including Benin. Factors such as psychosocial distress, socio-environmental factors, and health risk behaviors are associated with suicidality. However, little is known about how these factors co-occur in these countries. An analysis of these factors taken together would help to identify the profiles most at risk and better target prevention policies. Our study aimed to identify profiles related to these factors and their association with suicidality among adolescents in Benin. Data from the 2016 Global School-Based Student Health Survey were used, and factors related to lifestyle (tobacco and alcohol consumption and physical activity), physical violence, parental support, and psychological distress were studied. Latent class analysis was used to identify the profiles, and a modified Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, was performed to assess the association between these profiles and suicidality. The survey results show that globally, 13.8% of the adolescents (n = 2536) aged 11 to 18 had thought about suicide, 15.6% had planned suicide, and 15.6% had attempted suicide. Four profiles were identified: a low-risk group, one with psychological distress problems, a group with violence problems, and one with alcohol, tobacco, and violence problems. The risk of suicidality, in terms of ideation, planning, or attempting, was higher for adolescents in Profiles 2, 3, and 4 than those in Profile 1 (p < 0.05). Adolescents in Profile 2 were particularly affected by this increased risk (prevalence ratio (PR) for ideation = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.03-1.23; PR for planning = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.04-1.22; PR for attempting = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01-1.17). This study highlights the typical profiles that may be linked with suicidality among adolescents in Benin. A holistic consideration of these factors could help in planning better preventive measures to reduce suicidality among adolescents in Benin.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Adolescente , Benin/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Fatores de Risco
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444372

RESUMO

A healthy lifestyle is important to the present and future development and health of school age people. This study aims to analyze the relationship between daily lifestyle habits and academic performance in a sample of adolescents from the autonomous community of Aragon (Spain). We performed a cross-sectional study to analyze the lifestyle habits and academic performance of a total of 1745 7th and 8th grade middle school students during the academic year 2018-2019; the participants were selected from a random sample of 43 middle schools from the region of Aragon. The following data were collected through an anonymized, previously validated questionnaire: diet, sleep, physical activity, use of screens, use of toxic substances, and academic performance. We found a statistically significant association between all the lifestyle habits analyzed and academic performance (p < 0.001) in our sample. Based on our findings, we suggest that health promotion and education in healthy lifestyles should be integrated in middle school curricula to improve academic performance and, more importantly, to promote both present and future health outcomes of adolescents.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Estudantes , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the role of eating quickly, physical inactivity, and poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in assessing the onset of metabolic syndrome (Mets) in Korean young adults. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between the three risk factors and Mets in 1891 Korean university students (30% female) aged 18-29 years. METHODS: Eating speed (slow vs. fast) and physical activity (active vs. inactive) were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Maximal oxygen uptake as an indicator of CRF was assessed with graded exercise testing. Components of Mets were waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). RESULTS: All the three exposures were positively associated with abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressures, elevated FBG, elevated TG, and decreased HDLC. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio (OR) of Mets was incremental in the order of physical inactivity (odds ratio, OR = 1.666; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.024-2.708; p = 0.040), fast eating (OR = 1.687; 95% CI = 1.094-2.601; p = 0.018), and poor CRF (OR = 5.378; 95% CI = 3.475-8.325; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that a multifaceted intervention targeting at promotion of physical activity and CRF in concert with healthy eating behaviors should be implemented as a preventive strategy against Mets in Korean university students.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Ingestão de Alimentos , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/psicologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores de Tempo , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1601, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National health campaigns are often used to improve lifestyle behaviors in the general population. However, evidence specifically in the young adult population is scarce. Given the general deterioration of healthy lifestyle practices from adolescence to young adulthood, it is imperative to study this age group. This study aimed to investigate the behavioral impact of a national health campaign in Singapore on the lifestyle practices of young adults, and whether sex or full-time working and schooling status affected lifestyle practices. METHODS: A total of 594 Singaporean respondents aged 18-39 years old were interviewed via a cross-sectional study in December 2019. Lifestyle practices assessed were diet, exercise, alcohol consumption, current tobacco use, and participation in health screening programs. Other factors investigated included exposure to the national health campaign "War on Diabetes" (WoD), sex, ethnicity, and working/schooling status. Multivariable modified Breslow-Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) as measures for the associations in this study, after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Exposure to the WoD campaign had a significant association with meeting dietary recommendations (PRR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.5, p = 0.037), participation in screening (PRR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.5, p = 0.028), and current tobacco use (PRR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8, p = 0.003). Males were significantly more likely to meet exercise recommendations (PRR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5-2.7, p < 0.001), currently use tobacco (PRR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.2-6.9, p < 0.001), and consume alcohol excessively (PRR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.3, p = 0.046), as compared to females. Working young adults were significantly less likely to meet exercise recommendations (PRR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9, p = 0.019) but significantly more likely to be current tobacco users (PRR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1, p = 0.024), as compared to those who were in school. CONCLUSIONS: While this paper affirms that national health campaigns have significant beneficial associations in diet, health screenings and current tobacco use, policymakers should acknowledge that young adults are an age group with different influences that impact their healthy lifestyle habits. Specific interventions that target these subgroups may be required for better health outcomes. Future studies should evaluate other socio-environmental factors that could play a role in modifying the effect of health campaigns among young adults.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyle are common among young adults and increase the risk for chronic diseases later in life. Due to the widespread use of information technology among young adults, the Rashakaty (Fitness for Me) study aimed to develop and test the feasibility of a technology-based nutrition education intervention. This would support overweight and obese university students to achieve weight loss, enhance nutrition knowledge, and increase physical activity levels. METHODS: We enrolled 246 participants in a 16-week non-randomized feasibility study with two arms: Rashakaty-Basic and Rashakaty-Enhanced. The intervention was guided by social cognitive theory and was delivered via a website and mobile apps. RESULTS: Among the 161 participants who completed the endline assessments, there was no significant difference in weight loss between the two arms. However, waist circumference decreased more (p = 0.003) in the Rashakaty -Enhanced group. Additionally, changes in knowledge related to sources of nutrients (p < 0.001) and diet-disease relationships (p = 0.006) were significantly higher among the Rashakaty-Enhanced group. Rashakaty-Enhanced participants reported increased number of days spent on moderate physical activity (p = 0.013) and minutes walked (p < 0.001). Moreover, they also reported higher scores in social support from friends to reduce fat intake (p = 0.006) and from family and friends to increase physical activity (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this feasibility study can assist in the development and implementation of future technology-mediated health promotion programs in the UAE, especially for young adults.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Internet , Aplicativos Móveis , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444726

RESUMO

Several studies link cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with unhealthy lifestyles (unhealthy dietary habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, and low levels of physical activity). Therefore, the strong need for CVD prevention may be pursued through an improved control of CVD risk factors (impaired lipid and glycemic profiles, high blood pressure, and obesity), which is achievable through an overall intervention aimed to favor a healthy lifestyle. Focusing on diet, different recommendations emphasize the need to increase or avoid consumption of entire classes of food, with only partly known and only partly foreseeable consequences on the overall level of health. In recent years, the ketogenic diet (KD) has been proposed to be an effective lifestyle intervention for metabolic syndrome, and although the beneficial effects on weight loss and glucose metabolism seems to be well established, the effects of a prolonged KD on the ability to perform different types of exercise and the influence of KD on blood pressure (BP) levels, both in normotensives and in hypertensives, are not so well understood. The objective of this review is to analyze, on the basis of current evidence, the relationship between KD, regular physical activity, and BP.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Dieta Cetogênica , Exercício Físico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444040

RESUMO

Active aging is a challenging issue to promote older population health; still, there is little clarity on research investigating the determinants of active aging in developing countries. Therefore, this research aimed to examine the factors associated with the active aging of the older populations in ASEAN's low and middle-income countries by focusing on Malaysia, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Thailand. The study is a cross-sectional quantitative research study using multi-stage cluster sampling to randomize the sample. The sample consists of 2031 older people aged 55 years and over, including 510 Thai, 537 Malaysian, 487 Myanmar, and 497 Vietnamese. We collected a quantitative questionnaire of age-friendly environmental scale and active aging scale based on the World Health Organization (WHO) concept. The predictors of active aging include age-friendly environments, lifestyles, and socioeconomic factors; the data are analyzed by using multiple logistic regression. After adjusting for other factors, we found that older people living in a community with higher levels of age-friendly environments are 5.52 times more active than those in lower levels of age-friendly environments. Moreover, the older population with healthy lifestyles such as good dietary intake and high physical activity will be 4.93 times more active than those with unhealthy lifestyles. Additionally, older adults with partners, higher education, and aged between 55 and 64 years will be 1.70, 2.61, and 1.63 times more active than those with separate/divorce/widow, primary education, and age at 75 years or higher, respectively. Our results contribute considerable evidence for ASEAN policy-making to promote active aging in this region.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371829

RESUMO

Harvest for Health is a home-based vegetable gardening intervention that pairs cancer survivors with Master Gardeners from the Cooperative Extension System. Initially developed and tested in Alabama, the program was adapted for the different climate, growing conditions, and population in New Mexico. This paper chronicles the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of "Southwest Harvest for Health". During the nine-month single-arm trial, 30 cancer survivor-Master Gardener dyads worked together to establish and maintain three seasonal gardens. Primary outcomes were accrual, retention, and satisfaction. Secondary outcomes were vegetable and fruit (V and F) intake, physical activity, and quality of life. Recruitment was diverse and robust, with 30 survivors of various cancers, aged 50-83, roughly one-third minority, and two-thirds females enrolled in just 60 days. Despite challenges due to the COVID-19 pandemic, retention to the nine-month study was 100%, 93% reported "good-to-excellent" satisfaction, and 87% "would do it again." A median increase of 1.2 servings of V and F/day was documented. The adapted home-based vegetable gardening program was feasible, well-received, and resulted in increased V and F consumption among adult cancer survivors. Future studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this program and to inform strategies to increase the successful implementation and further dissemination of this intervention.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/educação , Jardinagem/educação , Horticultura Terapêutica/métodos , Mentores , Verduras , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Horticultura Terapêutica/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371811

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex, multifaceted disease and its treatment involves lifestyle intervention (LI) programs that participants may find difficult to adopt and maintain. The objective of this study is to understand the lived experiences of participants with T2D regarding healthy eating behavior change, in order to identify and incorporate relevant information, skills, and educational approaches into LI programs. An explorative qualitative study was undertaken. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 15 participants. One-on-one, semi-structured, open-ended, and in-depth interviews were conducted. An essentialist paradigm was adopted to accurately report the experiences, meaning, and reality of participants. An inductive approach was used to analyze the data. Participants reported that being diagnosed and living with T2D could be overwhelming, and their ability to manage was influenced by health care providers (HCP), family, and individual context. Many experienced a loop of "good-bad" eating behaviors. Participants expressed desires for future diabetes management that would include program content (nutrition, physical activity, mental health, foot care, and consequences of T2D), program features (understand context, explicit information, individualized, hands-on learning, applicable, realistic, incremental, and practical), program components (access to multidisciplinary team, set goals, track progress and be held accountable, one-on-one sessions, group support, maintenance/follow-up), and policy change. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that T2D management requires more extensive, comprehensive, and ongoing support, guided by the individual participant.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Autogestão/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206633

RESUMO

In order to identify the status of salt-related knowledge and behavior of the residents who were active in WeChat software between 2019 and 2020, 10-day salt-related surveys were conducted in 2019 and 2020 based on the WeChat public platform of China Healthy Lifestyle for All Campaign. Distribution and scores of salt-related knowledge, salt reduction behavior and high-salt intake behavior between 2019 and 2020 were compared. Data of 2109 participants in 2019 and 12,732 participants in 2020 were left for analysis. Overall, 88.2% of participants in 2019 had a willingness to reduce the amount of cooking salt in their households, significantly lower than 90.2% in 2020 (p-value < 0.05). In 2019 and 2020, over 80% of the participants knew fine dried noodles contain salt, but less than 30% knew ice cream contains salt. Over 78% of participants chose 5 g or 6 g for the maximum daily salt intake of healthy adults, and about 98% of participants knew that excessive salt intake would increase the risk of hypertension in both years. The percentage of participants who used salt measuring spoons asked restaurants to use less salt, read the sodium content on the nutrition facts table, chose foods with low sodium content and regularly used low-sodium salt, were 36.1%, 45.0%, 44.1%, 40.3% and 35.8% in 2019, and the percentage increased significantly to 46.4%, 49.2%, 50.8%, 47.1% and 43.4% in 2020 (all p-value < 0.05). The percentage of people regularly eating pickled mustard tubers, salted vegetables and sauce foods or using high-salt condiments also increased from 2019 to 2020. The median of salt-related knowledge scores, salt reduction behavior scores and high-salt intake behavior scores were 11, 2, 5 points in 2019, and 10, 3, 5 points in 2020, respectively. Compared to 2019, the salt-related knowledge score was relatively lower, while the salt reduction behavior score and high-salt intake behavior score were relatively higher in 2020. Besides, the score of salt-related knowledge and behaviors differed in different gender, age and hypertension groups. The COVID-19 epidemic may have influenced the salt-related knowledge and behaviors status of WeChat users in China. Promotion and education of salt-related knowledge and online behavior intervention are still needed, particularly for male and hypertension patients in the future.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aplicativos Móveis , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China , Culinária , Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205537

RESUMO

In clinical practice, differences in glucocorticoid sensitivity among healthy subjects may influence the outcome and any adverse effects of glucocorticoid therapy. Thus, a fast and accurate methodology that could enable the classification of individuals based on their tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity would be of value. We investigated the usefulness of untargeted plasma metabolomics in identifying a panel of metabolites to distinguish glucocorticoid-resistant from glucocorticoid-sensitive healthy subjects who do not carry mutations in the human glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene. Applying a published methodology designed for the study of glucocorticoid sensitivity in healthy adults, 101 healthy subjects were ranked according to their tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity based on 8:00 a.m. serum cortisol concentrations following a very low-dose dexamethasone suppression test. Ten percent of the cohort, i.e., 11 participants, on each side of the ranking, with no NR3C1 mutations or polymorphisms, were selected, respectively, as the most glucocorticoid-sensitive and most glucocorticoid-resistant of the cohort to be analyzed and compared with untargeted blood plasma metabolomics using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The acquired metabolic profiles were evaluated using multivariate statistical analysis methods. Nineteen metabolites were identified with significantly lower abundance in the most sensitive compared to the most resistant group of the cohort, including fatty acids, sugar alcohols, and serine/threonine metabolism intermediates. These results, combined with a higher glucose, sorbitol, and lactate abundance, suggest a higher Cori cycle, polyol pathway, and inter-tissue one-carbon metabolism rate and a lower fat mobilization rate at the fasting state in the most sensitive compared to the most resistant group. In fact, this was the first study correlating tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity with serine/threonine metabolism. Overall, the observed metabolic signature in this cohort implies a worse cardiometabolic profile in the most glucocorticoid-sensitive compared to the most glucocorticoid-resistant healthy subjects. These findings offer a metabolic signature that distinguishes most glucocorticoid-sensitive from most glucocorticoid-resistant healthy subjects to be further validated in larger cohorts. Moreover, they support the correlation of tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome-associated pathways, further emphasizing the need for nutritionists and doctors to consider the tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity in dietary and exercise planning, particularly when these subjects are to be treated with glucocorticoids.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dieta , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Metaboloma , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ageing Res Rev ; 70: 101406, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242809

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has pushed the medical system to its breaking point. While the virus does not discriminate, the elderly and those with comorbidities, including hypertension severe obesity, diabetes mellitus, coronary disease, pneumonia and dementia, are at a greater risk for adverse outcomes due to COVID-19. While many people navigate their new normal, the question of what the long-lasting effects of the pandemic may be, lingers. To investigate how vulnerable populations are affected by the pandemic, we focused on Alzheimer's disease, a vector to understanding how the virus has impacted AD progression and risk via aging. By assessing the effect of COVID-19 on AD patients, we explore genetics, metabolism, and lifestyle factors in both COVID-19 and Alzheimer's disease that can work synergistically to precipitate adverse outcomes. This article also discusses how age-related conditions and/or age-related comorbidities susceptible to COVID-19. We also discuss possible healthy lifestyle factors reduce and/or combat COVID-19 now and in the future.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , COVID-19 , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Progressão da Doença , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 763-767, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327959

RESUMO

The article presents the results of a study aimed at identifying the problems of maintaining a healthy lifestyle in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of the study showed that not only people of older age groups are infected, but also young people with chronic diseases. Forced isolation, uncertainty of the future and stress have significantly worsened the physical, social and mental health of the population of all age groups. Therefore, people began to strengthen their own physical, social and psychological health, to carry out preventive health measures. The problems of maintaining a healthy lifestyle in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic can be effectively solved by using an integrated approach to public health, jointly provided by state and public organizations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos , Pandemias , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e047244, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the association between community deprivation and poor health behaviours among South Korean adults. DESIGN: This was a survey-based cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data of 224 552 participants from 244 communities were collected from the Korea Community Health Survey, conducted in 2015. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We defined health behaviours by combining three variables: not smoking, not high-risk drinking and walking frequently. Community deprivation was classified into social and economic deprivation. RESULTS: Multilevel logistic analysis was conducted to determine the association of poor health behaviours through a hierarchical model (individual and community) for the 224 552 participants. Among them, 69.9% did not practice healthy behaviours. We found that a higher level of deprivation index was significantly associated with higher odds of not-practising healthy behaviours (Q3, OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.31; Q4 (highest), OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.39). Economic deprivation had a positive association with not-practising health behaviours while social deprivation had a negative association. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that community deprivation levels may influence individual health behaviours. Accordingly, there is a need for enforcing the role of primary healthcare centres in encouraging a healthy lifestyle among the residents in their communities, developing national health policy guidelines for health equity and providing financial help to people experiencing community deprivation.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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