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1.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 14(1): e1-e7, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has serious consequences for those affected. Little is documented on the lifestyle determinants of type 2 DM in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV). AIM:  This study aimed to assess the lifestyle determinants of type 2 DM amongst PLWHIV who were on antiretroviral treatment (ARV). SETTING:  This study was undertaken in 10 community health clinics and 140 clinics in South Africa's Eastern Cape province. METHODS:  This case control study was undertaken amongst PLWHIV who were on ARV in OR Tambo district. RESULTS:  Cases and controls showed statistically significant differences on the duration of time on ARV (p  0.0001), vigorous work (p = 0.019), participation in moderate sport (p = 0.007) and consuming daily fruit and vegetable servings (p = 0.021). Those reporting to be on ARVs for 6 to 10 years were three times more likely to be diabetic than those who had only been on ARV for a year or less (odds ratio [OR] = 3.0; p = 0.017) and in comparison, to participants who reported having one serving, participants who had four fruit and vegetable servings daily were 3.2 times more likely to be diabetic (OR = 3.2; p = 0.002). CONCLUSION:  This study revealed significant nutritional imbalances on fruit and vegetable servings and on participation in moderate sport resulting in poor diabetic control. Routine screening and measurements need to focus on dietary and physical lifestyle determinants of type 2 DM in order to counsel patients on ARV on balanced nutrition and optimise outcomes in the quality care of PLWHIV.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Infecções por HIV , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , África do Sul/epidemiologia
2.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 565, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681050

RESUMO

The average length of telomere repeats (TL) declines with age and is considered to be a marker of biological ageing. Here, we measured TL in six blood cell types from 1046 individuals using the clinically validated Flow-FISH method. We identified remarkable cell-type-specific variations in TL. Host genetics, environmental, parental and intrinsic factors such as sex, parental age, and smoking are associated to variations in TL. By analysing the genome-wide methylation patterns, we identified that the association of maternal, but not paternal, age to TL is mediated by epigenetics. Single-cell RNA-sequencing data for 62 participants revealed differential gene expression in T-cells. Genes negatively associated with TL were enriched for pathways related to translation and nonsense-mediated decay. Altogether, this study addresses cell-type-specific differences in telomere biology and its relation to cell-type-specific gene expression and highlights how perinatal factors play a role in determining TL, on top of genetics and lifestyle.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Telômero , Envelhecimento/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Pais , Gravidez , Telômero/genética
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681946

RESUMO

"Coronary prone behaviour pattern" refers to a way of coping with environmental stressors, otherwise known as type A behaviour patterns. Stress, unlimited working hours, and the shift system are conducive to an "unhealthy life style", conducted by nurses. The aim of the study was to assess the "coronary prone behaviour pattern", taking into account health behaviour and work performed by Polish nurses. METHOD: This was a descriptive study conducted from June 2017 to May 2018 among nurses (N = 1080) working primary care or in training facilities in Silesia, Poland. Data were acquired through a series of questionnaires and are presented as descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The "coronary prone behaviour pattern" (type A behaviour) was manifested by 333 (30.8%) nurses, type B by 272 (25.2%). The "coronary prone behaviour pattern" respondents showed a risk of developing a problem with alcohol (p = 0.003) less frequently compared with other respondents. In addition, nurses with the abovementioned behaviour pattern ate better (M = 16.66; SD = 6.11) compared with those with the type B behaviour pattern (M = 15.49; SD = 6.52). In terms of mental and physical wellbeing, people with type A behavioural patterns had significantly (p < 0.001) better mental and physical wellbeing and, on average, better results in coping with stress compared with other behavioural patterns of nurses. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of the "coronary prone behaviour pattern" was associated with the health-promoting behaviours of nurses being the subject of the analysis, i.e., better mental and physical wellbeing, better ability to cope with stress, and a lower risk of problems with alcohol and proper nutrition.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Personalidade Tipo A , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681960

RESUMO

Early diagnosis and treatment are necessary to prevent lifestyle-related diseases among high-risk individuals. This study aimed to examine the impact of counselor characteristics on clinic visits among individuals at high risk for lifestyle-related diseases. A total of 8975 patients aged 40 to 74 years with lifestyle-related comorbidities, who underwent an annual health checkup and received health counseling, were included in this study. Data intervention timing, mode of counseling, number of counseling sessions, and explanation methods were collected. We assessed the impact of counselor characteristics, including profession (public health nurse, clinical nurse, and nutritionist), age, and years of counseling experience, on counseling outcomes. The probability ratios (95% confidence intervals) of clinic visits were 1.22 (1.11-1.35) for public health nurses and 1.04 (0.90-1.20) for nurses compared with nutritionists. After adjustment for participant and counselor characteristics and initial timing, mode, and number of counseling sessions, the corresponding probability ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.16 (1.05-1.29) and 1.12 (0.95-1.31), respectively. Counselor age and years of experience did not influence clinic visits of the target population. Public health nurses were more effective in increasing clinic visits among the target population owing to their profession-specific knowledge, skills, and experience.


Assuntos
Conselheiros , Proteínas de Transporte , Aconselhamento , Citocinas , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682001

RESUMO

A patient's compliance to a physician's lifestyle information is essential in chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) patients. We assessed potential characteristics associated with a patient's recollection of physician information and lifestyle changes. This study recruited and interviewed patients (aged ≤ 80 years) 6-18 months after hospitalization due to acute coronary syndrome or elective myocardial revascularization. A physician's information on risk factors was recognized if patients recollected the assessment of their diet, weight management, blood pressure control, cholesterol level, diabetes, and other lifestyle factors by the doctor. Of a total of 946 chronic coronary syndrome patients, 52.9% (501) of them declared the recollection of providing information on more than 80% of the risk factors. A good recollection of risk factor information was associated with the following: a patient's age (OR per year: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99), obesity (OR: 4.41; 95% CI: 3.09-6.30), diabetes (OR: 4.16; 95% CI: 2.96-5.84), diuretic therapy (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.03-1.91), calcium channel blockers (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.04-2.09), and ACEI/sartan (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45-0.94) at hospitalization discharge. In terms of goal attainment, better adherence to antihypertensive drugs (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.07-3.03) was observed in the patients with a good compared to a poor recollection of risk factor information. The recollection of physician risk factor information was significantly associated with more comorbidities. Strategies to tailor the conveying of information to a patient's perception are needed for optimal patient-doctor communication.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Médicos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Fatores de Risco
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682146

RESUMO

Poor diet and low physical activity play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between nutrient intake, groups of food products and physical exercise undertaken and the components of metabolic syndrome (MS). The study included 330 patients with MS, and the control group comprised of 270 subjects without MS. The food intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recall, and a 13-item Food Frequency Questionnaire. To assess nutrition knowledge, a Beliefs and Eating Habits Questionnaire was used. The level of physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Three patterns of behavior were identified: Prudent-Active, Western-Sedentary, and NotPrudent-notWestern-lowActive. In the Prudent-Active group, as compared to the NotPrudent-notWestern-lowActive subjects, the risk of central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol and hyperglycemia occurrence was lower. There was also a lower proportion of patients with MS. As compared to the NotPrudent-notWestern-lowActive subjects, in the Prudent-Active group there was more than a two times higher chance of subjects with a high level of nutrition knowledge. Western diets have been proven to exert a detrimental effect on the components of MS. When designing intervention programs, education of patients with MS on dietary habits and physical activity should be considered.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682322

RESUMO

Background: This study was to culturally adapt a lifestyle intervention for employees' obesity control and prevention using a participatory process, and evaluate the effectiveness of the project at worksites. Methods: A group randomized experimental study included four worksites (two intervention, two control) in the Yangtze River Delta in China was conducted. A total of 388 participants (216 in the intervention worksites and 172 in the control worksites) were finally recruited from 955 employees at the four worksites (464 in the intervention worksites and 491 in the control worksites). The final evaluation was completed by two hundred and seventy-eight employees (159 in the intervention worksites and 119 in the control worksites, respectively). Data of demographic information, weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and weight-related behaviors including diary behaviors and physical activities were collected before and after a 12-month intervention and analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test, linear mixed regression and logistic mixed regression. Results: Although the intervention worksites had a reduction in body mass index (23.21 to 22.95, p < 0.01), hip circumference (95.97 to 95.28, p = 0.03) and waist-to-height ratio (0.49 to 0.48, p = 0.01), the differential changes compared to those of the control group were not statistically significant. The frequency of sweet beverages (-1.81, 95%CI: -0.52, -3.11), frequency of vegetable intake (5.66, 95%CI: 1.59, 9.74), daily servings of vegetables (0.53, 95%CI: 0.24, 0.82), frequency of fruit intake (3.68, 95%CI: 1.25, 6.12), daily servings of fruit (0.26, 95%CI: 0.44, 0.92), daily servings of vegetables and fruit (0.79, 95%CI: 0.43, 1.16), daily steps (863.19, 95%CI: 161.42, 1564.97) and self-efficacy to change physical activity (OR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.02,3.60) were more improved in the intervention group than were those measures in the control group. Conclusions: The worksite-based lifestyle intervention project for obesity control and prevention improved several employees' dietary behaviors and physical activities at worksites in China in a short time. Long-term intervention with larger samples in more worksites should be further examined.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Verduras
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682411

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus, termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is responsible for the disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Besides the important rates of mortality and morbidity directly attributed to the infection itself, many studies detected an important shift towards mostly unhealthy lifestyle patterns in previously healthy non-infected populations all around the world. Although most of the changes in lifestyle had or will have a negative impact on general population health status, some findings are encouraging. Notwithstanding that there was an obvious necessity for governments to apply national lockdowns, it is also necessary to identify and comprehend the consequences they have caused. A narrative literature review was performed, based on scientific articles and previous reviews. An accurate description of changes in eating habits and alcohol consumption, physical activity, mental health, daily routines, economic impacts, and broader effects on society is provided for each continent and different age groups through this review. The volume of selected scientific surveys encompasses approximately 400,000 persons.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682480

RESUMO

In recent years, migratory phenomena have changed the composition of Spanish society. There are many studies that explore the healthy habits of young adolescents, but few focus on young immigrants. The purpose of this study is to examine the causal relationships between certain factors that influence the health of immigrant youth and sports. The sample consisted of 173 students enrolled in secondary education in the city of Cuenca. The structural model confirms the relationship between the latent variables and sports. Specifically, we obtained a positive influence of an active lifestyle (regular physical activity and exercise) and a negative influence for the remaining variables (alcohol consumption, unhealthy foods, self-medication and tobacco consumption in the family). Physical education should promote healthy lifestyles; greater coordination between physical education and other subjects involved in education and the promotion of health are necessary because we consider that this task is not exclusive to physical education.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Esportes , Adolescente , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Educação Física e Treinamento
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682483

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) are associated with mental health in adolescents, though little is known about their inter-relationships. This study examined the associations of PA and ST with psychosomatic complaints in adolescents. Data from four cycles of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys, collected between 2002 and 2014, were analysed. Eight psychosomatic health complaints were assessed and dichotomised as frequent (≥2 complaints/week) vs. infrequent. PA was assessed by number of days/week participants were physically active for ≥60 min. Discretionary ST was assessed by adding three screen uses: television, electronic games, and computer. Of the 37,829 adolescents (age 13.74 (SD 1.51) years; 52% girls), 25% boys and 39% girls reported frequent psychosomatic complaints. Multilevel logistic analyses showed that ST levels were positively associated while PA levels were negatively associated with reporting frequent psychosomatic complaints in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with ST ≤ 2 hrs/d, ST ≥ 4 hrs/d in girls and ST ≥ 6 hrs/d in boys showed higher odds of reporting psychosomatic complaints. Participating in PA ≥ 60 min every day compared to no PA showed lower odds of reporting psychosomatic complaints by 44% in girls and 57% in boys. Prospective research is needed to understand the causal pathway of these dose-dependent relationships.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adults with fatty liver present unusual glycaemia and lipid metabolism; as a result, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now considered as part of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). OBJECTIVE: To assess the 6- and 12-month effects of customized hypocaloric dietary and enhanced physical activity intervention on intrahepatic fat contents and progression of NAFLD, in patients with MetS. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in 155 participants (40-60 years old) from Balearic Islands and Navarra (Spain) with a diagnosis of NAFLD and MetS, and BMI (body mass index) between 27 and 40 kg/m2; patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to either Conventional Diet, Mediterranean diet (MD)-high meal frequency, and MD-physical activity groups. METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to Mediterranean diet, anthropometrics, physical activity, and biochemical parameters (fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase-ALT-, gamma-glutamyl transferase, uric acid, urea, creatinine, albumin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-HDL-cholesterol-, and triglycerides) were also assessed. RESULTS: Subjects with NAFLD and MetS had reduced intrahepatic fat contents, and liver stiffness, despite the intervention the participants went through. All participants ameliorated BMI, insulin, Hb1Ac, diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, and ALT, and improved consumption of total energy, fish, and legumes. Participants in the MD-HMF group improved waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: Customized hypocaloric dietary and enhanced physical activity interventions may be useful to ameliorate NAFLD.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Síndrome Metabólica , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo
12.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684034

RESUMO

'Living Better', a self-administered web-based intervention, designed to facilitate lifestyle changes, has already shown positive short- and medium-term health benefits in patients with an obesity-hypertension phenotype. The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine the long-term (3-year) evolution of a group of hypertensive overweight or obese patients who had already followed the 'Living Better' program; (2) to analyze the effects of completing this program a second time (reintervention) during the COVID-19 pandemic. A quasi-experimental design was used. We recruited 29 individuals from the 105 who had participated in our first study. We assessed and compared their systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), body mass index (BMI), eating behavior, and physical activity (PA) level (reported as METs-min/week), at Time 0 (first intervention follow-up), Time 1 (before the reintervention), and Time 2 (post-reintervention). Our results showed significant improvements between Time 1 and Time 2 in SBP (-4.7 (-8.7 to -0.7); p = 0.017), DBP (-3.5 (-6.2 to -0.8); p = 0.009), BMI (-0.7 (-1.0 to -0.4); p < 0.001), emotional eating (-2.8 (-5.1 to -0.5); p = 0.012), external eating (-1.1 (-2.1 to -0.1); p = 0.039), and PA (Time 1: 2308 ± 2266; Time 2: 3203 ± 3314; p = 0.030, Z = -2.17). Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in SPB, DBP, BMI, and eating behavior between Time 0 and Time 1 (p > 0.24). Implementation of the 'Living Better' program maintained positive long-term (3-year) health benefits in patients with an obesity-hypertension phenotype. Moreover, a reintervention with this program during the COVID-19 pandemic produced significant improvements in blood pressure, BMI, eating behavior, and PA.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipertensão , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Hipertensão/terapia , Internet , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Pandemias
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 474, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have suggested that lifestyle-related factors are associated with mortality, however limited evidence is available for the Chinese elder population. METHODS: The data of this study was obtained from the Chinese Longitudinal Health Survey (CLHLS) during 2008 - 2018, lifestyle-related factors including body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, consumption of vegetables and fruits, physical activity and sleep duration were included as dependent variables in the analysis. A lifestyle risk score was created using six unhealthy behaviors: smoking, drinking, unhealthy weight, physical inactivity, not eat vegetables or fruits and short or prolonged sleep. The Kaplan-Meier curves were used to illustrate the cumulative effect of lifestyle factors on mortality and cox regression models were conducted to estimate the combined effects of lifestyle-related factors on total mortality. RESULTS: The results illustrated that low BMI, smoking, no fruit eating, and no physical inactivity were risk factors for total mortality. KM curves showed significant cumulative effect of unhealthy lifestyle factors on mortality. Compared with participants without any unhealthy factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for participants with six unhealthy factors was 1.335 (1.015,1.757) for all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle may increase all-cause mortality and specific combinations of lifestyle related factors have different effects on mortality among Chinese elderly population.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Comportamento Sedentário , Verduras
14.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 65, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term effectiveness of healthy lifestyle interventions on improving leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in adolescents and its factors in low- and middle-income communities is unclear. This study is the first to investigate LTPA trends in a population of Iranian adolescents who underwent a multi-setting lifestyle intervention, considering sex and the time of intervention onset. METHODS: Participants were 2374 adolescents (57.2% girls), aged 12-18 years, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) during 1999-2001 and followed for a median follow-up of 15.9 over five data points every 3 years. Adolescent participants were assigned to the intervention or control groups based on their residential areas. Boys and girls were categorized into 12-15 or 16-18 years old to minimize participants' bio-psychological differences, facilitate environmental interventions by more compliance with the Iranian educational system and identify the best time to start the intervention. All adolescents in the intervention area received healthy lifestyle interventions via the school-, family-, and community-based programs. LTPA was assessed using the reliable and validated Iranian Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ) version over the five data points. The Generalized Estimating Equations method was used to evaluate educational intervention's effect on LTPA in adolescents during the follow-up. RESULTS: In boys who experienced the early onset of intervention (12-15 years), the interaction effect of follow-up examinations and the intervention was significant where the impact of the intervention differed over time. In this group, LTPA was higher in the control group than in the intervention group at the first follow-up examination (ß = - 1088.54). However, an increasing trend of LTPA was observed in the intervention group until the third follow-up examination (ß = 1278.21, p = 0.08, and ß = 1962.81, p = 0.02, respectively), with borderline significance levels at the 2nd (P = 0.08) and the 4th (P = 0.08) measurements. The interaction terms and main effects of intervention and follow-up examinations were not significant in boys with late intervention onset. Although older boys in the intervention group had higher LTPA than the control group, there were no significant differences among study groups in all follow-up examinations. Regarding girls, LTPA did not differ significantly between intervention and control groups in all follow-up examinations (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results showed that a multi-setting practical lifestyle intervention could improve long-term energy expenditure in LTPA in adolescent boys who have experienced an early onset intervention. Findings emphasized the vital role of gender and the onset of these interventions. The current results would be valuable to plan tailored interventions to improve LTPA and community health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at Iran Registry for Clinical Trials (IRCT), a WHO primary registry ( http://irct.ir ). The TLGS clinical trial was the very first registration in the IRCT (Iran Registry of Clinical Trials). it was registered on 2008-10-29 by the registration number IRCT138705301058N1 . Based on the international committee of medical journal Editors (ICMJE), "retrospective registration" is acceptable for trials that began before July 1, 2005.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Estilo de Vida , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Maturitas ; 161: 44-48, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688494

RESUMO

Sarcopenia, with its high prevalence and its adverse health outcomes, amongst older adults is considered a major public health problem. Its primary, secondary and tertiary preventions are therefore very important. Our objective was to review the effects of lifestyle factors, including not only dietary habits and exercise but also social use of substances such as alcohol and tobacco, on the incidence of sarcopenia and on its health outcomes. We found that the effect of lifestyle on muscle parameters or physical function has been investigated in many trials of heterogeneous design and quality. However, based on data from interventional studies, we can be confident that loss of physical function and its consequences can be counteracted by physical activity. There are some interesting data, mainly evident from observational studies, suggesting that healthier dietary patterns may improve muscle health. The combination of exercise with dietary supplement has more conflicting results and the effect of other lifestyle changes, such as cessation of alcohol or tobacco use, is difficult to establish clearly. Further high-quality trials are needed to substantiate the mechanism of action of each intervention as well as to determine the optimal modalities of these in older adults.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia
16.
Enferm Clin (Engl Ed) ; 32 Suppl 1: S46-S53, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the feeding practices of malnourished infants and young children aged 6-24 months old in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. METHOD: Fourteen mothers or caregivers who had malnourished infants and young children aged 6-24 months were interviewed, focusing on their feeding practices. Informants came from sub-districts in Bogor Regency, Indonesia, which had a higher incidence of malnutrition. The interview process was recorded. Verbatim transcripts of recorded interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Five major themes were identified: (1) Inappropriate practice of early initiation of breastfeeding, (2) Challenges in decision making to maintain breastfeeding, (3) Lack of complementary feeding practices, (4) Failing to follow feeding recommendations, and (5) Infant and young child feeding constraints. CONCLUSION: The feeding practice for malnourished infants and young children is not entirely based on the recommended standards. This situation is caused by several factors such as economic conditions, culture, parental knowledge, family and community health workers' support. Health workers need to provide comprehensive intervention for mothers and families intensively by taking into account the culture and conditions of the related family.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Comportamento Alimentar , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Lactente , Estilo de Vida , Mães
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e057948, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649615

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The widespread prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) not only influences patients' daily lives but also has an economic impact on society. Increasing physical activity and a healthy diet can delay the progression of T2D. Although there are evidence-based recommendations on diet and physical activity, patients with T2D have difficulties implementing them. An appropriate lifestyle intervention can address this problem. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is based on the need to develop an intervention that helps patients to establish behavioural changes in order to achieve glycaemic control. The intervention will be evaluated in a monocentric, open-label, pragmatic, two-arm randomised controlled trial with a sample ratio of 1:1 and a parallel design. This superiority study will be conducted in Switzerland. All enrolled patients (n=90) will receive the standard medical treatment for T2D. The intervention group will receive personal health coaching by telephone and access to a smartphone and web application for 1 year. The control group will receive access to the application for 1 year and a one-time written diet and exercise recommendation. The primary outcomes are objectively measured physical activity and glycated haemoglobin. Secondary outcomes are self-reported physical activity, nutrition, cognitive mediators of changes in sport-related behaviour, blood values, medication and nutritional supplements, anthropometric data, quality of life, neuropathy and cost-effectiveness. All outcomes will be measured at baseline, at 27 weeks after inclusion and at 54 weeks after inclusion. The recruitment of participants and the measurements will be completed after 2 years. Linear mixed-effects models will be applied for each outcome variable to analyse the intervention effects. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee North-western and Central Switzerland in February 2021 (ref: 2020-02755). All participants will be required to provide written informed consent. The results will be published in international peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN79457541.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Tutoria , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 844832, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651861

RESUMO

Eczema, one of the most prevalent inflammatory skin diseases among children, is potentially influenced by genetic, environmental and social factors. However, few studies have investigated the effect of residential environment and lifestyle on childhood eczema. Therefore, this study conducted a cross-sectional study based on 2,781 preschool children in Shenzhen, China, during 2015-2016. Logistic regression models were employed to analyze the associations between residential/household environment, lifestyle, dietary habits and eczema in children. The prevalence of eczema among children in Shenzhen was 24.6%. Significant associations (increased odds >50%, P < 0.05) were found between childhood eczema and the factors of using composite wood floors (adjusted OR = 1.777 for doctor-diagnosed eczema, 1.911 for eczema-like symptoms), living in a villa/townhouse (aOR = 3.102, 2.156), the presence of mold or damp stains in the child's room (aOR = 1.807, 2.279), and rarely cleaning the child's room (aOR = 1.513, 1.540). In addition, watching TV/playing computer games for more than one hour per day was significantly associated with eczema (aOR = 1.172, 1.174). Notably, we found that eating rice/pasta one to three times per week may elevate the risk of eczema-like symptoms (aOR = 1.343), which warrants further investigation. In addition, ambient air pollution, in the covariates, may also affect childhood eczema. Therefore, avoiding these adverse factors and creating a low-risk environment are crucial to prevent childhood eczema.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Eczema , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Eczema/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Fatores de Risco
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 814328, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664115

RESUMO

The implementation of timely COVID-19 pan-India lockdown posed challenges to the lifestyle. We looked at the impact of lifestyle on health status during the lockdown in India. A self-rated scale, COVID Health Assessment Scale (CHAS) was circulated to evaluate the physical health or endurance, mental health i.e. anxiety and stress, and coping ability of the individuals under lockdown. This is a pan-India cross-sectional survey study. CHAS was designed by 11 experts in 3 Delphi rounds (CVR = 0.85) and was circulated through various social media platforms, from 9th May to 31st May 2020, across India by snowball circulation method. CHAS forms of 23,760 respondents were downloaded from the Google forms. Logistic regression using R software was used to compare vulnerable (>60 years and with chronic diseases) with non-vulnerable groups. There were 23,317 viable respondents. Majority of respondents included males (58·8%). Graduates/Postgraduates (72·5%), employed (33·0%), businessmen (6·0%), and professionals (9·7%). The vulnerable group had significantly (OR 1.31, p < 0.001) higher representation of overweight individuals as compared to non-vulnerable group. Regular use of tobacco (OR 1.62, p = 0.006) and other addictive substances (OR 1.80, p = 0.039) showed increased vulnerability. Respondents who consume junk food (OR 2.19, p < 0.001) and frequently snack (OR 1.16, p < 0.001) were more likely to be vulnerable. Respondents involved in fitness training (OR 0.57, p < 0.001) or did physical works other than exercise, yoga, walk or household activity (OR 0.88, p = 0.004) before lockdown were less likely to be vulnerable. Majority had a very good lifestyle, 94.4% never smoked or used tobacco, 92.1% were non-alcoholic, 97.5% never used addictive substances, 84.7% had good eating habits, 75.4% were vegetarians, 82.8% had "good" sleep, 71.7% did physical activities. Only 24.7% reported "poor" coping ability. Depression with somewhat low feeling were more likely to be vulnerable (OR 1.26, p < 0.001). A healthy lifestyle that includes healthy eating, proper sleep, physical activeness and non-addictive habits supports better coping ability with lesser psychological distress among Indian population during lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 868255, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35669738

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has induced unhealthy lifestyles, particularly an increase in overweight and obesity, which have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of unfavorable COVID-19 outcomes. Web-based health programs could be a helpful measure, especially in times of severe restrictions. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of regular attendance in a 12-week web-based weight loss program on COVIDAge, a new construct for risk assessment of COVID-19, and lifestyle-related cardiometabolic risk factors. N = 92 subjects with overweight and obesity (50.0 ± 10.8 years, 76.1% females, 30.5 ± 2.1 kg/m2) of this randomized controlled trial, which were assigned to an interactive (ONLINE: intervention group) or non-interactive (CON: control group) web-based weight loss program, were included in the data analysis. COVIDAge and cardiometabolic risk factors, including anthropometric outcomes, blood pressure, flow-mediated dilatation, and blood parameters, were assessed before and after the 12-week intervention phase. There was a significant group difference in the change of COVIDAge (ONLINE: -4.2%, CON: -1.3%, p = 0.037). The ONLINE group also showed significantly greater reductions in anthropometric outcomes and systolic blood pressure than the CON group (p < 0.05). To the authors' knowledge, this was the first study investigating the effects of regular attendance in a web-based health program on lifestyle-related risk factors for COVID-19. The results demonstrated that adults with overweight and obesity can improve their COVIDAge and specific cardiometabolic risk factors by using this interactive web-based weight loss program regularly. However, this needs to be confirmed by future studies. This study is registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00020249, https://www.drks.de).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos
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