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1.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 282, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) in particular, is associated with weight loss as well as low bone mineral density. Bone mineral density relies upon multiple factors, some of which are lifestyle factors. The aim of this study was to compare lifestyle factors in order to eliminate them as culprits of the suspected difference in BMD in RYGBP operated and controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study participants included 71 RYGBP-operated women (42.3 years, BMI 33.1 kg/m2) and 94 controls (32.4 years, BMI 23.9 kg/m2). Each completed a DEXA scan, as well as survey of lifestyle factors (e.g. physical activity in daily life, corticosteroid use, and calcium intake). All study participants were premenopausal Caucasian women living in the same area. Blood samples were taken in RYGBP-patients. RESULTS: BMD was significantly lower in RYGBP, femoral neck 0.98 vs. 1.04 g/cm2 compared to controls, despite higher BMI (present and at 20 years of age) and similar physical activity and calcium intake. In a multivariate analysis, increased time since surgery and age were negatively associated with BMD of the femoral neck and total hip in RYGBP patients. CONCLUSION: Despite similar lifestyle, RYGBP was followed by a lower BMD compared to controls. Thus, the reduced BMD in RYGBP cannot be explained, seemingly nor prevented, by lifestyle factors. As the reduction in BMD was associated with time since surgery, strict follow-up is a lifelong necessity after bariatric surgery, and especially important in younger bariatric patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069063

RESUMO

Throughout life, it is necessary to adapt to the Earth's environment in order to survive. A typical example of this is that the daily Earth cycle is different from the circadian rhythm in human beings; however, the ability to adapt to the Earth cycle has contributed to the development of human evolution. In addition, humans can consume and digest Earth-derived foods and use luxury materials for nutrition and enrichment of their lives, as an adaptation to the Earth's environment. Recent studies have shown that daily lifestyles are closely related to human health; however, less attention has been paid to the fact that obesity due to excessive energy intake, smoking, and alcohol consumption contributes to the development of inflammatory skin diseases. Gluten or wheat protein, smoking and alcohol, sleep disturbance, and obesity drive the helper T (Th)1/Th2/Th17 immune response, whereas dietary fiber and omega-3 fatty acids negatively regulate inflammatory cytokine production. In this review, we have focused on daily lifestyles and the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases.


Assuntos
Dermatite/fisiopatologia , Estilo de Vida , Dermatopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos
3.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210012, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze changes in the lifestyles of Brazilian adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with adolescents who participated in the survey "ConVid Adolescentes - Pesquisa de Comportamentos". The indicators related to lifestyles before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated: consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods, physical activity and sedentary behavior, smoking and consumption of alcohol. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the total population and according to sex and age group. RESULTS: A total of 9,470 adolescents participated in the study. During the period of social distancing, there was an increase in the prevalence of vegetables consumption (from 27.34 to 30.5%), frozen foods (from 13.26 to 17.3%), chocolates and sweets (from 48.58 to 52.51%), and time in front of screens (from 44.57 to 70.15%). On the other hand, there was a decrease in the practice of physical activity (from 28.70 to 15.74%) and in the consumption of alcohol (from 17.72 to 12.77%). Differences were observed according to sex and age group. CONCLUSION: The results show changes in the lifestyle of adolescents and an increase in health risk behaviors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Frailty Aging ; 10(3): 286-289, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105714

RESUMO

This study evaluated the health status and lifestyle habits of vulnerable, community-dwelling older adults during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Spain. A telephone assessment was carried out in 38 individuals (71% women), with a Barthel index ≥85 who were frail or had a high risk of falls. Data were compared with those from an assessment performed 9 months earlier. In the latter part of the lockdown, a high percentage of the studied individuals showed difficulties in walking up 10 steps and reported sleep problems (66%) and pain (74%). On the other hand, participants were not anxious/depressed (71%) and the majority did not report loneliness (60%). Compared to the earlier assessment, we identified a decline in functional capacity and worsening of nutritional status, but an increase in family support. Efforts should be made to implement intervention programs seeking to avoid accelerated decline under the current pandemic situation, and especially during possible new lockdowns.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vida Independente , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3914-3922, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: During the Covid-19 pandemic, many governments promoted the adoption and development of telework to reduce some of the consequences of the current health crisis on the economy and favor social distancing. The aim of this web-based cross-sectional study was to assess the consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic on job organization, exploring the effects of lockdown measures on the psychological distress and perceived well-being of workers experiencing telework. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional survey has been used to collect data. The participants answered the questionnaire from April 1 to April 30, 2020. The questionnaire consisted of three sections, which investigated: 1) demographic and occupational variables, 2) lifestyle and habits variables, 3) psychological distress and perceived well-being. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been used to evaluate psychological distress and the 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) to explore subjective well-being. RESULTS: Psychological distress was associated with educational level, with habits, and with reporting poor well-being. Poor well-being was associated with a higher job demand during pandemic, lifestyle and habits variables, and psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first studies exploring the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures on the perceived well-being and psychological distress of workers experiencing telework. It is mandatory to pay more and more attention to the mental health of teleworkers, considering the increasing diffusion and adoption of this type of work organization.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Saúde Mental , Teletrabalho , Adulto , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1079, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle sport activities (e.g. parkour or skateboarding) are considered attractive and beneficial for a long-term commitment to physical activity (PA) and might be a great opportunity for adolescents who do not feel comfortable in an organized or competitive atmosphere. The purpose of the study was to assess whether participation in lifestyle activities is associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), out-of-school vigorous physical activity (VPA), and sedentary behaviour in adolescents aged 10-15 years, with major demographic variables (sex, age, socioeconomic status) being taken into account. METHODS: Data from a research project linked to the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey collected in 2017 in the Czech Republic was used. The sample consisted of 679 participants (303 of them girls) and was selected by quota sampling. Chi-square tests were used to assess differences in involvement in lifestyle activities according to sex, grade, and socioeconomic status. Ordinal and linear regression models were used to analyse the associations of participation in lifestyle activities and selected energy balance-related behaviours. RESULTS: Participation in lifestyle sport activities was significantly associated with a higher level of physical activity (MVPA and out-of-school VPA) after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, as was participation in organized sport. No significant associations were shown for sedentary behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents participating in lifestyle sport activities report being more physically active and, in case of doing multiple such activities concurrently, also spending less time sitting than their peers not involved in lifestyle sport activities. As such, lifestyle sport activities seem to represent a feasible way of increasing overall PA level in adolescent population.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Esportes , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210021, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with a higher probability of survival for men aged 60 and over in the course of almost 15 years. METHODS: Prospective cohort study, where time zero is the year 2000 and deaths (final event) were measured until November 2014. The independent variables were obtained from personal characteristics, childhood life, educational status, lifestyle, social support, work history, socioeconomic situation, and health condition. RESULTS: At the end of the period, 25.8% of elderly men remained alive and the factors that stood out associated with a higher probability of survival were: performing 50% or more of the Basic and/or Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (95%CI 0.41 - 0.64), being the head of the family (95%CI 0.42 - 0.82), participating in the community (95%CI 0.52 - 0.88), working on their own (95%CI 0.54 - 0.88), and owning a home and goods (95%CI 0.56 - 0.92). CONCLUSION: Characteristics related to a greater autonomy of the elderly men, even after almost 15 years, contributed to an increase in the probability of survival.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070782

RESUMO

Studies have shown individuals with chronic illnesses tend to experience poorer mental health compared to their counterparts without a chronic illness under the COVID-19 pandemic. The pervasive disruption on daily lifestyles due to social distancing could be a contributing factor. In this study, we collaborated with local patient support groups to explore the psychological adjustment among a group of community-dwelling individuals with chronic illnesses under the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. We collected responses from 408 adults with one or more chronic illnesses using an online survey. Results show that about one in four participants experienced moderate to high levels of depression (26.0%), anxiety (26.2%) and stress (20.1%) symptoms measured by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and the World Health Organisation-Five Well-Being Index. While 62.3% (gatherings) to 91.9% (contact with others) of participants reported changes in their daily lifestyles, these changes-both an increase and a decrease-were related to poorer mental health. The relationship was mediated by psychological resilience, measured by the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, with an estimate of indirect effect of -0.28 (95% confidence interval -0.44 to -0.10). In light of our findings, we urge social and healthcare professionals to support chronic illness patients to continue their daily lifestyles such as exercises and social contacts as much as possible by educating the public on feasible and practical preventive measures and enhance the psychological resilience of community-dwelling patients with scalable and efficacious psychological interventions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade , Doença Crônica , Depressão/epidemiologia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073751

RESUMO

The advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the massive growth of devices connected to the Internet are reshaping modern societies. However, human lifestyles are not evolving at the same pace as technology, which often derives into users' reluctance and aversion. Although it is essential to consider user involvement/privacy while deploying IoT devices in a human-centric environment, current IoT architecture standards tend to neglect the degree of trust that humans require to adopt these technologies on a daily basis. In this regard, this paper proposes an architecture to enable privacy-by-design with human-in-the-loop IoT environments. In this regard, it first distills two IoT use-cases with high human interaction to analyze the interactions between human beings and IoT devices in an environment which had not previously been subject to the Internet of People principles.. Leveraging the lessons learned in these use-cases, the Privacy-enabling Fog-based and Flexible (PyFF) human-centric and human-aware architecture is proposed which brings together distributed and intelligent systems are brought together. PyFF aims to maintain end-users' privacy by involving them in the whole data lifecycle, allowing them to decide which information can be monitored, where it can be computed and the appropriate feedback channels in accordance with human-in-the-loop principles.


Assuntos
Privacidade , Tecnologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Monitorização Fisiológica
10.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(6): 854-855, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111392

RESUMO

The infant gut microbiota is shaped by diverse environmental exposures that alter its composition and can enrich antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Li et al. (2021) studied the causes, spread, and dynamics of ARGs and their relationship with asthma-associated microbiota in Danish children.


Assuntos
Asma , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Exposição Ambiental , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Lactente , Estilo de Vida , Irmãos
11.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of disorders associated with body image has increased considerably. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of body satisfaction in adolescents from La Rioja, as well as the determinants of physical and psychosocial health, lifestyle habits and sociodemographic factors associated with it. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 761 students (14.51 ± 1.63 years old) from 25 educational centres in a northern region of Spain. The data were collected through a battery of scientifically validated instruments (tests and questionnaires) that assessed body satisfaction, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, physical activity engagement, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, hours of nightly sleep, body mass index, maximum oxygen uptake, academic performance and various sociodemographic factors of the participants were analysed for all participants. Body satisfaction was evaluated through the method described by Stunkard and Stellar, based on the identification of the perceived and desired silhouette. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with body satisfaction. RESULTS: 59.8% of adolescents were dissatisfied with their body image, with 42.7% wishing they were thinner and 17.1% fatter. Adolescents dissatisfied with their body image reported lower levels of physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, and maximum oxygen uptake. In addition, this dissatisfaction was greater among older adolescents, migrants, girls, overweight and non-participants in sports activities. Finally, gender, health-related quality of life, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, body mass index, cardiorespiratory capacity, and academic performance were factors associated with the desire to be slimmer. However, these factors varied according to gender. CONCLUSIONS: Both lifestyle and different indicators of physical and psychological health turn out to have a key interaction in the body satisfaction of adolescents.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(1): 52-61, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water is an essential nutrient for cellular homeostasis and life. Drinking ≥ 6 glasses (1.5 L/day) is the recommendation of daily water intake (RIAD). AIM: To characterize water intake, according to sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyles variables, in the Chilean adult population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of data from 5,520 participants of the 2016-17 National Health Survey. Compliance with RIAD by population groups according to sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics was studied through logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Only 27.8% of the national population met the RIAD. Women, people over than 56 years of age, housewives, retired people, widowers, and non-smokers were less likely to meet the RIAD. The likelihood of not complying with RIAD in these segments of the population ranged from 28% to 62%. Conversely, participants who presented a higher likelihood of meeting RIAD were those who co-habiting, had a medium and higher educational level, followed a diet plan, and those who reported a good health and well-being. The likelihood of meeting with the RIAD for these population groups ranged from 47% to 116%. CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of meeting the RIAD varied according to different sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables. Therefore, public policies for promoting water consumption should be focused on all age groups, but especially in those groups with the highest risk of underconsumption.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Chile/epidemiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to determine the association between the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with sociodemographic parameters and lifestyle during COVID-19 confinement in Mexico, Chile, and Spain. METHODS: A cross-sectional pilot study, with 742 observations of online surveys in 422, 190, and 130 individuals from Mexico, Chile, and Spain, respectively. Sociodemographic data, presence of comorbidities, food habits, and physical activity (PA) patterns were evaluated. The HRQoL was evaluated according to the SF-36 Health Survey. The multilinear regression analysis was developed to determine the association of variables with HRQoL and its physical and mental health dimensions. RESULTS: The female sex in the three countries reported negative association with HRQoL (Mexico: ß -4.45, p = 0.004; Chile: ß -8.48, p < 0.001; Spain: ß -6.22, p = 0.009). Similarly, bad eating habits were associated negatively with HRQoL (Mexico: ß -6.64, p < 0.001; Chile: ß -6.66, p = 0.005; Spain: ß -5.8, p = 0.032). In Mexico, PA limitations presented a negative association with HRQoL (ß -4.71, p = 0.011). In Chile, a sedentary lifestyle (h/day) was linked negatively with HRQoL (ß -0.64, p = 0.005). In Spain, the highest associations with HRQoL were the presence of comorbidity (ß -11.03, p < 0.001) and smoking (ß -6.72, p = 0.02). Moreover, the PA limitation in Mexico (ß -5.67, p = 0.023) and Chile (ß -9.26, p = 0.035) was linked negatively with mental health. CONCLUSIONS: The bad eating habits, PA limitations, female sex, comorbidity presence, and smoking were parameters linked negatively with HRQoL.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Qualidade de Vida , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , México/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
15.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes not only severe illness but also detrimental effects associated with the lockdown measures. The present study aimed to evaluate reported lifestyle changes in a cohort of adults in Italy, including physical exercise, food choices, and psychological wellbeing, after two months of lockdown. METHODS: A web survey on social media (Facebook and LinkedIn) of 32 multiple-choice questions aiming to evaluate the impact of the national COVID-19 lockdown in a sample of Italian adults. RESULTS: We received 1378 complete responses (women 68.3%, mean age 39.5 ± 12.5 years). The percentage of participants reporting regular exercise decreased during lockdown (52 vs. 56.5%). The vast majority of people continued to consume the three traditional meals per day, but the consumption of meat, fish, and eggs significantly decreased. Women reported more frequent anxiety, sadness, fear, and feelings of insecurity than men. The factors predicting the worst outcome during the lockdown were being a woman, low education and income, gastrointestinal diseases. CONCLUSION: The lockdown has had a limited impact on food choices and physical exercise in Italian adults of our series, since most of them made an effort to improve their lifestyle. However, women with gastrointestinal diseases reported more frequent negative feelings and poor adaptation to the lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Gastroenteropatias/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 340, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explores whether a sex difference in sensitivity to (strength of the association) and/or in exposure to (prevalence) determinants of gait speed contributes to the observed lower gait speed among older women compared to men. METHODS: Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) were used. In total 2407 men and women aged 55-81 years were included, with baseline measurements in 1992/2002 and follow-up measurements every 3-4 years for 15/25 years. Multivariable mixed model analysis was used to investigate sex differences in sensitivity (interaction term with sex) and in exposure to (change of the sex difference when adjusted) socio-demographic, lifestyle, social and health determinants of gait speed. RESULTS: Women had a 0.054 m/s (95 % CI: 0.076 - 0.033, adjusted for height and age) lower mean gait speed compared to men. In general, men and women had similar determinants of gait speed. However, higher BMI and lower physical activity were more strongly associated with lower gait speed in women compared to men (i.e. higher sensitivity). More often having a lower educational level, living alone and having more chronic diseases, pain and depressive symptoms among women compared to men also contributed to observed lower gait speed in women (i.e. higher exposure). In contrast, men more often being a smoker, having a lower physical activity and a smaller personal network size compared to women contributed to a lower gait speed among men (i.e. higher exposure). CONCLUSIONS: Both a higher sensitivity and higher exposure to determinants of gait speed among women compared to men contributes to the observed lower gait speed among older women. The identified (modifiable) contributing factors should be taken into account when developing prevention and/or treatment strategies aimed to enhance healthy physical aging. This might require a sex-specific approach in both research and clinical practice, which is currently often lacking.


Assuntos
Caracteres Sexuais , Velocidade de Caminhada , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino
17.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 160(2-3): 65-70, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134495

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease nowadays. It is referred to as liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Given the growing incidence of diabetes and obesity, we can confidently say that we will be, or even are facing, a NAFLD pandemic in the near future. Despite strenuous efforts, there is no causal therapy and the only effective therapeutic modality is a complex lifestyle change encompasses diet and regime changes leading to a weight loss. However, it is clear from many published papers that putting these recommendations into practice and their long-term compliance with patients is very difficult. What can be offered to patients with NAFLD in clinical practice and how can they be rationally treated?


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Dieta , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Perda de Peso
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 786: 147495, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US COVID-19 epidemic impacted counties differently across space and time, though large-scale transmission dynamics are unclear. The study's objective was to group counties with similar trajectories of COVID-19 cases and deaths and identify county-level correlates of the distinct trajectory groups. METHODS: Daily COVID-19 cases and deaths were obtained from 3141 US counties from January through June 2020. Clusters of epidemic curve trajectories of COVID-19 cases and deaths per 100,000 people were identified with Proc Traj. We utilized polytomous logistic regression to estimate Odds Ratios for trajectory group membership in relation to county-level demographics, socioeconomic factors, school enrollment, employment and lifestyle data. RESULTS: Six COVID-19 case trajectory groups and five death trajectory groups were identified. Younger counties, counties with a greater proportion of females, Black and Hispanic populations, and greater employment in private sectors had higher odds of being in worse case and death trajectories. Percentage of counties enrolled in grades 1-8 was associated with earlier-start case trajectories. Counties with more educated adult populations had lower odds of being in worse case trajectories but were generally not associated with worse death trajectories. Counties with higher poverty rates, higher uninsured, and more living in non-family households had lower odds of being in worse case and death trajectories. Counties with higher smoking rates had higher odds of being in worse death trajectory counties. DISCUSSION: In the absence of clear guidelines and personal protection, smoking, racial and ethnic groups, younger populations, social, and economic factors were correlated with worse COVID-19 epidemics that may reflect population transmission dynamics during January-June 2020. After vaccination of high-risk individuals, communities with higher proportions of youth, communities of color, smokers, and workers in healthcare, service and goods industries can reduce viral spread by targeting vaccination programs to these populations and increasing access and education on non-pharmaceutical interventions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25975, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032709

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low health literacy in Hebei Province of China, and to investigate its socio-demographic risk factors.This study was a community-based, cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a multiple-stage randomization design and a sample size of 10,560. Participants' health literacy status was evaluated by a questionnaire based on the 2012 Chinese Resident Health Literacy Scale. Meanwhile, participants' socio-demographic characteristics were also collected by the questionnaire.A total of 9952 participants provided valid questionnaires and were included in the final analyses. The mean health literacy score was 63.1 ±â€Š17.1 points; for its subscales, the mean basic knowledge and concepts score, lifestyle score, health-related skills score were 31.7 ±â€Š9.0, 17.2 ±â€Š4.8, 14.3 ±â€Š4.1, respectively. Meanwhile, low health literacy prevalence was 81.0%; for its subscales, low basic knowledge and concepts prevalence (70.6%) was numerically reduced compared to low lifestyle prevalence (87.4%) and low health-related skills prevalence (86.1%). Further analyses showed that age, male, and rural area were positively associated, but education level and annual household income were negatively associated with low health literacy prevalence. Further multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that higher age, male, lower education level, lower annual household income, and rural area were closely correlated with the risks of low total health literacy or low health literacy in subscales in Hebei Province.The prevalence of low health literacy is 81.0% in Hebei Province. Meanwhile, higher age, male, lower education level, lower annual household income, and rural area closely associate with low health literacy risk.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 597851, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055707

RESUMO

Background: Risks attributed to chronic diseases, cancer, musculoskeletal discomfort, and infectious diseases among Indonesians were found to be associated with lifestyle behaviors, particularly in rural areas. The aim of this study was to examine the outcomes of a home-visiting lifestyle modification program on improving health risk behaviors among Indonesians living in rural areas. Methods: A total of 160 Indonesians living in rural hamlets in the Yogyakarta Region of Indonesia participated in the program in the period of June 21 to July 21, 2019. In the pre-intervention home interview, learning needs of diet, exercise, hand hygiene, and substance use were identified by using structured assessment tools. In the next home visit, the visitors provided health education and facilitated lifestyle planning based on the related affective and cognitive domains of learning. Subsequent follow-up interviews were conducted 3 weeks after intervention. Results: The results showed that the self-reported intake of vegetables, fruits, meat and salt, cooking with less oil, hand hygiene before eating, number of cigarettes smoked, and symptoms of muscle stiffness significantly improved after the intervention. The lifestyle modification program consisted of the affective and cognitive domains of learning, and could lead to the target behavioral changes in self-reported and observable measures over 1 month. Conclusions: The findings contributed to the framework of community-based health education for health risk reduction and behavioral modification in developing rural communities where health care resources were limited. Further studies with control groups and vigorous objective measures were recommended to elucidate its long-term impacts. The factors leading to its sustainability concerning collaborative care partnerships between community residents and faculty resources are worthy of continued exploration.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , População Rural , Docentes , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Estudantes
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