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2.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38(5): 807-821, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034561

RESUMO

Gout is the most prevalent form of inflammatory arthritis, with a strong impact on individual health and healthcare systems. This article reviews clinical and experimental evidences about gout emerged throughout the 2019. Starting with an epidemiological analysis, the review explores new insights on genetic factors influencing the development of gout flare, pathogenetic mechanisms, risk factors for the disease and comorbidities. An overview on pharmacological therapies and recent knowledge on the impact of lifestyle and dietary habits are also included. Finally, the review contains a novel section on animal models, which reflects the renewed interest of researchers in the acute process triggered by monosodium urate crystals.


Assuntos
Gota , Animais , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Gota/epidemiologia , Supressores da Gota/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Exacerbação dos Sintomas
3.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1735-1746, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim is to analyze the factors that affect the students' health both positively and negatively and to evaluate the real health status of Ukrainian student youth. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The research was conducted at Zhytomyr Ivan Franko State University and University of State Fiscal Service of Ukraine, 647 students of the 1st - 4th years of study were examined. To study both negative and positive factors, we conducted a survey of the students of different genders of several education departments, using original questionnaires. To analyze the results of the students' self-assessment of their health state, the methodology of V. P. Voitenko, which contains 27 questions that characterize the most important aspects of well-being, mood, activity, sleep quality, pain senses and lifestyle of students, was applied. RESULTS: Results: It was determined that the most important factors for the preservation of health included nutrition, physical activity, active leisure, sleep, love and sex. 56.3 % of male students and 49.9 % of female ones indicated that motor activity is of great importance for health care. The students stated that the most dangerous health factors included drug use, radioactive contamination of the environment, smoking, alcohol abuse, stress, etc. It was found that the highest percentage of students had satisfactory and poor health levels - 44.8-54.9 % and 17.8-29.5 % respectively. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: A wide range of specific components of the educational process and the healthy lifestyle of students can have different effects on life. Lifestyle is one of the many factors that affect students' health. The students' self-assessment of their health state lets to manage the educational process of physical education efficiently, allocate physical activity and apply individual tasks rationally.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Universidades , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Estudantes , Ucrânia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007942

RESUMO

Human consumption and activity are damaging the global ecosystem and the resources on which we rely for health, well-being and survival. The COVID-19 crisis is yet another manifestation of the urgent need to transition to more sustainable societies, further exposing the weaknesses in health systems and the injustice in our societies. It also underlines that many of the factors leading to environmental degradation, ill health and social and health inequities are interlinked. The current situation provides an unprecedented opportunity to invest in initiatives that address these common factors and encourage people to live more healthily and sustainably. Such initiatives can generate the positive feedback loops needed to change the systems and structures that shape our lives. INHERIT (January 2016-December 2019), an ambitious, multisectoral and transnational research project that involved 18 organisations across Europe, funded by the European Commission, explored such solutions. It identified, defined and analysed promising inter-sectoral policies, practices and approaches to simultaneously promote environmental sustainability, protect and promote health and contribute to health equity (the INHERIT "triple-win") and that can encourage and enable people to live, move and consume more healthfully and sustainably. It also explored the facilitators and barriers to working across sectors and in public private cooperation. The insights were brought together in guidelines setting out how policy makers can help instigate and support local "triple-win" initiatives that influence behaviours as an approach to contributing to the change that is so urgently needed to stem environmental degradation and the interlinked threats to health and wellbeing. This article sets out this guidance, providing timely insights on how to "build back better" in the post pandemic era.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Estilo de Vida , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Infecções por Coronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4042-4045, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018886

RESUMO

The millennial age group (18 to 30 years) spend at least 6 hours sitting, either in college or at their workspace. High screen time as a routine, is the major cause for numerous spinal problems. Despite the wide research carried out on postural abnormalities, there exists numerous unrequited queries with regards to lumbar lordosis estimations, due to indeterminate parameters such as age, gender, lifestyle and diet. This work emphasizes the proficient method by observing the posture of a person for early detection of obliteration in Lumbar Lordosis. This further contributes to efficient diagnosis and treatment of spine ailments. With a novel approach to hardware using the myRIO hardware coupled with LabVIEW for interactive interface, the calibration is enhanced using machine learning (ML) - kNN Classifier. The use of machine learning accounts for the variations in the ideal angles of segmented sagittal measures with respect to different subjects. The device is developed to be a non-invasive, user friendly instrument to analyse the casual seated posture trends of the subject. The male subjects are expected to show the tilt angles in the range of -16.3 to -17.2 degrees and similar threshold for females are -15.8 to -16.8 degrees. Out of 120 subjects taken into consideration, the device could accurately classify subjects with obliterated or normal lumbar lordosis). An accuracy and f1- score of 94% and 90% respectively was achieved by the ML model.


Assuntos
Lordose , Animais , Feminino , Estilo de Vida , Lordose/diagnóstico , Masculino , Postura , Postura Sentada , Coluna Vertebral
6.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050404

RESUMO

Unexpected isolation, which has not yet been seen on a global scale, has created the conditions for evaluating nutrition in a situation of reduced spatial activity. The study aimed to assess the influence of lockdown on selected eating habits of Polish adults. An anonymous questionnaire was conducted, including questions about eating habits and self-reported anthropometric measurements, referring to "before" and "during" lockdown. We reported the findings of 312 adults (aged 41.12 ± 13.05 years). Overall, 64.1% of the participants were women, 77.7% urban inhabitants and 78.6% employed. The average length of social isolation was 50.79 ± 10.53 days. The majority (51.6%) of the respondents did not eat outside the house during lockdown (p < 0.0001). The number of meals eaten during the day during lockdown increased significantly, 11.2% of the respondents ate 5 and more meals (p < 0.0001). The percentage of people snacking between meals increased by 5.1% during lockdown (p = 0.0001). Eggs, potatoes, sweets, canned meat and alcohol were consumed considerably more commonly during lockdown, while fast-food products, instant soups and energy drinks were eaten or drunk significantly less frequently. A marked decrease in the number of daily servings of the following products was observed: bakery products, red meat, fast food, instant soups, sweet beverages and energy drinks. Conversely, the number of daily servings of sweets and canned meat significantly increased. Two thirds of the respondents reported body weight changes, with 45.86% of the participants being overweight during lockdown. Significant changes in the diet of Polish adults were found during lockdown due to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fast Foods , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Lanches , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
7.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053656

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 disease (COVID)-19 is having profound effects on the global economy and food trade. Limited data are available on how this pandemic is affecting our dietary and lifestyle-related behaviors at the global level. Google Trends was used to obtain worldwide relative search volumes (RSVs) covering a timeframe from before the COVID-19 pandemic 1 June 2019 to 27 April 2020. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients were used to measure relationships between daily confirmed cases and aforementioned RSVs between 31 December 2019 and 15 April 2020. RSV curves showed increased interest in multiple keywords related to dietary and lifestyle behaviors during the COVID-19 lockdown period in March and April 2020. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that the strongest variables in each keyword category were (1) food security (food shortage: r = 0.749, food bank: r = 0.660, and free food: r = 0.555; all p < 0.001), (2) dietary behaviors (delivery: r = 0.780, restaurant: r = -0.731, take-away: r = 0.731, and food-delivery: r = 0.693; all p < 0.001), (3) outdoor-related behaviors (resort: r = -0.922, hotel: r = -0.913, cinema: r = -0.844, park: r = -0.827, fitness: r = -0.817, gym: r = -0.811; plant: r = 0.749, sunbathing: r = 0.668, and online: r = 0.670; all p < 0.001), and (4) immune-related nutrients/herbs/foods (vitamin C: r = 0.802, vitamin A: r = 0.780, zinc: r = 0.781, immune: r = 0.739, vitamin E: r = 0.707, garlic: r = 0.667, omega-3 fatty acid: r = -0.633, vitamin D: r = 0.549, and turmeric: r = 0.545; all p < 0.001). Restricted movement has affected peoples' dietary and lifestyle behaviors as people tend to search for immune-boosting nutrients/herbs and have replaced outdoor activities with sedentary indoor behaviors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Curcuma , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Alho , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Nutrientes , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Restaurantes , Ferramenta de Busca , Comportamento Sedentário , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Oligoelementos , Vitaminas
8.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 977-985, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In February 2020 the first cases of COVID-19 were identified in Kuwait. Inevitably as many countries worldwide, the general public were negatively affected by the pandemic. Unemployment, uncertainty, distress, increasing deaths, lockdown measures all of which are potential burdens on mental health. AIM: To assess the impact of COVID19 outbreak on mental health in Kuwait, and to explore the potential influencing risk factors. METHODS: We conducted an online questionnaire-based study in Kuwait between 25th May 2020 to 30th May 2020. Questions were based on demographics, lifestyle during outbreak, depression and anxiety assessment. Total PHQ9 and GAD7 scores were calculated for each responder. RESULTS: We had 4132 responders. Most were females (69.31%), married (59.37%), between the age of 21-30 (23.84%) and non-smokers (81.46%). Only (7.96%) had a positive past psychiatric history, (32.04%) had a past history of a chronic medical disease. During the outbreak most of the responders lost their jobs (39.21%) and only (12.83%) were attending work regularly, only (6.82%) worked in the healthcare sector. 59.27% report increased social media use compared to before the lockdown. When asked about their daily time spent following COVID19-related news, most (37.8%) spend more than 2 hours and (7.74%) spend more than 4 hours. The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was (30.13%) and the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was (25.28%). LIMITATIONS: In the cross-sectional nature of the study. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a burden on mental health. Psychological support and mental health awareness should be implemented and made accessible to all individuals during pandemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065991

RESUMO

The COVID-19 quarantine has caused significant changes in everyday life. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the quarantine on dietary, physical activity and alcohol consumption habits of Lithuanians and the association between health behaviours and weight changes. An online cross-sectional survey was carried out among individuals older than 18 years in April 2020. The self-administered questionnaire included health behaviour and weight change data. Altogether 2447 subjects participated in the survey. Almost half of the respondents (49.4%) ate more than usual, 45.1% increased snacking, and 62.1% cooked at home more often. Intake of carbonated or sugary drinks, fast food and commercial pastries decreased, while consumption of homemade pastries and fried food increased. A decrease in physical activity was reported by 60.6% of respondents. Every third (31.5%) respondent, more often those already with overweight, gained weight. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the higher odds of weight gain were associated with females, older age, increased consumption of sugary drinks, homemade pastries and fried food, eating more than usual, increased snacking, decreased physical activity and increased alcohol consumption. Our data highlighted the need for dietary and physical activity guidelines to prevent weight gain during the period of self-isolation, especially targeting those with overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Ganho de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
11.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 61, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus pandemic has transformed and continues to transform and affect the daily lives of communities worldwide, particularly due to the lockdown restrictions. Therefore, this study was designed to understand the changes in dietary and lifestyle behaviours that are major determinants of health during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online questionnaire using a convenience sample of 415 adults living in Kuwait (age range 18-73 years). RESULTS: The rate of skipping breakfast remained consistent, with a slight increase during the pandemic. Lunch remained the main reported meal before and during COVID-19. Compared to before COVID-19, people were much more likely have a late-night snack or meal during COVID-19 (OR = 3.57 (95% CI 1.79-7.26), p < 0.001). Moreover, there was a drastic decrease in the frequency of fast-food consumption during COVID-19, up to 82% reported not consuming fast food (p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in the percentage of participants who had their main meal freshly made (OR = 59.18 (95% CI 6.55-1400.76), p = 0.001). Regarding food group patterns, no significant differences were found before and during the pandemic in terms of the weekly frequency of consumption, except in the case of fish and seafood. There were no remarkable changes in beverage consumption habits among participants before and during the pandemic, except for Americano coffee and fresh juice. Furthermore, there was a great reduction in physical activity and an increase in the amount of screen time and sedentary behaviours. A notable increase was detected in day-time sleep and a decrease in night-time sleep among participants. CONCLUSION: In general, this study indicates some changes in daily life, including changes in some eating practices, physical activity and sleeping habits during the pandemic. It is important that the government considers the need for nutrition education programmes and campaigns, particularly during this critical period of the pandemic in Kuwait.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Tempo de Tela , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4151-4156, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027351

RESUMO

Our aim was to analyze the association between previously diagnosed lifetime depression and changes in physical activity (PA), TV-viewing, consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as frequency of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption. Data of 41,923 Brazilian adults (6,881 with depression and 35,042 without depression) were used. Participants reported PA (≥ 150 min/week), TV-viewing (≥ 4 h/day), frequency of eating fruits or vegetables (≤ 4 days/week) and UPF (≥ 5 days/week). For incidence indicators, we only considered participants without the risk behavior before the quarantine. People without and with depression presented, respectively, incidence of physical inactivity [70.1% (95%CI: 67.4-72.8) vs 76.3 (70.3-81.5)], high TV-viewing [31.2 (29.6-32.8) vs 33.9 (30.5-37.4)], low frequency of fruit or vegetable consumption [28.3 (25.8-31.0) vs 31.5 (26.1-37.5)] and elevated frequency of UPF consumption [9.7 (8.9-10.7) vs 15.2 (13.0-17.7)]. Participants with depression were more likely to present elevated frequency of UPF consumption incidence [OR:1.49 (95%CI:1.21-1.83)]. Thus, participants with previous diagnosis of depression were at risk for incidence of unhealthy diet behaviors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Frutas , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Televisão , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 1583-1587, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947759

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the impact of the coronavirus disease lockdown on diabetes patients living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in terms of their compliance with medication intake and lifestyle habits, and quality of life. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, qualitative prospective study, a questionnaire was administered over the telephone to diabetes patients who had attended National Guard primary care centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The survey included questions on demographic data, type of diabetes, medications used, comorbidities, medication compliance, and daily habits before and after the lockdown, and those assessing patients' psychological parameters during the past month by using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Data analysis was performed using SPSS program version 26. RESULTS: Totally, 394 patients participated. All of them had type 2 diabetes, and 37.6% had only one comorbidity. Antidiabetic monotherapy was used in 76.4% of the patients, while combination therapy was used in 23.6%. The compliance score before the lockdown was significantly higher (18.49 ± 3.05) than that after it (17.40 ± 3.25) (p-value <0.001). The average psychological assessment score was 9.78 ± 4.14 (range 8-35). Male participants and smokers had a significantly better psychological status than female participants (p-value = 0.002) and non-smokers (p value < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The patients' levels of compliance with medications and healthy lifestyle habits were significantly reduced after the lockdown. These findings highlight the need for healthcare professionals to encourage diabetes patients to adhere to healthy lifestyle habits and use telemedicine during lockdowns to ensure optimal blood glucose control and reduce the incidence of complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Arábia Saudita , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872374

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is causing global mortality and lockdown burdens. A compromised immune system is a known risk factor for all viral influenza infections. Functional foods optimize the immune system capacity to prevent and control pathogenic viral infections, while physical activity augments such protective benefits. Exercise enhances innate and adaptive immune systems through acute, transient, and long-term adaptations to physical activity in a dose-response relationship. Functional foods prevention of non-communicable disease can be translated into protecting against respiratory viral infections and COVID-19. Functional foods and nutraceuticals within popular diets contain immune-boosting nutraceuticals, polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, unsaturated fatty-acids, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate, and trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper. Foods with antiviral properties include fruits, vegetables, fermented foods and probiotics, olive oil, fish, nuts and seeds, herbs, roots, fungi, amino acids, peptides, and cyclotides. Regular moderate exercise may contribute to reduce viral risk and enhance sleep quality during quarantine, in combination with appropriate dietary habits and functional foods. Lifestyle and appropriate nutrition with functional compounds may offer further antiviral approaches for public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Exercício Físico , Alimento Funcional , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos
15.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the effect on mortality of a higher body mass index (BMI) can be compensated for by adherence to a healthy diet and whether the effect on mortality by a low adherence to a healthy diet can be compensated for by a normal weight. We aimed to evaluate the associations of BMI combined with adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our longitudinal cohort design included the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC) and the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM) (1997-2017), with a total of 79,003 women (44%) and men (56%) and a mean baseline age of 61 years. BMI was categorized into normal weight (20-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obesity (30+ kg/m2). Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet was assessed by means of the modified Mediterranean-like diet (mMED) score, ranging from 0 to 8; mMED was classified into 3 categories (0 to <4, 4 to <6, and 6-8 score points), forming a total of 9 BMI × mMED combinations. We identified mortality by use of national Swedish registers. Cox proportional hazard models with time-updated information on exposure and covariates were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our HRs were adjusted for age, baseline educational level, marital status, leisure time physical exercise, walking/cycling, height, energy intake, smoking habits, baseline Charlson's weighted comorbidity index, and baseline diabetes mellitus. During up to 21 years of follow-up, 30,389 (38%) participants died, corresponding to 22 deaths per 1,000 person-years. We found the lowest HR of all-cause mortality among overweight individuals with high mMED (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90, 0.98) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. Using the same reference, obese individuals with high mMED did not experience significantly higher all-cause mortality (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.96-1.11). In contrast, compared with those with normal weight and high mMED, individuals with a low mMED had a high mortality despite a normal BMI (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.48-1.74). We found similar estimates among women and men. For CVD mortality (12,064 deaths) the findings were broadly similar, though obese individuals with high mMED retained a modestly increased risk of CVD death (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.16-1.44) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. A main limitation of the present study is the observational design with self-reported lifestyle information with risk of residual or unmeasured confounding (e.g., genetic liability), and no causal inferences can be made based on this study alone. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that diet quality modifies the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in women and men. A healthy diet may, however, not completely counter higher CVD mortality related to obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Suécia
16.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003332, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether a healthy lifestyle impacts longevity in the presence of multimorbidity is unclear. We investigated the associations between healthy lifestyle and life expectancy in people with and without multimorbidity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 480,940 middle-aged adults (median age of 58 years [range 38-73], 46% male, 95% white) were analysed in the UK Biobank; this longitudinal study collected data between 2006 and 2010, and participants were followed up until 2016. We extracted 36 chronic conditions and defined multimorbidity as 2 or more conditions. Four lifestyle factors, based on national guidelines, were used: leisure-time physical activity, smoking, diet, and alcohol consumption. A combined weighted score was developed and grouped participants into 4 categories: very unhealthy, unhealthy, healthy, and very healthy. Survival models were applied to predict life expectancy, adjusting for ethnicity, working status, deprivation, body mass index, and sedentary time. A total of 93,746 (19.5%) participants had multimorbidity. During a mean follow-up of 7 (range 2-9) years, 11,006 deaths occurred. At 45 years, in men with multimorbidity an unhealthy score was associated with a gain of 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.3 to 3.3; P = 0.102) additional life years compared to very unhealthy score, though the association was not significant, whilst a healthy score was significantly associated with a gain of 4.5 (3.3 to 5.7; P < 0.001) life years and a very healthy score with 6.3 (5.0 to 7.7; P < 0.001) years. Corresponding estimates in women were 3.5 (95% CI 0.7 to 6.3; P = 0.016), 6.4 (4.8 to 7.9; P < 0.001), and 7.6 (6.0 to 9.2; P < 0.001) years. Results were consistent in those without multimorbidity and in several sensitivity analyses. For individual lifestyle factors, no current smoking was associated with the largest survival benefit. The main limitations were that we could not explore the consistency of our results using a more restrictive definition of multimorbidity including only cardiometabolic conditions, and participants were not representative of the UK as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis of data from the UK Biobank, we found that regardless of the presence of multimorbidity, engaging in a healthier lifestyle was associated with up to 6.3 years longer life for men and 7.6 years for women; however, not all lifestyle risk factors equally correlated with life expectancy, with smoking being significantly worse than others.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Multimorbidade/tendências , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Reino Unido
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22336, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991446

RESUMO

Over the past decades, the incidence of prostate cancer in Taiwan kept rising. Many possible factors including the utility of prostate specific antigen tests, lifestyle remodeling, and patient's comorbidities may contribute to the increasing of incidence or prostate cancer. We aim to use the nationwide Health and Welfare Database (HWD) to investigate possible associated factors.We used HWD, a nationwide database of medical information, to assess the incidence of prostate cancer, utilization of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, and underlying diseases of patients and to evaluate whether there was a common trend among these factors.In total, 32,508 patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer from 2006 to 2013 were identified. The incidence rate of prostate cancer per 100,000 men increased from 35.47 in 2006 to 52.87 in 2012. The number of patients with prostate cancer and underlying diseases related to metabolic syndrome increased every year. The number of total PSA tests and patients undergoing PSA testing, as well as average times of PSA testing per person in the whole population, increased every year. The average PSA test times of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer within 3 years before the diagnosis of prostate cancer also increased every year. There was a high correlation between the average PSA test times and the number of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (r = 0.9734).The trends of incidence of prostate cancer, utilization of PSA testing, and underlying diseases related to metabolic syndrome at the diagnoses of cancer were similar, increasing every year in the study period. The results suggested that increasing use of PSA tests may increase the diagnosis of prostate cancers. Underlying diseases related to metabolic syndrome might also affect the incidence of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/normas , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade/tendências , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
18.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942695

RESUMO

Due to the pandemic situation caused by the COVID-19 infection, some governments have implemented house confinement measures. The objective of our study is to learn the dietary patterns, consumption, and physical activity of the Spanish population before and during the period of confinement by COVID-19. A cross-sectional descriptive study based on a questionnaire during May 2020, coinciding with the period of confinement and the step forward into Phase 1, is carried out. During confinement, the adherence to the Mediterranean Diet increases (8.0% versus 4.7%; p < 0.001). No socio-demographic variables show statistical significance (p < 0.05) regarding good adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) before and during confinement. During confinement, consumption of homemade baking shows a higher increase (0.28% versus 4.60%; p = 0.004). During confinement, the number of subjects that practice exercise decreases (29.4% versus 28.8%; p = 0.004), as well as the time spent exercising (more than an hour, 26.6% versus 14.7%, p = 0.001). Mediterranean Diet adherence slightly increases during confinement, although consumption of 'unhealthy' food also increases. Moreover, the number of subjects that practice physical activity, as well as the time spent on it weekly, decreases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Culinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 105-113, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890372

RESUMO

A growing body of research suggests that neuropsychiatric disorders are closely associated with a background state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. This insight highlights that these disorders are not just localized to dysfunction within the brain, but also have a systemic aspect, which accounts for the frequent comorbid presentation of chronic inflammatory conditions and metabolic syndromes. It is possible that a treatment resistant subgroup of neuropsychiatric patients may benefit from treatment regimens that target their associated proinflammatory state. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) and exercise (i.e. structured PA) are known to influence mental health. In turn, mental disorders may limit health-seeking behaviors - a proposed "bidirectional relationship" that perpetuates psychopathology. PA is renowned for its positive physical, physiological and mental health benefits. Evidence now points to inflammatory pathways as a potential mechanism for PA in improving mental illness. Relevant pathways include modulation of immune-neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter systems, the production of tissue-derived immunological factors that alter the inflammatory milieu and neurotrophins that are critical mediators of neuroplasticity. In this paper, we will focus on the role of PA in positively improving mental health through potential modulation of chronic inflammation, which is often found in individuals with mental disorders. In a related paper by Edirappuli and colleagues (2020), we will focus on the role of nutrition (another significant lifestyle factor) on mental health. Thus, inflammation appears to be a central process underlying mental illness, which may be mitigated by lifestyle modifications. Lifestyle factors are advantageous as first-line interventions due to their cost efficacy, low side-effect profile, and both preventative and therapeutic attributes. By promoting these lifestyle modifications and addressing their limitations and barriers to their adoption, it is hoped that their preventative and remedial benefits may galvanize therapeutic progress for neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Transtornos Mentais , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Saúde Mental
20.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 114-120, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890373

RESUMO

Neuropsychiatric disorders are closely associated with a persistent low-grade inflammatory state. This suggests that the development of psychopathology is not only limited to the brain, but rather involves an additional systemic aspect, accounting for the large body of evidence demonstrating co-presentation of mental illness with chronic inflammatory conditions and metabolic syndromes. Studies have shown that inflammatory processes underlie the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms, with recent studies revealing not only correlative, but causative relationships between the immune system and psychopathology. Lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise may influence psychopathology, and this may occur via a bidirectional relationship. Mental illness may prevent health-seeking behaviours such as failing to maintain a balanced diet, whilst adopting a 'healthy' diet rich in fruits, vegetables and fish alongside nutritional supplementation correlates with a reduction in psychiatric symptoms in patients. Obesity and the gut microbiome have proven to be further factors which play an important role in inflammatory signalling and the development of psychiatric symptoms. In a related paper we focus on the role of exercise (another significant lifestyle factor) on mental health (Venkatesh et al. 2020). Lifestyle modifications which target diet and nutrition may prove therapeutically beneficial for many patients, especially in treatment-resistant subgroups. The current evidence base provides equivocal evidence, however future studies will prove significant, as this is a highly attractive therapeutic avenue, due to its cost efficacy, low side effect profile and preventative potential. By promoting lifestyle changes and addressing the limitations and barriers to adoption, these therapies may prove revolutionary for mental health conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Dieta , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
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