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1.
Microbes Infect ; 22(9): 400-402, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653475

RESUMO

In this commentary we argue that the hygiene hypothesis may apply to COVID-19 susceptibility and also that residence in low hygienic conditions acts to train innate immune defenses to minimize the severity of infection. We advocate that approaches, which elevate innate immune functions, should be used to minimize the consequences of COVID-19 infection at least until effective vaccines and antiviral therapies are developed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hipótese da Higiene , Higiene/economia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Alérgenos/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Países Desenvolvidos/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese
3.
Orv Hetil ; 161(27): 1137-1145, 2020 07.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564005

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Population-specific obesity in different age groups and in the Roma population as well as the presence of noncommunicable diseases that are linked to obesity necessitate the development of ethnical-specific prevention and intervention programmes. AIM: Our goal is to model the effects on nutritional status of interventional programmes of different intensities carried out in various age groups of the Roma population. METHOD: We defined the effect of different public health interventions on the state of health of the Roma population by use of the Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment software. Two models of interventions were studied throughout our research: one that focuses on only one aspect of lifestyle changes; and one that includes radical prevention programmes that aim to change lifestyles as a whole and have an impact on nutritional status. RESULTS: Nearly 20% of Roma men and women are obese, and by 2070, one third of the Roma population will be overweight or obese without any public health intervention. Not even when the most efficient proceedings of the scientific literature are applied do prevention-intervention programmes of moderate-intensity offer a perceptible result about the incidence and prevalence of diseases linked to obesity. In the case of application of these programs, not more than a ten-person order of magnitude decrease can be achieved. This is not enough to prove a statistical detectability on the population level. Whereas, complex intervention programmes, based on a comprehensive transformation of lifestyle and food consumption patterns can present perceptible outcome primarily among the middle-aged and the elderly. CONCLUSION: The survey results direct attention to the fact that reducing the burden of disease in the Roma population caused by obesity is only to be achieved as a complex, all-councils act that requires resources much greater than what is available now. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(27): 1137-1145.


Assuntos
Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde/métodos , Obesidade/etnologia , Qualidade de Vida , Roma/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/etnologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233904, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479509

RESUMO

Racial and ethnic minorities are at higher risk for a variety of diseases. While sociodemographic and lifestyle factors contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities, the biological processes underlying these associations remain poorly understood. Stress and its biological consequences through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) have been hypothesized to mediate adverse disease outcomes. In fasting morning samples of 503 control women from the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study, we used a sensitive Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX) assay to examine the association of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with plasma glucocorticogenic (G) activity in three racial/ethnic groups. The G activity is a sensitive measure that reflects biological activity of total plasma glucocorticoids including cortisol and glucocorticoid-like compounds. Associations between G activity and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were examined using multivariable linear regression models. Latina and non-Latina Black (NLB) women had 9% (P = 0.053) and 14% (P = 0.008) lower morning G activity than non-Latina White (NLW) women, respectively. Additionally, we replicated a previously reported association between G activity and alcohol intake (women who drank >10gms had 19% higher G activity than non-drinkers, P = 0.004) in Latina and NLB women. Further research should assess the association between G activity and health outcomes in a prospective cohort so as to characterize the relationship between total plasma G activity in pre-disease state and disease outcomes across different racial/ethnic populations.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/sangue , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(8): 624-630, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cultural activities can promote health and longevity, but longitudinal studies examining a broad spectrum of participation are scarce. This study investigated the gender-specific association between all-causes of mortality and participation in single types of cultural activities, amount and participation frequency. METHODS: We used cohort data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT Study), Norway (2006-2008), resulting in 35 902 participants, aged 20 and above. Cultural participation in receptive and creative activities was measured. HRs were reported for partially and fully adjusted models. RESULTS: A total of 1905 participants died during the median 8-year follow-up. Mortality risk was higher for non-participants in any receptive or creative activities, except sport event attendees. Gender association was also evaluated: among men, we found similar results as above except for parish work, while women increased their longevity only through creative activity participation. When a number of receptive activities was associated with all-cause mortality, reduced risk occurred with attendance in 2 or 3-4 activities (21% and 31%, respectively). Risk was reduced through creative activities, with participation in 3-5 activities (43%). Gender-specific analyses showed a clear gradient of protective effect in creative activity participation: for men, 28%, 44% and 44% reduction with 1, 2 or 3-5 activities, respectively, and a 28%, 35% and 44% reduction for women. CONCLUSION: Frequently attending at least one cultural activity influenced longevity. Creative activities lowered mortality in both genders, while receptive activity benefits were mostly found for men. Thus, promoting and facilitating engaged cultural lifestyles are vital for longevity.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Longevidade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Noruega , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Participação Social , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 52, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthy Dads Healthy Kids (HDHK) is a unique lifestyle obesity intervention for fathers and children that demonstrated weight loss among the fathers and behavior change among fathers and children in Australia. The program is gender-tailored to specifically target fathers for weight loss and 5-12 year old children for obesity prevention. The aim of this formative study was to examine an Expert Panel's and Hispanic Family Panel's perceptions about the program and suggestions for the cultural adaptation of HDHK for Hispanic families in southwestern US. METHODS: Forty-four Hispanic participants (22 fathers, 13 mothers and 9 children) made up the Family Panel. They participated in 1-5 study contacts (focus groups, online survey, and/or interviews). The scripts and qualitative guides assessed participants' perceptions of the HDHK content and material using the Ecological Validity Model. Studies were conducted in English or Spanish, depending on the preference of the participant. Focus groups and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated, and thematically coded. Findings were reviewed with the Expert Panel who helped inform the cultural adaptation. RESULTS: 80% of parents were foreign-born, 57% spoke only Spanish at home, and 60% did not graduate from high school. Several themes emerged to inform the cultural adaptation of the program. Parents agreed with the HDHK goals and recommended the program place greater emphasis on parenting and limiting children's screen time. Some mothers and fathers wanted greater mother engagement. Weekly videos and a Facebook group emerged as favorite alternative options to engage mothers. Greater promotion of familism (inclusion and impact on whole family) was recommended for the program goals and activities. Gender roles for mothers and fathers, and differences in how fathers interact with male and female children, emerged and should be considered in program activities. Several barriers to father engagement surfaced, including lack of time due to work schedules, physically demanding jobs, concerns of caring for children without mother, fathers' current fitness/weight, and lack of knowledge of how to eat more healthfully. The reading level of the HDHK materials was too high for some parents. CONCLUSION: Findings from these formative qualitative studies informed the cultural adaptation of HDHK for Hispanic families, to account for literacy level, cultural values, and barriers to participation and engagement.


Assuntos
Família/etnologia , Relações Pai-Filho , Pai/psicologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Alfabetização , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas/epidemiologia
7.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(3): 239-249, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266707

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examined the prevalence of pre-hypertension (PHT) and hypertension (HT) in urban youth, and assessed the effects of sodium intake and obesity on blood pressure (BP) by ethnicity. METHODS: A convenience sample of 557 multiethnic youth, aged 11-23 years, was recruited from 12 schools and institutions in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Participants were divided by self-identified ethnicity into four groups (Indigenous, African and Middle Eastern (AME), Asian, and European). RESULTS: Between October 2013 and March 2014, one-on-one interviews were conducted to collect data on demographics, physical activity, diet, and Body Mass Index (BMI). BP was obtained at two different times during the interview and measured a third time in cases of high variability. The standard deviation scores (SDS) of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were used to estimate associations with sodium intake (per 1000 mg/day). Overall, 18.2% and 5.4% of the participants had PHT and HT, respectively. Indigenous and AME participants showed the highest rates of PHT (23.1%). Indigenous and European participants showed higher rates of HT (8.3% and 5.3%, respectively) than other ethnic groups (AME = 4.4%, Asian = 3.9%). There was a positive association between 1000 mg/day increase in sodium intake and SDS of SBP by 0.041 (95% CI 0.007-0.083; p = 0.04) among pre-hypertensive participants. Over 85% of participants exceeded the recommended dietary sodium intake. Mean BMI and dietary sodium intake were higher among pre-hypertensive participants (4219 mg/day) than normotensive (3475 mg/day). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HT varied by ethnicity. High dietary sodium intake was of concern. There is a need for culturally-tailored, population-based interventions to reduce sodium intake.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/etnologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Pré-Hipertensão/etnologia , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Fatores Etários , Alberta/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Hipossódica/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Índios Norte-Americanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Pré-Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pré-Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Pré-Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores Raciais , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0224054, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Literature shows a high prevalence of MetS among Malaysians, varying across the major ethnicities. Since sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and diet habits of such communities have been reported to be diverse, the objective of this study was to investigate the association of various sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and diet habits with MetS overall, as well as with the three major ethnic communities in Malaysia, specifically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 481 Malaysians of ages 18 years and above living in the state of Johor, Malaysia. Information on demographics, lifestyle and diet habits were collected using a structured questionnaire. Harmonized criteria were used to assess the status of MetS. Multiple logistic regression was employed to determine any associations between sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and dietary behaviours with MetS. RESULTS: MetS was found among 32.2% of the respondents and was more prevalent among the Indians (51.9%), followed by the Malays (36.7%) and the Chinese (20.2%). Overall, increasing age (AOR = 2.44[95%CI = 1.27-4.70] at 40-49 years vs. AOR = 4.14[95%CI = 1.97-8.69] at 60 years and above) and Indian ethnicity (AOR = 1.95[95%CI = 1.12-3.38)] increased the odds of MetS, while higher education (AOR = 0.44[95%CI = 0.20-0.94] decreased the odds of MetS in this population. Quick finishing of meals (AOR = 2.17[95%CI = 1.02-4.60]) and low physical activity (AOR = 4.76[95%CI = 1.49-15.26]) were associated with increased odds of MetS among the Malays and the Chinese, respectively. CONCLUSION: The population of Johor depicts a diverse lifestyle and diet behaviour, and some of these factors are associated with MetS in certain ethnic groups. In the light of such differences, ethnic specific measures would be needed to reduce the prevalence of MetS among those in this population.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/etnologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Malásia/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Psychosom Res ; 132: 109973, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing psychosocial stress may underlie contemporary obesity trends. We investigate cross-sectional and prospective associations between negative life events (NLEs) and anthropometric indicators, and whether these are explained by lifestyle, depression and sleeping problems. METHODS: Participants in the Swedish INTERGENE cohort answered questions about ten types of NLE, and indicated whether they occurred during the last year or earlier (2001-04, n = 2706). Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured at baseline, and at follow-up (2014-16, n = 974). Numbers of recent and distant NLE were related to anthropometric variables using linear models including age, sex, and education, and further adjusted for lifestyle, and psychological problems. Prospective models were adjusted for baseline anthropometric values. RESULTS: Participants reported on average 3.6 types of NLEs, of which 70% were experienced more than one year ago. At baseline, distant but not recent NLEs were associated with higher values of both BMI and WHR. These associations were explained in part by lifestyle and depression assessed at baseline. Recent but not distant NLEs predicted gain in BMI, 0.19 (0.07, 0.30) kg/m2, and WHR, 0.005 (0.002, 0.007), per event and independent of baseline covariates. The largest associations were seen for job insecurity and financial worries, with 0.35 (0.17, 0.52) kg/m2 increase in BMI corresponding to approximately 1.2 kg per event, in both sexes. CONCLUSION: We observed positive associations between NLEs and weight gain over 13 years including signs of latency and recovery regarding adverse weight development.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Ganho de Peso/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia
10.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 82, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor oral hygiene can lead to serious diseases, such as periodontitis, tooth decay, pain and discomfort in teeth or gums, infections, and loss of teeth. In Iran, adults aged 50 y and older are a high-risk group for oral health problems, and this age group will grow in the coming decades. Despite increasing attention on healthy aging, there is relatively less emphasis on oral hygiene and health-related problems. The present study investigated the oral health status of Iranian adults using the oral health self-assessment questionnaire (OHQ) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). METHODS: A population-based household survey of a sample of adults aged 18-65 y was conducted. In this study, the participants were recruited between May and October 2016 in Tabriz, Iran, and the study population was sampled using a multi-stage cluster sampling design. The WHO's OHQ for adults was used for measuring oral health status and oral hygiene behavior. RESULTS: In total, 2310 respondents completed the survey. The mean age (SD) of the participants was 41.6(23.4) y. Males accounted for 48.8% of the participants. Of the 2310 respondents,187 (8.1%) individuals were edentulous, 152(20.7%) of whom were aged 51-65 y. Furthermore, 72.3% of those aged 51-65 y were dentate, and 50% of adults aged 51-65 y said they had 20 or more teeth. About one-third of the participants reported that they did not brush their teeth daily (23% of those aged 18-35 y,35.9% of those aged 36-50 y, and 44.6% for those aged 51-65 y). In the sample, 39.4% of individuals aged 18-35 y,34.1% of individuals aged 36-50 y, and 26.6% of individuals aged 51-65 y had visited a dentist less than 6 month ago. One-third of the participants consumed sweets and sugary drinks daily. CONCLUSIONS: Although the majority of Iranian adults considered their oral health status good, only a small percentage of the sample visited their dentist regularly. Furthermore, visits to the dentist declined in accordance with increasing age, a time when the incidence of oral health problems may increase. Poor oral health may increase the risk of adverse health outcomes, particularly among the aging population.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes ; 27(2): 87-94, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073427

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is only over the last few decades that the impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) in very young South Asian population has been recognized. There has been a tremendous interest in elucidating the causes behind this phenomenon and these efforts have uncovered several mechanisms that might explain the early onset of CAD in this population. The complete risk profile of very young South Asians being affected by premature CAD still remains unknown. RECENT FINDINGS: The existing data fail to completely explain the burden of premature occurrence of CAD in South Asians especially in very young individuals. Results from some studies identified nine risk factors, including low consumption of fruits and vegetables, smoking, alcohol, diabetes, psychosocial factors, sedentary lifestyle, abdominal obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia as the cause of myocardial infarction in 90% of the patients in this population. Recent large genome-wide association studies have discovered the association of several novel genetic loci with CAD in South Asians. Nonetheless, continued scientific efforts are required to further our understanding of the causal risk factors of CAD in South Asians to address the rising burden of CVD in this vulnerable population. SUMMARY: In this review, we discuss established and emerging risk factors of CAD in this population.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/etnologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Ásia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etnologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/etnologia
12.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 171(3): 496-508, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Sahel belt is occupied by populations who use two types of subsistence strategy, nomadic pastoralism and sedentary farming, and who belong to three linguistic families, Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan, and Afro-Asiatic. Little is known, however, about the origins of these two populations and their mutual genetic relationships. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have built a large dataset of mitochondrial DNA sequences and Y chromosomal STR haplotypes of pastoralists and farmers belonging to all three linguistic phyla in the western, central, and eastern parts of the Sahel. We calculated pairwise genetic, geographic, and linguistic distances between populations and analyzed the effects of geography, language, and subsistence on population genetic structure. RESULTS: We found that subsistence mode significantly contributed to the generally low population structure in the Sahel and that language affiliation plays a more important role for pastoralists than for farmers. We also demonstrated that geographic isolation significantly influenced the population structure of sedentary farmers but not of nomadic pastoralists. Finally, we found haplotypes shared between the Fulani and Arabic-speaking Baggara, supporting the theory of Baggarization, which explains the recent adaptation of Arabic-speaking nomads in the Sahel region through contact with autochthonous sub-Saharan populations. CONCLUSIONS: Based on various genetic and archaeological evidence pertaining to the Sahel, we suggest that the idea of a bidirectional Sahelian corridor is valid, but that pastoralists made a more important contribution to its population structure. It is also possible that agropastoralists diverged into farmers and pastoralists in the early stages of formation of the Sahelian gene pool.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Variação Genética , Estilo de Vida , Repetições de Microssatélites , África Central , África Oriental , África Ocidental , Agricultura/classificação , Evolução Cultural , Migração Humana , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Masculino
13.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 25(1): 20-27, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914332

RESUMO

Objectives: The aims of the study were to investigate foreign-born women's lifestyle and health before and during early pregnancy and compare them with those of Nordic-born women.Methods: Women recruited at antenatal clinics in Sweden answered a questionnaire in Swedish, English or Arabic or by telephone interview with an interpreter. Questions covered pregnancy planning and periconceptional lifestyle and health. The responses of women born in or outside Europe were compared with those of Nordic-born women. The impact of religiousness and integration on periconceptional lifestyle and health was also investigated.Results: Twelve percent of participants (N = 3389) were foreign-born (n = 414). Compared with Nordic women, European and non-European women consumed less alcohol before conception (respectively, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24, 0.58 and aOR 0.14; 95% CI 0.10, 0.19) and during early pregnancy (respectively, aOR 0.61; 95% CI 0.40, 0.91 and aOR 0.20; 95% CI 0.14, 0.29). Non-European women used less tobacco and were less physically active, but body mass index (BMI) did not differ between groups. Self-perceived health, stress and anxiety during early pregnancy did not differ, but non-European women more often had depressive symptoms (aOR 1.67; 95% CI 1.12, 2.51). Non-European women's healthy lifestyle was associated with religiousness but not with the level of integration.Conclusions: Non-European women were overall less likely to engage in harmful lifestyle habits before and during early pregnancy but were more likely to suffer from depressive symptoms in comparison with Nordic women.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestantes/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/métodos , Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/etnologia
14.
Scand J Public Health ; 48(6): 583-593, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060480

RESUMO

Background Globally, there is a huge lack of relevant research about widespread lifestyle diseases and living conditions in indigenous communities. Northern and Middle Norway have a history of multiple ethnic groups and the Sami has been acknowledged as the indigenous people of Norway by the Norwegian State. The SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey, a part of the SAMINOR Study, was carried out to provide health information about the Sami population in Norway. Methods The cross-sectional population-based SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey consists of both questionnaires and a clinical examination performed in 10 municipalities during 2012-2014. Results In total, 6004 men and women (participation rate 48%) aged 40-79 years took part in this study. In inland Finnmark, the Sami are in the majority (80-90%) as opposed to the coastline of Troms and Nordland, where the Sami population form a minority (20%). More women than men participated (54% versus 43%, respectively). Obesity was prevalent in this sample and a high mean glycated haemoglobin was observed. Conclusions: This article describes the methods and data collection of the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey and presents some characteristics of the sample. The definition of ethnic groups is a core question in the survey and includes several criteria. To ensure that indigenous values and priorities are reflected in the research themes, we recommend that future research projects be directed in close collaboration with the Sami Parliament and the local communities.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Condições Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Women Health ; 60(5): 487-501, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488046

RESUMO

The present study investigated factors associated with health literacy in community-dwelling Taiwanese women, particularly focusing on those associated with prevalent unhealthy behaviors. This cross-sectional study recruited 353 community-dwelling women aged 39-89 years from February to October 2015 in urban, suburban, and rural areas. Variables investigated included physical activity, community activity, tobacco usage, alcohol consumption, and betel-nut chewing. Degree of health literacy was evaluated using the Chinese-language version of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire. Most respondents had inadequate (17.6%), or problematic (49.3%), general health literacy. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that low educational attainment was closely associated with inadequate or problematic general health literacy. Women who did not engage in regular physical activity or direct community activity were more likely to have inadequate and problematic general health literacy, respectively. Selected unhealthy behaviors (tobacco usage, alcohol consumption, betel-nut chewing) were not associated with health literacy. Low health literacy was prevalent among participants. Lower educational attainment and a lack of physical or community activity were associated with low health literacy. Health literacy should be considered during the process of delivering health information, and health education programs must enhance health literacy tailored to address individuals' lifestyles.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vida Independente , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Características Culturais , Escolaridade , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1632, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few population-based studies have assessed dietary behaviors in the rural multiethnic population of Northern Norway. The present study determined dietary patterns and investigated their association with Sami ethnicity, sociodemographic factors, and lifestyle factors in a multiethnic population in rural Northern Norway. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 4504 participants of the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey (2012-2014) aged 40-69 years. All participants completed a lifestyle and food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis. Associations between food patterns and ethnicity, sociodemographic factors, and lifestyle factors were examined by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Six dietary patterns were identified that accounted for 28% of the variability in food intake in the study sample: 'processed meat/westernized', 'fish/traditional', 'fruit/vegetables', 'reindeer/traditional', 'bread and sandwich spreads', and 'sweets and bakery goods'. The 'reindeer/traditional' pattern was most common among the inland Sami population. The 'fish/traditional' pattern was most common among costal multiethnic Sami and least common among inland Sami and among women independent of ethnicity. The 'fish/traditional' pattern was also positively associated with older age, high education level, small household size, and smoking. Adherence to the 'processed meat/westernized' pattern was lower among inland Sami than inland/coastal non-Sami; no ethnic differences in adherence to this pattern were found between costal multiethnic Sami and inland/coastal non-Sami. Unhealthy lifestyle factors, like low physical activity level and smoking, and younger age were mainly associated with the 'processed meat/westernized' pattern, whereas socioeconomic factors like low education, low gross annual household income, and large household size were related to the 'sweets and bakery goods' pattern. Male gender, low education level, and smoking were associated with the 'bread and sandwich spreads' pattern. The 'fruit/vegetables' pattern was characterized by healthy dietary choices and a health-conscious lifestyle, and was more common in women with a high education level and income. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the six identified dietary patterns was characterized by different sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Ethnicity, in combination with geographical region of residence, was associated with dietary behaviors. This study provides knowledge that will be useful in future studies on dietary patterns related to chronic diseases in the rural population of Northern Norway.


Assuntos
Dieta/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 37(3): 19-27, dic. 2019. tab.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100074

RESUMO

Introduction: the alcohol consumption in adolescence is frequent and it is associated with social determinants. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of alcohol consumption in adolescents of the Daniel Córdova High School in Cuenca - Ecuador and its association with some social determinants.Methods: it is a cross-sectional study, with a sample of 218 adolescents. A questionnaire for demo-graphic variables, family structure and migration was used to determine the prevalence of alcohol consumption, the diagnostic criteria of the DSM5 was used to identify the family functioning of the FF-SIL Test and for the lifestyle the FANTASTIC test was applied. The PR was obtained with its confidence intervals to control if the social determinants were a risk or protection factor for the alcohol consumption, and the statistical significance was determined with values of p <0.05.Results: the prevalence of alcohol consumption was 42.2%; a total of 56% of the students come from a "nuclear home", the 55% have a migrant relative, 39% have a good lifestyle and 50% be-long to families qualified as moderately functional. There is a statistically significant association with the fact of having a migrant family member, having a bad lifestyle and belonging to a reconstituted and dysfunctional family.Conclusion: the prevalence of alcohol consumption is higher than those reported in other studies carried out in Cuenca city high schools; It is associated with similar social determinants globally.(AU).


Introducción: el consumo de alcohol en la adolescencia es frecuente y se encuentra asociado a determinantes sociales. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de consumo de alcohol en los adoles-centes del colegio "Daniel Córdova" de Cuenca ­ Ecuador y su asociación con algunos determinantes sociales.Métodos: estudio transversal, en una muestra de 218 adolescentes. Se usó un cuestionario para las variables demográficas, estructura familiar y migración; para determinar la prevalencia de consumo de alcohol se usó los criterios diagnósticos del DSM5, para identificar el funcionamiento fa-miliar el Test FF-SIL y para el estilo de vida el test FANTASTIC. Se obtuvo la RP con sus intervalos de confianza para determinar si los determinantes sociales fueron factor de riesgo o de protección para el consumo de alcohol y la significancia estadística se determinó con valores de p<0.05. Resultados: la prevalencia del consumo de alcohol fue del 42.2 %; el 56% de los estudiantes provienen de un "hogar nuclear", el 55% tienen algún fa-miliar migrante, el 39% tienen un buen estilo de vida y el 50% pertenecen a familias calificadas como moderadamente funcionales y existe asociación estadísticamente significativa con el hecho de tener un familiar migrante, poseer un mal estilo de vida y pertenecer a una familia reconstituida y disfuncional. Conclusión: la prevalencia del consumo de alcohol es mayor que los re-portados en otros estudios realizados en colegios de la ciudad de Cuenca y se asocia con determinantes sociales similares a nivel global.(AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/tendências , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Equador/epidemiologia , Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/etnologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia
18.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 1794267, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886276

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Diabetes mellitus has been reported as a strong independent risk factor for stroke recurrence. Data on the modifiable factors contributing to the recurrence of stroke in type 2 diabetic Malaysian population with a history of stroke stratified by genders are lacking, and this supports the importance of this study. Method: The data of 4622 patients with T2DM who had a history of stroke was obtained from the Malaysian National Stroke Registry. Univariate analysis was performed to differentiate between genders with and without stroke recurrence in terms of demographics, first stroke attack presentations, and other clinical characteristics. The significant factors determined from the univariate analysis were further investigated using logistic regression. Results: Ischemic heart diseases were found significantly associated with the stroke recurrence in males (OR = 1.738; 95% CI: 1.071-2.818) as well as female (OR = 5.859; 95% CI: 2.469-13.752) diabetic patients. The duration of hypertension, as well as the duration of diabetes, has been associated with the recurrence in both male and female subjects (p value < 0.05). Smoking status has an impact on the stroke recurrence in male subjects, while no significant association was observed among their peers. Conclusions: Most of the predictive factors contributing to the recurrence of stroke in type 2 diabetic Malaysian population with a history of stroke are modifiable, in which IHD was the most prominent risk factor in both genders. The impact of optimizing the management of IHD as well as blood glucose control on stroke recurrence may need to be elucidated. No major differences in recurrent stroke predictors were seen between genders among the Malaysian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had a previous history of stroke.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(12): 3667-3677, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid for a case-control study of thyroid cancer in French Polynesians exposed to radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests during childhood and adolescence faced a major limitation on very little availability of information on lifestyle of French Polynesians in the 1960s-1970s. METHOD: We use the focus group discussion and key informant interview methodology to collect historical, for the 1960s-1970s, data on behavior and food consumption for French Polynesia population exposed to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted between 1966 and 1974. RESULTS: We obtained archipelago-specific data on food consumptions by children of different ages and by pregnant and lactating women during pregnancy and breastfeeding and behaviour, including time spent outdoors and type and construction materials of residences. CONCLUSIONS: This article presents the first detailed information on several key aspects of daily life on French Polynesian archipelagoes during the 1960s-1970s impacting radiation exposure. Important behavior and food consumptions data obtained in this study are being used to improve the radiation dose estimates and to update the risk analysis reported earlier by correcting biases from previous assumptions and by providing better estimates of the parameter values important to radiation dose assessment.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Focais/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferências Alimentares/etnologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Radioisótopos do Iodo/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Armas Nucleares , Polinésia/epidemiologia , Doses de Radiação , Cinza Radioativa , Medição de Risco/métodos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Anthropol Sci ; 96: 189-208, 2019 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782749

RESUMO

Human populations living at high altitude evolved a number of biological adjustments to cope with a challenging environment characterised especially by reduced oxygen availability and limited nutritional resources. This condition may also affect their gut microbiota composition. Here, we explored the impact of exposure to such selective pressures on human gut microbiota by considering different ethnic groups living at variable degrees of altitude: the high-altitude Sherpa and low-altitude Tamang populations from Nepal, the high-altitude Aymara population from Bolivia, as well as a low-altitude cohort of European ancestry, used as control. We thus observed microbial profiles common to the Sherpa and Aymara, but absent in the low-altitude cohorts, which may contribute to the achievement of adaptation to high-altitude lifestyle and nutritional conditions. The collected evidences suggest that microbial signatures associated to these rural populations may enhance metabolic functions able to supply essential compounds useful for the host to cope with high altitude-related physiological changes and energy demand. Therefore, these results add another valuable piece of the puzzle to the understanding of the beneficial effects of symbiosis between microbes and their human host even from an evolutionary perspective.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Montanhismo/fisiologia , Adulto , Altitude , Evolução Biológica , Bolívia/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
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