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1.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(1): 142, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514131

RESUMO

The effect of face covering masks on listeners' recall of spoken sentences was investigated. Thirty-two German native listeners watched video recordings of a native speaker producing German sentences with and without a face mask, and then completed a cued-recall task. Listeners recalled significantly fewer words when the sentences had been spoken with a face mask. This might suggest that face masks increase processing demands, which in turn leaves fewer resources for encoding speech in memory. The result is also informative for policy-makers during the COVID-19 pandemic, regarding the impact of face masks on oral communication.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/tendências , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Neuron ; 109(4): 597-610.e6, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412101

RESUMO

Decision-making strategies evolve during training and can continue to vary even in well-trained animals. However, studies of sensory decision-making tend to characterize behavior in terms of a fixed psychometric function that is fit only after training is complete. Here, we present PsyTrack, a flexible method for inferring the trajectory of sensory decision-making strategies from choice data. We apply PsyTrack to training data from mice, rats, and human subjects learning to perform auditory and visual decision-making tasks. We show that it successfully captures trial-to-trial fluctuations in the weighting of sensory stimuli, bias, and task-irrelevant covariates such as choice and stimulus history. This analysis reveals dramatic differences in learning across mice and rapid adaptation to changes in task statistics. PsyTrack scales easily to large datasets and offers a powerful tool for quantifying time-varying behavior in a wide variety of animals and tasks.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Adulto Jovem
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2202: 189-197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857356

RESUMO

The most common way to demonstrate the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated pathways in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and in sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is the use of specific ROS inhibitors. We present a general method to establish the relative efficiency of different sonosensitizers which produce the same ROS. To demonstrate it, we use peroxides as sonosensitizers which produce singlet molecular oxygen. The method is easily generalized by all types of ROS.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Apoptose , Humanos , Oxigênio Singlete/análise , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Som
4.
Neuroimage ; 228: 117670, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359352

RESUMO

Selective attention is essential for the processing of multi-speaker auditory scenes because they require the perceptual segregation of the relevant speech ("target") from irrelevant speech ("distractors"). For simple sounds, it has been suggested that the processing of multiple distractor sounds depends on bottom-up factors affecting task performance. However, it remains unclear whether such dependency applies to naturalistic multi-speaker auditory scenes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that increased perceptual demand (the processing requirement posed by the scene to separate the target speech) reduces the cortical processing of distractor speech thus decreasing their perceptual segregation. Human participants were presented with auditory scenes including three speakers and asked to selectively attend to one speaker while their EEG was acquired. The perceptual demand of this selective listening task was varied by introducing an auditory cue (interaural time differences, ITDs) for segregating the target from the distractor speakers, while acoustic differences between the distractors were matched in ITD and loudness. We obtained a quantitative measure of the cortical segregation of distractor speakers by assessing the difference in how accurately speech-envelope following EEG responses could be predicted by models of averaged distractor speech versus models of individual distractor speech. In agreement with our hypothesis, results show that interaural segregation cues led to improved behavioral word-recognition performance and stronger cortical segregation of the distractor speakers. The neural effect was strongest in the δ-band and at early delays (0 - 200 ms). Our results indicate that during low perceptual demand, the human cortex represents individual distractor speech signals as more segregated. This suggests that, in addition to purely acoustical properties, the cortical processing of distractor speakers depends on factors like perceptual demand.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
5.
Neural Netw ; 133: 229-239, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232859

RESUMO

Videos are used widely as the media platforms for human beings to touch the physical change of the world. However, we always receive the mixed sound from the multiple sound objects, and cannot distinguish and localize the sounds as the separate entities in videos. In order to solve this problem, a model named the Deep Multi-Modal Attention Network (DMMAN), is established to model the unconstrained video datasets for further finishing the sound source separation and event localization tasks in this paper. Based on the multi-modal separator and multi-modal matching classifier module, our model focuses on the sound separation and modal synchronization problems using two stage fusion of the sound and visual features. To link the multi-modal separator and multi-modal matching classifier modules, the regression and classification losses are employed to build the loss function of the DMMAN. The estimated spectrum masks and attention synchronization scores calculated by the DMMAN can be easily generalized to the sound source and event localization tasks. The quantitative experimental results show the DMMAN not only separates the high quality of the sound sources evaluated by Signal-to-Distortion Ratio and Signal-to-Interference Ratio metrics, but also is suitable for the mixed sound scenes that are never heard jointly. Meanwhile, DMMAN achieves better classification accuracy than other contrast baselines for the event localization tasks.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Humanos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244308, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370349

RESUMO

Many human behaviors are discussed in terms of discrete categories. Quantizing behavior in this fashion may provide important traction for understanding the complexities of human experience, but it also may bias understanding of phenomena and associated mechanisms. One example of this is absolute pitch (AP), which is often treated as a discrete trait that is either present or absent (i.e., with easily identifiable near-perfect "genuine" AP possessors and at-chance non-AP possessors) despite emerging evidence that pitch-labeling ability is not all-or-nothing. We used a large-scale online assessment to test the discrete model of AP, specifically by measuring how intermediate performers related to the typically defined "non-AP" and "genuine AP" populations. Consistent with prior research, individuals who performed at-chance (non-AP) reported beginning musical instruction much later than the near-perfect AP participants, and the highest performers were more likely to speak a tonal language than were the lowest performers (though this effect was not as statistically robust as one would expect from prior research). Critically, however, these developmental factors did not differentiate the near-perfect AP performers from the intermediate AP performers. Gaussian mixture modeling supported the existence of two performance distributions-the first distribution encompassed both the intermediate and near-perfect AP possessors, whereas the second distribution encompassed only the at-chance participants. Overall, these results provide support for conceptualizing intermediate levels of pitch-labeling ability along the same continuum as genuine AP-level pitch labeling ability-in other words, a continuous distribution of AP skill among all above-chance performers rather than discrete categories of ability. Expanding the inclusion criteria for AP makes it possible to test hypotheses about the mechanisms that underlie this ability and relate this ability to more general cognitive mechanisms involved in other abilities.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Música/psicologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244632, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373427

RESUMO

A vocoder is used to simulate cochlear-implant sound processing in normal-hearing listeners. Typically, there is rapid improvement in vocoded speech recognition, but it is unclear if the improvement rate differs across age groups and speech materials. Children (8-10 years) and young adults (18-26 years) were trained and tested over 2 days (4 hours) on recognition of eight-channel noise-vocoded words and sentences, in quiet and in the presence of multi-talker babble at signal-to-noise ratios of 0, +5, and +10 dB. Children achieved poorer performance than adults in all conditions, for both word and sentence recognition. With training, vocoded speech recognition improvement rates were not significantly different between children and adults, suggesting that improvement in learning how to process speech cues degraded via vocoding is absent of developmental differences across these age groups and types of speech materials. Furthermore, this result confirms that the acutely measured age difference in vocoded speech recognition persists after extended training.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Testes de Discriminação da Fala/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mascaramento Perceptivo , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Percepção da Fala , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4361, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868773

RESUMO

The sensory responses of cortical neuronal populations following training have been extensively studied. However, the spike firing properties of individual cortical neurons following training remain unknown. Here, we have combined two-photon Ca2+ imaging and single-cell electrophysiology in awake behaving mice following auditory associative training. We find a sparse set (~5%) of layer 2/3 neurons in the primary auditory cortex, each of which reliably exhibits high-rate prolonged burst firing responses to the trained sound. Such bursts are largely absent in the auditory cortex of untrained mice. Strikingly, in mice trained with different multitone chords, we discover distinct subsets of neurons that exhibit bursting responses specifically to a chord but neither to any constituent tone nor to the other chord. Thus, our results demonstrate an integrated representation of learned complex sounds in a small subset of cortical neurons.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Córtex Auditivo/citologia , Sinalização do Cálcio , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/métodos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única/métodos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238125, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822439

RESUMO

The majority of psychoacoustic research investigating sound localization has utilized stationary sources, yet most naturally occurring sounds are in motion, either because the sound source itself moves, or the listener does. In normal hearing (NH) listeners, previous research showed the extent to which sound duration and velocity impact the ability of listeners to detect sound movement. By contrast, little is known about how listeners with hearing impairments perceive moving sounds; the only study to date comparing the performance of NH and bilateral cochlear implant (BiCI) listeners has demonstrated significantly poorer performance on motion detection tasks in BiCI listeners. Cochlear implants, auditory protheses offered to profoundly deaf individuals for access to spoken language, retain the signal envelope (ENV), while discarding temporal fine structure (TFS) of the original acoustic input. As a result, BiCI users do not have access to low-frequency TFS cues, which have previously been shown to be crucial for sound localization in NH listeners. Instead, BiCI listeners seem to rely on ENV cues for sound localization, especially level cues. Given that NH and BiCI listeners differentially utilize ENV and TFS information, the present study aimed to investigate the usefulness of these cues for auditory motion perception. We created acoustic chimaera stimuli, which allowed us to test the relative contributions of ENV and TFS to auditory motion perception. Stimuli were either moving or stationary, presented to NH listeners in free field. The task was to track the perceived sound location. We found that removing low-frequency TFS reduces sensitivity to sound motion, and fluctuating speech envelopes strongly biased the judgment of sounds to be stationary. Our findings yield a possible explanation as to why BiCI users struggle to identify sound motion, and provide a first account of cues important to the functional aspect of auditory motion perception.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Localização de Som/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia , Implante Coclear/reabilitação , Implantes Cocleares , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Audição , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento (Física) , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/reabilitação , Psicoacústica , Som , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745116

RESUMO

Spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) has been widely used to evaluate the spectral resolution in cochlear implant (CI) recipients based on its strong correlation with speech perception performance. However, despite its usefulness for predicting speech perception outcomes, SRD performance exhibits large across-subject variabilities even among subjects implanted with the same CIs and sound processors. The potential factors of this observation include current spread, nerve survival, and CI mapping. Previous studies have found that the spectral resolution reduces with increasing distance of the stimulation electrode from the auditory nerve fibers (ANFs), attributable to increasing current spread. However, it remains unclear whether the spread of excitation is the only cause of the observation, or whether other factors such as temporal interaction also contribute to it. In this study, we used a computational model to investigate channel interaction upon non-simultaneous stimulation with respect to the electrode-ANF distance, and evaluated the SRD performance for five electrode-ANF distances. The SRD performance was determined based on the similarity between two neurograms in response to standard and inverted stimuli and used to evaluate the spectral resolution in the computational model. The spread of excitation was observed to increase with increasing electrode-ANF distance, consistent with previous findings. Additionally, the preceding pulses delivered from neighboring channels induced a channel interaction that either inhibited or facilitated the neural responses to subsequent pulses depending on the electrode-ANF distance. The SRD performance was also found to decrease with increasing electrode-ANF distance. The findings of this study suggest that variation of the neural responses (inhibition or facilitation) with the electrode-ANF distance in CI users may cause spectral smearing, and hence poor spectral resolution. A computational model such as that used in this study is a useful tool for understanding the neural factors related to CI outcomes, such as cannot be accomplished by behavioral studies alone.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Implantes Cocleares , Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia , Implante Coclear/métodos , Nervo Coclear/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235435, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this clinical study, stereo perception of music samples and its contribution to music enjoyment in CI users is investigated. It is studied in free field as well as direct audio presentation. METHODS: 20 bilateral and 9 bimodal CI users performed stereo detection tests and music enjoyment ratings. Music was presented either in mono or in stereo in free field or with direct audio presentation. Stereo detection was assessed with a 3-AFC paradigm. Music enjoyment was studied with scale ratings. RESULTS: For bilateral CI users, stereo detection increased from 52% correct in free field to 86% with direct audio presentation. Increased music enjoyment with improved stereo detection was obtained. Bimodal CI users could not identify stereo sounds. Music enjoyment did not increase for stereo presentations in bimodal subjects. DISCUSSION: For bilateral CI users, improved stereo detection might increase music enjoyment with direct audio presentation, which is likely due to bypassing the room acoustics. In bimodal CI users, no clear improvement was found, which is likely attributed due to the different hearing losses and therefore individually different interaural frequency overlaps between the hearing aid and the cochlear implant. CONCLUSION: Direct audio presentation is an efficient method to improve music enjoyment in bilateral CI users.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Implante Coclear/instrumentação , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez/terapia , Prazer , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Acústica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Implante Coclear/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Música
12.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(3): 330-335, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaesthetic drugs may cause neuroapoptosis in children and are routinely used off-label in specific age groups. Techniques that reduce anaesthetic drug dose requirements in children may thus enhance the safety of paediatric sedation or anaesthesia. Brainwave entrainment, notably in the form of auditory binaural beats, has been shown to have sedative effects in adults. We evaluated the influence of brainwave entrainment on propofol dose requirements for sedation in children. METHODS: We randomised 49 boys scheduled for sub-umbilical surgery under caudal blockade to an entrainment or a control group. Small differences in pitch were applied to each ear to create binaural beats, supplemented by synchronous visual stimuli, within the electroencephalographic frequency bands seen during relaxation and (rapid eye movement/non-rapid eye movement) sleep. After establishment of caudal block, propofol infusion was started at 5 mg kg-1 h-1. Intraoperatively, the infusion rate was adjusted every 5 min depending on the sedation state judged by the bispectral index (BIS). The infusion rate was decreased by 1 mg kg-1 h-1 if BIS was <70, and was increased if BIS was >70, heart rate increased by 20%, or if there were other signs of inadequate sedation. RESULTS: Mean propofol infusion rates were 3.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.4-3.6) mg kg-1 h-1vs 4.2 (95% CI: 3.6-4.8) mg kg-1 h-1 in the entrainment and control groups, respectively (P<0.01). BIS values were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Brainwave entrainment effectively reduced the propofol infusion rates required for sedation in children undergoing surgery with regional anaesthesia. Further studies are needed to investigate the possibility of phasing out propofol infusions completely during longer surgical procedures and optimising the settings of brainwave stimulation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: DRKS00005064.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
13.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(8): 2499-2508, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483676

RESUMO

Evidence indicates that neuroplasticity-based cognitive training can improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia, but the individual response to training varies greatly between subjects. Hence, there is a need to understand the neurological underpinnings of cognitive training to reveal predictors of treatment response. D-serine is a crucial modulator of neuroplasticity, and decreased levels of D-serine may contribute to deficits in neuroplasticity in schizophrenia. Interestingly, we observed that training mice to identify auditory oddballs increased extracellular levels of D-serine in the hippocampus during training. Serine racemase (Srr) is the only source of brain D-serine; thus, it is possible that Srr may mediate the response to training. To test this hypothesis, we trained mice that have a mutated version of Srr (SrrY269*/SrrY269*) and reduced levels of D-serine in the same auditory training. SrrY269*/SrrY269* mice showed decreased performance during auditory training (defined as the capacity to discriminate an oddball during a sequence of tones). Importantly, auditory training improved prepulse inhibition (PPI) in SrrY269*/SrrY269* but not in wild-type mice. Finally, D-serine (100 mg/kg i.p.) given 30 min before training sessions to SrrY269*/SrrY269* mice improved training performance, but it did not enhance PPI. Taken together, our results show that D-serine is involved in the response to neuroplasticity-based auditory training and that PPI deficits can be improved by auditory oddball training even in the presence of neuroplasticity deficits.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Cognição/fisiologia , Inibição Pré-Pulso/fisiologia , Racemases e Epimerases/genética , Racemases e Epimerases/metabolismo , Animais , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Inibição Pré-Pulso/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Serina/farmacologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233982, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on subjective and objective sleepiness of a stay above a large struck singing bowl compared to a relaxation period in a silent singing bowl. METHODS: Fifty-eight healthy subjects were recruited for the study, 48 participated on two days, one week apart, during the same timeslot. The Karolinska sleepiness scale was used to evaluate current subjective sleepiness, and the relative pupillary unrest index to assess objective sleepiness. In this randomized cross-over study, the intervention consisted of a 20-minute stay in a hammock while the singing bowl, positioned beneath, was struck seven times. The controlled comparator was a 20-minute stay in the same hammock above the singing bowl, but without being struck. After these two interventions subjective and objective sleepiness were re-evaluated. RESULTS: The mean relative pupillary unrest index values after relaxation in the struck and silent singing bowl groups were 0.74 and respectively 0.71 (p = 0.460). The median Karolinska sleepiness scale value after relaxation with the struck singing bowl was 3 compared with 4 (p = 0.041) for the silent singing bowl. DISCUSSION: This study evaluated the influence of a struck singing bowl on sleepiness during daytime. Subjective sleepiness was significantly lower after relaxation above a struck singing bowl. After gender stratification, the difference was still significant in women. Objective sleepiness was not different in both groups. Finally, we can only speculate if women may be more susceptible to subjective improvements in case of sleepiness and show another perception of relaxation in a struck singing bowl compared to men.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/instrumentação , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/reabilitação , Relaxamento/fisiologia , Sonolência , Vigília/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Pupila/fisiologia , Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(7): 2043-2053, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419116

RESUMO

RATIONALE: In rodents, acute haloperidol treatment induces psychomotor impairments known as catalepsy, which models akinesia in humans and is characterized as an animal model of acute Parkinsonism, whereas sub-chronic haloperidol reduces exploratory behavior, which resembles bradykinesia. Haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats can be ameliorated by playback of 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), an emotionally and motivationally relevant appetitive auditory stimulus, representing an animal model of paradoxical kinesia. In a condition like PD where patients suffer from chronic motor impairments, it is paramount to assess the long-term symptom relief in an animal model of Parkinsonism. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether 50-kHz USV playback ameliorates psychomotor deficits induced by haloperidol in a sub-chronic dosing regimen. METHODS: In phase 1, distance traveled and number of rearing behavior were assessed in an activity chamber in order to investigate whether sub-chronic haloperidol treatment induced psychomotor impairments. In phase 2, we investigated whether 50-kHz USV playback could overcome these impairments by assessing exploratory behaviors and approach behavior towards the sound source in the 50-kHz USV radial maze playback paradigm. RESULTS: Sub-chronic haloperidol treatment led to psychomotor deficits since the distance traveled and number of rearing behavior were reduced as compared to saline control group or baseline. These psychomotor impairments were ameliorated during playback of 50-kHz USV, with haloperidol treated rats showing a clear social approach behavior towards the sound source exclusively during playback. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that 50-kHz USV playback induces paradoxical kinesia in rats exhibiting motor deficits after sub-chronic haloperidol, as we previously showed after acute haloperidol treatment.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Haloperidol/toxicidade , Transtornos Psicomotores/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Psicomotores/terapia , Terapia por Ultrassom/métodos , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Antagonistas de Dopamina/toxicidade , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Psicomotores/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Pain Res Manag ; 2020: 3586767, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399126

RESUMO

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by joint hypermobility and skin extensibility and is often accompanied by chronic pain. Rhythmic sensory stimulation (RSS) can be defined as the stimulation of the senses in a periodic manner within a range of low frequencies. Music plus sound delivered through a vibroacoustic device is a form of RSS and has demonstrated utility in managing pain. In this current study, we conducted an open-label pilot study of 15 patients with hypermobile EDS using RSS as the intervention. Posttreatment improvements were seen in 11 of the 15 patients (73%), whereas 3 of the 15 patients (20%) experienced worse outcomes. Of the 14 patients that completed the experiment, 6 participants (43%) were classified as "responders" to the device while 8 participants (57%) were classified as "nonresponders." Responders demonstrated significant improvements in pain interference (51.5 ± 16 preintervention vs. 43.5 ± 16.4 postintervention BPI score) and depression symptoms (34.0 ± 15.9 preintervention vs. 26.8 ± 12.1 postintervention CESD score). Poststudy interviews confirm the improvements of pain interference, mood, and bowel symptoms. Furthermore, analysis of medical conditions within the responder group indicates that the presence of depression, anxiety, irritable bowel syndrome, and fibromyalgia may indicate a greater likelihood for patients to benefit with vibroacoustic applications. These results indicate a possible potential for RSS, delivered using a vibroacoustic device, in managing pain-related symptoms. Further research is necessary to elucidate the exact mechanism behind the physiological benefits of RSS.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/complicações , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Vibração/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
17.
J Neurosci ; 40(23): 4457-4468, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371604

RESUMO

Detection of sound and head movement requires mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) channels at tips of hair-cell stereocilia. In vertebrates, the transmembrane channel-like (TMC) proteins TMC1 and TMC2 fulfill critical roles in MET, and substantial evidence implicates these TMCs as subunits of the MET channel. To identify developmental and functional roles of this Tmc subfamily in the zebrafish inner ear, we tested the effects of truncating mutations in tmc1, tmc2a, and tmc2b on in vivo mechanosensation at the onset of hearing and balance, before gender differentiation. We find that tmc1/2a/2b triple-mutant larvae cannot detect sound or orient with respect to gravity. They lack acoustic-evoked behavioral responses, vestibular-induced eye movements, and hair-cell activity as assessed with FM dye labeling and microphonic potentials. Despite complete loss of hair-cell function, tmc triple-mutant larvae retain normal gross morphology of hair bundles and proper trafficking of known MET components Protocadherin 15a (Pcdh15a), Lipoma HMGIC fusion partner-like 5 (Lhfpl5), and Transmembrane inner ear protein (Tmie). Transgenic, hair cell-specific expression of Tmc2b-mEGFP rescues the behavioral and physiological deficits in tmc triple mutants. Results from tmc single and double mutants evince a principle role for Tmc2a and Tmc2b in hearing and balance, respectively, whereas Tmc1 has lower overall impact. Our experiments reveal that, in developing cristae, hair cells stratify into an upper, Tmc2a-dependent layer of teardrop-shaped cells and a lower, Tmc1/2b-dependent tier of gourd-shaped cells. Collectively, our genetic evidence indicates that auditory/vestibular end organs and subsets of hair cells therein rely on distinct combinations of Tmc1/2a/2b.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We assessed the effects of tmc1/2a/2b truncation mutations on mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) in the inner-ear hair cells of larval zebrafish. tmc triple mutants lacked behavioral responses to sound and head movements, while further assays demonstrated no observable mechanosensitivity in the tmc1/2a/2b triple mutant inner ear. Examination of tmc double mutants revealed major contributions from Tmc2a and Tmc2b to macular function; however, Tmc1 had less overall impact. FM labeling of lateral cristae in tmc double mutants revealed the presence of two distinct cell types, an upper layer of teardrop-shaped cells that rely on Tmc2a, and a lower layer of gourd-shaped cells that rely on Tmc1/2b.


Assuntos
Células Ciliadas Auditivas Internas/fisiologia , Audição/fisiologia , Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Células Ciliadas Auditivas Internas/química , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Proteínas de Membrana/deficiência , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/análise , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/deficiência
18.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 395-406, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231429

RESUMO

Introduction: Older listeners have difficulty understanding speech in unfavorable listening conditions. To compensate for acoustic degradation, cognitive processing skills, such as working memory, need to be engaged. Despite prior findings on the association between working memory and speech recognition in various listening conditions, it is not yet clear whether the modality of stimuli presentation for working memory tasks should be auditory or visual. Given the modality-specific characteristics of working memory, we hypothesized that auditory working memory capacity could predict speech recognition performance in adverse listening conditions for older listeners and that the contribution of auditory working memory to speech recognition would depend on the task and listening condition. Methods: Seventy-six older listeners and twenty younger listeners completed four kinds of auditory working memory tasks, including digit and speech span tasks, and sentence recognition tasks in four different listening conditions having multi-talker noise and time-compression. For older listeners, cognitive function was screened using the Mini-Mental Status Examination, and audibility was assured. Results: Auditory working memory, as measured by listening span, significantly predicted speech recognition performance in adverse listening conditions for older listeners. A linear regression model showed speech recognition performance for older listeners could be explained by auditory working memory whilst controlling for the impact of age and hearing sensitivity. Discussion: Measuring working memory in the auditory modality facilitated explaining the variance in speech recognition in adverse listening conditions for older listeners. The linguistic features and the complexity of the auditory stimuli may affect the association between working memory and speech recognition performance. Conclusion: We demonstrated the contribution of auditory working memory to speech recognition in unfavorable listening conditions in older populations. Taking the modality-specific characteristics of working memory into account may be a key to better understand the difficulty in speech recognition in daily listening conditions for older listeners.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reconhecimento Psicológico
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5825, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242039

RESUMO

Responding to multiple stimuli of different modalities has been shown to reduce reaction time (RT), yet many different processes can potentially contribute to multisensory response enhancement. To investigate the neural circuits involved in voluntary response initiation, an acoustic stimulus of varying intensities (80, 105, or 120 dB) was presented during a visual RT task to a patient with profound bilateral cortical deafness and an intact auditory brainstem response. Despite being unable to consciously perceive sound, RT was reliably shortened (~100 ms) on trials where the unperceived acoustic stimulus was presented, confirming the presence of multisensory response enhancement. Although the exact locus of this enhancement is unclear, these results cannot be attributed to involvement of the auditory cortex. Thus, these data provide new and compelling evidence that activation from subcortical auditory processing circuits can contribute to other cortical or subcortical areas responsible for the initiation of a response, without the need for conscious perception.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiopatologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva Central/fisiopatologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Acústica , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Som
20.
J Neurosci ; 40(18): 3631-3645, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245827

RESUMO

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that play critical roles in neuronal development and nervous system function. Here, we developed a model to study NMDARs in early development in zebrafish, by generating CRISPR-mediated lesions in the NMDAR genes, grin1a and grin1b, which encode the obligatory GluN1 subunits. While receptors containing grin1a or grin1b show high Ca2+ permeability, like their mammalian counterpart, grin1a is expressed earlier and more broadly in development than grin1b Both grin1a -/- and grin1b -/- zebrafish are viable. Unlike in rodents, where the grin1 knockout is embryonic lethal, grin1 double-mutant fish (grin1a -/- ; grin1b -/-), which lack all NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission, survive until ∼10 d dpf (days post fertilization), providing a unique opportunity to explore NMDAR function during development and in generating behaviors. Many behavioral defects in the grin1 double-mutant larvae, including abnormal evoked responses to light and acoustic stimuli, prey-capture deficits, and a failure to habituate to acoustic stimuli, are replicated by short-term treatment with the NMDAR antagonist MK-801, suggesting that they arise from acute effects of compromised NMDAR-mediated transmission. Other defects, however, such as periods of hyperactivity and alterations in place preference, are not phenocopied by MK-801, suggesting a developmental origin. Together, we have developed a unique model to study NMDARs in the developing vertebrate nervous system.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Rapid communication between cells in the nervous system depends on ion channels that are directly activated by chemical neurotransmitters. One such ligand-gated ion channel, the NMDAR, impacts nearly all forms of nervous system function. It has been challenging, however, to study the prolonged absence of NMDARs in vertebrates, and hence their role in nervous system development, due to experimental limitations. Here, we demonstrate that zebrafish lacking all NMDAR transmission are viable through early development and are capable of a wide range of stereotypic behaviors. As such, this zebrafish model provides a unique opportunity to study the role of NMDAR in the development of the early vertebrate nervous system.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso/embriologia , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Ratos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inibidores , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/antagonistas & inibidores
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