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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3573-3576, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018775

RESUMO

Following amputation, almost two-thirds of amputees experience unpleasant to painful sensations in the area of the missing limb. Whereas the mechanism of phantom limb pain (PLP) remains unknown, it has been shown that maladaptive cortical plasticity plays a major role in PLP. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) generating sensory input is believed to be beneficial for PLP relief. TENS effect may be caused by possible reversing reorganization at the cortical level that can be evaluated by changes in the excitability of the corticospinal (CS) pathway. Excitability changes are dependent on the chosen stimulation patterns and parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two TENS patterns on the excitability of the CS tract among healthy subjects. We compared a non-modulated TENS as a conventional pattern with pulse width modulated TENS pattern. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from APB muscles of stimulated arm (TENS-APB) and contralateral arm (Control-APB) were recorded. We applied single TMS pulses on two subjects for each TENS pattern. The results showed that both patterns increase the CS excitability, while the effects of the conventional TENS is stronger. However, the amplitude of MEPs from control-APB after TENS delivery remained almost the same.Clinical Relevance- The primary results revealed changes in the activity of CS pathway for both patterns. A future study on a larger population is needed to provide strong evidence on the changes in CS excitability. The evaluation part with more factors such as changes in intracortical inhibition (ICI) may be beneficial to find an optimal modulated TENS pattern to enhance pain alleviation process in PLP.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Potencial Evocado Motor , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Tratos Piramidais
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD004908, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women may experience differing types of pain and discomfort following birth, including cramping pain (often called after-birth pain) associated with uterine involution, where the uterus contracts to reduce blood loss and return the uterus to its non-pregnant size. This is an update of a review first published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain relief/analgesia for the relief of after-birth pains following vaginal birth. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing two different types of analgesia or analgesia versus placebo or analgesia versus no treatment, for the relief of after-birth pains following vaginal birth. Types of analgesia included pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Quasi-randomised trials were not eligible for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, conducted 'Risk of bias' assessment, extracted data and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: In this update, we include 28 studies (involving 2749 women). The evidence identified in this review comes from middle- to high-income countries. Generally the trials were at low risk of selection bias, performance bias and attrition bias, but some trials were at high risk of bias due to selective reporting and lack of blinding. Our GRADE certainty of evidence assessments ranged from moderate to very low certainty, with downgrading decisions based on study limitations, imprecision, and (for one comparison) indirectness. Most studies reported our primary outcome of adequate pain relief as reported by the women. No studies reported data relating to neonatal adverse events, duration of hospital stay, or breastfeeding rates. Almost half of the included studies (11/28) excluded breastfeeding women from participating, making the evidence less generalisable to a broader group of women. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) compared to placebo NSAIDs are probably better than placebo for adequate pain relief as reported by the women (risk ratio (RR) 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45 to 1.91; 11 studies, 946 women; moderate-certainty evidence). NSAIDs may reduce the need for additional pain relief compared to placebo (RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.33; 4 studies, 375 women; low-certainty evidence). There may be a similar risk of maternal adverse events (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.41; 9 studies, 598 women; low-certainty evidence). NSAIDs compared to opioids NSAIDs are probably better than opioids for adequate pain relief as reported by the women (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.57; 5 studies, 560 women; moderate-certainty evidence) and may reduce the risk of maternal adverse events (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.89; 3 studies, 255 women; low-certainty evidence). NSAIDs may be better than opioids for the need for additional pain relief, but the wide CIs include the possibility that the two classes of drugs are similarly effective or that opioids are better (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.12; 2 studies, 232 women; low-certainty evidence). Opioids compared to placebo Opioids may be better than placebo for adequate pain relief as reported by the women (RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.61; 5 studies, 299 women; low-certainty evidence). Opioids may reduce the need for additional pain relief compared to placebo (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.82; 3 studies, 273 women; low-certainty evidence). Opioids may increase the risk of maternal adverse events compared with placebo, although the certainty of evidence is low (RR 1.59, 95% CI 0.99 to 2.55; 3 studies, 188 women; low-certainty evidence). Paracetamol compared to placebo Very low-certainty evidence means we are uncertain if paracetamol is better than placebo for adequate pain relief as reported by the women, the need for additional pain relief, or risk of maternal adverse events (2 studies, 123 women). Paracetamol compared to NSAIDs Very low-certainty evidence means we are uncertain if there are any differences between paracetamol and NSAIDs for adequate pain relief as reported by the women, or the risk of maternal adverse events. No data were reported about the need for additional pain relief comparing paracetamol and NSAIDs (2 studies, 112 women). NSAIDs compared to herbal analgesia We are uncertain if there are any differences between NSAIDs and herbal analgesia for adequate pain relief as reported by the women, the need for additional pain relief, or risk of maternal adverse events, because the certainty of evidence is very low (4 studies, 394 women). Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) compared to no TENS Very low-certainty evidence means we are uncertain if TENS is better than no TENS for adequate pain relief as reported by the women. No other data were reported comparing TENS with no TENS (1 study, 32 women). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: NSAIDs may be better than placebo and are probably better than opioids at relieving pain from uterine cramping/involution following vaginal birth. NSAIDs and paracetamol may be as effective as each other, whereas opioids may be more effective than placebo. Due to low-certainty evidence, we are uncertain about the effectiveness of other forms of pain relief. Future trials should recruit adequate numbers of women and ensure greater generalisability by including breastfeeding women. In addition, further research is required, including a survey of postpartum women to describe appropriately their experience of uterine cramping and involution. We identified nine ongoing studies, which may help to increase the level of certainty of the evidence around pain relief due to uterine cramping in future updates of this review.


Assuntos
Analgesia Obstétrica/métodos , Cãibra Muscular/complicações , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Contração Uterina/fisiologia , Doenças Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Viés , Feminino , Humanos , Miométrio , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Útero/fisiologia
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3885-3888, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018849

RESUMO

The incorporation of sensory feedback in prosthetics can lead to a range of benefits, such as improved hand control, increased prosthesis embodiment, and the reduction of phantom limb pain. However, the creation of reliable sensory feedback is complicated by the temporal modulation of the nervous system. Sensory fibres in the hand are primed to react to changing conditions, firing when discrete mechanical events occur. In this study, we investigate the minimal possible stimulation needed to distinguish different sensory patterns that can be used to indicate events. We presented a two-alternative forced-choice task of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimuli to 10 participants. The results showed that different stimuli can be distinguished when double pulses have an inter-stimulus-interval of 10 ms. Additionally, providing a pause of at least 350 ms between stimuli increases the discrimination of the perception. These results suggest that humans can distinguish different patterns of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with as little as two stimuli, illustrating the possibility of providing event-related stimulation.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Membro Fantasma , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Mãos , Humanos , Sensação
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3901-3904, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018853

RESUMO

The major challenge in upper limbs neuroprosthetic improvement is the implementation of effective sensory feedback. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of the median and ulnar nerves confirmed, with electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, the presence of appropriate responses in relevant cortical areas with induced sensation successfully located in the innervation regions of each nerve. The characterization of these elicited responses could be used to recreate precise somatotopic feedback from hand protheses. Using TENS and EEG, the purpose of this study was to detect distinctions in time-frequency cortical dynamics and connectivity occurring after stimulation of hand nerves. Region of interest (ROI) were selected according to topographical distributions and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEP) localization and were named Contralateral Parietal (Cont P), Central Frontal (Cent F) and Superior Parietal (Sup P). The analysis of cortical oscillations showed spectral inflections in theta [4-7 Hz] and alpha [7.5-12.5 Hz] band which occurred at 60 ms in Cont P and 300 ms in Sup P and prominent for the ulnar condition over the median one. The beta band decrease [16-30 Hz] which occurred in the same ROIs was especially significant after ulnar stimulation too. Effective connectivity measures did not differ significantly across conditions but exhibited some slight difference in the alpha-band causal flow coming from Cent F in direction to Cont P and Sup P. Although pending completion of multiple-subjects study, these results already suggest magnitude differences in somatosensory spectral fluctuations and sensorimotor interactions flows.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados , Mãos , Nervo Ulnar
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3905-3908, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018854

RESUMO

Phantom limb pain (PLP) is pain felt in the missing limb in amputees. Somatosensory input delivered as high-frequency surface electrical stimulation may provoke a significant temporary decrease in PLP. Also, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a somatosensory input that may activate descending inhibitory systems and thereby relieve pain. Our aim was to investigate changes in cortical activity following long-time sensory TENS. Time-frequency features were extracted from EEG signals of Cz and C4 channels (contralateral to the stimulation site) with or without TENS (2 subjects). We found that the TENS caused inhibition of the spectral activity of the somatosensory cortex following TENS, whereas no change was found when no stimulation was applied.Clinical Relevance- Although our preliminary results show a depression of the cortical activity following TENS, a future study with a larger population is needed to provide strong evidence to evaluate the effectiveness of sensory TENS on cortical activity. Our results may be useful for the design of TENS protocols for relief of PLP.


Assuntos
Membro Fantasma , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Projetos Piloto , Córtex Somatossensorial
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3909-3912, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018855

RESUMO

Haptic feedback allows an individual to identify various object properties. In this preliminary study, we determined the performance of stiffness recognition using transcutaneous nerve stimulation when a prosthetic hand was moved passively or was controlled actively by the subjects. Using a 2x8 electrode grid placed along the subject's upper arm, electrical stimulation was delivered to evoke somatotopic sensation along their index finger. Stimulation intensity, i.e. sensation strength, was modulated using the fingertip forces from a sensorized prosthetic hand. Object stiffness was encoded based on the rate of change of the evoked sensation as the prosthesis grasped one of three objects of different stiffness levels. During active control, sensation was modulated in real time as recorded forces were converted to stimulation amplitudes. During passive control, prerecorded force traces were randomly selected from a pool. Our results showed that the accuracy of object stiffness recognition was similar in both active and passive conditions. A slightly lower accuracy was observed during active control in one subject, which indicated that the sensorimotor integration processes could affect haptic perception for some users.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Braço , Estimulação Elétrica , Mãos
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5216-5219, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019160

RESUMO

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) administered to individuals following events such as severe trauma can be a potential therapy to attenuate gut injury and its sequelae. To determine the effective dose of transcutaneous electrical VNS (TE-VNS) and explore an effective method for performing TE-VNS, a measurement system was developed for the detection of vagus nerve response to TE-VNS. In addition, a noise-suppressed transcutaneous electrical stimulator (TES) was constructed for the same purpose. Using these tools, waveforms considered as nerve action potentials were successfully recorded. The recorded waveforms were similar to those evoked by direct electrical stimulation as reported in a latest publication. Our recorded waveforms also varied according to the pulse width of electrical stimulation, indicating the future possibility of determining the potential TES dose.Clinical Relevance- This is a basic research for application to acute therapy of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) by transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Estimulação do Nervo Vago , Animais , Meato Acústico Externo , Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos , Ratos , Nervo Vago
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3577-3580, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018776

RESUMO

Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve has been shown to enhance cortical plasticity and may benefit upper extremity rehabilitation following stroke. As an initial step towards assessing the potential of other craniocervical nerves as neuromodulation targets during rehabilitation, we explored the ability of non-invasive stimulation of cervical spine afferents, paired with a proprioceptive discrimination task, to improve sensory function in neurologically intact human subjects. On each trial, subjects' arms were moved by a robot from a test position, along a random path, to a judgment position located 1-4 cm away. Subjects responded 'same' if the judgment position was the same as the test or 'different' if it was not. These responses were used to compute proprioceptive sensitivity and bias. Three groups of 20 subjects received transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation to the C3/C4 cervical spine at one of three frequencies (30 Hz, 300 Hz, 3 kHz) for 10 minutes prior to task performance. A fourth group served as a sham. We found a statistically significant interaction between stimulation frequency and displacement distance on proprioceptive sensitivity. In summary, stimulation of cervical spine afferents may enhance arm proprioceptive function, though in unimpaired subjects these gains depend on both stimulation frequency and discrimination distance.Clinical Relevance- This study provides preliminary data on the potential for non-invasive stimulation of cervical spine afferents to enhance recovery of function following stroke and other neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Braço , Humanos , Extremidade Superior
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD011216, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain after caesarean sections (CS) can affect the well-being of the mother and her ability with her newborn. Conventional pain-relieving strategies are often underused because of concerns about the adverse maternal and neonatal effects. Complementary alternative therapies (CAM) may offer an alternative for post-CS pain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of CAM for post-caesarean pain. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, LILACS, PEDro, CAMbase, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (6 September 2019), and checked the reference lists of retrieved articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including quasi-RCTs and cluster-RCTs, comparing CAM, alone or associated with other forms of pain relief, versus other treatments or placebo or no treatment, for the treatment of post-CS pain. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently performed study selection, extracted data, assessed risk of bias and assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 37 studies (3076 women) which investigated eight different CAM therapies for post-CS pain relief. There is substantial heterogeneity among the trials. We downgraded the certainty of evidence due to small numbers of women participating in the trials and to risk of bias related to lack of blinding and inadequate reporting of randomisation processes. None of the trials reported pain at six weeks after discharge. Primary outcomes were pain and adverse effects, reported per intervention below. Secondary outcomes included vital signs, rescue analgesic requirement at six weeks after discharge; all of which were poorly reported, not reported, or we are uncertain as to the effect Acupuncture or acupressure We are very uncertain if acupuncture or acupressure (versus no treatment) or acupuncture or acupressure plus analgesia (versus placebo plus analgesia) has any effect on pain because the quality of evidence is very low. Acupuncture or acupressure plus analgesia (versus analgesia) may reduce pain at 12 hours (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.64 to 0.07; 130 women; 2 studies; low-certainty evidence) and 24 hours (SMD -0.63, 95% CI -0.99 to -0.26; 2 studies; 130 women; low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether acupuncture or acupressure (versus no treatment) or acupuncture or acupressure plus analgesia (versus analgesia) has any effect on the risk of adverse effects because the quality of evidence is very low. Aromatherapy Aromatherapy plus analgesia may reduce pain when compared with placebo plus analgesia at 12 hours (mean difference (MD) -2.63 visual analogue scale (VAS), 95% CI -3.48 to -1.77; 3 studies; 360 women; low-certainty evidence) and 24 hours (MD -3.38 VAS, 95% CI -3.85 to -2.91; 1 study; 200 women; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain if aromatherapy plus analgesia has any effect on adverse effects (anxiety) compared with placebo plus analgesia. Electromagnetic therapy Electromagnetic therapy may reduce pain compared with placebo plus analgesia at 12 hours (MD -8.00, 95% CI -11.65 to -4.35; 1 study; 72 women; low-certainty evidence) and 24 hours (MD -13.00 VAS, 95% CI -17.13 to -8.87; 1 study; 72 women; low-certainty evidence). Massage We identified six studies (651 women), five of which were quasi-RCTs, comparing massage (foot and hand) plus analgesia versus analgesia. All the evidence relating to pain, adverse effects (anxiety), vital signs and rescue analgesic requirement was very low-certainty. Music Music plus analgesia may reduce pain when compared with placebo plus analgesia at one hour (SMD -0.84, 95% CI -1.23 to -0.46; participants = 115; studies = 2; I2 = 0%; low-certainty evidence), 24 hours (MD -1.79, 95% CI -2.67 to -0.91; 1 study; 38 women; low-certainty evidence), and also when compared with analgesia at one hour (MD -2.11, 95% CI -3.11 to -1.10; 1 study; 38 women; low-certainty evidence) and at 24 hours (MD -2.69, 95% CI -3.67 to -1.70; 1 study; 38 women; low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether music plus analgesia has any effect on adverse effects (anxiety), when compared with placebo plus analgesia because the quality of evidence is very low. Reiki We are uncertain if Reiki plus analgesia compared with analgesia alone has any effect on pain, adverse effects, vital signs or rescue analgesic requirement because the quality of evidence is very low (one study, 90 women). Relaxation Relaxation may reduce pain compared with standard care at 24 hours (MD -0.53 VAS, 95% CI -1.05 to -0.01; 1 study; 60 women; low-certainty evidence). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation TENS (versus no treatment) may reduce pain at one hour (MD -2.26, 95% CI -3.35 to -1.17; 1 study; 40 women; low-certainty evidence). TENS plus analgesia (versus placebo plus analgesia) may reduce pain compared with placebo plus analgesia at one hour (SMD -1.10 VAS, 95% CI -1.37 to -0.82; 3 studies; 238 women; low-certainty evidence) and at 24 hours (MD -0.70 VAS, 95% CI -0.87 to -0.53; 108 women; 1 study; low-certainty evidence). TENS plus analgesia (versus placebo plus analgesia) may reduce heart rate (MD -7.00 bpm, 95% CI -7.63 to -6.37; 108 women; 1 study; low-certainty evidence) and respiratory rate (MD -1.10 brpm, 95% CI -1.26 to -0.94; 108 women; 1 study; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain if TENS plus analgesia (versus analgesia) has any effect on pain at six hours or 24 hours, or vital signs because the quality of evidence is very low (two studies, 92 women). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Some CAM therapies may help reduce post-CS pain for up to 24 hours. The evidence on adverse events is too uncertain to make any judgements on safety and we have no evidence about the longer-term effects on pain. Since pain control is the most relevant outcome for post-CS women and their clinicians, it is important that future studies of CAM for post-CS pain measure pain as a primary outcome, preferably as the proportion of participants with at least moderate (30%) or substantial (50%) pain relief. Measuring pain as a dichotomous variable would improve the certainty of evidence and it is easy to understand for non-specialists. Future trials also need to be large enough to detect effects on clinical outcomes; measure other important outcomes as listed lin this review, and use validated scales.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Acupressão , Analgesia por Acupuntura , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgesia Obstétrica/métodos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Aromaterapia , Viés , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Massagem , Musicoterapia , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Terapia de Relaxamento , Toque Terapêutico , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pain Physician ; 23(4): 349-364, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Certain types of cancer pain have remained hard to control even by highly skilled pain experts. Uncontrolled cancer pain can have severe effects on quality of life, physical functioning, and leads to psychological distress. From this perspective, nonpharmacologic modalities of treatment are important. Neuromodulatory techniques, such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and scrambler therapy (ST), have gained popularity in recent times. ST is a relatively new therapy that has been used for the management of cancer pain resistant to pharmacologic management. Several studies have shown that ST is an effective therapy for this type of pain. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to detect possible gaps in the literature regarding the efficacy of ST for cancer pain and formulate recommendations for research through a systematic review of the literature. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature was performed following the recommendations of the PRISMA Statement. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched for studies that met the inclusion criteria using a predetermined search strategy. Reference list of retrieved studies and Google Scholar were used to verify that no relevant studies had been omitted. Data were extracted from the studies with a data extraction sheet. A qualitative analyses of the extracted data was undertaken. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies were retrieved. Ten were articles that were categorized as literature reviews, including 7 general literature reviews not following a specific review methodology, 1 editorial, and 2 systematic reviews. Seventeen were original studies, including 2 single-arm trials, 1 randomized controlled trial, 4 pilot trials, 4 case reports, 2 retrospective studies, and 4 prospective studies. By and large, the available literature supports the use of ST as an effective therapy for the management of refractory cancer pain. However, the level of evidence for its application to cancer pain is not particularly strong, and improvement in pain with ST may even be owing to a placebo effect. LIMITATIONS: This study was not a meta-review. Because of the limited number of clinical trials on ST in cancer pain, such a meta-review could not meaningfully be performed. CONCLUSIONS: Methodologically sound, large randomized control trials are needed in this area. However at this stage, ST may be considered a good option for cancer patients suffering from pain that does not respond to pharmacologic treatment. KEY WORDS: Scrambler therapy, cancer, cancer pain, neuropathic pain, Calmare therapy, evidence, noninvasive pain treatment, chronic pain.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer/terapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Dor do Câncer/diagnóstico , Dor do Câncer/psicologia , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias/psicologia , Neuralgia/diagnóstico , Neuralgia/psicologia , Neuralgia/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Pain Physician ; 23(3): 253-262, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meralgia paresthetica (MP) is an entrapment mononeuropathy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN), in which conservative treatment options are not always sufficient. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided LFCN injection in the management of MP by comparing with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy and sham TENS therapy. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, sham-controlled study. SETTING: Health Sciences University Training and Research Hospital in Turkey. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with LFCN compression with clinical and electrophysiological findings were included in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups: (1) US-guided injection group, (2) TENS group, and (3) sham TENS group. The blockage of the LFCN was performed for therapeutic MP management in group 1. Ten sessions of conventional TENS were administered to each patient 5 days per week for 2 weeks, for 20 minutes per daily session in group 2, and sham TENS was applied to group 3 with the same protocol. Visual Analog Scale (VAS), painDETECT questionnaire, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test (SWMt), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and health-related quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]) at onset (T1), 15 days after treatment (T2), and 1 month after treatment (T3) were used for evaluation. Patients and the investigator who evaluated the results were blinded to the treatment protocol during the study period. RESULTS: A total of 54 of the 62 patients (group 1 n = 17, group 2 n = 16, group 3 n = 21) completed the study, 3 patients from group 1, 4 patients from group 2, and 1 patient from group 3 dropped out during the follow-up period. The mean changes in painDETECT and SWMt scores showed a statistically significant difference between groups in favor of group 1 at T2 and T3 compared with T1 (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of VAS, SF-36, and PSQI scores (P > 0.05). In-group analysis of VAS scores showed a statistically significant decrease in T2 and T3 compared with T1 in group 1 (P < 0.05). In-group analysis of the VAS scores statistically significant decrease was shown in T2 compared with T1 in group 2 (P < 0.05). In-group analysis of painDETECT scores statistically significant decrease was shown in T2 and T3 compared with T1 in all groups (P < 0.05). In-group analysis of SWMt scores statistically significant decrease was shown in T2 and T3 compared with T1 in group 1 (P < 0.05). In-group analysis of SF-36 and PSQI scores, there was no statistically significant decrease in all groups (P > 0.05). LIMITATIONS: The limitation of the study was a short follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: US-guided LFCN injection and TENS may be therapeutic options for MP treatment, however, for patients with neuropathic pain symptoms, US-guided LFCN injection may be a safe and alternative method to conservative treatment. KEY WORDS: Meralgia paresthetica, ultrasound-guided injection, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Neuropatia Femoral/terapia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Adulto , Betametasona/análogos & derivados , Betametasona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prilocaína/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Turquia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
14.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 53: 102437, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to specify and quantify the characteristics of the decrement in low-frequency repetitive nerve stimulation response in Lambert-Eaton myasthenia syndrome (LEMS) and compare it to those of myasthenia gravis (MG). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 18 patients with LEMS and 24 patients with MG. Ten consecutive stimulations were applied at 3 Hz to the abductor pollicis brevis. We determined the position of the smallest wave in the stimulation sequence, and we calculated the decrement and recovery. RESULTS: The median sequential order of the minimum wave was 8 in the LEMS group and 5 in the MG group (p < 0.001). The median decrement in the LEMS group was 36.7%, while that in the MG group was 21.0% (p = 0.047). The recovery percentage was 1.4% in the LEMS group and 3.5% in the MG group (p = 0.001). The area under the curve for the sequential order of the minimum wave was 0.90, and the reciprocal optimum cut-off point was 6.5. CONCLUSIONS: We elucidated a pattern with a delayed nadir and subsequent poor recovery, featuring a low-frequency decrement; furthermore, we determined the most likely sequential order of the minimum wave in patients with LEMS, and the indicator was useful for differentiation.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia/métodos , Síndrome Miastênica de Lambert-Eaton/diagnóstico , Síndrome Miastênica de Lambert-Eaton/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 70(12): 444-452, 16 jun., 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195434

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La disfagia orofaríngea tiene una elevada prevalencia tras un ictus. Se manifiesta clínicamente en alteraciones en la eficacia y la seguridad de la deglución, con la consiguiente morbimortalidad asociada a las alteraciones nutricionales y respiratorias. OBJETIVO: Efectuar una revisión actualizada de los aspectos diagnósticos y terapéuticos de la disfagia orofaríngea tras un ictus, con aplicabilidad en la clínica diaria, y de las técnicas de neuroestimulación no invasiva. DESARROLLO: El proceso de diagnóstico y tratamiento de la disfagia orofaríngea tiene como objetivos cribar, identificar y diagnosticar a los pacientes con riesgo de disfagia, e instaurar las medidas dietéticas y terapéuticas que aseguren la correcta nutrición e hidratación de los pacientes en condiciones de seguridad. El diagnóstico se basa en la exploración clínica de la deglución y en las exploraciones instrumentales, como la videofluoroscopia y la fibroendoscopia. Las medidas terapéuticas incluyen las estrategias compensadoras y rehabilitadoras (maniobras activas, ejercicios de control motor, electroestimulación neuromuscular y tratamiento con toxina botulínica). Las técnicas de neuroestimulación incluyen la estimulación central no invasiva y la estimulación eléctrica intrafaríngea. CONCLUSIÓN: La disfagia orofaríngea tiene una elevada prevalencia tras un ictus. El diagnóstico debe incluir una evaluación clínica y una exploración instrumental, y así indicar de forma objetiva el tratamiento, que incluirá medidas compensadoras y restauradoras con las que reducir la morbimortalidad asociada


INTRODUCTION. The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia is high after a stroke. Clinically, it manifests as alterations affecting swallowing efficiency and safety, with the consequent morbidity and mortality associated with nutritional and respiratory alterations. AIM. To carry out an updated review of the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of oropharyngeal dysphagia after a stroke that can be applied in daily clinical practice, and of the non-invasive neurostimulation techniques. DEVELOPMENT: The process of diagnosis and treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia aims to screen, identify and diagnose patients at risk of dysphagia, and establish the dietary and therapeutic measures that ensure proper nutrition and hydration of patients under safe conditions. The diagnosis is based on the clinical examination of swallowing and on instrumental examinations such as videofluoroscopy and fibro-endoscopy. Therapeutic measures include compensatory and rehabilitative strategies (active manoeuvres, motor control exercises, neuromuscular electrostimulation and botulinum toxin treatment). Neurostimulation techniques include non-invasive central stimulation and intrapharyngeal electrical stimulation. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia is high after a stroke. Diagnosis should include a clinical evaluation and an instrumental examination, and thus objectively indicate the treatment, which will include compensatory and restorative measures with which to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico por imagem , Endoscopia/métodos , Fluoroscopia , Manometria
16.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 70(12): 461-477, 16 jun., 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195436

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La lesión medular es un evento traumático o no traumático que causa una alteración de la función sensorial, motora o autonómica y, en última instancia, afecta a las características físicas, psicológicas y el bienestar social de la persona que lo sufre. El abordaje integral de la lesión medular requiere muchos recursos de salud y puede representar una considerable carga financiera para los pacientes, sus familias y la comunidad. OBJETIVO: Revisar la bibliografía publicada sobre el uso de la estimulación cerebral no invasiva, incluida la estimulación magnética transcraneal repetitiva (EMTr), la estimulación de corriente continua directa transcraneal (tDCS), así como la estimulación medular no invasiva transcutánea (tcSCS), como estrategias terapéuticas para mejorar la funcionalidad de los pacientes con lesión medular. Los estudios se agruparon bien como de estimulación no invasiva cerebral, bien como de estimulación medular no invasiva. DESARROLLO: Se identificaron 32 estudios: 21 de estimulación cerebral (14 en EMTr y 7 en tDCS) y 11 de estimulación medular (tcSCS). Todos los estudios se realizaron en pacientes adultos que sufrieron una lesión medular. A pesar de la variabilidad significativa en los protocolos de tratamiento, las características de los pacientes y la evaluación clínica, los cambios observados se describieron en casi todos los estudios sin producir efectos secundarios con mejoría motora o funcional. CONCLUSIÓN: La estimulación cerebral no invasiva, así como la estimulación medular, son técnicas prometedoras para la rehabilitación de pacientes con lesión medular debido a su novedad, su efectividad y mínimos efectos secundarios


INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injury is a traumatic or non-traumatic event that causes an alteration of sensory, motor or autonomic functioning and ultimately affects the physical, psychological and social well-being of the person who suffers it. A comprehensive approach to spinal cord injury requires many health resources and can place a considerable financial burden on patients, their families and the community. AIM: To review the literature published to date on the use of non-invasive brain stimulation, including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and transcutaneous non-invasive spinal cord stimulation (tcSCS), as therapeutic strategies to improve the functionality of patients with spinal cord injury. The studies were grouped as addressing either non-invasive brain stimulation or non-invasive spinal cord stimulation. DEVELOPMENT: Altogether 32 studies were identified: 21 involving brain stimulation (14 in rTMS and 7 in tDCS) and 11 with spinal cord stimulation (tcSCS). All the studies were conducted in adult patients who had undergone a spinal cord injury. Despite significant variability in treatment protocols, patient characteristics and clinical assessment, the changes observed were reported in almost all the studies without producing any side effects and with motor or functional improvement. CONCLUSION: Non-invasive brain stimulation, as well as spinal cord stimulation, are promising techniques for the rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injury due to their novelty, effectiveness and minimal side effects


Assuntos
Humanos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Estimulação da Medula Espinal/métodos , Transtornos dos Movimentos/terapia , Marcha , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/instrumentação , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20301, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication after surgery. However, drugs cannot prevent it completely, and acupuncture therapy shows the potential in preventing PONV, yet the best choice hasn't been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: This network meta analysis aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different acupuncture therapies used for preventing PONV in abdominal operation. METHODS: Authors searched articles from PubMed/Medline, Cochrane library, Web of Science, Ebsco and Ovid/Embase, and established database from setup time to June 2019. Quality evaluation of included studies was performed with Cochrane risk-of-bias tool (ROB 2.0). Pairwise and network meta analysis were conducted by RevMan and Addis respectively. RESULTS: Twenty studies with 2862 patients were included in this research. Pairwise meta analysis shows that compared with placebo, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation had lower risk of postoperative nausea (PON) (odds ratio (OR) = 0.42, 95%confidence interval (CI): 0.30-0.60), postoperative vomiting (POV) (OR = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.36-0.78), PONVs (OR = 0.46, 95%CI: 0.31-0.68), and postoperative rescue (POR) (OR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.41-0.90), Capsicum had lower risk of PON (OR = 0.16, 95%CI: 0.09-0.28), PONVs (OR = 0.23, 95%CI: 0.12-0.45), Acupressure had lower risk of POV (OR = 0.42, 95%CI: 0.25-0.70), POR (OR = 0.42, 95%CI: 0.27-0.64). In network meta analysis, compared with usual care, the probability rank suggested that Acupoint Injection showed lowest risk of PON (OR = 0.02, 95%CI: 0.00-0.11), POV (OR = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.01-0.49), Usual care for PONVs (OR = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.13-0.75), and Capsicum for POR (OR = 0.39, 95%CI: 0.07-2.33). Further study should be carried out to verify this result. CONCLUSION: Both pairwise and network meta analysis showed acupuncture therapy was superior to placebo and usual care. Different acupuncture therapy regimens may have advantages in different aspects. And compared with POV, PON seems easier to control. Research results may provide guidance for the prevention of PONV.Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42019147556.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/terapia , Acupressão/métodos , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Razão de Chances , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos
18.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(6): 596-600, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the prevention effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) for chemotherapy-related myelosuppression in non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 102 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received initial chemotherapy were randomly divided into a conventional group, a medication group and a TEAS group, 34 cases in each one. The conventional group was treated with chemotherapy of gemcitabine combined with cisplatin and given routine care. On the basis of conventional group's treatment, the medication group was given Diyu Shengbai tablets before chemotherapy, 2-3 tablets each time, 3 times a day. In the TEAS group, on the basis of conventional group's treatment, TEAS was applied at Dazhui (GV 14), Geshu (BL 17), Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) on day 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 14, 21 and 28 of chemotherapy. The treatment was given 30 min each time and once a day. In the three groups, the treatment for 28 days was as one course and one course of treatment was required. The changes of leukocytes, platelets, erythrocyte, hemoglobin indexes in patients of the three groups were observed one day before chemotherapy and on day 5, 8, 11, 14, 21 and 28 of chemotherapy. The comfort situation of patients was observed one day before chemotherapy and on the 5th, 11th and 21st day of chemotherapy. RESULTS: Compared with before chemotherapy, the leukocyte counts of three groups were decreased at various time points after chemotherapy (P<0.05). Compared with the conventional group, the leukocyte counts were higher on day 8 and 14 in the TEAS group and on day 14 in the medication group (P<0.05). Compared with before chemotherapy, the platelet count decreased on the day 5, 8, 11 and 14 of chemotherapy in the conventional group (P<0.05), and the platelet counts all decreased at each time point after chemotherapy in the medication group (P<0.05). The platelet counts of the TEAS group on day 5, 8, 11 and 14 of chemotherapy were higher than those of the conventional group (P<0.05), and the platelet counts of the TEAS group on day 5, 8, 11 and 21 of chemotherapy were higher than those of the medication group (P<0.05). Compared with the conventional group, the comfort situation scores of the TEAS group were higher on the 5th and 11th days of chemotherapy (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation can prevent chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression (leukocyte, platelets) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and improve patient comfort situation.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Pontos de Acupuntura , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos
19.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(6): 615-8, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on labor pain. METHODS: A total of 151 primiparas who were vaginal delivery were randomized into a TEAS group (76 cases) and a peridural group (75 cases). In the peridural group, peridural blockage was applied to analgesia. In the TEAS group, TEAS was applied at Hegu (LI 4),Neiguan (PC 6), Jiaji T10~L1 (EX-B 2) and Ciliao (BL 32), disperse-dense wave (2 Hz/100 Hz), 15-50 mA in current intensity. The analgesic time was from 3 cm to completely opening of cervix. The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were observed before analgesia, after 30, 60, 120 min of analgesia in the two groups. The time of different stages of labor, usage rate of oxytocin, incidence rate of adverse reaction and amount of postpartum hemorrhage were recorded. The newborn's 1 and 5 min Apgar scores were evaluated. RESULTS: The VAS scores showed a downward trend in the two groups after analgesia (P<0.01), and the change of the TEAS group was less than the peridural group (P<0.01). The active phase on the first stage and second stage of labor in the TEAS group were shorter than the peridural group (P<0.01, P<0.05), there was no significant difference in the time of third stage of labor between the two groups (P>0.05). The usage rate of oxytocin and incidence rate of adverse reaction in the TEAS group were 9.2% (7/76) and 2.6% (2/76), which were lower than 34.7% (26/75) and 18.7% (14/75) in the peridural group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the amount of postpartum hemorrhage and newborn's 1 and 5 min Apgar scores between the two groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The analgesic effect of TEAS is inferior to peridural blockage, but TEAS could relieve labor pain to the tolerance, shorten the time of active phase on the first stage and second stage of labor and reduce the use of oxytocin, has mild adverse reaction.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Dor do Parto/terapia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Pontos de Acupuntura , Analgésicos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
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