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1.
No Shinkei Geka ; 47(9): 957-960, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Motor evoked potentials(MEPs)have been developed and utilized as safe surgical procedures. A correlation between the threshold intensity of direct stimulation MEPs and the distance of the corticospinal tract(CST)has been already established. However, MEPs are affected by anesthesia and patient-related conditions. Here, we describe a unique technique to avoid these effects. METHOD: When tumors developed in proximity to the CST, the transcortical MEP monitoring was done by placing grid electrodes on the primary motor cortex continuously while direct subcortical MEP mapping was conducted with a monopolar probe. The ratios of the subcortical to the transcortical stimulation intensity were calculated. The point at which the ratios reached 50% was defined as the surgical excision limit. DISCUSSION: MEPs are affected by anesthesia, paralysis, body temperature, and other factors. By measuring the ratio of the cortical stimulation intensity instead of the absolute value of the white matter stimulation intensity, various affecting factors can be avoided, and more accurate monitoring can become possible. CONCLUSION: By calculating the ratio of subcortical to cortical stimulation intensity, the corticospinal tract mapping is less likely to be influenced by the stimulation condition or facility setup, and this warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Potencial Evocado Motor , Córtex Motor , Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos , Tratos Piramidais
2.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(32): 2522-2526, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484280

RESUMO

Objective: To retrospectively analyze the characteristics of the electromyography (EMG) study in generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) patients. Methods: A total of 111 gMG patients were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups: 36 severe patients discontinuing pyridostigmine bromide (PB) for 8 hours were included in 8 h group, and 75 g MG patients discontinuing PB for at least 18 hours were included in>18 h group. The clinical information and EMG study data were collected and analyzed. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the initial location of the myasthenia muscle (P=0.027), the affected muscle detected by the EMG (P=0.015) and quantitative myasthenia gravis (QMG) score (P<0.01) between the two groups. Comparisons in each group revealed that the highest positive rate of low-frequency repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) of facial in 8 h group and>18 h group was 94.4% and 60.0%, respectively. Comparisons between the two groups showed that the positive rate of low-frequency RNS in 8 h group was significantly higher than that in>18 h group (94.4% vs 70.7%, χ(2)=8.115, P=0.004). In particular, the positive rate of RNS in facial nerves and the extent of the amplitude decrease under different electrical stimulations (1 Hz, 3 Hz, and 5 Hz) were dramatically higher in the 8 h group (P<0.01). Conclusions: For gMG patients, the facial and accessory nerve detection can improve the positive rate of RNS. Different muscles had various sensitivity to PB, and orbicularis oculi muscle seemed the least sensitive muscle to PB. For suspect MG patients in severe condition, only discontinuing PB medication for 8 h before low-frequency RNS testing can avoid the deterioration and also obtain similar positive rate.


Assuntos
Miastenia Gravis , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletromiografia , Músculos Faciais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Codas ; 31(4): e20180176, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483040

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of electrical stimulation on the salivary flow of head and neck cancer patients with radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation. RESEARCH STRATEGIES: Searches were made in the Medline (via Pubmed), Cochrane Library, Scopus and Lilacs databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Selection included clinical trials that evaluated salivary flow objectively, published in the last 10 years in either Portuguese, English or Spanish. DATA ANALYSIS: The PEDro scale was used for the methodological evaluation of the studies. RESULTS: The search strategy resulted in 21 publications, 17 of which were excluded, hence there were 4 articles left. The included studies had a total of 212 participants, all of whom had an increase in salivary flow, both through the electroacupuncture method and direct application on the salivary glands. The score obtained through the PEDRo scale was low, evidencing questionable methodological quality and risk of bias. CONCLUSION: The included studies demonstrate the clinical potential of TENS to increase the salivary flow of head and neck cancer patients treated with RT.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Xerostomia/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Xerostomia/etiologia
4.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(9): 913-7, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of ultrasound-guided acupoint electrical stimulation on the patients with diaphragmatic dysfunction associated with mechanical ventilation in ICU. METHODS: Fifty-two patients were randomly divided into an observation group (26 cases, 3 cases dropping) and a control group (26 cases). Conventional treatment was given to all patients. On the basis of conventional treatment, acupoint electrical stimulation therapy was applied at Zhangmen (LR 3), Dabao (SP 21), Pishu (BL 20), Shenshu (BL 23), etc. In the observation group, the treatment was given for 30 min each time, 3 times a day for 7 days. Diaphragm thickening fraction (TFdi) was used as an index to guide the individualized setting of stimulation intensity and judge the effect, and the difference of mechanical ventilation time, ICU time, total hospitalization time, hospital mortality and reintubation rate between the two groups were observed. RESULTS: The mechanical ventilation time in the observation group was shorter than that in the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the ICU time and total hospitalization time between the two groups (P>0.05). During hospitalization, 2 patients died in the observation group and 3 patients died in the control group, there was no significant difference in hospital mortality (P>0.05). One patient in the observation group was reintubated and 8 patients in the control group (P<0.05). The use of acupoint electrical stimulation was a factor in shortening the mechanical ventilation time and reducing the reintubation events (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Ultrasound-guided acupoint electrical stimulation can relieve ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction, reduce ventilator support time and reintubation events.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Respiração Artificial , Diafragma , Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos
5.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446705

RESUMO

Objective:The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of tetanus stimulation in tinnitus treatment and the correlation between the mainstream questionnaires of tinnitus and tinnitus-matching in order to find a more convenient and accurate method for tinnitus evaluation. Method:Ten patients with chronic tinnitus and normal or mild hearing impairment were enrolled in this study, totaling 13 ears. Their age ranged from 23 to 53 years old. The stimulus sound(white noise, frequency modulation 14.1 Hz, repetitive amplitude modulation, duty cycle 0.5) was selected and the sound intensity was 50 dB SL. Experimental procedure: (4 minutes sound stimulation+4 minutes rest) ×4 times, totaling 32 minutes. The patients were treated three times a week for 5 weeks. The loudness of tinnitus was matched before and after each treatment, and tinnitus handicap inventory(THI), tinnitus handicap questionnaire(THQ) and visual analog scales(VAS) were also used for assessment before the first treatment each week. The loudness matching and the above scales were performed once more at follow-up for one week after end-of-treatment. Result:①Single treatment: the matched loudness value decreased by 1.000(0.000, 3.000) dB(Z=7.553, P<0.01) after each single treatment. ②After five weeks' treatment: the matched loudness value decreased(9.692±8.038) dB(t=4.348, P<0.01); VAS value decreased by 2.000(1.000, 3.000)(Z=2.890, P<0.01); total score of THQ decreased(7.389%±8.847%)(t=2.641, P<0.05). ③Correlation analysis: there was positive correlation between total scores of THI and THQ(r=0.747, P<0.01); the matched loudness values have positive correlation with VAS value(r=0.593, P<0.01), THI-F(r=0.346, P<0.01) and THQ-factor 3 score(r=0.294, P<0.05); there was positive correlation between the VAS value and THI-F(r=0.326, P<0.05), the total score of THI(r=0.466, P<0.01), THQ-factor 3 score(r=0.291, P<0.05), the total score of THQ(r=0.497, P<0.01). Conclusion:The loudness of tinnitus declined with significant fluctuation during tetanus sound therapy. THQ scale is recommended as a sensitive indicator for evaluating the efficacy of tinnitus treatment; VAS is recommended for rapid assessment of tinnitus. Tetanus stimulation is expected to become an important direction in tinnitus sound therapy.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Perda Auditiva , Zumbido/terapia , Adulto , Audiometria , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121950, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398549

RESUMO

In this work, a new stress-based method for rapid induction of triacylglycerol (TAG) and total and polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulations in Chlorella sp. by mild electric stimulation is presented. When a cathodic current of 31 mA (voltage: 4 V) was applied to the algal cells for 4 h, the TAG content of the electro-treated cells was sharply increased to a level 2.1 times that of the untreated control. The contents of the polyunsaturated linoleic (C18:2n6) and linolenic (C18:3n3) acids in the electro-treated cells were also 36 and 57% higher than those in the untreated cells, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry and various biochemical analyses indicate that TAG and fatty acid formations are electro-stimulated via de novo fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolic transformation in the Chlorella cells.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Estimulação Elétrica , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Lipídeos , Triglicerídeos
7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(66): 9833-9836, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363722

RESUMO

Herein, through using electropolymerized pyrrole (PPy) to coat near-infrared upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode, the as-prepared PPy/UCNPs photoelectrode could generate an interfacial electric field, release rare earth ions and induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PC12 cells under NIR irradiation, which could realize wireless neurite development and outgrowth.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica , Crescimento Neuronal , Tecnologia sem Fio , Animais , Raios Infravermelhos , Células PC12 , Polimerização , Pirróis/química , Ratos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 185-196, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468397

RESUMO

In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant and anti-stress activities of taurine in electric foot-shock stress model rats. Taurine supplementation markedly increased the hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels, compared to the levels in the stress group. In addition, activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were improved in the taurine-treated group. Plasma cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) levels were significantly reduced in the taurine-supplemented group compared to those in the stress group. In contrast, the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were markedly increased in the taurine or betaine-treated group compared to those in the stress group. It may be concluded that taurine produces beneficial effects in the form of antioxidant status and biochemical alterations in foot-shock-induced acute stress in rats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Estimulação Elétrica , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Ácido Hidroxi-Indolacético/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Serotonina/sangue
9.
J Headache Pain ; 20(1): 87, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder involving abnormal trigeminovascular activation and sensitization. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: A rat model of conscious migraine was established through the electrical stimulation (ES) of the dural mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus. Using patch clamp recording, immunofluorescent labelling, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western blot analysis, we studied the effects of ES on sensory neuronal excitability and elucidated the underlying mechanisms mediated by voltage-gated ion channels. RESULTS: The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) level in the jugular vein blood and the number of CGRP-positive neurons in the trigeminal ganglia (TGs) were significantly increased in rats with ES-induced migraine. The application of ES increased actional potential firing in both small-sized IB4-negative (IB4-) and IB4+ TG neurons. No significant changes in voltage-gated Na+ currents were observed in the ES-treated groups. ES robustly suppressed the transient outward K+ current (IA) in both types of TG neurons, while the delayed rectifier K+ current remained unchanged. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the protein expression of Kv4.3 was significantly decreased in the ES-treated groups, while Kv1.4 remained unaffected. Interestingly, ES increased the P/Q-type and T-type Ca2+ currents in small-sized IB4- TG neurons, while there were no significant changes in the IB4+ subpopulation of neurons. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that ES decreases the IA in small-sized TG neurons and increases P/Q- and T-type Ca2+ currents in the IB4- subpopulation of TG neurons, which might contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability in a rat model of ES-induced migraine.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Seio Sagital Superior/metabolismo , Gânglio Trigeminal/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Masculino , Neurônios Aferentes/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Seio Sagital Superior/citologia , Gânglio Trigeminal/citologia
10.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(9): 1013-1023, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406326

RESUMO

Monitoring and modulating the diversity of signals used by neurons and glia in a closed-loop fashion is necessary to establish causative links between biochemical processes within the nervous system and observed behaviors. As developments in neural-interface hardware strive to keep pace with rapid progress in genetically encoded and synthetic reporters and modulators of neural activity, the integration of multiple functional features becomes a key requirement and a pressing challenge in the field of neural engineering. Electrical, optical and chemical approaches have been used to manipulate and record neuronal activity in vivo, with a recent focus on technologies that both integrate multiple modes of interaction with neurons into a single device and enable bidirectional communication with neural circuits with enhanced spatiotemporal precision. These technologies not only are facilitating a greater understanding of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral circuits in the context of health and disease, but also are informing the development of future closed-loop therapies for neurological, neuro-immune and neuroendocrine conditions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Neurológico , Estimulação Elétrica , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Humanos , Neurônios/fisiologia
11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study diagnostic capabilities of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) in clarifying the mechanisms of formation of urinary disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The authors studied the characteristics of nerve impulses during stimulation of the pudendal and tibial nerves in patients with neurogenic urinary retention and cerebral ischemic stroke in the parietal lobes (4 patients), spinal ischemic stroke (10 patients), myelitis at the level of thoracic segments (7 patients), spinal cord cauda equina tumors (3 patients). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The study of SSEPs made it possible to determine the localization and nature of damage to the structures of the central nervous system and to establish the neurogenic cause of urinary disorders.


Assuntos
Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados , Retenção Urinária , Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos , Neurogênese , Nervo Tibial , Retenção Urinária/fisiopatologia
12.
Brain Nerve ; 71(7): 793-804, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289253

RESUMO

Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) is a technology that enables users to control computers/machines intuitively via their volitional brain activities. Controlling robotic arms and tablet PCs, assisting the movement of paretic limbs through robotic action/neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and other types of cybernetic device controls have been demonstrated. The continued use of BMI promotes the plasticity of brains, hence the functional reorganization of sensorimotor nervous systems can be induced in patients with motor disabilities. The application of BMI for the compensation and neurological recovery of physical movement might be clinically tolerated in the future.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Reabilitação/tendências , Robótica , Encéfalo , Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos , Movimento , Plasticidade Neuronal
13.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 43(4): 539-546, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in the ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and thalamus of patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) during sensory stimulation. METHODS: Sixty-four MMD patients, and 15 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Thirty-three MMD patients exhibited paroxysmal numbness or hypoesthesia in the unilateral limbs. Fifteen patients with acroparesthesia underwent unilateral encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS). All volunteers underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) under median nerve electrical stimulation (MNES). Blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI data were processed to obtain time-signal intensity curves in the activation areas of the bilateral SI and thalamus. Processed dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data were used to measure the time to peak of the BOLD response in the regions of interest, including the bilateral SI, thalamus, and cerebellum. Changes in the time-signal intensity curve-related hemodynamic parameters in the ipsilateral SI and thalamus were examined between healthy controls, nonacroparesthesia patients, and asymptomatic and symptomatic sides of unilateral acroparesthesia patients during MNES. Changes in these parameters in MMD patients before and after EDAS were examined. RESULTS: Compared with healthy volunteers, 3 groups of MMD patients exhibited an increased peak of the positive BOLD response in the ipsilateral thalamus during MNES (0.65 ± 0.24 vs 0.79 ± 0.35, 0.94 ± 0.57, and 0.89 ± 0.50; P = 0.0335). The positive response peak in the ipsilateral SI markedly increased in MMD patients with acroparesthesia during MNES on the asymptomatic side (0.56 ± 0.37 vs 0.38 ± 0.27, P = 0.0243). The time to peak negative response in the ipsilateral SI was prolonged during MNES on the symptomatic side after EDAS (12.14 ± 8.90 seconds vs 18.86 ± 9.20 seconds, P = 0.0201). CONCLUSIONS: During sensory stimulation treatment, BOLD response changes occurred in the ipsilateral SI and thalamus of MMD patients. These changes enabled the contralateral hemisphere of the brain to better deal with sensory stimuli.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Oxigênio/sangue , Córtex Somatossensorial , Tálamo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Nervo Mediano/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Mediano/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Córtex Somatossensorial/irrigação sanguínea , Córtex Somatossensorial/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/irrigação sanguínea , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Bioelectromagnetics ; 40(6): 412-421, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338867

RESUMO

Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been shown to be a noninvasive physical stimulant for bone fracture healing. However, PEMF stimulation requires a relatively long period of time and its mechanism of action has not yet been fully clarified. Recently, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been shown to be involved in bone formation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PEMFs on osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by examining various cellular responses including changes in the mTOR pathway. Continuous PEMF stimulation induced a transient phosphorylation of the mTOR pathway, whereas intermittent PEMF stimulation (1 cycle of 10 min stimulation followed by 20 min of stimulation pause) revitalized the reduced phosphorylation. Moreover, PEMF stimulation stimulated cell proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) rather than differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity), with a more notable effect in the intermittently stimulated cells. These results suggest that intermittent PEMF stimulation may be effective in promoting bone fracture healing by accelerating cell proliferation, and in shortening stimulation time. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019;40:412-421. © 2019 Bioelectromagnetics Society.


Assuntos
Campos Eletromagnéticos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Bromodesoxiuridina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Science ; 365(6451): 324, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346055
17.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(6): 637-42, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190502

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of electrical stimulation at auricular points (EAS) combined with sound masking on the expression of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) in the auditory cortex of tinnitus rats. METHODS: A total of 27 adult male SD rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group and an EAS group. The rats in the model group and the EAS group were intervened with intraperitoneal injection of sodium salicylate to induce tinnitus model, while the rats in the control group were intervened with injection of 0.9% NaCl solution. After the model was successfully established, the rats in the EAS group were treated with electrical stimulation at "Shenmen" (TF4) and "Yidan" (CO11), combined with sound masking; the treatment was given once a day for 15 days. The gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) testing were performed using the acoustic startle reflex starter package for rats. The expression of BDNF, TrkB, CREB and p-CREB in the auditory cortex of each group were measured with Western Blot analysis. RESULTS: ① Compared with the control group, the GPIAS values in 12 kHz, 16 kHz, 20 kHz and 28 kHz were significantly decreased in the model group (all P<0.05); compared with the model group, GPIAS values in 12 kHz, 16 kHz, 20 kHz and 28 kHz were significantly increased in the EAS group (all P<0.05). ② Compared with the control group, the expression of BDNF and p-CREB in the model group was significantly increased (P<0.01), and the expression of TrkB in the model group was significantly increased (P<0.05); the differences of expression of BDNF, TrkB, CREB and p-CREB between the model group and the EAS group had no statistics significance (all P>0.05). CONCLUSION: EAS could improve the GPIAS values of high-frequency background sound in tinnitus rats, which may be related with the upregulation of the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway in the auditory cortex, leading to the reversion of the maladaptive plasticity.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Córtex Auditivo , Zumbido , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Estimulação Elétrica , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Zumbido/metabolismo , Zumbido/terapia
18.
Life Sci ; 231: 116581, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220524

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of colonic electrical stimulation (CES) on delayed colonic transit in Parkinson's disease (PD) model induced by rotenone and its possible mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were implanted with a pair of electrodes on the serosa at the proximal colon and rotenone was subcutaneously injected for 6 weeks to induce the PD model. Behavior activity, stool volume and open-field test were recorded during the injection. Colonic propulsion rate was measured 6 weeks after rotenone injection. Colon samples of all rats were collected for the measurement of phosphorylated alpha-synuclein, choline acetyltransferase (CHAT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The protocols of control rats were the same as the PD rats except that no electrodes were implanted and no rotenone was injected. KEY FINDINGS: (1) Rotenone-induced PD rats demonstrated weight loss, significant decrease of the dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra, and impairment of colon movement. (2) CES significantly accelerated the delayed colonic transmit (91.67 ±â€¯5.58% vs 51.33 ±â€¯4.18%), superior to Macrogol-4000. (3) CES significantly upregulated the expression of CHAT, nNOS and TH protein in colon of PD rats. (4) In colon of PD rats, the phosphorylated alpha-synuclein was significantly upregulated, but CES had no significant effect on phosphorylated alpha-synuclein. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data show that CES can normalize the delayed colonic transit and this normalization may attribute to affecting enteric excitatory and inhibitory neurons.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Animais , Colina O-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Colo/fisiopatologia , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estimulação Elétrica , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Masculino , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rotenona/metabolismo , Rotenona/farmacologia , Substância Negra/efeitos dos fármacos , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
19.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(8): 1765-1770, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147839

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our aim is to develop a new generation of suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation (STS) retinal prosthesis using a dual-stimulating electrode array to enlarge the visual field. In the present study, we aimed to examine how position and size of the visual field-created by a retinal prosthesis simulator-influenced mobility. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects wore retinal prosthesis simulators. Images captured by a web camera attached to a head-mounted display (HMD) were processed by a computer and displayed on the HMD. Three types of artificial visual fields-designed to imitate phosphenes-obtained by a single (5 × 5 electrodes; visual angle, 15°) or dual (5 × 5 electrodes ×2; visual angle, 30°) electrode array were created. Visual field (VF)1 is an inferior visual field, which corresponds to a dual-electrode array implanted in the superior hemisphere. VF2 is a superior visual field, which corresponds to a single-electrode array implanted in the inferior hemisphere. VF3 is a superior visual field, which corresponds to a dual-electrode array implanted in the inferior hemisphere. In each type of artificial visual field, a natural circular visual field (visual angle, 5°) which imitated the vision of patients with advanced retinitis pigmentosa existed at the center. Subjects were instructed to walk along a black carpet (6 m long × 2.2 m wide) without stepping on attached white circular obstacles. Each obstacle was 20 cm in diameter, and obstacles were installed at 40-cm intervals. We measured the number of footsteps on the obstacles, the time taken to complete the obstacle course, and the extent of head movement to scan the area (head-scanning). We then compared the results recorded from these 3 types of artificial visual field. RESULTS: The number of footsteps on obstacles was lowest in VF3 (One-way ANOVA; P = 0.028, Fisher's LSD; VF 1 versus 3 P = 0.039, 2 versus 3 P = 0.012). No significant difference was observed for the time to complete the obstacle course or the extent of head movement between the 3 visual fields. CONCLUSION: The superior and wide visual field (VF3) obtained by the retinal prosthesis simulator resulted in better mobility performance than the other visual fields.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Retina/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Próteses Visuais , Adulto , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Microeletrodos , Retinite Pigmentosa/fisiopatologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/terapia , Acuidade Visual
20.
Neuron ; 103(2): 266-276.e4, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153647

RESUMO

Motor skills improve with practice, requiring outcomes to be evaluated against ever-changing performance benchmarks, yet it remains unclear how performance error signals are computed. Here, we show that the songbird ventral pallidum (VP) is required for song learning and sends diverse song timing and performance error signals to the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Viral tracing revealed inputs to VP from auditory and vocal motor thalamus, auditory and vocal motor cortex, and VTA. Our findings show that VP circuits, commonly associated with hedonic functions, signal performance error during motor sequence learning.


Assuntos
Prosencéfalo Basal/fisiologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Biofísica , Toxina da Cólera/metabolismo , Estimulação Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Tentilhões , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transdução Genética , Área Tegmentar Ventral/citologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/metabolismo , Vigília
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