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1.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234026, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525897

RESUMO

Social cognition is dependent on the ability to extract information from human stimuli. Of those, patterns of biological motion (BM) and in particular walking patterns of other humans, are prime examples. Although most often tested in isolation, BM outside the laboratory is often associated with multisensory cues (i.e. we often hear and see someone walking) and there is evidence that vision-based judgments of BM stimuli are systematically influenced by motor signals. Furthermore, cross-modal visuo-tactile mechanisms have been shown to influence perception of bodily stimuli. Based on these observations, we here investigated if somatosensory inputs would affect visual BM perception. In two experiments, we asked healthy participants to perform a speed discrimination task on two point light walkers (PLW) presented one after the other. In the first experiment, we quantified somatosensory-visual interactions by presenting PLW together with tactile stimuli either on the participants' forearms or feet soles. In the second experiment, we assessed the specificity of these interactions by presenting tactile stimuli either synchronously or asynchronously with upright or inverted PLW. Our results confirm that somatosensory input in the form of tactile foot stimulation influences visual BM perception. When presented with a seen walker's footsteps, additional tactile cues enhanced sensitivity on a speed discrimination task, but only if the tactile stimuli were presented on the relevant body-part (under the feet) and when the tactile stimuli were presented synchronously with the seen footsteps of the PLW, whether upright or inverted. Based on these findings we discuss potential mechanisms of somatosensory-visual interactions in BM perception.


Assuntos
Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Estimulação Física/métodos , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433681

RESUMO

The decline in circulatory function with aging may be alleviated by a combination of gingival massage (physical stimulation) and mechanical cleaning. Several studies have reported the systemic effect of physical stimulation on various parts of the body, including its therapeutic effect on pain in the neck and shoulders that becomes evident with age, and improvement in blood circulation. In contrast, few studies have reported on the changes in gingival microcirculation induced by gingival massage, while no previous study has evaluated the effect of gingival microcirculation on age-related changes in the hemodynamics of the oral cavity. This study aimed to investigate how gingival massage affects age-related changes in gingival microcirculation. Male Wistar rats (7-week, 6-month and 1-year old) were prepared for a gingival massage group and a control group. Mechanical stimulation was applied on the maxillary molar gingiva for 5 seconds twice a week for 4 weeks. Subsequently, gingival reactive hyperemia was measured using a laser Doppler flowmeter. In addition, morphological analyses were also performed by hematoxylin and eosin and Indian ink staining and a vascular resin cast model. Base Flow, maximum response (Peak), and time required for the maximum response to halve (T1/2) were reduced in 1-year-old rats compared with the other age groups. In the mechanical stimulated group, T1/2 was increased in 7-week, 6-month, and 1-year-old rats, and total blood flow (Mass) was increased in 6-month and 1-year-old rats. In addition, clear blood vessel networks and loop-like revascularization were only observed in the mechanical stimulated group. Changes in age-related decline in gingival microcirculatory function and vascular construction were reported in this study, and the results suggested that gingival massage activates both the functional and morphological aspects of gingival microcirculation and may be effective for maintaining oral health.


Assuntos
Gengiva/fisiologia , Microcirculação , Estimulação Física/métodos , Envelhecimento , Animais , Gengiva/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
3.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 142(3): 229-238, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and freezing of gait (FOG) present peripheral and central sensitivity disturbances that impair motor performance. This study aimed to investigate long-term effects of plantar sensory stimulation on brain activity, brain connectivity, and gait velocity of individuals with PD and FOG. METHODS: Twenty-five participants were enrolled in this clinical trial (NCT02594540). Plantar sensory stimulation was delivered using the Automated Mechanical Peripheral Stimulation therapy (AMPS). Volunteers were randomly assigned to real or placebo AMPS groups and received eight sessions of treatment. The primary outcome was brain activity (task-based fMRI-active ankle dorsi-plantar flexion). Secondary outcomes were brain connectivity (resting state-RS fMRI) and gait velocity. fMRI was investigated on the left, right, and mid-sensory motor regions, left and right basal ganglia. RESULTS: No changes in brain activity were observed when task-based fMRI was analyzed. After real AMPS, RS functional connectivity between basal ganglia and sensory-related brain areas increased (insular and somatosensory cortices). Gait velocity also increased after real AMPS. A positive correlation was found between gait velocity and the increased connectivity between sensory, motor and supplementary motor cortices. CONCLUSION: Plantar sensory stimulation through AMPS was not able to modify brain activity. AMPS increased the RS brain connectivity mainly in areas related to sensory processing and sensorimotor integration. Plantar stimulation could be a way to improve plantar sensitivity and consequently ameliorate gait performance. However, the mechanisms behind the way AMPS influences brain pathways are still not completely known.


Assuntos
, Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Estimulação Física/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gânglios da Base/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Marcha , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/terapia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(13): 7437-7446, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184331

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies highlight common brain regions and processes in mediating conscious sensory experience. While most studies have been performed in the visual modality, it is implicitly assumed that similar processes are involved in other sensory modalities. However, the existence of supramodal neural processes related to conscious perception has not been convincingly shown so far. Here, we aim to directly address this issue by investigating whether neural correlates of conscious perception in one modality can predict conscious perception in a different modality. In two separate experiments, we presented participants with successive blocks of near-threshold tasks involving subjective reports of tactile, visual, or auditory stimuli during the same magnetoencephalography (MEG) acquisition. Using decoding analysis in the poststimulus period between sensory modalities, our first experiment uncovered supramodal spatiotemporal neural activity patterns predicting conscious perception of the feeble stimulation. Strikingly, these supramodal patterns included activity in primary sensory regions not directly relevant to the task (e.g., neural activity in visual cortex predicting conscious perception of auditory near-threshold stimulation). We carefully replicate our results in a control experiment that furthermore show that the relevant patterns are independent of the type of report (i.e., whether conscious perception was reported by pressing or withholding a button press). Using standard paradigms for probing neural correlates of conscious perception, our findings reveal a common signature of conscious access across sensory modalities and illustrate the temporally late and widespread broadcasting of neural representations, even into task-unrelated primary sensory processing regions.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Estimulação Física/métodos , Tato/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(9): e19386, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118788

RESUMO

Case-control studies have shown that noxious thermal stimulation (TS) can improve arm function in patients with stroke. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this improvement are largely unknown. We explored functional neural activation due to noxious and innocuous TS intervention applied to the paretic arm of patients with stroke. Sixteen participants with unilateral cortical infarctions were allocated to one of two groups: noxious TS (8 patients; temperature combination: hot pain 46°C to 47°C, cold pain 7°C-8°C) or innocuous TS (n = 8; temperature combination: hot 40°C-41°C, cold 20°C-21°C). All subjects underwent fMRI scanning before and after 30 min TS intervention and performed a finger tapping task with the affected hand. Immediate brain activation effects were assessed according to thermal type (noxious vs. innocuous TS) and time (pre-TS vs post-TS). Regions activated by noxious TS relative to innocuous TS (P < .05, adjusted for multiple comparisons) were related to motor performance and sensory function in the bilateral primary somatosensory cortices, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus, hippocampus and unilateral primary motor cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex at the contralateral side of lesion, and unilateral supplementary motor area at the ipsilateral side of lesion. Greater activation responses were observed in the side contralateral to the lesion, suggesting a significant intervention effect. Our preliminary findings suggest that noxious TS may induce neuroplastic changes unconstrained to the local area.Trial registration: NCT01418404.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta/uso terapêutico , Estimulação Física/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Física/instrumentação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/instrumentação
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1202, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988311

RESUMO

Instructions given prior to extinction training facilitate the extinction of conditioned skin conductance (SCRs) and fear-potentiated startle responses (FPSs) and serve as laboratory models for cognitive interventions implemented in exposure-based treatments of pathological anxiety. Here, we investigated how instructions given prior to extinction training, with or without the additional removal of the electrode used to deliver the unconditioned stimulus (US), affect the return of fear assessed 24 hours later. We replicated previous instruction effects on extinction and added that the additional removal of the US electrode slightly enhanced facilitating effects on the extinction of conditioned FPSs. In contrast, extinction instructions hardly affected the return of conditioned fear responses. These findings suggest that instruction effects observed during extinction training do not extent to tests of return of fear 24 hours later which serve as laboratory models of relapse and improvement stability of exposure-based treatments.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Extinção Psicológica , Medo/psicologia , Reforço Verbal , Adolescente , Adulto , Tornozelo , Eletrocardiografia , Eletrodos , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Física/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD011968, 2019 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) is a non-invasive treatment method that can penetrate to deeper structures with painless stimulation to improve motor function in people with physical impairment due to brain or nerve disorders. rPMS for people after stroke has proved to be a feasible approach to improving activities of daily living and functional ability. However, the effectiveness and safety of this intervention for people after stroke currently remain uncertain. This is an update of the review published in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of rPMS in improving activities of daily living and functional ability in people after stroke. SEARCH METHODS: On 7 January 2019, we searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; Embase; the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); PsycINFO; the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED); Occupational Therapy Systematic Evaluation of Evidence (OTseeker); the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro); ICHUSHI Web; and six ongoing trial registries. We screened reference lists, and we contacted experts in the field. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching electronic databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted to assess the therapeutic effect of rPMS for people after stroke. Comparisons eligible for inclusion were (1) active rPMS only compared with 'sham' rPMS (a very weak form of stimulation or a sound only); (2) active rPMS only compared with no intervention; (3) active rPMS plus rehabilitation compared with sham rPMS plus rehabilitation; and (4) active rPMS plus rehabilitation compared with rehabilitation only. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion. The same review authors assessed methods and risk of bias, undertook data extraction, and used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. We contacted trial authors to request unpublished information if necessary. We resolved all disagreements through discussion. MAIN RESULTS: We included four trials (three RCTs and one cross-over trial) involving 139 participants. Blinding of participants and physicians was well reported within all trials. We judged the overall risk of bias across trials as low. Only two trials (with 63 and 18 participants, respectively) provided sufficient information to be included in the meta-analysis. We found no clear effect of rPMS on activities of daily living at the end of treatment (mean difference (MD) -3.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) -16.35 to 10.35; P = 0.66; 1 trial; 63 participants; low-quality evidence) and at the end of follow-up (MD -2.00, 95% CI -14.86 to 10.86; P = 0.76; 1 trial; 63 participants; low-quality evidence) when comparing rPMS plus rehabilitation versus sham plus rehabilitation. We found no statistical difference in improvement of upper limb function at the end of treatment (MD 2.00, 95% CI -4.91 to 8.91; P = 0.57; 1 trial; 63 participants; low-quality evidence) and at the end of follow-up (MD 4.00, 95% CI -2.92 to 10.92; P = 0.26; 1 trial; 63 participants; low-quality evidence) when comparing rPMS plus rehabilitation versus sham plus rehabilitation. We observed a significant decrease in spasticity of the elbow at the end of follow-up (MD -0.48, 95% CI -0.93 to -0.03; P = 0.03; 1 trial; 63 participants; low-quality evidence) when comparing rPMS plus rehabilitation versus sham plus rehabilitation. In terms of muscle strength, rPMS treatment was not associated with improved muscle strength of the ankle dorsiflexors at the end of treatment (MD 3.00, 95% CI -2.44 to 8.44; P = 0.28; 1 trial; 18 participants; low-quality evidence) when compared with sham rPMS. No studies provided information on lower limb function or adverse events, including death. Based on the GRADE approach, we judged the quality of evidence related to the primary outcome as low, owing to the small sample size of the studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Available trials provided insufficient evidence to permit any conclusions about routine use of rPMS for people after stroke. Additional trials with large sample sizes are needed to provide robust evidence for rPMS after stroke.


Assuntos
Terapia de Campo Magnético/métodos , Espasticidade Muscular/reabilitação , Estimulação Física/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas , Humanos , Força Muscular , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Trials ; 20(1): 783, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in infants and needs to be diagnosed quickly. However, the symptoms are non-specific, and diagnosis can only be confirmed after high quality urinalysis. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends suprapubic aspiration (1-9% contamination) and urinary catheterization (8-14% contamination) for urine collection but both these procedures are invasive. Recent studies have shown a new non-invasive method of collecting urine, bladder stimulation, to be quick and safe. However, few data about bacterial contamination rates have been published for this technique. We hypothesize that the contamination rate of urine collection by bladder stimulation to diagnose febrile UTI in infants under 6 months is equivalent to that of urinary catheterization. METHODS/DESIGN: This trial aims to assess equivalence in terms of bacterial contamination of urinary samples collected by urinary catheterization and bladder stimulation to diagnose UTI. Seven hundred seventy infants under 6 months presenting with unexplained fever in one of four Pediatric Emergency Departments in France will be enrolled. Each child will be randomized into a bladder stimulation or urinary catheterization group. The primary endpoints will be the validity of the urine sample assessed by the presence of contamination on bacterial culture. CONCLUSION: A high recruitment rate is achievable due to the high prevalence of suspected UTIs in infants. The medical risk is the same as that for routine clinical care as we analyze patients with isolated fever. If our hypothesis holds true and the rate of urine contamination collected by bladder stimulation is acceptable, the infants included in the study will have benefited from a non-invasive and reliable means of collecting urine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03801213. Registered on 11 January 2019.


Assuntos
Estimulação Física/métodos , Cateterismo Urinário/métodos , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Coleta de Urina/métodos , Urina/microbiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Urinálise/métodos , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia
9.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 32(12): 568-573, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of an intervention involving muscular ankle strengthening and feet sensory stimuli to improve gait speed and balance in older adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). DESIGN: A clinical trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding, and intention-to-treat analysis. PARTICIPANTS: The trial enrolled 66 people 60 years or older with DM2 who were physically independent (did not require assistance with activities of daily living). INTERVENTION: The experimental group performed 12 weeks of plantiflexor and dorsiflexor muscle strengthening exercises with resistance bands, proprioceptive exercises on balance boards and a buoy, and plantar sensory stimulation with bristle brushes and cloths, as well as general foot care instructions. The control group received foot care instructions only. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was plantar cutaneous sensibility as measured with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. Secondary outcomes included muscular strength (plantar flexion and dorsiflexion torque as measured with an isokinetic dynamometer), gait speed, and balance (total displacement area, mediolateral displacement, anteroposterior displacement, mediolateral displacement speed, and anteroposterior displacement speed) on right and left bipedal and unipedal supports. RESULTS: In comparison with the control group, the experimental group demonstrated improved plantar cutaneous sensibility on the right foot (3.46 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-9.80), left foot (3.46 points; 95% CI, 4.06-9.76), and an increase in gait speed (0.15 m/s; 95% CI 0.12-0.42). There were no meaningful changes in participants' ankle muscle strength or balance. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that plantar cutaneous sensory stimulation can improve foot sensibility and increase the gait speed of older adults with DM2. However, there were no meaningful dorsiflexor or plantiflexor gains after 12 weeks.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Estimulação Física/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Intervalos de Confiança , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Valores de Referência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Velocidade de Caminhada
10.
Dev Period Med ; 23(3): 178-183, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To study the effect of therapeutic intervention on the improvement of the rhythmicity of non-nutritive and nutritive sucking in premature newborns and on the suck central pattern generator. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: Stimulation of the breast zone was performed in two premature newborns by means of the Vojta method. Intraoral pressure was measured during non-nutritive and nutritive sucking before and after this therapeutic intervention. The maximum negative pressures generated during individual sucks and the intervals between sucks were analysed. RESULTS: Results: The stimulation of the breast zone using the Vojta method seems to have no impact on the duration of individual sucking episodes. However, a significant improvement in the rhythmicity and regularity of sucking was observed in both newborns: the coefficient of quartile deviation for the intervals decreased from 15% and 11% to 13% and 6%, respectively, and for the maximum negative pressures it decreased from 24% and 27% to 9% and 19%, respectively. Additionally, the median value of the maximum negative pressure decreased in both newborns: from -39 and -37 mmHg to -45 and -60 mmHg, respectively. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The stimulation of the breast zone using the Vojta method seems to have a direct impact on the central pattern generator, which improves the rhythmicity as well as the regularity of both non-nutritive and nutritive sucking.


Assuntos
Geradores de Padrão Central/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Estimulação Física/métodos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Comportamento de Sucção/fisiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
11.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3176, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to measure the effect of an infant stimulation therapy (auditory, tactile, visual and vestibular) on the adaptation to postnatal life of the mother-child dyad. METHOD: an experimental and blind study composed of 120 dyads of first-time mothers and full-term newborns, who practiced breastfeeding. The follow-up was conducted during the first five weeks of life and the evaluation was carried at two different times. RESULTS: the adaptive capacity was measured in two modes. The physiological adaptive mode (activity and exercise and neonatal nutrition) and the interdependence adaptive mode (appropriate affection and proper development); and statistically significant differences were found in favor of the experimental group. Regression models that show the collaborative relationship between mother and child, and their reciprocity in the process of adaptation were proposed. CONCLUSION: the early stimulation is a therapy with bidirectional effect, because it has favorable effects on the person who administers it; promotes health and prevents illness in the process of adaptation to birth; especially in contexts of vulnerability. It is recommended its teaching to mothers and its application in the home environment. This study was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ANZCTR) under protocol number: ACTRN12617000449336.


Assuntos
Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Estimulação Física/métodos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/normas , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estresse Psicológico
12.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 209: 106149, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514934

RESUMO

The study was conducted to determine effects of biostimulation of Sahiwal heifers through fenceline bull contact and fenceline combined with direct bull contact on oestrous behaviour when there was ovulation occurring in the absence of behavioural oestrus ("silent oestrus - SE) and overt behavioural oestrus (OBE). Prepubertal Sahiwal heifers were allotted to three treatments (T0, T1, T2, n = 8 heifers/treatment). In the T0 group, there was no bull exposure; in T1, exposure to a bull through fenceline contact for 24 h and in T2, exposure to a bull as in T1 along with direct bull contact with another bull for a 6 -h period daily. The oestrous behaviours were recorded on day (d) -3, -2 and -1 (prior to oestrus), d 0 (day of oestrus) and d +3, +2 and +1 (post-estrus). With both SE and OBE, the mean frequency of sniffing, micturition, chin resting and standing to be mounted differed (P <  0.05) from d -2 to d +1 among treatment groups. The mean times devoted to eating, ruminating and lying during SE and OBE were less (P <  0.05) on d-1 and d 0 in heifers of all three groups than the respective values on reference days in both T1 and T2 groups. Biostimulation of Sahiwal heifers with bull exposure, therefore, resulted in greater expression of oestrous behaviour than in non-exposed heifers during the periods around when there was SE and OBE.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Estro/fisiologia , Estimulação Física , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estimulação Física/métodos , Gravidez , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102900, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400650

RESUMO

There are many similarities and differences between the human hands and feet. On a psychological level, there is some evidence from clinical disorders and studies of tactile localisation in healthy adults for deep functional connections between the hands and feet. One form these connections may take is in common high-level mental representations of the hands and feet. Previous studies have shown that there are systematic, but distinct patterns of confusion found between both the fingers and toes. Further, there are clear individual differences between people in the exact patterns of mislocalisations. Here, we investigated whether these idiosyncratic differences in tactile localisation are shared between the fingers and toes, which may indicate a shared high-level representation. We obtained confusion matrices showing the pattern of mislocalisation on the hairy skin surfaces of both the fingers and toes. Using a decoding approach, we show that idiosyncratic differences in individuals' pattern of confusions are shared across the fingers and toes, despite different overall patterns of confusions. These results suggest that there is a common representation of the fingers and toes.


Assuntos
Dedos/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Dedos do Pé/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Física/métodos
14.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(17): 5011-5028, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397966

RESUMO

Modeling and experimental parameters influence the Electro- (EEG) and Magnetoencephalography (MEG) source analysis of the somatosensory P20/N20 component. In a sensitivity group study, we compare P20/N20 source analysis due to different stimulation type (Electric-Wrist [EW], Braille-Tactile [BT], or Pneumato-Tactile [PT]), measurement modality (combined EEG/MEG - EMEG, EEG, or MEG) and head model (standard or individually skull-conductivity calibrated including brain anisotropic conductivity). Considerable differences between pairs of stimulation types occurred (EW-BT: 8.7 ± 3.3 mm/27.1° ± 16.4°, BT-PT: 9 ± 5 mm/29.9° ± 17.3°, and EW-PT: 9.8 ± 7.4 mm/15.9° ± 16.5° and 75% strength reduction of BT or PT when compared to EW) regardless of the head model used. EMEG has nearly no localization differences to MEG, but large ones to EEG (16.1 ± 4.9 mm), while source orientation differences are non-negligible to both EEG (14° ± 3.7°) and MEG (12.5° ± 10.9°). Our calibration results show a considerable inter-subject variability (3.1-14 mS/m) for skull conductivity. The comparison due to different head model show localization differences smaller for EMEG (EW: 3.4 ± 2.4 mm, BT: 3.7 ± 3.4 mm, and PT: 5.9 ± 6.8 mm) than for EEG (EW: 8.6 ± 8.3 mm, BT: 11.8 ± 6.2 mm, and PT: 10.5 ± 5.3 mm), while source orientation differences for EMEG (EW: 15.4° ± 6.3°, BT: 25.7° ± 15.2° and PT: 14° ± 11.5°) and EEG (EW: 14.6° ± 9.5°, BT: 16.3° ± 11.1° and PT: 12.9° ± 8.9°) are in the same range. Our results show that stimulation type, modality and head modeling all have a non-negligible influence on the source reconstruction of the P20/N20 component. The complementary information of both modalities in EMEG can be exploited on the basis of detailed and individualized head models.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados/fisiologia , Magnetoencefalografia , Estimulação Física/métodos , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Crânio , Córtex Somatossensorial/diagnóstico por imagem , Tato , Adulto Jovem
16.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 198: 102874, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299458

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated a tactile Simon effect in which stimulus codes are generated based on the stimulated hand, not on limb position in external space (the somatotopic Simon effect). However, given evidence from visual Simon effect studies demonstrating that multiple stimulus codes can be generated for a single stimulus, we examined whether multiple stimulus codes can be generated for tactile stimuli as well. In our first experiment using four stimulators (two on each side of the hand), we found novel evidence for a hand-centered Simon effect, along with the typical somatotopic Simon effect. Next, we examined whether the potential salience of these somatotopic codes could be reduced, by testing only one hand with two stimulators attached. In Experiments 2-4, we found a strong hand-centered Simon effect with a diminished somatotopic Simon effect, providing evidence that stimulus salience can change the weighting of somatosensory stimulus coding. Finally, we also found novel evidence that the hand-centered Simon effect is coded in external, not somatotopic, coordinates. Furthermore, the diminished somatotopic Simon effect when testing on one hand only provides evidence that salience is an important factor in modulating the tactile Simon effect.


Assuntos
Mãos/fisiologia , Estimulação Física/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Somatosens Mot Res ; 36(2): 162-170, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267810

RESUMO

The development of an easy to implement, quantitative measure to examine vibration perception would be useful for future application in clinical settings. Vibration sense in the lower limb of younger and older adults was examined using the method of constant stimuli (MCS) and the two-alternative forced choice paradigm. The focus of this experiment was to determine an appropriate stimulation site on the lower limb (tendon versus bone) to assess vibration threshold and to determine if the left and right legs have varying thresholds. Discrimination thresholds obtained at two stimulation sites in the left and right lower limbs showed differences in vibration threshold across the two ages groups, but not across sides of the body nor between stimulation sites within each limb. Overall, the MCS can be implemented simply, reliably, and with minimal time. It can also easily be implemented with low-cost technology. Therefore, it could be a good candidate method to assess the presence of specific deep sensitivity deficits in clinical practice, particularly in populations likely to show the onset of sensory deficits.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Vibração , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Física/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Emerg Nurs ; 45(5): 502-511, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257044

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Procedural pain in general, and intramuscular (IM) injection pain in particular, is one of the most distressing and painful health care experiences for children. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods are used as forms of pain control for children undergoing acute painful interventions in emergency departments. METHODS: This study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial. The sample consisted of children aged 5 to 10 years old who required IM injections. Children were placed in 4 subgroups through randomization, using a computer program: the Buzzy (MMJ Labs. Atlanta, GA) group (n = 40), the ShotBlocker (Bionix Development Corporation, Toledo, OH) group (n = 40), the bubble-blowing group (n = 40), and the control group (n = 40). Immediately before and after the injection, the children, their parents, and an observer were asked to evaluate the child's level of fear. The Oucher scale was also employed by the observers, children, and parents immediately after the procedure to assess the level of pain in the children in each group. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was determined between the control and intervention groups in terms gender, age, previous pain experienced with injection, the parent who was with the child, the parent's age. A significant difference was found between the intervention and control groups in terms of levels of pain and fear during IM injection. Pain and fear were notably less in the group of children receiving the Buzzy intervention. DISCUSSION: The Buzzy intervention should be used when children are undergoing IM injections to reduce their levels of pain and fear.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Medo/psicologia , Dor/prevenção & controle , Dor/psicologia , Pediatria/métodos , Estimulação Física/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Gelo , Injeções Intramusculares/efeitos adversos , Injeções Intramusculares/psicologia , Masculino , Dor/etiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Vibração/uso terapêutico
19.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(8): 2075-2086, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175382

RESUMO

Body-machine interfaces (BMIs) provide a non-invasive way to control devices. Vibrotactile stimulation has been used by BMIs to provide performance feedback to the user, thereby reducing visual demands. To advance the goal of developing a compact, multivariate vibrotactile display for BMIs, we performed two psychophysical experiments to determine the acuity of vibrotactile perception across the arm. The first experiment assessed vibration intensity discrimination of sequentially presented stimuli within four dermatomes of the arm (C5, C7, C8, and T1) and on the ulnar head. The second experiment compared vibration intensity discrimination when pairs of vibrotactile stimuli were presented simultaneously vs. sequentially within and across dermatomes. The first experiment found a small but statistically significant difference between dermatomes C7 and T1, but discrimination thresholds at the other three locations did not differ. Thus, while all tested dermatomes of the arm and hand could serve as viable sites of vibrotactile stimulation for a practical BMI, ideal implementations should account for small differences in perceptual acuity across dermatomes. The second experiment found that sequential delivery of vibrotactile stimuli resulted in better intensity discrimination than simultaneous delivery, independent of whether the pairs were located within the same dermatome or across dermatomes. Taken together, our results suggest that the arm may be a viable site to transfer multivariate information via vibrotactile feedback for body-machine interfaces. However, user training may be needed to overcome the perceptual disadvantage of simultaneous vs. sequentially presented stimuli.


Assuntos
Braço/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Vibração , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Física/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 57(8): 1813-1822, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197752

RESUMO

Studies have reported the benefits of sensory noise in motor performance, but it is not clear if this phenomenon is influenced by muscle contraction intensity. Additionally, most of the studies investigated the role of a stochastic noise on the improvement of motor control and there is no evidence that a sinusoidal vibrotactile stimulation could also enhance motor performance. Eleven participants performed a sensorimotor task while sinusoidal vibrations were applied to the finger skin. The effects of an optimal vibration (OV) on force steadiness were evaluated in different contraction intensities. We assessed the standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CoV) of force signals. OV significantly decreased force SD irrespective of contraction intensity, but the decrease in force CoV was significantly higher for low-intensity contraction. To the best of our knowledge, our findings are the first evidence that sinusoidal vibrotactile stimulation can enhance force steadiness in a motor task. Also, the significant improvement caused by OV during low-intensity contractions is probably due to the higher sensitivity of the motor system to the synaptic noise. These results add to the current knowledge on the effects of vibrotactile stimulation in motor control and have potential implications for the development of wearable haptic devices. Graphical abstract In this work the effects of a sinusoidal vibrotactile stimulation on force steadiness was investigated. Index finger sensorimotor tasks were performed in three levels of isometric contraction of the FDI muscle: 5, 10 and 15 %MVC. An optimal level of vibration significantly improved force steadiness, but the decrease in force CoV caused by vibration was more pronounced in contractions at 5 %MVC.


Assuntos
Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Estimulação Física/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Dedos , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor , Vibração
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