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1.
Gene ; 726: 144136, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629817

RESUMO

Chronic systolic heart failure (CSHF) was a complex syndrome. Recently, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), a novel treatment method, has emerged for the treatment of CSHF. therefore the aim of this study was to explore the possible mechanism of VNS treatment alleviating CSHF in rats. Firstly, we found after VNS treatment for 72 h, the level of B-type natriuretic peptide in VNS group was lower than that in CSHF group. In addition, VNS treatment induced the elevated left ventricular ejection fraction level, reduced left ventricular end diastolic volume and left ventricular end systolic volume level in VNS group, suggesting a mitigation of CSHF by VNS. Then we found the level of miR-183-3p in CSHF group was much lower than that in VNS group by High-throughput sequencing. The further results indicated that Bcl-2 interacting protein 3 like (BNIP3L) was identified as the target gene of miR-183-3p, and the expression of BNIP3L was notably reduced in rats of VNS group compared with CSHF group. Moreover, the down-regulated expression of miR-183-3p increased BNIP3L-mediated autophagy in rats of CSHF group compared with VNS group. Further mechanism findings demonstrated that up-regulation of miR-183-3p reduced the expression of BNIP3L, while down-regulation of miR-183-3p facilitated the expression of BNIP3L in H9c2 cells. miR-183-3p could also regulate autophagy by targeting BNIP3L in vitro, which was manifested by overexpression of miR-183-3p to inhibit BNIP3L-mediated autophagy. Our data demonstrated that VNS treatment benefited CSHF via the up-regulation of miRNA-183-3p, which reduced the BNIP3L-mediated autophagy, providing a new therapeutic direction for CSHF.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética , Animais , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Volume Sistólico/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/genética
2.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 36(6): 437-442, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688327

RESUMO

Invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approved treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy. Besides recognized clinical efficacy in about 60% of patients, there are major drawbacks such as invasiveness and common side effects including hoarseness, sore throat, shortness of breath, and coughing. Invasive VNS applies electrical stimulation to the left cervical branch of the vagus nerve and excites thick-myelinated afferent nerve fibers. Peripheral vagus nerve afferent volley initiates brainstem activity in the nucleus of the solitary tract and provokes typical brainstem and cerebral activation patterns that mediate the anticonvulsive mode of action. Whereas invasive VNS is an established neuromodulatory treatment in drug-resistant epilepsy, transcutaneous VNS (tVNS) of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve is suggested to be an alternative access path to the same neuronal network without invasiveness. Preclinical and clinical studies indicate that especially the cymba conchae of the auricle is selectively supplied by the auricular branch of the vagus nerve. Recent anatomical data demonstrate existence and quantity of thick-myelinated afferent nerve fibers of the left auricular branch of the vagus nerve that carries 21% of thick-myelinated afferent nerve fibers counted in the left thoracic vagus nerve in humans. Projection of auricular branch of the vagus nerve afferents from the auricle to the nucleus of the solitary tract is known from histochemical and electrophysiological experiments in rodents and confirmed in humans by functional imaging. Cerebral activation patterns triggered by invasive and tVNS resemble each other in appearance. Clinical trials in patients address safety and performance of tVNS and provide evidence for application in drug-resistant epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/terapia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Animais , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Nervo Vago/fisiologia
3.
Presse Med ; 48(12): 1507-1519, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767248

RESUMO

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an old, yet new, option for treatment-resistant depression. Despite several clinical trials over the last 15 years showing a consistent benefit-risk balance of the technic, VNS still struggles to find its place in our therapeutic algorithms. This is especially true in France, where only a few surgeries have been performed nationwide, all in the last year. The reasons behind this lag are manifolds; (1) psychiatrists usually do not consider surgical treatments, even when they are minimally invasive and reversible, (2) early VNS trials stumbled on methodological difficulties that are common to all invasive neurostimulation technics, and initially failed to provide strong evidence for its efficacy, and (3) VNS requires multidisciplinary teams involving psychiatrists and neurosurgeons that did not exist then. Nevertheless, studies of the past twenty years support VNS as a treatment of depression endowed with a unique efficacy profile: a long runner best at maintaining remission in hard-to-stabilize depression, even in the context of ECT withdrawal, and irrespective of whether it is unipolar or bipolar. Thus, VNS potentially addresses the unmet medical needs of some of the most severe and chronic patients with depression. This review aims at introducing VNS as a treatment option for depression, summarizing available evidence for its efficacy and tolerance, and delineating patient profiles that might benefit the most of such treatment.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/efeitos adversos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/tendências
4.
Neurology ; 93(18): e1715-e1719, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report on the benefits of noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) on acute vestibular migraine (VM) treatment. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of patients with VM treated with nVNS in a single tertiary referral center between November 2017 and January 2019. Eighteen patients (16 women) were identified (mean age 45.7 [±14.8] years); 14 were treated for a VM attack and 4 for bothersome interictal dizziness consistent with persistent perceptual postural dizziness (PPPD). Patients graded the severity of vestibular symptoms and headache using an 11-point visual analog scale (VAS; 0 = no symptoms, 10 = worst ever symptoms) before and 15 minutes after nVNS. RESULTS: In those with acute VM, vertigo improved in 13/14 (complete resolution in 2, at least 50% improvement in 5). The mean vertigo intensity before nVNS was 5.2 (±1.6; median 6), and 3.1 (±2.2; median 3) following stimulation; mean reduction in vertigo intensity was 46.9% (±31.5; median 45%). Five experienced headache with the VM attack; all reported improvement following nVNS. Mean headache severity was 6 (±1.4; median 6) prior to treatment and 2.4 (±1.5; median 3) following nVNS; mean reduction in headache intensity was 63.3% (±21.7; median 50). All 4 treated with nVNS for interictal PPPD reported no benefit. CONCLUSION: Our study provides preliminary evidence that nVNS may provide rapid relief of vertigo and headache in acute VM, and supports further randomized, sham-controlled studies into nVNS in VM. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with acute VM, nVNS rapidly relieves vertigo and headache.


Assuntos
Cefaleia/terapia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Vertigem/terapia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Cefaleia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vertigem/fisiopatologia , Doenças Vestibulares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Vestibulares/terapia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg ; 97(3): 176-182, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533117

RESUMO

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has provided new treatment options for refractory epilepsy; however, treatment outcomes of DBS in refractory epilepsy patients previously treated with vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) have not been clarified. Herein, treatment outcomes of DBS of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT-DBS) in patients who had previously experienced VNS failure are reported. Seven patients who had previously experienced VNS failure underwent ANT-DBS device implantation. VNS was turned off before DBS device implantation. Monthly seizure counts starting from baseline to 12-18 months after DBS were analyzed. Five (71.3%) of the 7 patients experienced a >50% reduction of seizure counts after DBS; 1 responder reached a seizure-free status after DBS therapy. Of the 2 nonresponders, 1 subject showed improvement in seizure strength and duration, which lessened the impact of the seizures on the patient's quality of life. This is the first study in which favorable outcomes of ANT-DBS surgery were observed in individual patients with refractory epilepsy who had not responded to prior VNS. Further studies with a larger number of subjects and longer follow-up period are needed to confirm the feasibility of ANT-DBS in patients who have previously experienced VNS failure.


Assuntos
Núcleos Anteriores do Tálamo/fisiologia , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/terapia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Adulto , Criança , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
World Neurosurg ; 131: 191-193, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation is a palliative treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy; however, the misplacement of electrodes may cause complications and thus needs to be avoided. METHODS: We herein report an intraoperative monitoring technique to prevent the misplacement of electrodes. Endotracheal tube electrodes were inserted to record electromyographic activity from the vocal cords and identify the vagus nerve. Electromyography electrodes were placed on the sternomastoid muscle, sternohyoid muscle, geniohyoid muscle, and trapezius muscle to record muscle activities innervated by the ansa cervicalis. The vagus nerve and ansa cervicalis were electrically stimulated during surgery, and electromyography of the vocal cords and muscles innervated by the ansa cervicalis was recorded. The threshold of vagus nerve activation ranged between 0.05 and 0.75 mA. RESULTS: The vagus nerve was successfully identified and differentiated from the nerve root of the ansa cervicalis using this technique. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative monitoring of the vagus nerve and ansa cervicalis is useful for safe and effective vagus nerve stimulation.


Assuntos
Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória , Estimulação do Nervo Vago , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia , Nervo Vago/cirurgia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Prega Vocal/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Clin Neurosci ; 68: 13-19, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375306

RESUMO

Implantable neurostimulation devices provide a direct therapeutic link to the nervous system and can be considered brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Under this definition, BCI are not simply science fiction, they are part of existing neurosurgical practice. Clinical BCI are standard of care for historically difficult to treat neurological disorders. These systems target the central and peripheral nervous system and include Vagus Nerve Stimulation, Responsive Neurostimulation, and Deep Brain Stimulation. Recent advances in clinical BCI have focused on creating "closed-loop" systems. These systems rely on biomarker feedback and promise individualized therapy with optimal stimulation delivery and minimal side effects. Success of clinical BCI has paralleled research efforts to create BCI that restore upper extremity motor and sensory function to patients. Efforts to develop closed loop motor/sensory BCI is linked to the successes of today's clinical BCI.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador/tendências , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/tendências , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/tendências , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/instrumentação , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Humanos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/instrumentação , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos
8.
Brain Stimul ; 12(6): 1448-1455, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug use causes the formation of strong cue/reward associations which persist long after cessation of drug-taking and contribute to the long-term risk of relapse. Extinguishing these associations may reduce cue-induced craving and relapse. Previously, we found that pairing vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with extinction of cocaine self-administration reduces cue-induced reinstatement; however, it remains unclear whether this was primarily caused by extinguishing the context, the instrumental response, or both. OBJECTIVE: Hypothesis: We hypothesized that VNS can facilitate the extinction of both contextual cues and instrumental responding. METHODS: Extinction of context was first tested using Pavlovian conditioned place preference (CPP). Next, the impact of VNS on the extinction of instrumental responding was assessed under ABA and AAA context conditions. In each extinction context separate groups of rats were either provided the opportunity to perform the instrumental response, or the levers were retracted for the duration of extinction training. Reinstatement was induced by reintroduction of the conditioned stimuli and/or the drug-paired context. Data were analyzed using one-way or two-way repeated measures ANOVAs. RESULTS: VNS during extinction reduced reinstatement of CPP. VNS also reduced cue- and context-induced reinstatement of the instrumental response under both AAA and ABA conditions. The subjects' ability to engage with the lever during extinction was crucial for this effect. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. CONCLUSIONS: Craving occurs in response to a range of conditioned stimuli and contexts; VNS may improve outcomes of behavioral therapy by facilitating extinction of both an instrumental response and/or contextual cues.


Assuntos
Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Fissura/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Animais , Condicionamento Clássico/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Fissura/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recompensa , Autoadministração , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/tendências
9.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 16(8): 675-682, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306049

RESUMO

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are accompanied by autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance which is characterized by decreased vagal tone. Preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that increasing vagal activity via vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) could protect the heart. Based on these studies, VNS has emerged as a potential non-pharmaceutical treatment strategy. Although it's still difficult to find the optimal stimulus parameters, however, in arrhythmia model, it is reported that low-level VNS (LL-VNS) exacts paradoxical effects from the high-level VNS. Thus, the concept of LL-VNS is introduced. Areas covered: Animal and human studies have discussed the safety and efficacy of VNS and LL-VNS, and this review will discuss the research data in cardiovascular diseases, including atrial arrhythmia, ventricular arrhythmia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, heart failure, and hypertension. Expert opinion: In this regard, various clinical studies have been performed to verify the safety and efficacy of VNS. It is shown that VNS is well-tolerated and safe, but the results of its efficacy are conflicting, which may well block the translational process of VNS. The appearance of LL-VNS brings new idea and inspiration, suggesting an important role of subthreshold stimulation. A better understanding of the LL-VNS will contribute to translational research of VNS.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia
10.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 33(4): 101285, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221571

RESUMO

The advent of continuous vagus stimulation (CVS), eliminating lag time between nerve preparation with potential trauma and stimulation, has transformed the intraoperative surgical strategy in thyroid surgery. Continuous intraoperative nerve monitoring empowers the surgeon to be optimally aware of traction-related injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Electromyographic precursor lesions, called combined events, prompt surgeons to cease harmful surgical maneuvers and release the nerve before damage to the nerve is established. Complete RLN recovery, defined as restitution of the nerve amplitude to ≥50% of baseline, assures the surgeon that it is safe to pursue completion surgery of the contralateral side in one procedure. If this restitution is incomplete or absent (<50% of amplitude baseline) immediate vocal cord paralysis is likely and it is advisable to delay completion surgery until the nerve has fully recovered. This review summarizes the tremendous progress made in this dynamic field, delineating the extent to which CVS has changed the landscape: tailoring intraoperative decision making to determine the safest course of action for patients with benign goiter.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Bócio/cirurgia , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/métodos , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos do Nervo Laríngeo Recorrente/etiologia , Traumatismos do Nervo Laríngeo Recorrente/prevenção & controle , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos
11.
Neurology ; 93(5): e518-e521, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether high placebo effects observed in recently published clinical noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation (nVNS) trials can be attributed to an active modulation of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex by the sham device. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy participants were investigated in a randomized, controlled, single-blind, within-participant design. The 4 different conditions of no stimulation, regular nVNS of the left cervical vagal nerve, stimulation of the posterior neck with the same device (sham I), and stimulation of the left cervical vagal nerve with a sham device (sham II) were applied in randomized order. Parasympathetic output (lacrimation) was provoked with kinetic oscillation stimulation (KOS) of the nasal mucosa. Lacrimation was quantified with the Schirmer II test, an objective measure of lacrimal secretion after local anesthesia, and the difference between baseline and KOS-induced lacrimation served as a measure of autonomic output. RESULTS: nVNS treatment resulted in a significant reduction of ipsilateral KOS-induced lacrimation compared to no stimulation (p = 0.003) and sham I (p = 0.02). A similar effect was observed for sham II (p = 0.003, p = 0.001). There was no significant difference between nVNS and sham II. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that both the regular nVNS and the sham device used in some of the clinical nVNS trials modulate the trigeminal-autonomic reflex. This could explain the high sham effect in these trials and suggests that stimulation of the posterior neck may be considered as a real sham condition.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/fisiologia , Placebos , Reflexo/fisiologia , Lágrimas/fisiologia , Nervo Trigêmeo/fisiologia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 9549506, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205591

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) plays a protective role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of various organs. The present study investigates the protective effect of VNS on hepatic I/R injury and the potential mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three groups: the sham operation group (Sham; n = 6, sham surgery with sham VNS); the I/R group (n = 6, hepatic I/R surgery with sham VNS); and the VNS group (n = 6, hepatic I/R surgery plus VNS). The I/R model was established by 1 hour of 70% hepatic ischemia. Tissue samples and blood samples were collected after 6 hours of reperfusion. The left cervical vagus nerve was separated and stimulated throughout the whole I/R process. The stimulus intensity was standardized to the voltage level that slowed the sinus rate by 10%. VNS significantly reduced the necrotic area and cell death in I/R tissues. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were also decreased by VNS. In addition, VNS suppressed inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in I/R tissues. VNS significantly increased the protein levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the liver. These data indicated that VNS may attenuate hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis possibly via the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Animais , Apoptose , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/genética , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
13.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 101(6): 432-435, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155893

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Automatic periodic stimulation of the vagal nerve during thyroidectomy provides real-time feedback of recurrent laryngeal nerve function intraoperatively. To assess the validity of this device, the ability of monitoring to predict recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy was determined and the incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy recorded. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All thyroidectomies using APS® (Automatic Periodic Stimulation, Medtronic) nerve monitoring were reviewed over a 27-month period. Changes in signal amplitude and latency during thyroidectomy were recorded from saved data. Postoperative fibreoptic laryngoscopy determined the incidence of vocal cord immobility and recovery of nerve function was assessed from follow-up letters. RESULTS: A total of 256 at-risk nerves were examined (132 hemi- and 62 total thyroidectomies) in cases involving benign and malignant disease. Permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy occurred in six (2.3%) lobectomies and transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy occurred in two lobectomies (< 1%). Sensitivity for detecting postoperative vocal cord immobility was 100% and specificity 85% if the end amplitude was 50% below baseline. The positive predictive value when amplitude was 50% below baseline was 18%. The negative predictive value when amplitude was 50% above or equal to baseline was 100%. Intraoperatively, the amplitude was 50% below baseline more frequently in the vocal cord immobility group (t-test, P < 0.015). No vagal nerve complications occurred. CONCLUSION: Whilst the incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy is comparable to rates in the literature, the incidence of transient palsy is lower than published averages. APS is able to reliably predict recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy based on end amplitude.


Assuntos
Nervos Laríngeos/fisiologia , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/fisiopatologia , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/prevenção & controle
15.
Brain Stimul ; 12(4): 835-844, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), Vagal Nerve Stimulation (VNS), Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are neuromodulation therapies that have been used to treat Status Epilepticus (SE). OBJECTIVE: Review the literature about the efficacy and safety of neuromodulation therapies in SE in humans. METHODS: We searched studies in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Science Direct (inception to June 2018). Four review authors independently selected the studies, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the studies using the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, PRISMA guidelines, Oxford and GRADE scales, and Murad et al., 2018 methodological quality and synthesis of case series and case reports. RESULTS: We analyzed 27 articles (45 patients) with 4 different neuromodulation therapies. In ECT we found 80% rate of disruption of SE and 5% of adverse events was reported. Using iVNS 15/16 (93.7%) patients resolved the SE. All patients who underwent TMS and DBS aborted SE, however, 50% of patients with DBS had severe adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Case series and case reports suggest that neuromodulation therapies can abort SE in 80-100% of patients (Oxford scale and GRADE were level 4 and D) with a wide range of adverse effects, which claims for prospective studies on the relationship be-tween efficacy and safety.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Estado Epiléptico/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Humanos , Neurotransmissores/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estado Epiléptico/diagnóstico
16.
Brain Stimul ; 12(5): 1101-1110, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126871

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is the persistence of status epilepticus despite second-line treatment. Super-refractory SE (SRSE) is characterized by ongoing status despite 48 h of anaesthetic treatment. Due to the high case fatality in RSE of 16-39%, off label treatments without strong evidence of efficacy in RSE are often administered. In single case-reports and small case series totalling 28 patients, acute implantation of VNS in RSE was associated with 76% and 26% success rate in generalized and focal RSE respectively. We performed an updated systematic review of the literature on efficacy of VNS in RSE/SRSE by including all reported patients. METHODS: We systematically searched EMBASE, CENTRAL, Opengre.eu, and ClinicalTrials.gov, and PubMed databases to identify studies reporting the use of VNS for RSE and/or SRSE. We also searched conference abstracts from AES and ILAE meetings. RESULTS: 45 patients were identified in total of which 38 were acute implantations of VNS in RSE/SRSE. Five cases had VNS implantation for epilepsia partialis continua, one for refractory electrical status epilepticus in sleep and one for acute encephalitis with refractory repetitive focal seizures. Acute VNS implantation was associated with cessation of RSE/SRSE in 74% (28/38) of acute cases. Cessation did not occur in 18% (7/38) of cases and four deaths were reported (11%); all of them due to the underlying disease and unlikely related to VNS implantation. Median duration of the RSE/SRSE episode pre and post VNS implantation was 18 days (range: 3-1680 days) and 8 days (range: 3-84 days) respectively. Positive outcomes occurred in 82% (31/38) of cases. CONCLUSION: VNS can interrupt RSE and SRSE in 74% of patients; data originate from reported studies classified as level IV and the risk for reporting bias is high. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate acute VNS in RSE and SRSE.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/terapia , Estado Epiléptico/diagnóstico , Estado Epiléptico/terapia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono/fisiologia , Estado Epiléptico/fisiopatologia
17.
Brain Stimul ; 12(5): 1151-1158, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrical stimulation on select areas of the external auricular dermatome influences the autonomic nervous system. It has been postulated that activation of the Auricular Branch of the Vagus Nerve (ABVN) mediates such autonomic changes. However, the underlying neural pathways mediating these effects are unknown and, further, our understanding of the anatomical distribution of the ABVN in the auricle has now been questioned. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of electrical stimulation of the tragus on autonomic outputs in the rat and probe the underlying neural pathways. METHODS: Central neuronal projections from nerves innervating the external auricle were investigated by injections of the transganglionic tracer cholera toxin B chain (CTB) into the right tragus of Wistar rats. Physiological recordings of heart rate, perfusion pressure, respiratory rate and sympathetic nerve activity were made in an anaesthetic free Working Heart Brainstem Preparation (WHBP) of the rat and changes in response to electrical stimulation of the tragus analysed. RESULTS: Neuronal tracing from the tragus revealed that the densest CTB labelling was within laminae III-IV of the dorsal horn of the upper cervical spinal cord, ipsilateral to the injection sites. In the medulla oblongata, CTB labelled afferents were observed in the paratrigeminal nucleus, spinal trigeminal tract and cuneate nucleus. Surprisingly, only sparse labelling was observed in the vagal afferent termination site, the nucleus tractus solitarius. Recordings made from rats at night time revealed more robust sympathetic activity in comparison to day time rats, thus subsequent experiments were conducted in rats at night time. Electrical stimulation was delivered across the tragus for 5 min. Direct recording from the sympathetic chain revealed a central sympathoinhibition by up to 36% following tragus stimulation. Sympathoinhibition remained following sectioning of the cervical vagus nerve ipsilateral to the stimulation site, but was attenuated by sectioning of the upper cervical afferent nerve roots. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system activity upon electrical stimulation of the tragus in the rat is mediated at least in part through sensory afferent projections to the upper cervical spinal cord. This challenges the notion that tragal stimulation is mediated by the auricular branch of the vagus nerve and suggests that alternative mechanisms may be involved.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Medula Espinal/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Vias Aferentes/fisiologia , Animais , Tronco Encefálico/fisiologia , Masculino , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Núcleo Solitário/fisiologia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos
18.
Int J Neurosci ; 129(10): 1013-1023, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092102

RESUMO

The effective treatment of many diseases requires the use of multiple treatment strategies among which neuromodulation is playing an increasingly important role. Neuromodulation devices that act to normalize or modulate nerve activity through the targeted delivery of electrical stimuli will be the focus of this review. These devices encompass deep brain stimulators, vagus nerve stimulators, spinal cord simulators and sacral nerve stimulators. Already neuromodulation has proven successful in the treatment of a broad range of conditions from Parkinson's disease to chronic pain and urinary incontinence. Many of these approaches seek to exploit the activities of the autonomic nervous system, which influences organ function through the release of neurotransmitters and associated signalling cascades. This review will outline existing and emerging applications for each of these neuromodulation devices, proposed mechanisms of action and clinical studies evaluating both their safety and therapeutic efficacy.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/tendências , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/tendências , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia/terapia , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Estimulação da Medula Espinal/métodos , Estimulação da Medula Espinal/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/tendências
19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 9208949, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944700

RESUMO

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been shown to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in multiple organs. The present study aimed at investigating whether VNS could exert protective effects against I/R injury in the skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control, I/R, and I/R+VNS groups. The skeletal muscle I/R (SMI/R) model was induced by occlusion of the left femoral artery for 2.5 hours followed by reperfusion for 2 hours. The vagal nerve trunk was separated, and VNS was performed during the whole I/R process. The intensity of VNS was optimized in each rat to obtain a 10% reduction in the heart rate relative to the value before stimulation. After the experiment, the blood sample and left gastrocnemius muscle tissues were collected for histological examination, biochemical analysis, and molecular biological detection. During the I/R process, VNS significantly reduced cellular apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration compared to sham VNS. The VNS treatment also decreased the inflammatory response, alleviated oxidative stress, and improved vascular endothelial function (p < 0.05 for each). In contrast, the I/R group showed an opposite effect compared to the control group. The present study indicated that VNS could protect against SMI/R injury by suppressing excessive inflammation, alleviating oxidative stress, and preserving vascular endothelial function.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/complicações , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Doença Aguda , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Epilepsy Res ; 153: 83-84, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952581

RESUMO

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) is a newly developed method which intends to overcome the disadvantage of surgical implantation of the stimulation device. The tVNS device is designed to stimulate the auricular branch of the vagus nerve via a bipolar electrode attached to the skin of the left ear conch. A randomized, double-blind controlled trial assessed efficacy and safety over 20 weeks of tVNS (n=39) vs. active control tVNS (n=37) in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. While the mean seizure reduction per 28 days at end of treatment (2.9% reduction from baseline in the control group vs 23.4% in the active group) did not reach statistical significance, there was a significant reduction in seizure frequency (34 %) in patients in the tVNS group at the end of the treatment period (20 weeks). TVNS was well-tolerated. The results justify further trials with longer observation periods and possibly at earlier stages of epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/terapia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos
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