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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4194, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234144

RESUMO

Photomorphogenesis, light-mediated development, is an essential feature of all terrestrial plants. While chloroplast development and brassinosteroid (BR) signaling are known players in photomorphogenesis, proteins that regulate both pathways have yet to be identified. Here we report that DE-ETIOLATION IN THE DARK AND YELLOWING IN THE LIGHT (DAY), a membrane protein containing DnaJ-like domain, plays a dual-role in photomorphogenesis by stabilizing the BR receptor, BRI1, as well as a key enzyme in chlorophyll biosynthesis, POR. DAY localizes to both the endomembrane and chloroplasts via its first transmembrane domain and chloroplast transit peptide, respectively, and interacts with BRI1 and POR in their respective subcellular compartments. Using genetic analysis, we show that DAY acts independently on BR signaling and chlorophyll biogenesis. Collectively, this work uncovers DAY as a factor that simultaneously regulates BR signaling and chloroplast development, revealing a key regulator of photomorphogenesis that acts across cell compartments.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Clorofila/biossíntese , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/isolamento & purificação , Luz , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Morfogênese/efeitos da radiação , Mutação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Quinases/genética , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17275, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754181

RESUMO

The quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence caused by photodamage of Photosystem II (qI) is a well recognized phenomenon, where the nature and physiological role of which are still debatable. Paradoxically, photodamage to the reaction centre of Photosystem II is supposed to be alleviated by excitation quenching mechanisms which manifest as fluorescence quenchers. Here we investigated the time course of PSII photodamage in vivo and in vitro and that of picosecond time-resolved chlorophyll fluorescence (quencher formation). Two long-lived fluorescence quenching processes during photodamage were observed and were formed at different speeds. The slow-developing quenching process exhibited a time course similar to that of the accumulation of photodamaged PSII, while the fast-developing process took place faster than the light-induced PSII damage. We attribute the slow process to the accumulation of photodamaged PSII and the fast process to an independent quenching mechanism that precedes PSII photodamage and that alleviates the inactivation of the PSII reaction centre.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Fluorescência , Luz , Fotólise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo
3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 142: 117-124, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279859

RESUMO

Although phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB have been functionally characterized, functions of phyC in rice growth and development have remained elusive because of the functional dependency of phyC on the phyB protein. In this study, we introduced PHYB(C364A), in which the chromophore attachment site cysteine 364 was converted to alanine, into the phyAphyB double mutant (aabb) and the phyAphyBphyC triple mutant (aabbcc) to produce PHYB(C364A)/aabb lines and PHYB(C364A)/aabbcc lines, respectively. PHYB(C364A)/aabbcc lines were insensitive to red light (R) and far-red light (FR), suggesting that PHYB(C364A) protein was biologically inactive. Functions of phyC were characterized using the PHYB(C364A)/aabb lines, without the functional interference of phyA or phyB. Phytochrome C responded to R and FR to trigger de-etiolation in the very-low-fluence response and low-fluence response in the PHYB(C364A)/aabb lines. Compared with the aabb mutant, seedlings of PHYB(C364A)/aabb lines showed higher chlorophyll content and reduced leaf angle. The PHYB(C364A)/aabb lines also showed a delayed heading date under long-day conditions. Phytochrome C-regulated agronomic traits were measured at the mature stage. The PHYB(C364A)/aabb lines showed significantly increased plant height, panicle length, grain number per main panicle, seed-setting rate, grain size, and grain weight, compared with those of the aabb mutant. Taken together, the present findings confirm that phyC perceives R and FR, and plays an important role in photomorphogenesis and yield determination in rice.


Assuntos
Estiolamento/fisiologia , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Fitocromo/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Luz , Mutação , Fitocromo/genética , Fitocromo B/genética , Fitocromo B/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Plântula/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276530

RESUMO

Plant life cycle begins with germination of seed below the ground. This is followed by seedling's development in the dark: skotomorphogenesis; and then a light-mediated growth: photomorphogenesis. After germination, hypocotyl grows rapidly to reach the sun, which involves elongation of shoot at the expense of root and cotyledons. Upon reaching ground level, seedling gets exposed to sunlight following a switch from the etiolated (skotomorphogenesis) to the de-etiolated (photomorphogenesis) stage, involving a series of molecular and physiological changes. Gymnosperms have evolved very differently and adopted diverse strategies as compared to angiosperms; with regards to response to light quality, conifers display a very mild high-irradiance response as compared to angiosperms. Absence of apical hook and synthesis of chlorophyll during skotomorphogenesis are two typical features in gymnosperms which differentiate them from angiosperms (dicots). Information regarding etiolation and de-etiolation processes are well understood in angiosperms, but these mechanisms are less explored in conifer species. It is, therefore, interesting to know how similar these processes are in conifers as compared to angiosperms. We performed a global expression analysis (RNA sequencing) on etiolated and de-etiolated seedlings of two economically important conifer species in Sweden to review the differentially expressed genes associated with the two processes. Based on the results, we propose that high levels of HY5 in conifers under DARK condition coupled with expression of few other genes associated with de-etiolation in angiosperms e.g. SPA, DET1 (lower expression under DARK) and CRY1 (higher expression under DARK), leads to partial expression of photomorphogenic genes in the DARK phenotype in conifers as displayed by absence of apical hook, opening of cotyledons and synthesis of chlorophyll.


Assuntos
Estiolamento/genética , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Traqueófitas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cotilédone/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cycadopsida/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Germinação/fisiologia , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Luz , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Suécia
5.
Plant Physiol ; 180(2): 1119-1131, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918082

RESUMO

Phototropin (phot) receptor kinases play important roles in promoting plant growth by controlling light-capturing processes, such as phototropism. Phototropism is mediated through the action of NON-PHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL3 (NPH3), which is dephosphorylated following phot activation. However, the functional significance of this early signaling event remains unclear. Here, we show that the onset of phototropism in dark-grown (etiolated) seedlings of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is enhanced by greening (deetiolation). Red and blue light were equally effective in promoting phototropism in Arabidopsis, consistent with our observations that deetiolation by phytochrome or cryptochrome was sufficient to enhance phototropism. Increased responsiveness did not result from an enhanced sensitivity to the phytohormone auxin, nor does it involve the phot-interacting protein, ROOT PHOTOTROPISM2. Instead, deetiolated seedlings showed attenuated levels of NPH3 dephosphorylation and diminished relocalization of NPH3 from the plasma membrane during phototropism. Likewise, etiolated seedlings that lack the PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) PIF1, PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5 displayed reduced NPH3 dephosphorylation and enhanced phototropism, consistent with their constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype in darkness. Phototropic enhancement could also be achieved in etiolated seedlings by lowering the light intensity to diminish NPH3 dephosphorylation. Thus, phototropism is enhanced following deetiolation through the modulation of a phosphorylation rheostat, which in turn sustains the activity of NPH3. We propose that this dynamic mode of regulation enables young seedlings to maximize their establishment under changing light conditions, depending on their photoautotrophic capacity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Fototropismo/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Criptocromos/metabolismo , Estiolamento/efeitos dos fármacos , Estiolamento/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Hipocótilo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocótilo/fisiologia , Hipocótilo/efeitos da radiação , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Luz , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos da radiação , Fototropismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fototropismo/efeitos da radiação , Fitocromo/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/fisiologia , Plântula/efeitos da radiação
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(50): 12823-12828, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482859

RESUMO

Deetiolation is an essential developmental process transforming young plant seedlings into the vegetative phase with photosynthetic activities. Light signals initiate this important developmental process by triggering massive reprogramming of the transcriptome and translatome. Compared with the wealth of knowledge of transcriptional regulation, the molecular mechanism underlying this light-triggered translational enhancement remains unclear. Here we show that light-enhanced translation is orchestrated by a light perception and signaling pathway composed of photoreceptors, CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 (COP1), the phytohormone auxin, target of rapamycin (TOR), and ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6). In deetiolating Arabidopsis seedlings, photoreceptors, including phytochrome A and cryptochromes, perceive far-red and blue light to inactivate the negative regulator COP1, which leads to activation of the auxin pathway for TOR-dependent phosphorylation of RPS6. Arabidopsis mutants defective in TOR, RPS6A, or RPS6B exhibited delayed cotyledon opening, a characteristic of the deetiolating process to ensure timely vegetative development of a young seedling. This study provides a mechanistic view of light-triggered translational enhancement in deetiolating Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia , Plântula/metabolismo , Cotilédone/metabolismo , Criptocromos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Luz , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Fotorreceptores de Plantas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Fitocromo A/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases
7.
J Exp Bot ; 69(11): 2823-2835, 2018 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29726917

RESUMO

The requirements for ascorbate for growth and photosynthesis were assessed under low (LL; 250 µmol m-2 s-1) or high (HL; 1600 µmol m-2 s-1) irradiance in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and two ascorbate synthesis mutants (vtc2-1 and vtc2-4) that have 30% wild-type ascorbate levels. The low ascorbate mutants had the same numbers of leaves but lower rosette area and biomass than the wild type under LL. Wild-type plants experiencing HL had higher leaf ascorbate, anthocyanin, and xanthophyll pigments than under LL. In contrast, leaf ascorbate levels were not increased under HL in the mutant lines. While the degree of oxidation measured using an in vivo redox reporter in the nuclei and cytosol of the leaf epidermal and stomatal cells was similar under both irradiances in all lines, anthocyanin levels were significantly lower in the low ascorbate mutants than in the wild type under HL. Differences in the photosynthetic responses of vtc2-1 and vtc2-4 mutants were observed. Unlike vtc2-1, the vtc2-4 mutants had wild-type zeaxanthin contents. While both low ascorbate mutants had lower levels of non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence (NPQ) than the wild type under HL, qPd values were greater only in vtc2-1 leaves. Ascorbate is therefore essential for growth but not for photoprotection.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Estiolamento/efeitos da radiação , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Xantofilas/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196298, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689107

RESUMO

Digital image processing is widely used in the non-destructive diagnosis of plant nutrition. Previous plant nitrogen diagnostic studies have mostly focused on characteristics of the rice canopy or leaves at some specific points in time, with the long sampling intervals unable to provide detailed and specific "dynamic features." According to plant growth mechanisms, the dynamic changing rate in leaf shape and color differ between different nitrogen supplements. Therefore, the objective of this study was to diagnose nitrogen stress levels by analyzing the dynamic characteristics of rice leaves. Scanning technology was implemented to collect rice leaf images every 3 days, with the characteristics of the leaves from different leaf positions extracted utilizing MATLAB. Newly developed shape characteristics such as etiolation area (EA) and etiolation degree (ED), in addition to shape (area, perimeter) and color characteristics (green, normalized red index, etc.), were used to quantify the process of leaf change. These characteristics allowed sensitive indices to be established for further model validation. Our results indicate that the changing rates in dynamic characteristics, in particular the shape characteristics of the first incomplete leaf (FIL) and the characteristics of the 3rd leaf (leaf color and etiolation indices), expressed obvious distinctions among different nitrogen treatments. Consequently, we achieved acceptable diagnostic accuracy (training accuracy 77.3%, validation accuracy 64.4%) by using the FIL at six days after leaf emergence, and the new shape characteristics developed in this article (ED and EA) also showed good performance in nitrogen diagnosis. Based on the aforementioned results, dynamic analysis is valuable not only in further studies but also in practice.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Nitrogênio/análise , Oryza/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/química , Clorofila/análise , Cor , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Modelos Estatísticos , Oryza/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais
9.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194678, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29558520

RESUMO

Unbound tetrapyrroles, i.e. protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), chlorophyllide and chlorophylls, bring the risk of reactive oxygen species (ROS) being generated in the initial stages of angiosperm deetiolation due to inefficient usage of the excitation energy for photosynthetic photochemistry. We analyzed the activity of superoxide dismutases (SODs) in etiolated wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves and at the beginning of their deetiolation. Mn-SOD and three isoforms of Cu/Zn-SODs were identified both in etiolated and greening leaves of T. aestivum. Two Cu/Zn-SODs, denoted as II and III, were found in plastids. The activity of plastidic Cu/Zn-SOD isoforms as well as that of Mn-SOD correlated with cell aging along a monocot leaf, being the highest at leaf tips. Moreover, a high Pchlide content at leaf tips was observed. No correlation between SOD activity and the accumulation of photoactive Pchlide, i.e. Pchlide bound into ternary Pchlide:Pchlide oxidoreductase:NADPH complexes was found. Cu/Zn-SOD I showed the highest activity at the leaf base. A flash of light induced photoreduction of the photoactive Pchlide to chlorophyllide as well as an increase in all the SODs activity which occurred in a minute time-scale. In the case of seedlings that were deetiolated under continuous light of moderate intensity (100 µmol photons m-2 s-1), only some fluctuations in plastidic Cu/Zn-SODs and Mn-SOD within the first four hours of greening were noticed. The activity of SODs is discussed with respect to the assembly of tetrapyrroles within pigment-protein complexes, monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy at 77 K.


Assuntos
Estiolamento/fisiologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Estiolamento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Triticum/genética
10.
Curr Biol ; 27(22): 3403-3418.e7, 2017 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29103938

RESUMO

Etiolated growth in darkness or the irreversible transition to photomorphogenesis in the light engages alternative developmental programs operating across all organs of a plant seedling. Dark-grown Arabidopsis de-etiolated by zinc (dez) mutants exhibit morphological, cellular, metabolic, and transcriptional characteristics of light-grown seedlings. We identify the causal mutation in TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE encoding a putative acyl transferase. Pectin acetylation is decreased in dez, as previously found in the reduced wall acetylation2-3 mutant, shown here to phenocopy dez. Moreover, pectin of dez is excessively methylesterified. The addition of very short fragments of homogalacturonan, tri-galacturonate, and tetra-galacturonate, restores skotomorphogenesis in dark-grown dez and similar mutants, suggesting that the mutants are unable to generate these de-methylesterified pectin fragments. In combination with genetic data, we propose a model of spatiotemporally separated photoreceptive and signal-responsive cell types, which contain overlapping subsets of the regulatory network of light-dependent seedling development and communicate via a pectin-derived dark signal.


Assuntos
Estiolamento/genética , Transdução de Sinal Luminoso/genética , Acetiltransferases/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Escuridão , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinal Luminoso/fisiologia , Morfogênese/genética , Mutação , Pectinas/genética , Plântula/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Tricomas/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(9)2017 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28858216

RESUMO

Chloroplast genes are transcribed as polycistronic precursor RNAs that give rise to a multitude of processing products down to monocistronic forms. Translation of these mRNAs is realized by bacterial type 70S ribosomes. A larger fraction of these ribosomes is attached to chloroplast membranes. This study analyzed transcriptome-wide distribution of plastid mRNAs between soluble and membrane fractions of purified plastids using microarray analyses and validating RNA gel blot hybridizations. To determine the impact of light on mRNA localization, we used etioplasts, greening plastids and mature chloroplasts from Zea mays as a source for membrane and soluble extracts. The results show that the three plastid types display an almost identical distribution of RNAs between the two organellar fractions, which is confirmed by quantitative RNA gel blot analyses. Furthermore, they reveal that different RNAs processed from polycistronic precursors show transcript-autonomous distribution between stroma and membrane fractions. Disruption of ribosomes leads to release of mRNAs from membranes, demonstrating that attachment is likely a direct consequence of translation. We conclude that plastid mRNA distribution is a stable feature of different plastid types, setting up rapid chloroplast translation in any plastid type.


Assuntos
Estiolamento/fisiologia , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Plastídeos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
12.
Plant Physiol ; 175(2): 734-745, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28860154

RESUMO

The potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber is a swollen stem. Sprouts growing from the tuber nodes represent loss of apical dominance and branching. Long cold storage induces loss of tuber apical dominance and results in secondary branching. Here, we show that a similar branching pattern can be induced by short heat treatment of the tubers. Detached sprouts were induced to branch by the heat treatment only when attached to a parenchyma cylinder. Grafting experiments showed that the scion branches only when grafted onto heat- or cold-treated tuber parenchyma, suggesting that the branching signal is transmitted systemically from the bud-base parenchyma to the grafted stem. Exogenous supply of sucrose (Suc), glucose, or fructose solution to detached sprouts induced branching in a dose-responsive manner, and an increase in Suc level was observed in tuber parenchyma upon branching induction, suggesting a role for elevated parenchyma sugars in the regulation of branching. However, sugar analysis of the apex and node after grafting showed no distinct differences in sugar levels between branching and nonbranching stems. Vacuolar invertase is a key enzyme in determining the level of Suc and its cleavage products, glucose and fructose, in potato parenchyma. Silencing of the vacuolar invertase-encoding gene led to increased tuber branching in combination with branching-inducing treatments. These results suggest that Suc in the parenchyma induces branching through signaling and not by excess mobilization from the parenchyma to the stem.


Assuntos
Estiolamento/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Solanum tuberosum/fisiologia , Sacarose/farmacologia , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo , Frutose/farmacologia , Glucose/farmacologia , Células do Mesofilo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , Tubérculos/fisiologia , Vacúolos/enzimologia
13.
J Plant Physiol ; 215: 110-121, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28623839

RESUMO

Mitochondrial respiratory components participate in the maintenance of chloroplast functional activity. This study investigates the effects 48h de-etiolation of spring wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L., var. Irgina) on the expression of genes that encode energy-dissipating respiratory components and antioxidant enzymes under continuous light conditions. The expression of AOX1a following the prolonged darkness exhibited a pattern indicating a prominent dependence on light. The expression of other respiratory genes, including NDA2, NDB2, and UCP1b, increased during de-etiolation and dark-to-light transition; however, changes in the expression of these genes occurred later than those in AOX1a expression. A high expression of NDA1 was detected after 12h of de-etiolation. The suppression of AOX1a, NDA2, NDB2, and UCP1b was observed 24h after de-etiolation when the photosynthetic apparatus and its defence systems against excess light were completely developed. The expression patterns of the respiratory genes and several genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (MnSOD, Cu-ZnSOD, t-APX, GR, and GRX) were quite similar. Our data indicate that the induction of nuclear genes encoding respiratory and antioxidant enzymes allow the plants to control reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and avoid oxidative stress during de-etiolation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Estiolamento/genética , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
Amino Acids ; 49(1): 49-56, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28039518

RESUMO

Leaf senescence is a terminal step in plant growth and development. Considerable information on processes and signals involved in this process has been obtained, although comparatively little is known about leaf senescence in monocotyledonous plants. In particular, little is known about players involved in leaf senescence imposed by a prolonged dark treatment. New information has now been unveiled on dark-induced leaf senescence in a monocot, barley. A close association has been found between ubiquitous polyamines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and senescence of barley leaves during prolonged darkness. Although polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are absolutely essential for critical cellular functions, including regulation of nucleic acids and protein synthesis, macromolecular structural integrity, and signalling, a strong link between polyamines and dark-induced leaf senescence has been found using barley plant as a model of monocots. Interestingly, Arabidopsis polyamine back-conversion oxidase mutants deficient in the conversion of spermine to spermidine and/or spermidine to putrescine do not occur and have delayed entry into dark-induced leaf senescence. This review summarizes the recent molecular, physiological, and biochemical evidence implicating concurrently polyamines and ethylene in dark-induced leaf senescence and broadening our knowledge on the mechanistic events involved in this important plant death process.


Assuntos
Estiolamento/fisiologia , Hordeum/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Putrescina/metabolismo , Espermidina/metabolismo , Espermina/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Escuridão , Etilenos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transglutaminases/genética , Transglutaminases/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 21(12)2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27916965

RESUMO

Fresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts (CWC) turn yellow after being peeled, reducing their shelf life and commercial value. Metabolomics, the systematic study of the full complement of small molecular metabolites, was useful for clarifying the mechanism of fresh-cut CWC etiolation and developing methods to inhibit yellowing. In this study, metabolic alterations associated with etiolation at different growth stages (0 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days) from fresh-cut CWC were investigated using LC-MS and analyzed by pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA)). The metabolic pathways of the etiolation molecules were elucidated. The main metabolic pathway appears to be the conversion of phenylalanine to p-coumaroyl-CoA, followed by conversion to naringenin chalcone, to naringenin, and naringenin then following different pathways. Firstly, it can transform into apigenin and its derivatives; secondly, it can produce eriodictyol and its derivatives; and thirdly it can produce dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. The eriodictyol can be further transformed to luteolin, cyanidin, dihydroquercetin, dihydrotricetin, and others. This is the first reported use of metabolomics to study the metabolic pathways of the etiolation of fresh-cut CWC.


Assuntos
Eleocharis/metabolismo , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Metabolômica
16.
J Exp Bot ; 67(17): 5105-17, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27436282

RESUMO

Identification of potential cis-regulatory motifs controlling the development of C4 photosynthesis is a major focus of current research. In this study, we used time-series RNA-seq data collected from etiolated maize and rice leaf tissues sampled during a de-etiolation process to systematically characterize the expression patterns of C4-related genes and to further identify potential cis elements in five different genomic regions (i.e. promoter, 5'UTR, 3'UTR, intron, and coding sequence) of C4 orthologous genes. The results demonstrate that although most of the C4 genes show similar expression patterns, a number of them, including chloroplast dicarboxylate transporter 1, aspartate aminotransferase, and triose phosphate transporter, show shifted expression patterns compared with their C3 counterparts. A number of conserved short DNA motifs between maize C4 genes and their rice orthologous genes were identified not only in the promoter, 5'UTR, 3'UTR, and coding sequences, but also in the introns of core C4 genes. We also identified cis-regulatory motifs that exist in maize C4 genes and also in genes showing similar expression patterns as maize C4 genes but that do not exist in rice C3 orthologs, suggesting a possible recruitment of pre-existing cis-elements from genes unrelated to C4 photosynthesis into C4 photosynthesis genes during C4 evolution.


Assuntos
Estiolamento/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Oryza/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Zea mays/genética , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Oryza/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Zea mays/fisiologia
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(11): 3913-20, 2014 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24599595

RESUMO

The early life of terrestrial seed plants often starts under the soil in subterranean darkness. Over time and through adaptation, plants have evolved an elaborate etiolation process that enables seedlings to emerge from soil and acquire autotrophic ability. This process, however, requires seedlings to be able to sense the soil condition and relay this information accordingly to modulate both the seedlings' growth and the formation of photosynthetic apparatus. The mechanism by which soil overlay drives morphogenetic changes in plants, however, remains poorly understood, particularly with regard to the means by which the cellular processes of different organs are coordinated in response to disparate soil conditions. Here, we illustrate that the soil overlay quantitatively activates seedlings' ethylene production, and an EIN3/EIN3-like 1-dependent ethylene-response cascade is required for seedlings to successfully emerge from the soil. Under soil, an ERF1 pathway is activated in the hypocotyl to slow down cell elongation, whereas a PIF3 pathway is activated in the cotyledon to control the preassembly of photosynthetic machinery. Moreover, this latter PIF3 pathway appears to be coupled to the ERF1-regulated upward-growth rate. The coupling of these two pathways facilitates the synchronized progression of etioplast maturation and hypocotyl growth, which, in turn, ultimately enables seedlings to maintain the amount of protochlorophyllide required for rapid acquisition of photoautotrophic capacity without suffering from photooxidative damage during the dark-to-light transition. Our findings illustrate the existence of a genetic signaling pathway driving soil-induced plant morphogenesis and define the specific role of ethylene in orchestrating organ-specific soil responses in Arabidopsis seedlings.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Etilenos/metabolismo , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Histocitoquímica , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fatores de Terminação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Protoclorifilida/biossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Plant Physiol ; 164(4): 2068-80, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24569844

RESUMO

Seedling deetiolation, a critical process in early plant development, is regulated by an intricate transcriptional network. Here, we identified VQ MOTIF-CONTAINING PROTEIN29 (VQ29) as a novel regulator of the photomorphogenic response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We showed that 29 of the 34 VQ proteins present in Arabidopsis exhibit transcriptional activity in plant cells and that mutations in the VQ motif affect the transcriptional activity of VQ29. We then functionally characterized VQ29 and showed that the hypocotyl growth of plants overexpressing VQ29 is hyposensitive to far-red and low-intensity white light, whereas a vq29 loss-of-function mutant exhibits decreased hypocotyl elongation under a low intensity of far-red or white light. Consistent with this, VQ29 expression is repressed by light in a phytochrome-dependent manner. Intriguingly, our yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that VQ29 physically interacts with PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1). We then showed that VQ29 and PIF1 directly bind to the promoter of a cell elongation-related gene, XYLOGLUCAN ENDOTRANSGLYCOSYLASE7, and coactivate its expression. Furthermore, the vq29 pif1 double mutant has shorter hypocotyls than either of the corresponding single mutants. Therefore, our study reveals that VQ29 is a negative transcriptional regulator of light-mediated inhibition of hypocotyl elongation that likely promotes the transcriptional activity of PIF1 during early seedling development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Bryopsida/genética , Estiolamento/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Genes de Plantas , Hipocótilo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Hipocótilo/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação/genética , Oryza/genética , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos da radiação , Transporte Proteico/efeitos da radiação , Plântula/efeitos da radiação , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares/efeitos da radiação , Transcrição Genética/efeitos da radiação
19.
Plant Sci ; 209: 46-57, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23759102

RESUMO

The development of juvenile seedlings after germination is critical for the initial establishment of reproductive plants. Ethylene plays a pivotal role in the growth of seedlings under light or dark during early development. Previously, we identified small molecules sharing a quinazolinone backbone that suppressed the constitutive triple response phenotype in dark-grown eto1-4 seedlings. We designated these small molecules as ACSinhibitor quinazolinones (acsinones), which were uncompetitive inhibitors of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase. To explore the additional roles of acsinones in plants, we screened and identified 19 Arabidopsis mutants with reduced sensitivity to acsinone7303, which were collectively named revert to eto1 (ret) because of their recovery of the eto1 phenotype. A map-based cloning approach revealed that CELLULOSE SYNTHASE6 (CESA6) and DE-ETIOLATED2 (DET2) were mutated in ret8 (cesa6(ret8);eto1-4) and ret41 (det2(ret41);eto1-5), respectively. Etiolated seedlings of both ret8 and ret41 exhibit short hypocotyls and roots. Ethylene levels were similar in etiolated cesa6(ret8) and det2-1 and in eto1 mutants treated with acsinone7303. Chemical inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception did not significantly suppress the etiolated phenotype of cesa6(ret8) and det2(ret41). However, together with eto1, cesa6(ret8) and det2(ret41) exhibited an enhanced phenotype in the hypocotyls and apical hooks of etiolated seedlings. These results confirm that, in addition to ethylene, cellulose synthesis and brassinolides can independently contribute to modulate hypocotyl development in young seedlings.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Estiolamento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Hipocótilo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Quinazolinonas/metabolismo , Quinazolinonas/farmacologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
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