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1.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(11): 853-858, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152844

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the long-term clinical efficacy and safety of the bilateral superior oblique tendon suture spacer in treatment of A-pattern strabismus with superior oblique overaction (SOOA). Methods: Retrospective case series study. Twenty-one A-pattern strabismus patients who received the quantitative bilateral superior oblique tendon suture spacer with a complete follow-up from January 2009 to August 2017 were enrolled. Among these patients, 19 were exotropic and 2 were esotropic, including 11 males and 10 females, aged (14±9) years. Patients with unilateral superior oblique overaction, Broun syndrome or Helveston syndrome were excluded. The A-pattern strabismus, objective torsion, function of the superior oblique muscle and binocular vision were examined pre-and post-operatively. Paired t-test was used for normal distribution data, Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for non-normal distribution data, Spearman rank correlation test and simple linear regression were used to analyze the correlation between the two variables. Results: The follow-up was 12 to 109 months (mean, 26±17 months). Twenty patients showed good alignment in the primary position with a deviation angle less than 10 prism diopter (PD), and 1 patient with esotropia had an angle greater than 15 PD. All the patients had no A pattern after surgery. The average pre-and post-operative A-patterns were (23.81±9.47) PD and (0.90±3.59) PD (t=11.29, P<0.01), respectively, and the average corrected A pattern was (23.52±9.68) PD.The average pre-and post-operative torsion was 3.18°±3.26° and -4.81°±4.13° (t=8.87, P<0.01), espectively, and the average corrected torsion was 7.95°±3.88°. No patient complained of torsional diplopia after surgery. The average amount of pre-and post-operative SOOA was 3.0 (2.0) and 0.0 (1.0) in 42 eyes (Z=-5.78, P<0.01), respectively. Suture extension of the superior oblique tendon was related with the pre-operative SOOA (r=0.47, P<0.01), but was not related with the pre-operative torsion (r=0.02, P=0.88). The linear regression results was suture extension=2.71× the grade of pre-operative SOOA (t=27.93, P<0.01). Conclusions: The bilateral superior oblique tendon suture spacer can improve the A-pattern, objective torsion and SOOA, with no torsional diplopia or V pattern after the long-term follow-up. It is a safe and effective superior oblique muscle weakening procedure. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56: 853-858).


Assuntos
Músculos Oculomotores , Estrabismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Suturas , Tendões/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Visão Binocular , Adulto Jovem
2.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 237(10): 1194-1201, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059380

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The course of the recovery phase after general anaesthesia, during which consciousness and pain gradually return, is essentially determined by the choice of anaesthetic drug, and its total dose or duration of application. This phase is often complicated by more or less severe agitation, especially in children. In the present study we investigated whether the application of a topical anaesthetic to the conjunctiva at the end of a strabismus operation had a positive effect on the recovery behaviour of the child. PATIENTS/METHODS: This prospective, randomised, blinded study was conducted with 50 healthy, ASA class I or II children, aged 3 to 8 years undergoing their first strabismus operation. Following the surgeon's randomisation two drops of a 0,5% tetracaine-HCl ophthalmic solution were applied to the operated conjunctiva three times at 30-s intervals immediately following wound closure. The postoperative evaluation encompassed heart rate, as well as COMFORT and CHEOPS scores. The first assessment was directly postoperatively with repetitions at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 120 min, as well as on the day after surgery. RESULTS: The CHEOPS scores did not differ significantly between children with or without topical anaesthesia at any time during the observation period. The COMFORT scores revealed a slight, but non-significant analgesic effect at 15 and 30 min. The 60 min score showed the opposite effect, possibly indicating a slight disadvantage of the topical anaesthesia. There were no significant differences with regard to time to first request for additional systemic analgesia, to the total dose of systemic pain medication, or to when the patient was eligible for discharge to the ward. CONCLUSION: The application of topical tetracaine-HCl immediately after wound closure had no positive effects on the course of the postoperative recovery period after strabismus surgery in children. There was no evidence of an effect on pain or emergence agitation.


Assuntos
Dor Pós-Operatória , Estrabismo , Anestesia Local , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estrabismo/cirurgia
3.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(5. Vyp. 2): 197-203, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063964

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze diagnostic and treatment outcomes in patients with strabismus and oculomotor disorders induced by injection anesthesia for cataract surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 11 patients (7 women and 4 men) aged 61 to 85 years (the mean age of 66±7.1 years) who complained of diplopia in the early post-op period after cataract phacoemulsification and elastic IOL implantation under retrobulbar anesthesia. Prior to further surgical treatment, all of the patients underwent functional multispiral computer tomography of the orbits. Prismatic spectacle correction was also used independently or in addition to surgical treatment. RESULTS: Eight out of eleven patients underwent one- or two-step surgical treatment (3 and 5 cases, respectively). In 2 patients, hypotropia did not exceed 10 prism diopters, and thus, diplopia could be compensated with prismatic spectacle correction alone. In 5 cases, binocular vision was achieved throughout the whole field of gaze. In 3 cases, surgical treatment enabled elimination of heterotropia in the primary gaze and compensation of diplopia within a radius of 40º from the center of gaze and within the entire horizontal range of eye-movement in the downward gaze. The limitation of ocular mobility decreased from 2.36 to 0.55 points leading to an associated decrease in the area of binocular diplopia - from 98% to 29%. In one case, spectacle occlusion was used. CONCLUSION: The inferior rectus restriction is the morphological substrate of anatomical and functional changes induced by retrobulbar anesthesia. As treatment options for restrictive vertical strabismus and binocular diplopia, both surgical (extraocular muscle surgery) and optical (prismatic correction, occlusion) methods should be considered.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Extração de Catarata , Catarata , Estrabismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diplopia/diagnóstico , Diplopia/etiologia , Diplopia/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estrabismo/etiologia , Estrabismo/cirurgia
4.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(5): 142-148, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056976

RESUMO

Vertical strabismus caused by hyperfunction of the inferior oblique muscle is a common oculomotor disorder. It is found in one third of all patients with strabismus, and in 70% of cases it is combined with esotropia. To date, there is no single approach to determining the degree of hyperfunction of the inferior oblique muscle, and the most common classifications are very subjective and inaccurate. Thus, in connection with the need to understand the severity of the disease, as well as to determine the tactics of treatment and prognosis of the surgical outcomes, it is necessary to standartize the classification of this pathology. The mechanism of action of the inferior oblique muscles of the eye is very complex and depends on the position of the eyeball at the time of their contraction. In addition to horizontal and vertical movements, they provide torsional movement. Any impairment of these muscles leads to the development of not only vertical strabismus, but excyclotropia that reduces the effectiveness of strabismus treatment. To identify all the symptoms associated with hyperfunction of the inferior oblique muscle, taking into account the peculiarities of its triple action, it is necessary to conduct a thorough diagnostic study.


Assuntos
Estrabismo , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Estrabismo/diagnóstico , Estrabismo/etiologia , Estrabismo/cirurgia
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1243-1247, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913163

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to determine the effects of strabismus surgery on choroidal thickness in paediatric patients with Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT). Material and Methods: Sixty eyes of 60 children with esotropia were included. The mean age was 9.5 ± 3.1 years. The choroidal thickness was measured using SD-OCT, which was performed before the surgery and 1 week, 1 month and 3 months postoperatively. At the same time, the patients' visual acuity was evaluated. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative values in terms of the visual acuity (P > 0.05). When compared to the preoperative values, decreases were found in the choroidal thicknesses in all of the areas measured during the first week evaluation (P < 0.05). In the postoperative first month, significant decreases were also found in the choroidal thicknesses in all the areas measured (P < 0.05); however, in the postoperative third month, there were no changes in any of the areas (P > 0.05). Conclusions: We observed that there was a significant decrease in the choroidal thickness during the early postoperative period and no significant change in the late postoperative period in paediatric patients of double horizontal muscle surgery. Moreover, these early changes in the choroid in paediatric patients show that it does not cause a functional loss.


Assuntos
Corioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Corioide/patologia , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/efeitos adversos , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/instrumentação , Adolescente , Criança , Corioide/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Período Pós-Operatório , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
6.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 117-122, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874045

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of myectomy in inferior oblique overaction cases with a vertical deviation angle of <20 and ≥20 prism diopters (PD) in the primary position. METHODS: The medical records of cases with inferior oblique overaction that underwent inferior oblique myectomy for ≥6 PD hypertropia in the primary position and >+1 inferior oblique overaction were reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative examination findings and success rates were compared of cases with a deviation angle <20 PD (Group 1) and ≥20 PD (Group 2). RESULTS: The mean age of 35 (58%) female and 25 (42%) men cases of Group 1 (n = 60) were 12.8 ± 9.4 years; the mean age of 25 (58%) female and 18 (42%) male cases of Group 2 (n = 43) were 14.8 years (P = 0.340). The near hypertropia was decreased from 11 to 0.5 PD in Group 1, from 22.1 to 5.1 PD in Group 2 cases (P < 0.001). The distance hypertropia was decreased from 11.3 to 0.5 PD in Group 1 and from 23.3 to 6.1 PD in Group 2 cases (P < 0.001). The mean degree of hypertropia at near and distance was statistically significantly higher both pre- and post-operatively in Group 2 than in Group 1 (P < 0.001), and improved statistically significantly with the initial surgery in both groups (P < 0.001). The rate of the presence of stereopsis of ≥3000 s/arc and fusion, the main criteria of binocular vision (BOV), was not statistically significantly different between the Groups before (P = 0.577) and after the surgery (P = 0.678), but the presence of BOV significantly increased both in Group 1 (P < 0.001) and Group 2 (P = 0.004) postoperatively. The number of cases with surgical success was 57 (95%) and 25 (58%), respectively, in Groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Myectomy is an effective surgical procedure that can be easily and quickly performed in inferior oblique overaction cases and has high success rates in cases with a small-to-moderate angle of deviation.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/cirurgia , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anestesia Geral , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Ophthalmologe ; 117(10): 1006-1014, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strabismus surgery is frequently carried out in university centers. The aim of this work was to calculate the costs of strabismus surgery at a university hospital and to assess the remuneration of costs for outpatient procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Of all strabismus surgeries at the Hanover Medical School in the years 2018 and 2019, relevant surgical data, such as patient age, number of muscles operated on, incision to suture time, attendance time of the surgeons and anesthetists as well as the nursing staff, were evaluated based on the clinics own information system. During this process, the costs for personnel, material, room rental charges and overheads were computed applying cost unit accounting. RESULTS: A total of 302 operations (inpatient proportion 92.1%) were carried out in most cases with the patient under general anesthesia. The mean patient age was 31 years (median 26 years), with 33 patients being children under 6 years of age. On average 1.84 muscles were treated per intervention. The mean incision to suture time was 51.5 min, mean anesthesia time was 85 min, the attendance time of surgical as well as anesthesia nursing staff each accounted for 104 min, the additional time in the postanesthesia care unit added 66 min. Average personnel costs originating from the overall process amounted to 642.14 €, with the addition of 109.23 € for material and medication (surgery and anesthesia) and costs for cleaning and room rental (including overheads) of 178.71 €. Therefore, the overall costs of an average strabismus surgery in our collective added up to 930.08 € (minimum 491.01 €, maximum 1729.29 €). Cost accounting of subgroups yielded substantially higher costs for anesthesia in children as well as for higher numbers of muscles operated on due to different treatment duration (37 min for 1 muscle to 72 min for 3 muscles) and anesthesia time, especially in children <6 years of age (on average 22 min longer than adults and children >5 years; the differences being 11 min for 1 muscle, 25 min for 2 muscles and 30 min for 3 or more muscles). The pure costs of a strabismus surgery at this clinic seem on average to exceed the revenues for strabismus surgery in the outpatient sector calculated by the German uniform evaluation benchmark (EBM) by about a factor of 2. CONCLUSION: It could be shown that the purely economically calculated costs for strabismus surgery at a university clinic are significantly higher than the revenues achieved in the outpatient sector according to paragraph 115b, section 1, of the Social Security Act V (SGB V). Under these circumstances, such operations cannot be performed in a cost-effective manner.


Assuntos
Oftalmologia , Estrabismo , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Suturas
8.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 48(4): 277-288, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777929

RESUMO

Strabismus correction surgery is the most common eye operation in children. Adults have approximately a 4% lifetime risk of developing strabismus. Current treatment options include pharmacological injection of botulinum toxin or bupivacaine, conventional corrective surgery, adjustable suture surgery and minimally invasive surgery. Repeated surgery is common as each operation has a 60%-80% chance of successful correction. The benefits of early surgical correction in large-angle strabismus in children outweigh the risks of anaesthesia. General anaesthesia is suitable for patients of all age groups, for complicated or repeated surgery, and bilateral eye procedures. Regional ophthalmic block reduces the incidence of oculocardiac reflex and emergence agitation, and provides postoperative analgesia, but requires a cooperative patient as many experience discomfort. Topical anaesthesia has been used in pharmacological injection, minimally invasive surgery, uncomplicated conventional strabismus surgery and some adjustable suture strabismus surgery. Its use, however, is only limited to cooperative adult patients. Prophylactic antiemesis with both ondansetron and dexamethasone is recommended, especially for children. A multimodal analgesia approach, including paracetamol, intravenous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, topical local anaesthetic and minimal opioid usage, is recommended for postoperative analgesia, while a supplementary regional ophthalmic block is at the discretion of the team.


Assuntos
Anestésicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Estrabismo , Adulto , Anestesia Local , Bupivacaína , Criança , Humanos , Estrabismo/cirurgia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234017, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479558

RESUMO

We report the long-term surgical results of augmented lateral rectus muscle (LR) recession for dissociated horizontal deviation (DHD) without concomitant exotropia (XT) or esotropia (ET). This retrospective review included patients with DHD without XT or ET who underwent augmented LR recession and were followed-up for ≥12 months. Each patient's medical records were evaluated to identify their demographics, preoperative angle of deviation, surgical procedure, success rate, and reoperation rate. A total of 11 patients with DHD were included (median patient age at surgery, 6 years; interquartile range [IQR], 5 to 10 years). Four patients (36.4%) had a history of infantile ET while three patients (27.3%) had a history of unilateral cataract surgery for congenital cataract. The median preoperative angle of DHD in the unilateral eye was 20 prism diopters (PD) (IQR, 15 to 25 PD). The median amount of LR recession was 8.0 mm (IQR, 7.5 to 8.0 mm). Three patients (27.3%) underwent simultaneous surgery for dissociated vertical deviation. At the final examination after a median follow-up period of 32 months (IQR, 24 to 58 months), 10 patients (91%) showed successful alignment. The long-term successful alignment rate after augmented LR recession for DHD was good; thus, application of this technique is appropriate in patients with DHD.


Assuntos
Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estrabismo/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(3): 183-188, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187946

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effect of extraocular muscle surgery in treating secondary esotropia with diplopia after orbital decompression for thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods: Retrospective case series study. Eleven secondary esotropic patients with diplopia after orbital decompression for TAO who underwent extraocular muscle surgery during March 2016 and October 2018 in Tianjin Eye Hospital were included. All patients had new onset esotropia after decompression surgery and underwent strabismus surgery. Deviation angle, diplopia, and ocular movement were observed preoperatively and postoperatively. Surgeries were carried out under the monitored anesthesia care combined with local anesthesia, and the eye alignment was adjusted to orthotropia with no diplopia in the operation with the technique of intraoperative adjustable suture and forced duction test results. All the patients were followed up. Results: The ages of the patients were from 26 to 42 years (1 male and 10 females). The deviation angles were 10-98 prism diopter. Orbital CT scan showed that the horizontal rectus thickness was increased at different levels, and the thickness of the medial rectus was increased more than that of the lateral rectus. Two patients had monocular medial rectus recession only, 2 had bilateral medial rectus recession only, 2 had monocular medial rectus recession combined with lateral rectus resection, and the other 5 had bilateral medial rectus recession with monocular lateral rectus resection. The recession of medial rectus muscle was 3.5 to 7.5 mm in 11 patients and 2.0 to 6.0 mm in 7 patients with the resection of lateral rectus muscle. Diplopia of the 11 patients disappeared with orthotropia at primary gaze position after the extraocular muscle surgery. The limitation of abduction changed from preoperative (-1.91±1.04) to postoperative (-0.64±0.81). All the patients were satisfied with the surgical results. At the end of the follow-up (6 to 24 months), the results of the patients were stable, and no over-correction was found. Conclusion: Extraocular muscle surgery with intraoperative adjustable suture technique can effectively treat TAO patients with secondary esotropia with diplopia after orbital decompression. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56: 183-188).


Assuntos
Descompressão Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Diplopia/etiologia , Esotropia/etiologia , Oftalmopatia de Graves/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/efeitos adversos , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Visão Binocular
12.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; 57(1): 12-20, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972035

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the accuracy of high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy using the bag/balloon technique to locate recti muscle insertions before and after strabismus surgery. METHODS: This was a prospective masked study. The distance from the limbus to horizontal recti muscle insertions was measured by caliper intraoperatively and ultrasound biomicroscopy preoperatively and during follow-up. Accuracy was defined as the difference between ultrasound biomicroscopy and caliper measurements. RESULTS: Thirty-nine muscles (19 medial rectus and 20 lateral rectus) of 22 patients were included. The mean age of the patients was 34.7 ± 15.5 years (range: 18 to 78 years). Follow-up measurements were available for 25 muscles: 12 muscles were recessed and 13 were resected/advanced. Twelve of the included muscles underwent prior surgery. There was a strong correlation between preoperative mean ultrasound biomicroscopy and caliper measurements (P < .001, rp = 0.872) without significant difference between the accuracy of identification of medial rectus and lateral rectus muscles (P = .116 and .377, respectively). On average, postoperative ultrasound biomicroscopy measurements of recessed muscles were 1.15 mm greater than caliper measurements at the end of surgery (P = .003), whereas the mean difference in the resected muscles was not statistically significant (-0.07 mm, P > .999). Overall, in 16 of 25 muscles (64%), the differences between the postoperative measurements and the end of surgery measurements were less than 1 mm. There was no correlation between the accuracy and the time of ultrasound biomicroscopy after surgery (P = .516). CONCLUSIONS: The ultrasound biomicroscopy bag/balloon technique is an accurate and reliable method of locating recti muscle insertions before and after strabismus surgery. Ultrasound biomicroscopy may assist strabismologists in planning repeated operations. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2020;57(1):12-20.].


Assuntos
Microscopia Acústica/métodos , Músculos Oculomotores/diagnóstico por imagem , Estrabismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Reoperação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 20(1): 9, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine whether a sense of deviation remains in adults with successful motor alignment who fulfil diplopia criteria after surgery and to examine the factors associated with this judgement. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Adult patients defined as having a successful outcome based on more than 1 year of post-operative follow-up visits were included in the study. The sense of deviation was determined at the last visit. Pre- and post-operative deviation and characteristics including age, gender, education level, occupation, diagnosis, size of deviation, extraocular movement (EOM), binocular function, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were recorded. RESULTS: In total, 22 (24%) of the 91 adults with successful surgical outcomes reported a sense of deviation. No significant differences were noted between subjects with and without a sense of deviation regarding patient demographics, pre- and post-operative deviation, changes in deviation, sensory fusion or EOM. Subjects with a sense of deviation had an increased prevalence of and larger post-operative vertical deviation, poorer stereo function, and lower HRQOL scores than those with no sense of deviation. The presence of post-operative vertical deviation was associated with a sense of deviation. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-fourth (24%) of adults defined as having successful surgical outcomes who still had a sense of deviation exhibited worse stereo function, higher vertical deviation size and lower HRQOL scores. The presence of 3 to 5 prism dioptres(pd) of vertical deviation would be the main factor associated with a sense of deviation post-operatively.


Assuntos
Diplopia/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estrabismo/fisiopatologia , Visão Binocular
14.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 382e-390e, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine what craniometric changes occur to both orbits of unicoronal craniosynostosis patients undergoing fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling, and which of these changes are associated with new onset of postoperative strabismus. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of the preoperative and postoperative orbits of 24 unicoronal craniosynostosis patients and the orbits of 24 control subjects, totaling 144 orbits. Eight parameters were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. One of the parameters was modified orbital index, an indicator of severity of harlequin deformity. RESULTS: Significant differences in orbital dimensions and angles were present bilaterally in unicoronal craniosynostosis orbits when compared to controls. Fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling increased the ipsilateral unicoronal craniosynostosis orbital volume from 13,184 ± 2003 mm to 16,220 ± 2323 mm (p < 0.001). Ipsilateral horizontal cone angles were increased from 48 ± 5 degrees to 54 ± 7 degrees (p = 0.004). Ipsilateral vertical cone angles were decreased from 73 ± 8 degrees to 66 ± 10 degrees (p = 0.003). Ipsilateral modified orbital index improved from 0.83 ± 0.06 to 0.88 ± 0.06 (p = 0.003). Three of the 19 unicoronal craniosynostosis patients developed transient postoperative strabismus. Logistic regression analysis displayed a strong significant association between new-onset strabismus and a change in modified orbital index with a coefficient of 30.84 ± 14.51 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The orbital dysmorphology in unicoronal craniosynostosis is bilateral in nature, and it is not wholly treated with conventional fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling. The severity of ipsilateral orbital dysmorphology is correlated with the incidence of postoperative strabismus following conventional fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling. Future research is needed to develop strategies to mitigate the risk of development of strabismus in this group of patients. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/complicações , Osso Frontal/cirurgia , Órbita/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Estrabismo/etiologia , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Órbita/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estrabismo/patologia
16.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 210: 3-7, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730837

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term outcomes of surgical treatment for abnormal head positioning (AHP) associated with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS). DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: Review of 150 patients who underwent surgery for AHP associated with nystagmus. Outcomes included head positioning, duction limitations, and strabismus, and were evaluated several times postoperatively. Successful collapse of AHP was defined as being ≤10°. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients had surgery for AHP in the pitch (chin up/down) position, whereas 119 had surgery for a horizontal AHP. In addition, 54 underwent 50%-60% augmentation, 19 underwent 40% augmentation, 5 underwent less than 40% augmentation. Thirty-eight had surgical dose modified to correct strabismus, and 3 underwent surgery different from standard Kestenbaum procedures. Collapse of AHP: At the 1-3-week follow-up (n = 131), 125 patients (95%) had collapse of AHP. The percentage trended down at the 2-5-month (91%, n = 106) and 2-year follow-ups (83%, n = 57). However, at 5 and 10 years, it was 93% (n = 42) and 93% (n = 14), respectively, due to reoperation in a small minority. Over- and undercorrection: At 1-3 weeks, 5% of patients were overcorrected whereas 0% were undercorrected. Over- and undercorrection rates peaked at 2 years postoperatively. Ten years out, there were no overcorrections and 7% undercorrections. Four percent of patients required reoperation for overcorrection (mean 2.7 years) and 5% did for undercorrection (mean 3.9 years). CONCLUSION: Surgery for the head positioning associated with INS produces excellent outcomes throughout 10 years postoperatively. Overcorrection presents early and resolves either over time or with additional surgery. Undercorrection develops later and can persist despite reoperation.


Assuntos
Cabeça/fisiologia , Nistagmo Patológico/cirurgia , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Postura/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Nistagmo Patológico/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estrabismo/cirurgia
17.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 211: 98-104, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730842

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of strabismus among children initially diagnosed with pseudostrabismus using big data. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Setting: Population-based retrospective cohort study using claims data. StudyPopulation: 17,885 children diagnosed with pseudostrabismus at age ≤3 years who were later diagnosed with strabismus using the Optum deidentified Clinformatics Data Mart Database (2003-2016). We excluded patients diagnosed with strabismus before the diagnosis of pseudostrabismus or diagnosed simultaneously with strabismus and pseudostrabismus. OBSERVATIONS: We assessed age, refractive error, and presence of amblyopia. Patients with pseudostrabismus were compared to a group of patients from the Optum data set diagnosed with esotropia, exotropia, and unspecified heterotropia who had not been previously diagnosed with pseudostrabismus. MainOutcomeMeasures: Incidence of strabismus, among patients initially diagnosed with pseudostrabismus vs those without an initial diagnosis of pseudostrabismus. RESULTS: Strabismus was diagnosed in 9.6% (n = 1,725) of children initially diagnosed with pseudostrabismus at a median age of 1.65 years (IQR: 1.17-2.46) compared to 1.7% (136,047 of 7,787,743) of children in the control group (P < .001). Strabismus was diagnosed more than a year later in the pseudostrabismus group (3.32 years; IQR: 2.28-4.74) compared with the control group (2.28 years, IQR: 1.43-3.16) (P < .001). Esotropia was the most common type of strabismus in both groups (pseudostrabismus, 69.7%; control, 62.1%). A total of 377 children (21.9%) in the pseudostrabismus group underwent strabismus surgery compared with 12.1% of children in the control group (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Young children diagnosed with pseudostrabismus are at increased risk of developing strabismus and undergoing strabismus surgery.


Assuntos
Ambliopia/epidemiologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estrabismo/diagnóstico , Estrabismo/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Músculos Oculomotores/patologia , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Erros de Refração/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
18.
Strabismus ; 28(1): 25-28, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775558

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of single or combined superior oblique tendon (SO) advancement for selected cases of unilateral superior oblique palsy (SOP).Methods: The medical records of 14 patients who underwent single or combined superior oblique tendon advancement in one institution from May 2017 to October 2018 were reviewed. All subjects with a diagnosis of unilateral SOP who underwent single or combined SO tendon advancement surgery were included. The goal of the surgery was to correct the hypertropia and head tilt. The single or combined SO tendon advancement surgery was selected based on the amount of hypertropia or head tilt and the Knapp classification of the SOP. The information recorded included pre- and postoperative deviation angle and ocular motility findings. The degree of upshoot in adduction was graded pre- and postoperatively.Results: Fourteen patients between the age of 3 and 52 years with unilateral superior oblique palsy were selected to undergo SO tendon advancement. Single SO tendon advancement was carried out in eight acquired Knapp class II or residual SOP patients. SO tendon advancement combined with contralateral inferior rectus recession was carried out in two acquired Knapp class II patients. SO tendon advancement combined with ipsilateral inferior oblique myectomy was carried out in four congenital Knapp class III patients. The changes in pre- and postoperative hypertropia at primary gaze in single SO tendon advancement patients were from 6.25 ± 2.12 prism diopters to 0.86 ± 1.46 prism diopters. The changes in degree of upshoot in adduction were from +1.86 to +0.21. Conclusions: SO tendon advancement worked well as single or combined muscle procedure to treat unilateral superior oblique palsy.


Assuntos
Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Tendões/cirurgia , Doenças do Nervo Troclear/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 209: 55-61, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526795

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sagging eye syndrome (SES), horizontal and/or vertical strabismus caused by orbital connective tissue degeneration, was first defined 10 years ago. This study investigated SES and other causes of acquired binocular diplopia in adults presenting to a single institution since the description of SES. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed of all new patients over the age of 40 who presented to the Stein Eye Institute with binocular diplopia between January 2015 and December 2018. Clinical causes of diplopia were tabulated in patients grouped by age and sex. In patients with SES, we tabulated binocular alignment, types of treatment, and surgical outcomes. RESULTS: There were 945 patients of mean age 66.5 years, of whom 514 (54.4%) were female. The most common cause of diplopia was SES (31.4%). The 297 patients with SES were older at 71.2 years (P < 0.0001) and more predominantly female at 59.9% than other patients (52.0%; P = 0.023). The relative proportion of SES patients among all diplopic patients increased with age from 4.7% under age 50 years to 60.9% over the age of 90. Age-related distance esotropia was present in 35% and cyclovertical strabismus in 65% of cases of SES. Strabismus surgery was performed in 50% of cases of SES. Mean esotropia at distance decreased from 6.9 ± 0.7Δ preoperatively to 0.3 ± 0.3Δ postoperatively. Preoperative hypertropia decreased from 3.0 ± 0.3Δ to 0.7 ± 0.2Δ postoperatively. Surgery resolved diplopia in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to recognize that SES is a very common cause of adult binocular diplopia.


Assuntos
Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/epidemiologia , Diplopia/epidemiologia , Doenças Orbitárias/epidemiologia , Estrabismo/epidemiologia , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/cirurgia , Diplopia/fisiopatologia , Diplopia/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiopatologia , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Doenças Orbitárias/fisiopatologia , Doenças Orbitárias/cirurgia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estrabismo/fisiopatologia , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Síndrome
20.
Strabismus ; 28(1): 29-33, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847669

RESUMO

Purpose: Monocular transposition of the inferior oblique muscle belly (IOMBT) effectively weakened mild to moderate inferior oblique overaction and corrected small primary position hypertropia. Now we aim to evaluate the efficacy of inferior oblique muscle belly transposition (IOMBT) in treating V pattern strabismus with upshoot in adduction.Methods: This is a retrospective review of 13 patients with V pattern who underwent IOMBT procedure from January 2017 to December 2018. The inclusion criteria were: the amount of V pattern from 15 to 25 pd; the degree of upshoot in adduction from +1 to +3; no or trace vertical deviation in primary gaze position. Bilateral IOMBT was performed to reduce the V pattern. Horizontal rectus muscle surgery was performed at the same stage to correct the horizontal deviation. The angle of deviation in upgaze and downgaze was measured pre- and postoperatively. The degree of elevation in adduction was graded. The amount of V pattern was the difference in horizontal angle between up- and downgaze. The change in the amount of V pattern was assessed postoperatively.Results: All 13 patients had complete resolution of the V pattern. The amount of V pattern changed from 18.92 ± 4.310 prism diopters to 3.462 ± 1.854 prism diopters postoperatively. The mean grade of upshoot in adduction changed from 1.92 to 0.12 postoperatively. No depression in adduction or consecutive A pattern were found after surgery.Conclusions: IOMBT can successfully eliminate the V pattern in patients with mild V pattern esotropia or exotropia with mild to moderate upshoot in adduction. This procedure appears to be a useful addition to our inferior oblique surgical armamentarium.


Assuntos
Músculos Oculomotores/transplante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estrabismo/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Visão Binocular/fisiologia
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