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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20181330, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508665

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the result of the selective destruction of the pancreatic ß-cells by T cells of the immune system. Although spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ, it is also involved in the T1D pathogenesis. However, the alterations in a variety of cellular processes of this disease need to be further understood. We aimed to analyze the benefits of resveratrol, and its complexed form on diabetic complications in the spleen of rats. To this end, we investigated important enzymes of phosphoryl transfer network, and Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Wistar rats were divided into non-diabetic groups: Control, Ethanol, Resveratrol, Hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin, Resveratrol-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin, and diabetic groups with the same treatments. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of 60 mg/kg of streptozocin intraperitoneally, and treatments by intragastric gavage once daily for 60 days. Hyperglycemia reduced creatine kinase activity, which was reversed by the administration of resveratrol. Na+, K+-ATPase activity was greatly affected, but it was reversed by resveratrol and resveratrol-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin. This suggest an energetic imbalance in the spleen of diabetic rats, and in case this also occurs in the diabetic patients, it is possible that resveratrol supplementation could be beneficial to the better functioning of the spleen in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
2.
Life Sci ; 233: 116732, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394125

RESUMO

AIMS: Linderane, an important bioactive compound in Linderae, improved glucose and lipid metabolism in ob/ob mice. However, the effect of linderane on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced oxidative damage in INS-1 cells remains unclear. MAIN METHODS: INS-1 cells were pre-treated with different doses of linderane for 2 h and then treated with 3 mM STZ for 12 h. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was detected using an Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. The level of intracellular ROS was determined using dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The activities of insulin secretion, SOD, catalase (CAT) and GPx were measured using ELISA kits. The expression levels of bax, bcl-2, p38, p-p38, nuclear Nrf2 and HO-1 were measured using western blot. KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that STZ-caused inhibitory effects on cell viability and insulin secretion were mitigated by linderane. Furthermore, linderane inhibited apoptosis and oxidative stress in STZ-induced INS-1 cells. Finally, linderane suppressed the activation of p38 MAPK pathway, as well as enhanced the activation of Nrf2 pathway in STZ-induced INS-1 cells. Activation of p38 MAPK pathway or inhibition of Nrf2 significantly reversed the protective effects of linderane against STZ-induced ROS production and cell apoptosis. SIGNIFICANCE: The protective effects of linderane on STZ-induced INS-1 cells might be attributed to the inhibition of p38 MAPK and activation of Nrf2 pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Insulinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Animais , Insulinoma/metabolismo , Insulinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Ratos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
3.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(10): 1134-1142, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433203

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a progressive kidney disease, which results in mortality in diabetic patients. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of applying spironolactone (S), captopril (C), and their combination (S+C) on some renal performance indices and microRNAs' (miRNAs) expression. A total of 35 two-month-old male Wistar rats were provided for the study. Intraperitoneal injection of freshly dissolved streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) in cold citrate buffer was used to induce diabetes. Blood samples were examined through calorimetry to assess serum concentrations of glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine. To measure the microalbuminuria and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) levels and to evaluate the miRNAs expression levels of the kidney tissue, the ELISA method and the real-time PCR were used. The obtained results serve as in vivo evidence for the positive relationship between miR-192 and TGF-ß levels in the DN rats. A significant increase and decrease were found for miR-29a/b/c and the miR-192 expression of DN after treatment with S, C, and S+C. TGF-ß levels and microalbuminuria of diabetic rats also increased. The results obtained from this research study suggest that S, C, and S + C can improve DN by targeting miR-192 and miR-29 family and changing their expression. These findings suggest that miR-192 and miRs-29a/b/c can be potential targets for DN remediation.


Assuntos
Captopril/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Espironolactona/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Diuréticos/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperglicemia/genética , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 87-99, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468388

RESUMO

The present study has investigated the effect of adding taurine (TAU) to a treatment of diabetes with metformin (MET), a hypoglycemic, and lovastatin (LOV), an antihyperlipidemic. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats, agent, 250-275 g in weight, were made diabetic with a single 60 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of streptozocin (STZ) in 10 mM citrate buffer pH 4.5, and, after 14 days, treated daily with oral doses of MET (2.4 mM/kg), LOV (0.075 mM/kg) or TAU (2.4 mM/kg), and with binary and ternary combinations of these agents. Rats receiving only 10 mM citrate buffer pH 4.5 or only STZ served as negative and positive controls, respectively. In addition, rats receiving insulin (INS, 4 units/kg) by the subcutaneous route served as a reference treatment. All the rats were sacrificed on day 57 and their bloods collected into heparinized tubes. The corresponding plasma samples were analyzed for their glucose (GLC), insulin (INS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), cholesterol (CHOL) and triglycerides (TG) contents. In comparison to normal rats, diabetic ones showed marked increases in GLC (+313%), HbA1c (+207%), CHOL (+66%) and TG (+188) and a profound decrease of INS levels (-76%) (p < 0.001 vs. control values). Among the various treatments, one with INS produced the greatest lowering effect on the plasm a GLC (+23%, p < 0.05), INS (+23%, p < 0.05) and TG (+3%), with the remaining changes being similar to those seen with MET. A treatment with MET reduced all the diabetic changes by at least threefold; and one with LOV had a significant (p < 0.001) lowering effect on the plasma CHOL and TG but was without an effect on the plasma GLC, INS and HbA1c. In common with LOV, TAU reduced the diabetic levels of both CHOL and TG and, in addition, reduced the diabetic plasma GLC and raised the corresponding INS level. Among binary combinations, one with LOV-MET provided a greater effect than MET alone only in terms of the plasma CHOL and TG; and one with LOV-TAU was only significantly better than TAU alone in lowering the TG levels. However, a treatment with LOV-MET-TAU led to reductions in all the plasma parameters examined that were much greater than those achieved with any of the individual agents or with their binary combinations (at p ≤ 0.05).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Lovastatina/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia , Carboidratos/sangue , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4383-4395, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354267

RESUMO

Background: The bioactive compounds glycyrrhizin (GL) and thymoquinone (TQ) have been reported for antidiabetic activity in pure and nanoformulation (NF) form. However, the antidiabetic effect of a combined nanoformulation of these two has not been reported in the literature. Here, a combinational nanomedicine approach was investigated to enhance the antidiabetic effects of the two bioactive compounds of GL and TQ (GT), in type 2 diabetic rats in reference to metformin. Methods: Two separately prepared NFs of GL (using polymeric nanoparticles) and TQ (using polymeric nanocapsules) were mixed to obtain a therapeutic cargo of nanomedicine and then characterized with respect to particle size, stability, morphology, chemical interaction, and in vivo behavior. Additionally, NFs were evaluated for their cytotoxic effect on Vero cell lines compared to the pure form. This nanomedicine was administered orally, both independently and in combination (pure form or NF) for 21 successive days to type 2 diabetic rats and the effect assessed in term of body weight, fasting blood-glucose level, and various biochemical parameters (such as lipid-profile parameters and HbA1c). Results: When these nanomedicines were applied in combined rather than individual forms, significant decreases in blood glucose and HbA1c and significant improvements in body weight and lipid profile were observed, despite them containing lower amounts than the pure forms. The treatment of diabetic rats with GL and TQ, when administered independently in either pure or NF forms, did not lead to favorable trends in any studied parameters. Conclusion: The administration of combined GT NFs exhibited significant improvement in studied parameters. Improvements in antidiabetic activity could have been due to a synergistic effect of combined NFs, leading to enhanced absorption of NFs and lesser cytotoxic effects compared to pure bioactive compounds. Therefore, GT NFs demonstrated potential as a new medicinal agent for the management of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Composição de Medicamentos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/química , Animais , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Benzoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Ácido Glicirrízico/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Niacinamida , Polímeros/efeitos adversos , Ratos Wistar , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Estreptozocina
6.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4635, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anti-hyperglycemic effects of Plathymenia reticulata hydroalcoholic extract and related changes in body weight, lipid profile and the pancreas. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in 75 adult male Wistar rats via oral gavage of 65mg/Kg of streptozotocin. Rats were allocated to one of 8 groups, as follows: diabetic and control rats treated with water, diabetic and control rats treated with 100mg/kg or 200mg/kg of plant extract, and diabetic and control rats treated with glyburide. Treatment consisted of oral gavage for 30 days. Blood glucose levels and body weight were measured weekly. Animals were sacrificed and lipid profile and pancreatic tissue samples analyzed. Statistical analysis consisted of ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey-Kramer, paired Student's t and χ2 tests; the level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: Extract gavage at 100mg/kg led to a decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats in the second, third (198.71±65.27 versus 428.00±15.25) and fourth weeks (253.29±47.37 versus 443.22±42.72), body weight loss (13.22±5.70 versus 109.60±9.95) and lower cholesterol levels (58.75±3.13 versus 80.11±4.01) in control rats. Extract gavage at 200mg/Kg led to a decrease in glucose levels on the fourth week in diabetic rats, body weight loss in the second, third and fourth weeks in control rats, and lower cholesterol levels in diabetic and control rats. Islet hyperplasia (p=0.005) and pancreatic duct dilation (p=0.047) were observed in diabetic and control rats. CONCLUSION: Plathymenia extract reduced blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, and body weight in control rats, and promoted pancreatic islet hyperplasia in diabetic and control rats.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Fabaceae , Hiperplasia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hiperplasia/patologia , Masculino , Fitoterapia , Folhas de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
7.
Life Sci ; 232: 116662, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323271

RESUMO

AIMS: Vascular endothelial cells act as a selective barrier between circulating blood and vessel wall and play an important role in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases. Astragaloside IV (As-IV) has a protective effect on vascular endothelial cells, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of As-IV on endothelial dysfunction (ED). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) were injected intraperitoneally with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes and then administered orally with As-IV (40, 80 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Vascular function was evaluated by vascular reactivity in vivo and in vitro. The expression of calpain-1 and eNOS in the aorta of diabetic rats was examined by western blot. NO production was measured using nitrate reductase method. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring SOD, GSH-px and ROS. RESULTS: Our results showed that As-IV administration significantly improved diabetes associated ED in vivo, and both NAC (an antioxidant) and MDL-28170 (calpain-1 inhibitor) significantly attenuated hyperglycemia-induced ED in vitro. Meanwhile, pretreatment with the inhibitor l-NAME nearly abolished vasodilation to ACh in all groups of rats. Furthermore, As-IV increased NO production and the expression of eNOS in the thoracic aorta of diabetic rats. In addition, the levels of ROS were significantly increased, and the activity of SOD and GSH-px were decreased in diabetic rats, while As-IV administration reversed this change in a concentration-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that As-IV improves endothelial dysfunction in thoracic aortas from diabetic rats by reducing oxidative stress and calpain-1.


Assuntos
Calpaína/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Saponinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(2): 140-144, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effects of the black buckwheat leaf (BBL) in type 2 diabetes mellitus mice and its effects on pancreas and spleen. METHODS: Forty male C57 / B16 mice (SPF) were randomly divided into normal control (NC) group (n=10) and the experimental group (n=30), the experimental group were fed with high sugar and high fat, combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in small dose to establish the model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Those thirty model mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10), diabetes mellitus group (DM), low dose of BBL (DM+L) treated group, high dose of BBL (DM+H) treated group. The mice in the NC group and the DM group were given normal saline per day, and the DM+L group and DM+H group were treated with black tartary buckwheat at the doses of 0.21g/kg·d-1 and 0.42g/kg·d-1 respectively. After 14 days. All mice were executed by cervical dislocation, then blood samples were collected, pancreas and spleen were removed for subsequent experiments. The serum levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH) and insulin were detected. TNF-α protein in spleen tissue was detected by ELISA kit. The morphology of pancreas tissue was observed by HE staining, and the spleen coefficient was calculated. The expression levels of insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1) mRNA and IRS-1 protein in pancreatic tissue were detected. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the serum levels of FBG, TC and TCH in the model group were increased significantly, while the serum level of insulin was decreased significantly (P<0.05), the expression of TNF-α protein in spleen tissues was obviously raised, the expressions of IRS-1 mRNA and IRS-1 protein in pancreatic tissue in model group were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the serum levels of FBG, TC and TCH were decreased significantly in the BBL treated groups. The serum insulin level, spleen coefficient, TNF-α protein expression level in spleen tissue, IRS-1 mRNA expression and IRS-1 protein expression levels in pancreatic tissue in BBL treated group were increased significantly (P< 0.05). High-dose black tartary buckwheat leaves (0.42g/kg·d-1) exerted a more significant effect. CONCLUSION: Stem and leaf of black bitter buckwheat has significant therapeutic effects on reducing blood sugar and blood fat in type 2 diabetic mice, and has certain protective effects on pancreas and spleen of diabetic mice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fagopyrum/química , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Estreptozocina
9.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(2): 155-159, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes of blood biochemical index and the pathological changes of myocardium and kidney in type 2 diabetic mouse at different time points, which can provide the basis for the selection of type 2 diabetic modeling time for later research. METHODS: After 6 weeks of feeding with high-fat diet, 24 healthy male ICR mice were injected with streptozocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg) intraperitoneally for 5 days to establish diabetic models. After 9 days, a random blood glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol / L was measured as diabetic mice. 4, 6 and 8 weeks after successfully preparing the diabetic mouse, 8 diabetic mice (a group)would be sacrificed each time. Then the biochemical and pathological conditions were analyzed: ① the indexes of heart and kidney were calculated. ②the serum levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine (Cr) and blood urine nitrogen (BUN) were determined. ③ Histopathological changes of myocardium and renal tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Masson staining was used to observe the fibrosis of myocardium. PAS staining was adopted to observe the pathological changes of renal tissue. In addition, 8 ICR male mice were taken as the control group. RESULTS: At the 4th, 6th and 8th week, cardiac organ coefficient, the values of LDH and CK were all increased compared with the control group. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis could be observed. Renal organ coefficient, the values of Cr and BUN were increased. Glomerular hypertrophy, basement membrane thickening and atrophy could be perceived. CONCLUSION: At the 6th week, related biochemical and pathological changes in diabetic mice were comparatively obvious and breeding time was relatively short. Thus, 6 weeks after the preparation of the diabetic mice would be the optimal time for type 2 diabetes mellitus modeling, proper for inventions of drugs and other research purposes including pathology, physiology, biochemistry, etc.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estreptozocina
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 178: 108-115, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176093

RESUMO

As dual regulators, the PTP-1B signaling pathway and α-glucosidase slow glucose release and increase the degree of insulin sensitivity, representing a promising therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. In this study, we systematically examined the in vivo and in vitro anti-diabetic activities of natural flavonoids 1-6 from Chrysanthemum morifolium. Flavonoids 1-6 increased glucose consumption-promoting activity and the phosphorylation of GSK-3ß and Akt, and decreased PTP-1B protein level along with slightly inhibitory activity of the PTP-1B enzyme. Moreover, flavonoids 1-2 treatment induced insulin secretion in INS-1 cells. Besides, in vivo study revealed that flavonoids 2 and 5 demonstrated potent anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity, and improved maltose and glucose tolerance. Although flavonoid 2 exhibited lower inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase in vitro, it could deglycosylated in vivo to diosmetin to function as an α-glucosidase inhibitor. Taken together, these results led to the identification of the natural flavonoids 1-6 from C. morifolium as dual regulators of α-glucosidase and the PTP-1B signaling pathway, suggesting their potential application as new oral anti-diabetic drugs or functional food ingredients.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colesterol/sangue , Cricetulus , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Glucose/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/metabolismo , Ratos , Estreptozocina , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(6): e8589, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166385

RESUMO

The transport of myo-inositol is the main mechanism for the maintenance of its high intracellular levels. We aimed to measure the mRNA and protein levels of myo-inositol cotransporters in the sciatic nerve (SN) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) during experimental diabetes. Streptozotocin-induced (STZ; 4, 8, and 12 weeks; 65 mg/kg; ip) diabetic rats (DB) and age-matched euglycemic (E) rats were used for the analysis of mRNA and protein levels of sodium myo-inositol cotransporters 1, 2 (SMIT1, SMIT2) or H+/myo-inositol cotransporter (HMIT). There was a significant reduction in the mRNA levels for SMIT1 in the SN and DRG (by 36.9 and 31.0%) in the 4-week DB (DB4) group compared to the E group. SMIT2 was not expressed in SN. The mRNA level for SMIT2 was up-regulated only in the DRG in the DB4 group. On the other hand, the protein level of SMIT1 decreased by 42.5, 41.3, and 44.8% in the SN after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of diabetes, respectively. In addition, there was a decrease of 64.3 and 58.0% of HMIT in membrane and cytosolic fractions, respectively, in the SN of the DB4 group. In the DRG, there was an increase of 230 and 86.3% for SMIT1 and HMIT, respectively, in the DB12 group. The levels of the main inositol transporters, SMIT1 and HMIT, were greatly reduced in the SN but not in the DRG. SMIT-1 was selectively reduced in the sciatic nerve during experimental STZ-induced diabetes.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico Ativo/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Inositol/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Masculino , Ratos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Estreptozocina , Regulação para Cima
12.
Life Sci ; 231: 116566, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201846

RESUMO

AIMS: Diabetes mellitus can cause cognitive impairments, a state between normal aging and dementia. Effective clinical interventions are urgently needed to prevent or treat this complication. Liraglutide as a glucagon-like peptide 1 analog has been shown to exert memory-enhancing and neuroprotective effects on neurodegenerative diseases. This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of liraglutide in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice with cognitive deficits. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneal injected with STZ (65 mg/kg body weight daily for 5 days) to induce type 1 diabetes model. Then the mice were treated with liraglutide (250 mg/kg/day, for 6 weeks) or saline. Weekly changes of body weight and fasting blood glucose were measured. Cognitive performance was evaluated by Morris water maze test. The ultrastructure of hippocampus was observed by transmission electron microscope. The superoxide dismutase activities and malondialdehyde levels in the hippocampus were detected by biochemistry assay. Apoptosis-related proteins and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase-B (Akt) signaling were detected by Western blotting. KEY FINDINGS: We found that STZ-induced diabetic mice exhibited impaired learning and memory, ultrastructure damage of hippocampal neurons and synapses, exacerbated oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis, as compared to the control mice. These effects were attenuated by the treatment with liraglutide. Furthermore, liraglutide reversed diabetes-induced alterations in PI3K/Akt signaling pathway that plays an essential role in modulating neuronal survival, apoptosis and plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that the neuroprotective effects of liraglutide on diabetes-induced cognitive impairments are associated with the improvements of hippocampal synapses and inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Liraglutida/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Liraglutida/metabolismo , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estreptozocina/efeitos adversos , Sinapses/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinapses/fisiologia
13.
Life Sci ; 231: 116584, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220527

RESUMO

Taurine is a key functional amino acid with many functions in the nervous system. The effects of taurine on cognitive function have aroused increasing attention. First, the fluctuations of taurine and its transporters are associated with cognitive impairments in physiology and pathology. This may help diagnose and treat cognitive impairment though mechanisms are not fully uncovered in existing studies. Then, taurine supplements in cognitive impairment of different physiologies, pathologies and toxicologies have been demonstrated to significantly improve and restore cognition in most cases. However, elevated taurine level in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by exogenous administration causes cognition retardations only in physiologically sensitive period between the perinatal to early postnatal period. In this review, taurine levels are summarized in different types of cognitive impairments. Subsequently, the effects of taurine supplements on cognitions in physiology, different pathologies and toxication of cognitive impairments (e.g. aging, Alzheimer' disease, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced brain damage, ischemia model, mental disorder, genetic diseases and cognitive injuries of pharmaceuticals and toxins) are analyzed. These data suggest that taurine can improve cognition function through multiple potential mechanisms (e.g. restoring functions of taurine transporters and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors subunit; mitigating neuroinflammation; up-regulating Nrf2 expression and antioxidant capacities; activating Akt/CREB/PGC1α pathway, and further enhancing mitochondria biogenesis, synaptic function and reducing oxidative stress; increasing neurogenesis and synaptic function by pERK; activating PKA pathway). However, more mechanisms still need explorations.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/metabolismo , Taurina/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Receptores de GABA , Receptores de GABA-A/efeitos dos fármacos , Estreptozocina/farmacologia , Taurina/fisiologia
14.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 117, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glossogyne tenuifolia (GT) is a traditional herbal tea in Penghu Island, Taiwan. Its extract is traditionally been used as an antipyretic, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory remedy in folk medicine among local residents. The present study investigated whether GT could improve streptozotocin-induced acute liver injury of type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Male Wistar rats aged eight weeks were induced to be hyperglycemic by the subcutaneous injection of streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) and a combination of a high-fat diet (HFD) (N group). The animals were given GT extracts at a low dose (50 mg/kg) (L group) or a high dose (150 mg/kg) (H group) or an anti-diabetic drug (acarbose) (P group) in drinking water for 4 weeks. RESULTS: The results revealed that STZ-NA increased hepatomegaly, hepatocyte cross-sectional area, hypertrophy-related pathways (IL6/STAT3-MEK5-ERK5, NFATc3, p38 and JNK MAPK), proapoptotic molecules (cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-3), and fibrosis-related pathways (FGF-2, pERK1/2). These pathway components were then expressed at lower levels in the L and H group when compared with the N group. The liver-protective effect of GT in STZ-NA-induced diabetic rats with hyperlipidemia was through an enhancement in the activation of the compensatory PI3K-Akt and Bcl2 survival-related pathway. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that the hot water extracts of GT efficiently ameliorates the STZ-NA-induced diabetes associated liver damage in rat models.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Falência Hepática Aguda/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Falência Hepática Aguda/etiologia , Masculino , Niacinamida , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
15.
Arch Ital Biol ; 157(1): 24-36, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111954

RESUMO

N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid (ACA) is a blocker of transient receptor potential melastatin-2 (TRPM2) which is a non-selective, Ca2+-permeable and oxidative stress sensor cation channel. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) induction successfully generates spatial memory deficits in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of ACA on a rat model of STZ-induced learning and memory deficits. A total of 60 Wistar rats randomly divided into six groups; (1) control, (2) sham-operated, (3) ICV-STZ administered, (4) ICV-STZ + memantine (5 mg/kg i.p.), (5) ICV-STZ + ACA (25 mg/kg i.p.) and (6) a combination therapy group, ICV-STZ + ACA (25 mg/kg) + memantine (5 mg/kg). Effects of the drugs on spatial memory deficits were appraised in Morris water maze (MWM) apparatus. Anxiety-like behavior of the rats were also assessed by using both the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field maze (OFM) apparatuses. Western blot analysis of hippocampal tissues revealed TRPM2-L channel protein expression levels. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Memantine treatment ameliorated the spatial memory deficits induced, as evidenced by the MWM tests. However, ACA treatment did not provide any improvement, instead positive effects of memantine were attenuated by ACA treatment. Western blot analysis in hippocampal tissues showed that TRPM2-L protein expression was markedly suppressed in ICV-STZ administered group. The ACA treatment reversed that suppression. Surprisingly, the memantine treatment resulted in overexpression of TRPM2-L, to a certain extent. Examination of the rats in EPM and OFM apparatuses, as a display of anxiety-like behavior, did not reveal any marked difference among groups. Serum levels of TNF-α and MDA also did not vary significantly among groups, as well. Conclusively, our findings showed for the first time that TRPM2-L protein expression was significantly suppressed in the ICV-STZ induced memory deficit model. Even though ACA reversed this suppression, no improvement in spatial memory was observed following ACA treatment.


Assuntos
Memantina , Transtornos da Memória , ortoaminobenzoatos , Animais , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Memantina/farmacologia , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina , Canais de Cátion TRPM/efeitos dos fármacos , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia
16.
Chem Biol Interact ; 307: 116-124, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063766

RESUMO

Naringenin is a flavanone compound found in citrus fruits. Recent researches showed that naringenin has many potentially pharmacological effects. However, the therapeutic effect and the potential mechanism of naringenin on diabetic nephropathy (DN) remain to be elucidated. DN model was established by a high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin (STZ), which was confirmed by the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG, more than 11.1 mmol/L) and urinary albumin (10 times higher than the normal mice). After 5 weeks of STZ injection, the DN was developed in model mice. Then naringenin (25 or 75 mg/kg·d) were supplemented for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the injury of the renal function and structure was deteriorated. Concomitantly, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs) protein expression was down-regulated, and CYP4A expression and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) level were reduced in DN mice. Naringenin administration improved the renal damage of DN mice, and up-regulated PPARs expression, increased CYP4A-20-HETE level. Consistent with the results of in vivo, glucose at 30 mmol/L (high glucose, HG) significantly induced cell proliferation and hypertrophy in NRK-52E cells, following the reductive PPARs protein expression and the downward CYP4A-20-HETE level. Naringenin (0.01, 0.1, 1 µmol/L) reversed these changes induced by HG in a dose-dependent manner. HET0016, a selective inhibitor of 20-HETE synthase, partially blocked the effects of naringenin. In conclusion, naringenin has a therapeutic effect on DN, which may be, at least partly, related to the activation of CYP4A-20-HETE and the up-regulation of PPARs.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/metabolismo , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP4A/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Feminino , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Glucose/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Camundongos , Ratos , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 195: 51-57, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082734

RESUMO

This study includes the fabrication of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with the help of a plant polyphenol called Resveratrol through an ecofriendly synthetic process without any use of harmful reductants. In the fabrication of AuNPs, Resveratrol acts as both stabilizing and reducing agent. The prepared AuNPs is tested on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats for their amelioration consequence. The images of TEM displayed the development of spherical nanoparticles (NPs) with a median of 20 nm particle size. The STZ injected diabetic rats were administrated orally with calcium dobesilate (CD; 500 mg/kg/day) or AuNPs (200, 300 mg/kg/day) for a period of 3 months. The characteristics displayed by AuNPs were found to be similar with CD in decreasing permeability of blood-retinal barrier in STZ injected diabetic rats. The retinal vessels in the AuNPs administrated diabetic rats were observed to be decreased through the retinal histopathological examination. In the AuNPs administrated diabetic rats, the retinal expression of renal Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor (PEDF) was observed to be increased and the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF-1), which was increased in diabetic rats was declined on treating with AuNPs. On treating the STZ injected diabetic rats with AuNPs, all the retinal mRNA expressions of VEGF-1, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNFα), Monocyte Chemotactic Proteins-1 (MCP-1), Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß were observed to be reduced. Furthermore, AuNPs can reduce phosphorylation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase (ERK) 1/2 along with a growth in nuclear translocation of pNF-κB p65 produced by STZ. To conclude, the protective effect of AuNPs on STZ injected diabetic rats could help in redeveloping the balance among the inhibitors and stimulators of angiogenesis. Furthermore, on treating with AuNPs results in inhibiting the signaling pathway of ERK1/2 as well as with amelioration of retinal inflammation through trans repression of NF-κB.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Resveratrol/química , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Serpinas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
18.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(2): 179-199, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of gamma aminobutyric acid(GABA) fortified rice diet intervention on oxidative stress and pancreatic injury in type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2 DM) mice. METHODS: Of the 70 male ICR mice, 10 were randomly selected as blank control group and they were always fed with the normal white rice feed. The remaining 60 mice were fed with high-fat white rice for 9 weeks. They were fasted for 12 h and injected intraperitoneally with streptozocin(STZ) at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weigh for two consecutive days. The control group was injected with the corresponding volume of normal saline. Subsequently, 50 T2 DM mice with successful modeling were randomly divided into 5 groups according to blood glucose, 10 in each group: T2 DM model control group, germinated brown rice positive control group(GABA content is 0. 2 g/kg feed), GABA-fortified rice low, medium and high dose group(GABA content was 0. 02, 0. 1 and 0. 2 g/kg feed respectively) and each target diet was fed for 6 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed one week before the end of the experiment to observe the hypoglycemic effect of different doses of GABA fortified rice. After the end of the experiment, HE staining was used to observe the morphology of pancreas. At the same time, the redox indicators from plasma and pancreas of reactive oxygen species(ROS), malondialdehyde(MDA), total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase(SOD) were examined in each group; The mRNA expressions of oxidative stress-related genes including glycogen synthase kinase-3ß(GSK-3ß), nuclear transcription factor 2(Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1(HO-1) and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase1(NQO1), insulin secretion related genes including pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1(PDX-1), mus musculus v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein A(MafA), glucokinase(GCK), glucose transporter 2(GLUT2) and the apoptosis associated genes including b-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax) and caspase-3 in pancreas were assayed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The intervention of GABA fortified rice could alleviate the improvement of the blood glucose level and the lack of insulin secretion in T2 DM mice and relieve plasma and pancreatic oxidative stress. besides, The intervention of GABA fortified rice could up-regulate the expression of insulin secretion-related genes PDX-1, GCK, GLUT2, inhibit the expression of pro-apoptotic gene caspase-3 and promote the expression of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2. There was a dose-response relationship between the above result and the 0. 2 g/kg dose group was the most significant, which achieved similar result to germinated brown rice. CONCLUSION: GABA-fortified rice can significantly improve the plasma and pancreatic redox status of STZ-induced T2 DM mice, regulate the expression levels of oxidative stress-related genes and apoptosis-related genes, thereby protect pancreatic tissue morphology, improve pancreatic insulin secretion and thereby alleviate glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , GABAérgicos/farmacologia , Oryza , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estreptozocina/efeitos adversos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
19.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 39(4): 464-470, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of exendin-4 on hepatic lipid metabolism, fibrosis and oxidative stress in mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks and received intraperitoneal injections of 120 mg/kg STZ to induce diabetes. After successful modeling, the mice were randomized into diabetic control group and exendin-4 treatment group (DM+E4), and in the latter group, the mice were given a daily dose of 1 nmol/kg of exendin-4 for 8 weeks. The changes in the body weight (BW) and random blood glucose (RBG) in the mice were recorded. The mRNA expressions of the genes related with liver lipid metabolism, fibrosis and oxidative stress were analyzed using RT-PCR, and the structural changes of the liver tissues were observed with HE, Sirius red and oil red O staining; the expressions of TGF-ß1, Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins in the liver tissues were detected using Western blotting. RESULTS: The diabetic mice showed significantly higher RBG levels and BW with obvious lipid deposition, fibrosis and oxidative stress in the liver as compared with the normal control mice (P < 0.001). Exendin-4 treatment of the diabetic mice did not significantly lessened liver lipid deposition but obviously reduced the levels of RBG and TG (P < 0.05), lowered the expression levels of liver fibrosis-related genes TGF-ß, α-SMA and Col-Ⅰ (P < 0.05), increased the expression levels of the antioxidant genes Nrf2, HO-1 and GPX4 (P < 0.01), and enhanced the protein expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 in the liver tissues (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Exendin-4 improves liver fibrosis and oxidative stress in diabetic mice by activating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway without significantly reducing liver lipid deposition.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Cirrose Hepática , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Exenatida , Fígado , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Estreptozocina
20.
Life Sci ; 229: 80-92, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095947

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Bile acids (BAs) as a kind of endogenous and signaling molecules altered under the circumstance of T2DM, which could impact on the relevant pathways to further affect the glucose metabolism and insulin secretion and might be associated with the T2DM development and restoration. However, the potential mechanisms still need more various and multifaceted studies. Here, we explored the alterations of BAs features and their mechanisms, and discussed the potential effects of the altered BAs on the glucose metabolic disorder via the relevant signaling pathways. MAIN METHODS: The high-fat diet (HFD) feeding combining with injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) was employed for inducing the T2DM rat model. Based on that, we investigated the alterations of the concentrations and compositions of BAs and their mechanisms, and explored the effects of the altered BAs on the glucose metabolic disorder via farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (Tgr5)-mediated pathways. KEY FINDINGS: In rats with T2DM, the BAs in rats with T2DM exhibited characteristic alterations, especially the increased ratio of 12α-OH to non-12α-OH BAs in serum, which could be ascribed to the up-regulated Cyp8b1 mRNA expression ratio in the liver. Moreover, Additionally, the altered BAs had negative effects on glucose metabolic disorder via inhibiting the Trg5/Fxr-mediated pathways in colon, liver and pancreas in rats with T2DM. SIGNIFICANCE: BAs in rats with T2DM exhibited the characteristic alterations, which could provide a cue for searching biomarkers of the T2DM diagnosis, and the altered BAs might aggravate the glucose metabolic disorder.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Glucose/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais
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