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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4627, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009389

RESUMO

Animals have evolved responses to low oxygen conditions to ensure their survival. Here, we have identified the C. elegans zinc finger transcription factor PQM-1 as a regulator of the hypoxic stress response. PQM-1 is required for the longevity of insulin signaling mutants, but surprisingly, loss of PQM-1 increases survival under hypoxic conditions. PQM-1 functions as a metabolic regulator by controlling oxygen consumption rates, suppressing hypoxic glycogen levels, and inhibiting the expression of the sorbitol dehydrogenase-1 SODH-1, a crucial sugar metabolism enzyme. PQM-1 promotes hypoxic fat metabolism by maintaining the expression of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase FAT-7, an oxygen consuming, rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis. PQM-1 activity positively regulates fat transport to developing oocytes through vitellogenins under hypoxic conditions, thereby increasing survival rates of arrested progeny during hypoxia. Thus, while pqm-1 mutants increase survival of mothers, ultimately this loss is detrimental to progeny survival. Our data support a model in which PQM-1 controls a trade-off between lipid metabolic activity in the mother and her progeny to promote the survival of the species under hypoxic conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Transativadores/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/embriologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Consumo de Oxigênio , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , Análise de Sobrevida , Transativadores/genética , Transcrição Genética , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
2.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 267-274, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879191

RESUMO

International immigration into Japan is increasing. It would make sense that investigating the health status of immigrants would be associated with improvements in their health and would be beneficial in building a complete social security system in which minorities can live safely and securely. The objective of this study is to describe the health status of immigrants in Japan and to explore the association between self-rated health status and employment status. As a result, half of those surveyed had some health problem, particularly a lot of mental stress. We did not find a significant relationship between self-rated health status and employment status, but it seems that people who stay in Japan 5 years or more tend to have poor self-rated health status. The factors associated with poor self-rated mental health status were being a non-employee, and having visited a hospital 1 time or more during the past 12 months. A system of mental stress care would be the most necessary health care for international students in Japan.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emprego , Nível de Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Autoavaliação , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4365, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868761

RESUMO

Current approaches explore bacterial genes that change transcriptionally upon stress exposure as diagnostics to predict antibiotic sensitivity. However, transcriptional changes are often specific to a species or antibiotic, limiting implementation to known settings only. While a generalizable approach, predicting bacterial fitness independent of strain, species or type of stress, would eliminate such limitations, it is unclear whether a stress-response can be universally captured. By generating a multi-stress and species RNA-Seq and experimental evolution dataset, we highlight the strengths and limitations of existing gene-panel based methods. Subsequently, we build a generalizable method around the observation that global transcriptional disorder seems to be a common, low-fitness, stress response. We quantify this disorder using entropy, which is a specific measure of randomness, and find that in low fitness cases increasing entropy and transcriptional disorder results from a loss of regulatory gene-dependencies. Using entropy as a single feature, we show that fitness and quantitative antibiotic sensitivity predictions can be made that generalize well beyond training data. Furthermore, we validate entropy-based predictions in 7 species under antibiotic and non-antibiotic conditions. By demonstrating the feasibility of universal predictions of bacterial fitness, this work establishes the fundamentals for potentially new approaches in infectious disease diagnostics.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Evolução Molecular Direcionada , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Entropia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Genoma Bacteriano , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
4.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 95, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Climate change is set to exacerbate occupational heat strain, the combined effect of environmental and internal heat stress on the body, threatening human health and wellbeing. Therefore, identifying effective, affordable, feasible and sustainable solutions to mitigate the negative effects on worker health and productivity, is an increasingly urgent need. OBJECTIVES: To systematically identify and evaluate methods that mitigate occupational heat strain in order to provide scientific-based guidance for practitioners. METHODS: An umbrella review was conducted in biomedical databases employing the following eligibility criteria: 1) ambient temperatures > 28 °C or hypohydrated participants, 2) healthy adults, 3) reported psychophysiological (thermal comfort, heart rate or core temperature) and/or performance (physical or cognitive) outcomes, 4) written in English, and 5) published before November 6, 2019. A second search for original research articles was performed to identify interventions of relevance but lacking systematic reviews. All identified interventions were independently evaluated by all co-authors on four point scales for effectiveness, cost, feasibility and environmental impact. RESULTS: Following screening, 36 systematic reviews fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The most effective solutions at mitigating occupational heat strain were wearing specialized cooling garments, (physiological) heat acclimation, improving aerobic fitness, cold water immersion, and applying ventilation. Although air-conditioning and cooling garments in ideal settings provide best scores for effectiveness, the limited applicability in certain industrial settings, high economic cost and high environmental impact are drawbacks for these solutions. However, (physiological) acclimatization, planned breaks, shading and optimized clothing properties are attractive alternative solutions when economic and ecological sustainability aspects are included in the overall evaluation. DISCUSSION: Choosing the most effective solution or combinations of methods to mitigate occupational heat strain will be scenario-specific. However, this paper provides a framework for integrating effectiveness, cost, feasibility (indoors and outdoor) and ecologic sustainability to provide occupational health and safety professionals with evidence-based guidelines.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina do Trabalho/métodos , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Estresse Fisiológico
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237493, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946440

RESUMO

The phyllosphere epiphytic microbiome is composed of microorganisms that colonize the external aerial portions of plants. Relationships of plant responses to specific microorganisms-both pathogenic and beneficial-have been examined, but the phyllosphere microbiome functional and metabolic profile responses are not well described. Changing crop growth conditions, such as increased drought, can have profound impacts on crop productivity. Also, epiphytic microbial communities provide a new target for crop yield optimization. We compared Zea mays leaf microbiomes collected under drought and well-watered conditions by examining functional gene annotation patterns across three physically disparate locations each with and without drought treatment, through the application of short read metagenomic sequencing. Drought samples exhibited different functional sequence compositions at each of the three field sites. Maize phyllosphere functional profiles revealed a wide variety of metabolic and regulatory processes that differed in drought and normal water conditions and provide key baseline information for future selective breeding.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/microbiologia , Secas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genes de Plantas , Metagenômica , Microbiota , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/metabolismo , Zea mays/fisiologia
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012417, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living in 'humanitarian settings' in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are exposed to a constellation of physical and psychological stressors that make them vulnerable to developing mental disorders. A range of psychological and social interventions have been implemented with the aim to prevent the onset of mental disorders and/or lower psychological distress in populations at risk, and it is not known whether interventions are effective. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and acceptability of psychological and social interventions versus control conditions (wait list, treatment as usual, attention placebo, psychological placebo, or no treatment) aimed at preventing the onset of non-psychotic mental disorders in people living in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Review Group (CDAG) Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (OVID), Embase (OVID), PsycINFO (OVID), and ProQuest PILOTS database with results incorporated from searches to February 2020. We also searched the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify unpublished or ongoing studies. We checked the reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing psychological and social interventions versus control conditions to prevent the onset of mental disorders in adults and children living in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises. We excluded studies that enrolled participants based on a positive diagnosis of mental disorder (or based on a proxy of scoring above a cut-off score on a screening measure). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We calculated standardised mean differences for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous data, using a random-effects model. We analysed data at endpoint (zero to four weeks after therapy) and at medium term (one to four months after intervention). No data were available at long term (six months or longer). We used GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: In the present review we included seven RCTs with a total of 2398 participants, coming from both children/adolescents (five RCTs), and adults (two RCTs). Together, the seven RCTs compared six different psychosocial interventions against a control comparator (waiting list in all studies). All the interventions were delivered by paraprofessionals and, with the exception of one study, delivered at a group level. None of the included studies provided data on the efficacy of interventions to prevent the onset of mental disorders (incidence). For the primary outcome of acceptability, there may be no evidence of a difference between psychological and social interventions and control at endpoint for children and adolescents (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.10; 5 studies, 1372 participants; low-quality evidence) or adults (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.50; 2 studies, 767 participants; very low quality evidence). No information on adverse events related to the interventions was available. For children's and adolescents' secondary outcomes of prevention interventions, there may be no evidence of a difference between psychological and social intervention groups and control groups for reducing PTSD symptoms (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.16, 95% CI -0.50 to 0.18; 3 studies, 590 participants; very low quality evidence), depressive symptoms (SMD -0.01, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.31; 4 RCTs, 746 participants; very low quality evidence) and anxiety symptoms (SMD 0.11, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.31; 3 studies, 632 participants; very low quality evidence) at study endpoint. In adults' secondary outcomes of prevention interventions, psychological counselling may be effective for reducing depressive symptoms (MD -7.50, 95% CI -9.19 to -5.81; 1 study, 258 participants; very low quality evidence) and anxiety symptoms (MD -6.10, 95% CI -7.57 to -4.63; 1 study, 258 participants; very low quality evidence) at endpoint. No data were available for PTSD symptoms in the adult population. Owing to the small number of RCTs included in the present review, it was not possible to carry out neither sensitivity nor subgroup analyses. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Of the seven prevention studies included in this review, none assessed whether prevention interventions reduced the incidence of mental disorders and there may be no evidence for any differences in acceptability. Additionally, for both child and adolescent populations and adult populations, a very small number of RCTs with low quality evidence on the review's secondary outcomes (changes in symptomatology at endpoint) did not suggest any beneficial effect for the studied prevention interventions. Confidence in the findings is hampered by the scarcity of prevention studies eligible for inclusion in the review, by risk of bias in the studies, and by substantial levels of heterogeneity. Moreover, it is possible that random error had a role in distorting results, and that a more thorough picture of the efficacy of prevention interventions will be provided by future studies. For this reason, prevention studies are urgently needed to assess the impact of interventions on the incidence of mental disorders in children and adults, with extended periods of follow-up.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia , Problemas Sociais/psicologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Viés , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Listas de Espera
7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201397, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962543

RESUMO

Post-transcriptional regulation has far-reaching implications on the fate of RNAs. It is gaining increasing momentum as a critical component in adjusting global cellular transcript levels during development and in response to environmental stresses. In this process, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are indispensable chaperones that naturally bind RNA via one or multiple globular RNA-binding domains (RBDs) changing the function or fate of the bound RNAs. Despite the technical challenges faced in plants in large-scale studies, several hundreds of these RBPs have been discovered and elucidated globally over the past few years. Recent discoveries have more than doubled the number of proteins implicated in RNA interaction, including identification of RBPs lacking classical RBDs. This review will discuss these new emerging classes of RBPs, focusing on the current state of the RBP repertoire in Arabidopsis thaliana, including the diverse functional roles derived from quantitative studies implicating RBPs in abiotic stress responses. Notably, this review highlights that 836 RBPs are enriched as Arabidopsis RBPs while 1865 can be classified as candidate RBPs. The review will also outline outstanding areas within this field that require addressing to advance our understanding and potential biotechnological applications of RBPs.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111007, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888586

RESUMO

Soil acidification is one of the crucial global environmental problems, affecting sustainable land use, crop yield, and ecosystem stability. Previous research reported the tolerance of crops to acid soil stress. However, the molecular response of woody plant to acid conditions remains largely unclear. Rhododendron L. is a widely distributed woody plant genus and prefers to grow in acidic soils. Herein, weighted gene coexpression network analysis was performed on R. protistum var. giganteum seedlings subjected to five pH treatments (3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.0, 7.0), and their ecophysiological characteristics were determined for the identification of their molecular responses to acidic environments. Through pairwise comparison, 855 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with photosynthesis, cell wall, and phenylpropanoid metabolism were identified. Most of the DEGs related to photosynthesis and cell wall were up-regulated after pH 4.5 treatment. Results implied that the species improves its photosynthetic abilities and changes its cell wall characteristics to adapt to acidic conditions. Weighted gene co-expression network analyses showed that most of the hub genes were annotated to the biosynthetic pathways of ribosomal proteins and photosynthesis. Expression pattern analysis showed that genes encoding subunit ribosomal proteins decreased at pH 7.0 treatment, suggesting that pH 7.0 treatment led to cell injury in the seedlings. The species regulates protein synthesis in response to high pH stress (pH 7.0). The present study revealed the molecular response mechanism of woody plant R. protistum var. giganteum to acid environments. These findings can be useful in enriching current knowledge of how woody species adapt to soil acidification under global environmental changes.


Assuntos
Ácidos/farmacologia , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Madeira/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fotossíntese/genética , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Solo/química , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Madeira/genética , Madeira/metabolismo
9.
Gene ; 763: 145115, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891773

RESUMO

Dopamine (DA) is a crucial neuroendocrine-immune factor regulating the stress response of Litopenaeus vannamei. To understand the regulatory mechanisms of DA in L. vannamei, the eyestalks of L. vannamei with injection of DA (10-6 mol/shrimp) at 3 and 12 h were chosen to perform transcriptome analysis in this study. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method was used to validate the accuracy of transcriptome data and analyze the expression pattern of candidate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at different time points (0, 3, 6, and 12 h) after DA injection. The transcriptome data showed that 79,434 unigenes were generated. Therein 204 and 434 DEGs were obtained at 3 and 12 h respectively. Besides, the results of enriched pathways showed that the DEGs were involved in GnRH signaling pathway (ko04912) dopaminergic synapse (ko04728), glutamatergic synapse (ko04724), synapse (GO:0045202), synaptic vesicle transport (GO:0048489). Moreover, the Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) of 13 candidate DEGs between transcriptome sequencing and RT-PCR was 0.948, which confirmed the reliability and the accuracy of the transcriptome sequencing results. Furthermore, the results of interaction analysis uncovered 4 pairs of DEGs between eyestalks and hemocytes. Therefore, these results revealed that DA promoted the sensitivity of eyestalk to gonadal related hormones, induced the expression of neuroendocrine factor, enhanced the synaptic behavior and neural signal transduction, regulated immune systems and antioxidation, inhibited the visual function, and promoted the molting. These findings will benefit to foster the understanding on the effects of biogenic amines on neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) networks of crustacean, and supply a substantial material and foundation for further researching of the NEI response.


Assuntos
Dopamina/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo , Penaeidae/genética , Transmissão Sináptica , Transcriptoma , Animais , Dopamina/farmacologia , Olho/metabolismo , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Pró-Proteína Convertase 2/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 2/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1274: 55-69, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894507

RESUMO

Leukotrienes (LTs) are potent lipid mediators that exert a variety of functions, ranging from maintaining the tone of the homeostatic immune response to exerting potent proinflammatory effects. Therefore, LTs are essential elements in the development and maintenance of different chronic diseases, such as asthma, arthritis, and atherosclerosis. Due to the pleiotropic effects of LTs in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, studies are needed to discover potent and specific LT synthesis inhibitors and LT receptor antagonists. Even though most clinical trials using LT inhibitors or antagonists have failed due to low efficacy and/or toxicity, new drug development strategies are driving the discovery for LT inhibitors to prevent inflammatory diseases. A newly important detrimental role for LTs in comorbidities associated with metabolic stress has emerged in the last few years and managing LT production and/or actions could represent an exciting new strategy to prevent or treat inflammatory diseases associated with metabolic disorders. This review is intended to shed light on the synthesis and actions of leukotrienes, the most common drugs used in clinical trials, and discuss the therapeutic potential of preventing LT function in obesity, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/uso terapêutico , Leucotrienos/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Estresse Fisiológico , Asma , Aterosclerose , Humanos
11.
Gene ; 762: 145104, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889060

RESUMO

Chalcone synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74) is one of the key and rate-limiting enzymes of phenylpropanoid pathway which plays superior roles in the production of secondary metabolites. In the present study a full-length cDNA of CHS gene was isolated and characterized from Coelogyne ovalis, an orchid of ornamental and medicinal importance. The CHS gene sequence from C. ovalis (CoCHS) was found to be 1445 bp and comprised an open reading frame of 1182 bp, encoding for 394 amino acid residues. Further, the sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that CoCHS protein shared high degree of similarity with CHS protein of other orchid species. It also confirmed that it contained all four motifs (I to IV) and signature sequence for the functionality of this gene. Structural modeling of CoCHS based on the crystallographic structure of Freesia hybrida indicated that CoCHS had a similar structure. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) disclosed that CoCHS was expressed in all tissues examined, with the highest transcript being in leaves, followed by pseudobulbs and roots. CoCHS expression was also evaluated in the in vitro-raised plantlets under the abiotic stress (dark, cold, UV-B, wounding, salinity). mRNA transcript expression of CHS gene was found to be positively enhanced and regulated by the different stress types. A correlation between the CoCHS transcript expression with flavonoid and anthocyanin contents revealed that a positive correlation existed between metabolites' content and CoCHS expression within the in vivo as well as in the in vitro-raised plant parts.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Orchidaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Aciltransferases/química , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Orchidaceae/classificação , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111298, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950806

RESUMO

Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea) is an economically important woody tree and has great potential for the remediation of heavy metals. To investigate how cadmium accumulates and its detoxification in mulberry, we assessed the physiological and transcriptomic effects of cadmium contamination and as well as its chemical forms and subcellular distribution. Cadmium significantly inhibited mulberry plant growth and primarily accumulated in mulberry roots. Antioxidant enzymes were induced by cadmium in all tissues of mulberry. Subcellular fractionation analyses of cadmium indicated that the majority was compartmentalized in soluble fraction in roots while it mainly located in cell wall in leaves and stems. The greatest amount of the cadmium was integrated with proteins and pectates in all mulberry tissues. RNA-seq transcriptomic analyses of mulberry roots revealed that various metabolic pathways involved in cadmium stress response such as RNA regulation, hormone metabolism, and response to stress, secondary metabolism, as well as signaling, protein metabolism, transport, and cell-wall metabolism. These results will increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cadmium detoxification in mulberry and provide new insights into engineering woody plants for phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Cádmio/toxicidade , Morus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Morus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Morus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866164

RESUMO

AIM: To establish a gene co-expression network for identifying principal modules and hub genes that are associated with drought resistance mechanisms, analyzing their mechanisms, and exploring candidate genes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 42 data sets including PRJNA380841 and PRJNA369686 were used to construct the co-expression network through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). A total of 1,896,897,901 (284.30 Gb) clean reads and 35,021 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained from 42 samples. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that photosynthesis, DNA replication, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, and cell cycle were significantly influenced by drought stress. Furthermore, the DEGs with similar expression patterns, detected by K-means clustering, were grouped into 29 clusters. Genes involved in the modules, such as dark turquoise, yellow, and brown, were found to be appreciably linked with drought resistance. Twelve central, greatly correlated genes in stage-specific modules were subsequently confirmed and validated at the transcription levels, including TraesCS7D01G417600.1 (PP2C), TraesCS5B01G565300.1 (ERF), TraesCS4A01G068200.1 (HSP), TraesCS2D01G033200.1 (HSP90), TraesCS6B01G425300.1 (RBD), TraesCS7A01G499200.1 (P450), TraesCS4A01G118400.1 (MYB), TraesCS2B01G415500.1 (STK), TraesCS1A01G129300.1 (MYB), TraesCS2D01G326900.1 (ALDH), TraesCS3D01G227400.1 (WRKY), and TraesCS3B01G144800.1 (GT). CONCLUSIONS: Analyzing the response of wheat to drought stress during different growth stages, we have detected three modules and 12 hub genes that are associated with drought resistance mechanisms, and five of those genes are newly identified for drought resistance. The references provided by these modules will promote the understanding of the drought-resistance mechanism. In addition, the candidate genes can be used as a basis of transgenic or molecular marker-assisted selection for improving the drought resistance and increasing the yields of wheat.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , RNA-Seq , Seleção Genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4639, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934238

RESUMO

The ability to detect, respond and adapt to mitochondrial stress ensures the development and survival of organisms. Caenorhabditis elegans responds to mitochondrial stress by activating the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) to buffer the mitochondrial folding environment, rewire the metabolic state, and promote innate immunity and lifespan extension. Here we show that HDA-1, the C. elegans ortholog of mammalian histone deacetylase (HDAC) is required for mitochondrial stress-mediated activation of UPRmt. HDA-1 interacts and coordinates with the genome organizer DVE-1 to induce the transcription of a broad spectrum of UPRmt, innate immune response and metabolic reprogramming genes. In rhesus monkey and human tissues, HDAC1/2 transcript levels correlate with the expression of UPRmt genes. Knocking down or pharmacological inhibition of HDAC1/2 disrupts the activation of the UPRmt and the mitochondrial network in mammalian cells. Our results underscore an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of HDAC1/2 in modulating mitochondrial homeostasis and regulating longevity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/enzimologia , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilase 2/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Longevidade , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Histona Desacetilase 1/genética , Histona Desacetilase 2/genética , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Macaca mulatta , Estresse Fisiológico , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140682, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758827

RESUMO

New eco-friendly approaches are required to improve plant biomass production. Beneficial plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria may be exploited as excellent and efficient biotechnological tools to improve plant growth in various - including stressful - environments. We present an overview of bacterial mechanisms which contribute to plant health, growth, and development. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can interact with plants directly by increasing the availability of essential nutrients (e.g. nitrogen, phosphorus, iron), production and regulation of compounds involved in plant growth (e.g. phytohormones), and stress hormonal status (e.g. ethylene levels by ACC-deaminase). They can also indirectly affect plants by protecting them against diseases via competition with pathogens for highly limited nutrients, biocontrol of pathogens through production of aseptic-activity compounds, synthesis of fungal cell wall lysing enzymes, and induction of systemic responses in host plants. The potential of PGPR to facilitate plant growth is of fundamental importance, especially in case of abiotic stress, where bacteria can support plant fitness, stress tolerance, and/or even assist in remediation of pollutants. Providing additional evidence and better understanding of bacterial traits underlying plant growth-promotion can inspire and stir up the development of innovative solutions exploiting PGPR in times of highly variable environmental and climatological conditions.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Bactérias , Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo , Estresse Fisiológico
17.
J Environ Manage ; 274: 111110, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781361

RESUMO

Die-off of coastal wetlands has been reported worldwide. Planting habitat-forming species is an important strategy to reverse the decline of coastal wetlands. However, how abiotic environmental stresses and consumers affect the establishment of the planted vegetation species is unclear. We reported a large-scale restoration project in the Liaohe estuary, China, where native pioneer plant Suaeda salsa was planted. We evaluated the growth performance of the planted S. salsa, and identified the constraints on the establishment of planted S. salsa. Results showed that the growth performance (density, coverage and survival rate) of planted S. salsa was better in the low restored marsh than that in the high restored marsh. The death of planted S. salsa was primarily driven by crab herbivory, followed by abiotic stresses (low soil moisture and high salinity) in the high restored marsh, whereas plant death was only driven by crab herbivory in the low restored marsh. Herbivory strength in the high marsh was significantly higher than that in the low marsh. Our findings challenge the bottom-up paradigm used as the foundation for coastal restoration, and highlight the overlooked role of consumers. Therefore, protection measures against consumer pressure, especially in physically harsh conditions, should be considered to enhance the success of coastal wetland restoration.


Assuntos
Chenopodiaceae , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , China , Estuários , Estresse Fisiológico
18.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(3): 309-325, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833148

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: FtMYB18 plays a role in the repression of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins accumulation by strongly down-regulating the CHS and DFR genes in Tartary buckwheat, and the C5 motif plays an important role in this process. Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) are important flavonoids in Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.), which provides various vibrant color and stronge abiotic stress resistance. Their synthesis is generally regulated by MYB transcription factors at transcription level. However, the negative regulations of MYB and their effects on flavonol metabolism are poorly understood. A SG4-like MYB subfamily TF, FtMYB18, containing C5 motif was identified from Tartary buckwheat. The expression of FtMYB18 was not only showed a negative correlation with anthocyanins and PAs content but also strongly respond to MeJA and ABA. As far as the transgenic lines with FtMYB18 overexpression, anthocyanins and PAs accumulations were decreased through down-regulating expression levels of NtCHS and NtDFR in tobacco, AtDFR and AtTT12 in Arabidopsis, FtCHS, FtDFR and FtANS in Tartary buckwheat hairy roots, respectively. However, FtMYB18 showed no effect on the FLS gene expression and the metabolites content in flavonol synthesis branch. The further molecular interaction analysis indicated FtMYB18 could mediate the inhibition of anthocyanins and PAs synthesis by forming MBW transcriptional complex with FtTT8 and FtTTG1, or MYB-JAZ complex with FtJAZ1/-3/-4/-7. Importantly, in FtMYB18 mutant lines with C5 motif deletion (FtMYB18-C), both of anthocyanins and PAs accumulations had recovered to the similar level as that in wild type, which was attributed to the weakened MBW complex activity or the deficient molecular interaction between FtMYB18ΔC5 with FtJAZ3/-4. The results showed that FtMYB18 could suppress anthocyanins and PAs synthesis at transcription level through the specific interaction of C5 motif with other proteins in Tartary buckwheat.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis , Fagopyrum/genética , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Estresse Fisiológico , Tabaco/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/química
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008761, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790758

RESUMO

The virus-bacterial synergism implicated in secondary bacterial infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae following infection with epidemic or pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) is well documented. However, the molecular mechanisms behind such synergism remain largely ill-defined. In pneumocytes infected with influenza A virus, subsequent infection with S. pneumoniae leads to enhanced pneumococcal intracellular survival. The pneumococcal two-component system SirRH appears essential for such enhanced survival. Through comparative transcriptomic analysis between the ΔsirR and wt strains, a list of 179 differentially expressed genes was defined. Among those, the clpL protein chaperone gene and the psaB Mn+2 transporter gene, which are involved in the stress response, are important in enhancing S. pneumoniae survival in influenza-infected cells. The ΔsirR, ΔclpL and ΔpsaB deletion mutants display increased susceptibility to acidic and oxidative stress and no enhancement of intracellular survival in IAV-infected pneumocyte cells. These results suggest that the SirRH two-component system senses IAV-induced stress conditions and controls adaptive responses that allow survival of S. pneumoniae in IAV-infected pneumocytes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Pulmão/patologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/mortalidade , Streptococcus pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sobrevivência Celular , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/microbiologia , Influenza Humana/patologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/virologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/patologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/virologia , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Virulência
20.
Int J Surg ; 81: 47-54, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738546

RESUMO

Globally, a staggering 310 million major surgeries are performed each year; around 40 to 50 million in USA and 20 million in Europe. It is estimated that 1-4% of these patients will die, up to 15% will have serious postoperative morbidity, and 5-15% will be readmitted within 30 days. An annual global mortality of around 8 million patients places major surgery comparable with the leading causes of death from cardiovascular disease and stroke, cancer and injury. If surgical complications were classified as a pandemic, like HIV/AIDS or coronavirus (COVID-19), developed countries would work together and devise an immediate action plan and allocate resources to address it. Seeking to reduce preventable deaths and post-surgical complications would save billions of dollars in healthcare costs. Part of the global problem resides in differences in institutional practice patterns in high- and low-income countries, and part from a lack of effective perioperative drug therapies to protect the patient from surgical stress. We briefly review the history of surgical stress and provide a path forward from a systems-based approach. Key to progress is recognizing that the anesthetized brain is still physiologically 'awake' and responsive to the sterile stressors of surgery. New intravenous drug therapies are urgently required after anesthesia and before the first incision to prevent the brain from switching to sympathetic overdrive and activating secondary injury progression such as hyperinflammation, coagulopathy, immune activation and metabolic dysfunction. A systems-based approach targeting central nervous system-mitochondrial coupling may help drive research to improve outcomes following major surgery in civilian and military medicine.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Saúde Global , Glicocálix/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estresse Fisiológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos
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