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1.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(5): 570-583, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547969

RESUMO

The systemic stress response triggered by surgical trauma is characterised by sterile inflammation preceding metabolic and neuroendocrine dysregulation. However, the relevance of the classically described 'stress response' is now highly questionable in an era where profound physiological deconditioning is common in older, frail surgical patients. Commonly used assessment techniques do not accurately reflect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis integrity after major surgery. Clinical interpretation of plasma concentrations of cortisol, the prototypical stress hormone, is rarely accurate, because of study heterogeneity, the inherently dynamic characteristics of cortisol production, and assay variability. Before surgery, chronic psychosocial stress and common cardiorespiratory co-morbidities are clinically relevant modifiers of neuroendocrine activation to acute stress/inflammation. The frequent development of multi-morbidity after major surgery further clouds the compartmentalised, discrete model of neuroendocrine activation after initial tissue injury. Starvation, impaired mobility, and sepsis after surgery generate distinct neuroendocrine profiles that challenge the conventional model of neuroendocrine activation. Basic science studies suggest that high circulating levels of cortisol may directly cause organ injury. Conversely, randomised controlled clinical trials investigating glucocorticoid supplementation have delivered contrasting results, with some suggesting a protective effect in the perioperative period. Here, we consider many of the confounding factors that have emerged to challenge the conventional model of the surgical stress response, and suggest that a more nuanced understanding of changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis physiology is warranted to advance perioperative medicine. Re-examining the perioperative stress response presents opportunities for improving outcomes through enhancing the understanding of the neuroendocrine aspects of preparation for and recovery from surgery.


Assuntos
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiopatologia , Período Perioperatório , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Idoso , Humanos
2.
Gene ; 718: 144018, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454543

RESUMO

Cytosine DNA methylation (5mC) is an epigenetic mark that regulates gene expression in plant responses to environmental stresses. Zinc-finger protein (ZFP) is the largest family of DNA-binding transcription factors that also plays an essential role in eukaryote. In plant we have already identified and characterized different useful ZFP-genes. While, the main objective of this research was to observe and identify more targeted stress responsive genes of ZFPs epigenetically throughout genome in rice for the first time. A comprehensive correlation analysis was performed through methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP)-chip hybridization in rice under salt and osmotic stresses. High salinity and drought are two major abiotic hazards that are destroying the crop world-wide. As a result, Through-out genome 14 unique stress responsive transcription factors of ZFP-genes with varying level of methylation and expression under two conditions (control vs. stress) were isolated. All the identified genes were confirmed from different databases for their specific structure, cis-regulatory elements, phylogenetic analysis, and synteny analysis. Moreover, the tissue-specific expression patterns, and expression under abiotic and phytohormones stresses were also investigated. Phylogenetically all the genes were divided into 6 distinct subgroups with Arabidopsis and orthologous proteins were find-out through synteny analysis. Available RNA-seq data in response to various phytohormones provided hormone inducible gene expression profile. Through Reverse Transcriptase qPCR (RT-qPCR) analysis tissue-specific expression in shoot and root over various time points against salt and osmotic stresses exhibited the diverse expression patterns of identified genes. Overall, the present study providing a foundation for in-depth characterization of identified genes and to further understand the epigenetic role of DNA methylation for genes expression and environmental stresses regulation in higher plant.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , DNA de Plantas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Oryza , Proteínas de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
Work ; 63(3): 389-403, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The manual brick field industry is one of the most important and oldest industries in India, where millions of male and female workers make their livelihood. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the different ergonomic risk factors associated with brick making, identify potential gender differences and the prevalence of Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), physiological and psychological stress among the brickfield workers. METHODS: Brickfield workers - 152 male and 148 female were randomly selected from the 12 brickfields. The Modified Nordic Questionnaire was applied to assess the discomfort reported among both groups of brickfield workers. Objective measurement of physiological parameters and lung function values were also recorded. RESULTS: From this study, it was revealed that there is significantly higher discomfort reported in hands, lower back and knees among female brick molders than male brick molders. The physiological parameters did not show any significant change between male brickfield workers and female brickfield workers. The mean values of FVC, FEV1 and PEFR for females were lower than those for male brickfield workers. CONCLUSION: This study concludes that female brickfield workers reported more discomfort than male brickfield workers; perhaps in part due to their additional domestic work responsibilities.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção/métodos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/classificação , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Postura/fisiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 7697-7706, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326167

RESUMO

Nutrition plays a crucial role in human gut health through the improvement of gut barrier functionality. Donkey milk represents an interesting source of natural antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme. Recently, anti-inflammatory properties of donkey milk lysozyme activity were described in a mouse model of ileitis. The current increase of donkey milk consumption highlights the necessity to propose a healthy milk compliant with microbiological standards. This study aims to define a heat treatment of donkey milk, retaining its high lysozyme activity, and to evaluate its beneficial effects on a gut barrier impairment model due to chronic stress in mice. To perform this experiment, samples of raw donkey milk were collected in 15 distinct French farms. Microbiological analysis and lysozyme content and activity were evaluated for each sample. Then, several heat treatments were carried out to define a time and temperature combination that allowed for both a reduction in the number of total micro-organisms, increasing the shelf-life of the product, and preservation of lysozyme activity. The beneficial effect of heated donkey milk on the gut barrier of mice was evaluated and compared with raw donkey milk. We found that samples of raw donkey milk showed low total mesophilic microbial counts, and no pathogens were detected. Among the different heat-treatment procedures tested, a 2-min, 72°C combination was determined to be the most optimal time and temperature combination to preserve lysozyme activity and increase the shelf-life of donkey milk. Oral administration of this heat-treated donkey milk in mice counteracted chronic stress-induced intestinal damage, illustrated by gut hyper-permeability and low-grade inflammation, similar to raw donkey milk. We have demonstrated for the first time that oral intervention with donkey milk, optimally heat-treated to retain enzymatic lysozyme activity, improves intestinal barrier damage linked to psychological stress in mice.


Assuntos
Equidae , Temperatura Alta , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Leite/enzimologia , Muramidase/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Leite/microbiologia , Muramidase/farmacologia , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Água
5.
Biol Res ; 52(1): 39, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358053

RESUMO

In the growth condition(s) of plants, numerous secondary metabolites (SMs) are produced by them to serve variety of cellular functions essential for physiological processes, and recent increasing evidences have implicated stress and defense response signaling in their production. The type and concentration(s) of secondary molecule(s) produced by a plant are determined by the species, genotype, physiology, developmental stage and environmental factors during growth. This suggests the physiological adaptive responses employed by various plant taxonomic groups in coping with the stress and defensive stimuli. The past recent decades had witnessed renewed interest to study abiotic factors that influence secondary metabolism during in vitro and in vivo growth of plants. Application of molecular biology tools and techniques are facilitating understanding the signaling processes and pathways involved in the SMs production at subcellular, cellular, organ and whole plant systems during in vivo and in vitro growth, with application in metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways intermediates.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Metabolismo Secundário/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
6.
J Music Ther ; 56(3): 240-264, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175814

RESUMO

Dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in psychiatric disorders. Music therapy (MT) has been shown to modulate heart-rate variability (HRV) and salivary stress markers, physiological markers of the ANS and HPA axes, respectively. Given the prominent role of arousal and stress physiology in many psychiatric disorders, MT has the potential to provide therapeutic benefits in psychiatry. Active MT requires patients to engage rhythmically with music; in contrast, passive MT requires patients to listen to music, eliminating the rhythmic movement seen in active MT. Yet, it remains unknown whether active or passive MT differentially modulates arousal and stress physiology. We contrasted the effects of active and passive MT experiences to examine the differential impact of rhythmic movement on the ANS and HPA axes in healthy participants. Individuals (N = 16) participated in a crossover study of 40 min of an active MT and a passive MT intervention. HRV recordings and saliva samples were collected both before and after each intervention. The high-frequency component (HF) and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency components (LF/HF) were calculated as cardiac markers of parasympathetic and sympathetic ANS activation, respectively. Saliva samples were analyzed for alpha-amylase and cortisol, markers of the sympathetic ANS and HPA axes, respectively. Active MT and passive MT interventions differentially modulated LF/HF, where active MT decreased LF/HF and passive MT increased LF/HF. These results indicate that MT affects the ANS and suggests that differences in engagement between active MT and passive MT lead to a differential modulation of the sympathetic ANS.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Musicoterapia , Saliva/química , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , alfa-Amilases/análise , Estimulação Acústica , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 23442-23452, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197674

RESUMO

The current study demonstrates oxidative damage and associated neurotoxicity following pH stress in two freshwater carp Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus cirrhosus. Carp (n = 6, 3 replicates) were exposed to four different pH (5.5, 6, 7.5, and 8) against control (pH 6.8 ± 0.05) for 7 days. After completion of treatment, levels of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione reductase [GRd]) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (malondialdehyde [MDA], glutathione [GSH]), brain neurological parameters (Na+-K+ATPase, acetylcholinesterase [AcHE], monoamine oxidase [MAO], and nitric oxide [NO]), xanthine oxidase (XO), heat shock proteins (HSP70 and HSP90), and transcription factor NFkB were measured in carp brain. Variation in the pH caused a significant alteration in the glutathione system (glutathione and glutathione reductase), SOD-CAT system, and stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA). Xanthine oxidase was also induced significantly after pH exposure. Brain neurological parameters (MAO, NO, AChE, and Na+-K+ATPase) were significantly reduced at each pH-treated carp group though inhibition was highest at lower acidic pH (5.5). Cirrhinus cirrhosus was more affected than that of Labeo rohita. Molecular chaperon HSP70 expression was induced in all pH-treated groups though such induction was more in acid-stressed fish. HSP90 was found to increase only in acid-stressed carp brain. Expression of NFkB was elevated significantly at each treatment group except for pH 7.5. Finally, both acidic and alkaline pH in the aquatic system was found to disturb oxidative balance in carp brain which ultimately affects the neurological activity in carp. However, acidic environment in the aquatic system was more detrimental than the alkaline system regarding oxidative damage and subsequent neurotoxicity in carp brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Peixes/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carpas/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Água Doce , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Alimentos Marinhos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 795-805, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238283

RESUMO

This study investigates the combined effects of increased temperatures and copper on the early live stages of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the blue mussel Mytilus edulis as well as their hybrids. For this purpose, developmental abnormalities was measured after 48 h of exposure as well as a battery of oxidative stress markers such as, antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde accumulation (MDA) and metallothionein contents (MT) and related gene expression pattern. Embryotoxicity and metal accumulation in tissues of mussel larvae exposed to a sublethal concentration of copper (10 µg/L) along with a slight temperature increase from 18 °C to22 °C were significantly increased after 48 h of exposure. Co-exposure to Cu and elevated temperatures significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme activities termed as, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and being maintained at 22 °C only in pure M. galloprovincialis (PG) larvae and female galloprovincialis x male edulis hybrid larvae (HFG). A significant decrease in mRNA abundance of cat, sod, gst gene transcription levels was showed in the same species. Furthermore, metallothionein accumulation increased significantly in PG D-larvae exposed to copper at 22 °C. The same pattern was observed in term of gene expression of MTs cognates (mt-10 and mt-20). Significant increase of MDA levels in pure M. edulis (PE) larvae and their female M. edulis x male M. galloprovincialis hybrid larvae (HFE) combined with a low MTs content were observed. Overall, this study provides clues about the relatively higher resistance and resilience of M. galloprovincialis species compared to M. edulis species under environmental pollution and future climate change scenarios.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Mytilus/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
9.
Life Sci ; 232: 116605, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254588

RESUMO

AIM: The present study was designed to investigate the possible role of T-type Ca2+ channels and HCN channels in the development of stress adaptation in cold-water immersion stress-subjected mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The mice were subjected to cold-water immersion stress by placing them individually in a water tank (depth = 15.5 cm; temperature = 15 ±â€¯2 °C) for 5 min. The mice were subjected to single episode of cold-water immersion stress for inducing acute stress; while for inducing stress adaptation, mice were subjected to repeated episodes of homotypic stressor (5 min) for 5 consecutive days. Animals were administered with ethosuximide (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and ivabradine (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) before subjecting them to stress for five days. The stress-related behavioral alterations were assessed using the actophotometer, the hole board, the open field and the social interaction tests. The plasma corticosterone levels were quantified as a biochemical parameter of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. RESULTS: Acute stress altered the behavioral and biochemical parameters of the animals. However, repeated stress significantly restored the behavioral and biochemical alterations signifying the development of adaptation. Administration of ethosuximide and ivabradine abolished the restoration of behavioral and biochemical changes in the animals subjected to repeated stress. CONCLUSION: The ethosuximide and ivabradine mediated attenuation of stress adaptation demonstrates that the opening of T-type Ca2+ channels and activation of HCN channels are involved in inducing stress adaptation in repeated stress-subjected animals.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/fisiologia , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Corticosterona/sangue , Etossuximida/farmacologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Ivabradina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
10.
Mar Drugs ; 17(6)2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159386

RESUMO

The utilization of microalgae as a source of carotenoid productions has gained increasing popularity due to its advantages, such as a relatively fast turnaround time. In this study, a newly discovered Coelastrum sp. TISTR 9501RE was characterized and investigated for its taxonomical identity and carotenoid profile. To the best of our knowledge, this report was the first to fully investigate the carotenoid profiles in a microalga of the genus Coelastrum. Upon use of limited nutrients as a stress condition, the strain was able to produce astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and lutein, as the major carotenoid components. Additionally, the carotenoid esters were found to be all astaxanthin derivatives, and ß-carotene was not significantly present under this stress condition. Importantly, we also demonstrated that this practical stress condition could be combined with simple growing factors, such as ambient sunlight and temperature, to achieve even more focused carotenoid profiles, i.e., increased overall amounts of the aforementioned carotenoids with fewer minor components and chlorophylls. In addition, this green microalga was capable of tolerating a wide range of salinity. Therefore, this study paved the way for more investigations and developments on this fascinating strain, which will be reported in due course.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Microalgas/química , Microalgas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Luz Solar , Temperatura Ambiente
11.
Med Mycol J ; 60(2): 29-37, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155569

RESUMO

We previously reported that Candida albicans responded to mild heat stress in a range of temperature elevations simulating fever, and concluded that mild heat stress increases susceptibility to antifungal drugs. In this study, we show that mild heat stress causes a morphological change in hyphae during the process of biofilm formation. We found that mild heat stress extended the period of hyphal stage maintenance in C. albicans biofilm. Although the rate of hyphal change from yeast form to hyphal form reached the maximum within 3 hr, later, almost every cell quickly reverted to the yeast growth phase within 6 hr at 37°C but not at 39°C, or under mild heat stress. Electron microscopy using a smart specimen preparation technique revealed that mild heat stress significantly increased the thickness of the inner cell wall accompanied by a decrease in density of the outer cell wall in the hyphae of C. albicans biofilm. To identify the gene responsible for the morphological changes associated with mild heat stress, we performed microarray gene expression analysis. Eleven genes were upregulated and 17 genes were downregulated under mild heat stress in biofilm cells. The increased PHR1 gene expression in response to mild heat stress was confirmed in quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The mutant upregulated PHR1 expression showed the same sensitivity against antifungal drug micafungin as dependent on mild heat stress. Our findings point to possible therapeutic effects of hyperthermia as well as to the effect of fever during infections.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Candida albicans/citologia , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Parede Celular/patologia , Febre/microbiologia , Temperatura Alta , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/genética , Candida albicans/ultraestrutura , Candidíase/terapia , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Hifas , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Micafungina/farmacologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Fatores de Tempo
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(6): 90, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147784

RESUMO

The ability of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for imparting abiotic stress tolerance to plants has been widely explored in recent years; however, the diversity and potential of these microbes have not been maximally exploited. In this study, we characterized four bacterial strains, namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PM389, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ZNP1, Bacillus endophyticus J13 and Bacillus tequilensis J12, for potential plant growth promoting (PGP) traits under osmotic-stress, induced by 25% polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the growth medium. Growth curve analysis was performed in LB medium with or without PEG, in order to understand the growth patterns of these bacteria under osmotic-stress. All strains were able to grow and proliferate under osmotic-stress, although their growth rate was slower than that under non-stressed conditions (LB without PEG). Bacterial secretions were analyzed for the presence of exopolysaccharides and phytohormones and it was observed that all four strains released these compounds into the media, both, under stressed and non-stressed conditions. In the Pseudomonas strains, osmotic stress caused a decrease in the levels of auxin (IAA) and cytokinin (tZ), but an increase in the levels of gibberellic acid. The Bacillus strains on the other hand showed a stress-induced increase in the levels of all three phytohormones. P. aeruginosa ZNP1 and B. endophyticus J13 exhibited increased EPS production under osmotic-stress. While osmotic stress caused a decrease in the levels of EPS in P. aeruginosa PM389, B. tequilensis J12 showed no change in EPS quantities released into the media under osmotic stress when compared to non-stressed conditions. Upon inoculating Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings with these strains individually, it was observed that all four strains were able to ameliorate the adverse effects of osmotic-stress (induced by 25% PEG in MS-Agar medium) in the plants, as evidenced by their enhanced fresh weight, dry weight and plant water content, as opposed to osmotic-stressed, non-inoculated plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Secas , Pressão Osmótica , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus/fisiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
13.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (5): 25-30, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169815

RESUMO

AIM: To justify the concept of systemic membrane-destabilizing distress syndrome in surgery via analysis of phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes of various organs in urgent surgical abdominal diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Experimental research on dogs (n=90) included modeling of peritonitis, pancreatitis, intestinal obstruction, obstructive jaundice, and post-hemorrhagic anemia. Clinical and laboratory studies were performed in patients (n=119) with acute peritonitis, severe pancreatitis, intestinal obstruction, post-hemorrhagic anemia, acute cholecystitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, benign mechanical jaundice. Lipid profile in tissues and blood cells was determined by extraction, fractionation and densitometry. Moreover, we assessed intensity of lipid peroxidation and phospholipase activity, endogenous intoxication, functional state of organs and blood cells. RESULTS: It was revealed that all above-mentioned acute abdominal diseases are followed by significant changes of lipid bilayer and dysfunction of tissues in target organs, blood cells and other organs (liver, kidney, colon and small intestine, heart, lungs, spleen, brain). Changes of phospholipid bilayer are correlated with severity and course of the disease. These data were used to determine a new complex in surgery - systemic membrane-destabilizing distress syndrome. Its concept, pathogenesis, and diagnosis are presented. It was analyzed its role in development and progression of dysregulation pathology and thanatogenesis. Evidence of its importance in the pathogenesis of surgical aggression was obtained.


Assuntos
Anemia/fisiopatologia , Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Icterícia Obstrutiva/fisiopatologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Anemia/complicações , Animais , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/complicações , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Hemorragia/complicações , Humanos , Icterícia Obstrutiva/complicações , Lipídeos de Membrana/fisiologia , Fosfolipídeos/fisiologia , Síndrome
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 681: 267-274, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103664

RESUMO

Climate changes affect the growth of forage species. However, information regarding the effects of global climate change on the stoichiometry of tropical pastures is lacking, especially under field conditions. Such information is crucial to understand how temperature conditions and water availability states are likely to affect the stoichiometric homeostasis and biomass production of Panicum maximum, an important C4 tropical forage species, under future climate change scenarios. Thus, we, conducted a field experiment using a temperature free-air controlled enhancement system and evaluated the effects of two temperature conditions, ambient temperature and moderate warming (2 °C above ambient canopy temperature), and two levels of water availability, irrigated and non-irrigated, on the stoichiometric patterns of C:N:P and leaf biomass production. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with four replications over 3 weeks. Our findings revealed that the N and P leaf concentration greatly decreased in water-stressed plants, which increased the C:N and C:P ratios, while warming increased the N:P ratio. Leaf biomass production was impaired by up to 16% under water stress and ambient temperature conditions, but the biomass production was improved by 20% under warming and irrigated conditions. Our findings showed that homeostatic instability under rainfed conditions resulted in decreased leaf biomass production. Therefore, we concluded that warming is only beneficial for plant growth (i.e., a high homeostatic capacity was maintained) under well-irrigated conditions.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Panicum/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Homeostase , Nitrogênio , Fotossíntese , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
Microb Pathog ; 133: 103554, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121271

RESUMO

We have previously shown that Listeria monocytogenes, a causative agent of listeriosis, can produce membrane vesicles (MVs) during in vitro culture. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of MVs from L. monocytogenes cultured with or without salt stress to induce cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory responses in colon epithelial Caco-2 cells. MVs were purified from wild-type L. monocytogenes 10403S strain and an isogenic ΔsigB mutant strain. MVs from both wild-type and ΔsigB mutant strains increased viability of Caco-2 cells regardless of salt stress. Both MVs from wild-type and ΔsigB mutant strains stimulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes in Caco-2 cells. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes in cells treated with MVs from bacteria cultured without salt stress were significantly higher than those in cells treated with MVs from bacteria cultured with salt stress. However, expression levels of chemokine genes in cells treated with MVs from bacteria cultured with salt stress were significantly higher than those in cells treated with MVs from bacteria cultured without salt stress. In addition, expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-8 genes were partially inhibited by either lysozyme-treated MVs or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-treated MVs compared to those after treatment with intact MVs. Our results suggest that salt stress can affect the production of L. monocytogenes MVs, thus causing different pro-inflammatory responses in host cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Células CACO-2/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Listeria monocytogenes/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sobrevivência Celular , Quimiocinas/genética , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Fator sigma/genética , Fator sigma/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 124: 383-386, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075616

RESUMO

Saliva contains a variety of compounds that can change in local and systemic pathologies including inflammation. Although changes in acute phase proteins and markers of oxidative stress in saliva during inflammation in humans and different animal species have been described, no data exist about possible changes during inflammation in analytes in saliva of cows. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in selected salivary biomarkers of stress, inflammation and immune system, and oxidative stress in cows with inflammation. For this purpose, bovine mastitis was used as model. Saliva and serum from 18 clinically healthy cows and 18 cows with clinical mastitis were used in the study. A panel of analytes integrated by alpha-amylase, cortisol, haptoglobin, adenosine deaminase, cholinesterase, total antioxidant capacity, lactate, and uric acid was measured in all samples and differences between the two groups of animals were evaluated. Significant increases in cortisol, alpha-amylase, uric acid, lactate and significant decreases in cholinesterase were detected in saliva of cows with mastitis. These results indicate that that cows with mastitis show changes in salivary biomarkers that reflect presence of stress, inflammation and oxidative stress in the animals.


Assuntos
Inflamação/veterinária , Mastite Bovina/imunologia , Saliva/química , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bovinos , Feminino , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Lituânia , Mastite Bovina/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia
17.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(2): 177-185, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) consists of repeated cycles of limb ischaemia and reperfusion, which may reduce perioperative myocardial ischaemic damage and kidney injury. We hypothesised that RIPC may be beneficial by attenuating the systemic inflammatory response. We investigated whether RIPC affects the response in humans to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) by measuring plasma cytokines and renal cell-cycle arrest mediators, which reflect renal tubular stress. METHODS: Healthy male volunteers were randomised to receive either daily RIPC for 6 consecutive days (RIPCmultiple, n=10) plus RIPC during the 40 min preceding i.v. LPS (2 ng kg-1), RIPC only during the 40 min before LPS (RIPCsingle, n=10), or no RIPC preceding LPS (control, n=10). As a surrogate marker of renal tubular stress, the product of urinary concentrations of two cell-cycle arrest markers was calculated (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 [TIMP2]*insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 [IGFBP7]). Data are presented as median (inter-quartile range). RESULTS: In both RIPC groups, RIPC alone increased [TIMP2]*[IGFBP7]. LPS administration resulted in fever, flu-like symptoms, and haemodynamic alterations. Plasma cytokine concentrations increased profoundly during endotoxaemia (control group: tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] from 14 [9-16] pg ml-1 at baseline to 480 [284-709] pg ml-1 at 1.5 h after LPS; interleukin-6 [IL-6] from 4 [4-4] pg ml-1 at baseline to 659 [505-1018] pg ml-1 at 2 h after LPS). LPS administration also increased urinary [TIMP2[*[IGFBP7]. RIPC had no effect on LPS-induced cytokine release or [TIMP2]*[IGFBP7]. CONCLUSIONS: RIPC neither modulated systemic cytokine release nor attenuated inflammation-induced tubular stress after LPS. However, RIPC alone induced renal markers of cell-cycle arrest. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02602977.


Assuntos
Endotoxemia/sangue , Endotoxemia/urina , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Túbulos Renais/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Endotoxemia/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/etiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096626

RESUMO

Salinity stress is one of the more prevailing abiotic stresses which results in significant losses in agricultural crop production, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas [...].


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Agricultura/tendências , Secas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Salinidade , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
19.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 14-20, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146228

RESUMO

Various crustaceans are farmed using aquaculture, and food deprivation or fasting can occur due to changing of environmental or management strategies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying responses to starvation in crustaceans remain unclear. To address this, 12 hepatopancreas transcriptomes were compared for oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) from four fasting stages (0, 7, 14 and 21 d). Gene Ontology functional annotation and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes were subsequently performed. During the early stages of starvation (0-7 d), drug metabolism via the cytochrome P450 pathway and metabolism of xenobiotics by the cytochrome P450 pathway were enriched, suggesting that they metabolised compounds generated under starvation stress. As starvation proceeded (7-14 d), the retinol (vitamin A) metabolism pathway was activated, based on three up-regulated genes (CYP3, ADH and UGT), along with the two p450 pathways. Meanwhile, vitamin A was gradually consumed. As acute starvation was reached (14-21 d), vitamin A deficiency decreased the mRNA expression levels of IGF-I that is involved in the mTOR signalling pathway, which ultimately affected the growth and development of M. nipponense. Our results implicate drug/xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450s in adaptation to starvation stress. Furthermore, metabolic cascades (CYP and retinol pathways) and growth (mTOR signalling) pathways are clearly triggered in crustaceans during starvation. The findings expand our understanding of the genes associated with hepatopancreas functioning in M. nipponense, and the underlying molecular mechanisms that govern the responses of crustaceans to starvation stress.


Assuntos
Hepatopâncreas/fisiologia , Palaemonidae/genética , Inanição/fisiopatologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Aclimatação , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Vitamina A/metabolismo
20.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 196: 118-128, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054376

RESUMO

Being observed when completing physical and mental tasks alters how successful people are at completing them. This has been explained in terms of evaluation apprehension, drive theory, and due to the effects of stress caused by being observed. In three experiments, we explore how being observed affects participants' ability to recognise faces as it relates to the aforementioned theories - easier face recognition tasks should be completed with more success under observation relative to harder tasks. In Experiment 1, we found that being observed during the learning phase of an old/new recognition paradigm caused participants to be less accurate during the test phase than not being observed. Being observed at test did not affect accuracy. We replicated these findings in an line-up type task in Experiment 2. Finally, in Experiment 3, we assessed whether these effects were due to the difficulty of the task or due to the physiological stress being observed caused. We found that while observation caused physiological stress, it did not relate to accuracy. Moderately difficult tasks (upright unfamiliar face recognition and inverted familiar face recognition) were detrimentally affected by being observed, whereas easy (upright familiar face recognition) and difficult tasks (inverted unfamiliar face recognition) were unaffected by this manipulation. We explain these results in terms of the direct effects being observed has on task performance for moderately difficult tasks and discuss the implications of these results to cognitive psychological experimentation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Recognição (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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