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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281257

RESUMO

The modern lifestyle brings both excessive fructose consumption and daily exposure to stress which could lead to metabolic disturbances and type 2 diabetes. Muscles are important points of glucose and lipid metabolism, with a crucial role in the maintenance of systemic energy homeostasis. We investigated whether 9-week fructose-enriched diet, with and without exposure to 4-week unpredictable stress, disturbs insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle of male rats and evaluated potential contributory roles of muscle lipid metabolism, glucocorticoid signaling and inflammation. The combination of fructose-enriched diet and stress increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α and -δ and stimulated lipid uptake, lipolysis and ß-oxidation in the muscle of fructose-fed stressed rats. Combination of treatment also decreased systemic insulin sensitivity judged by lower R-QUICKI, and lowered muscle protein content and stimulatory phosphorylations of insulin receptor supstrate-1 and Akt, as well as the level of 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and glucocorticoid receptor. At the same time, increased levels of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B, nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, were observed in the muscle of fructose-fed stressed rats. Based on these results, we propose that decreased glucocorticoid signaling in the skeletal muscle can make a setting for lipid-induced inflammation and the development of insulin resistance in fructose-fed stressed rats.


Assuntos
Frutose/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281157

RESUMO

Post-translational modifications play a fundamental role in regulating protein function and stability. In particular, protein ubiquitylation is a multifaceted modification involved in numerous aspects of plant biology. Landmark studies connected the ATP-dependent ubiquitylation of substrates to their degradation by the 26S proteasome; however, nonproteolytic functions of the ubiquitin (Ub) code are also crucial to regulate protein interactions, activity, and localization. Regarding proteolytic functions of Ub, Lys-48-linked branched chains are the most common chain type for proteasomal degradation, whereas promotion of endocytosis and vacuolar degradation is triggered through monoubiquitylation or Lys63-linked chains introduced in integral or peripheral plasma membrane proteins. Hormone signaling relies on regulated protein turnover, and specifically the half-life of ABA signaling components is regulated both through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system and the endocytic/vacuolar degradation pathway. E3 Ub ligases have been reported that target different ABA signaling core components, i.e., ABA receptors, PP2Cs, SnRK2s, and ABFs/ABI5 transcription factors. In this review, we focused specifically on the ubiquitylation of ABA receptors and PP2C coreceptors, as well as other post-translational modifications of ABA receptors (nitration and phosphorylation) that result in their ubiquitination and degradation.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
3.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 20(7): 359-365, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234091

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This article discusses the "bidirectional" relationship between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and physical activity. Intestinal symptoms and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD negatively impact a patient's ability to participate in sports. IBD also impacts athletic performance via its effects on muscle mass, muscle function, bone density, and fatigue. Surveys of IBD patients consistently show that IBD interferes with athletic participation. While IBD negatively affects physical activity, there is growing evidence that physical activity can be beneficial for IBD patients. Prospective studies have revealed that structured physical activities may positively influence inflammatory markers, disease activity, muscle strength, bone density, fatigue, stress, anxiety, and quality of life. This suggests that physical activity may be a simple and safe adjuvant therapy for IBD patients. Future studies assessing the optimal activity regimen are warranted. Finally, a cohort of professional athletes with IBD are described for the first time - football players in the National Football League.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Eritema Nodoso/etiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/prevenção & controle , Artropatias/classificação , Artropatias/etiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Pioderma Gangrenoso/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Esclerite/etiologia , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Uveíte/etiologia
4.
J Plant Physiol ; 263: 153462, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225178

RESUMO

Bacillus subtilis is one of the non-pathogenic beneficial bacteria that promote plant growth and stress tolerance. In the present study, we revealed that seed priming with endophytic B. subtilis (strains 10-4, 26D) improved Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) seed germination and plant growth under both saline and non-saline conditions. 10-4 and 26D decreased oxidative and osmotic damage to the plant cells since bacterial inoculations reduced lipid peroxidation and proline accumulation in plants under salinity. 26D and especially 10-4 preserved different elevated levels of chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b in bean leaves under salinity, while carotenoids (Car) increased only by 10-4 and slightly decreased by 26D. Under normal conditions, 10-4 and 26D did not affect Chl a and Car concentrations, while Chl b decreased in the same plants. Under non-saline and especially saline conditions, 10-4 and 26D significantly increased lignin accumulation in plant roots and the highest lignin content along with better growth and oxidative damages reduction was observed after 10-4 inoculation under salinity, indicating a major role of B. subtilis-induced strengthening the root cell walls in the implementation protective effect of studied bacteria on plants. Therefore, B. subtilis 10-4 and 26D exerts protective effects on the growth of common bean plants under salinity by regulating plant defense mechanisms and the major role in tolerance development may contribute through the activation by B. subtilis lignin deposition in roots. The obtained data also indicates a strain-dependent efficiency of endophytic B. subtilis since strains 10-4 and 26D differently improved growth attributes and modulates cellular response reactions of the same common bean plants both under normal and salinity conditions, that generates interest for further investigations in this direction.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/patogenicidade , Germinação/fisiologia , Lignina/metabolismo , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Endófitos/patogenicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Federação Russa , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203346

RESUMO

Harsh environmental factors have continuous negative effects on plant growth and development, leading to metabolic disruption and reduced plant productivity and quality. However, filamentation temperature-sensitive H protease (FtsH) plays a prominent role in helping plants to cope with these negative impacts. In the current study, we examined the transcriptional regulation of the CaFtsH06 gene in the R9 thermo-tolerant pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) line. The results of qRT-PCR revealed that CaFtsH06 expression was rapidly induced by abiotic stress treatments, including heat, salt, and drought. The CaFtsH06 protein was localized to the mitochondria and cell membrane. Additionally, silencing CaFtsH06 increased the accumulation of malonaldehyde content, conductivity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and the activity levels of superoxide dismutase and superoxide (·O2-), while total chlorophyll content decreased under these abiotic stresses. Furthermore, CaFtsH06 ectopic expression enhanced tolerance to heat, salt, and drought stresses, thus decreasing malondialdehyde, proline, H2O2, and ·O2- contents while superoxide dismutase activity and total chlorophyll content were increased in transgenic Arabidopsis. Similarly, the expression levels of other defense-related genes were much higher in the transgenic ectopic expression lines than WT plants. These results suggest that CaFtsH06 confers abiotic stress tolerance in peppers by interfering with the physiological indices through reducing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, inducing the activities of stress-related enzymes and regulating the transcription of defense-related genes, among other mechanisms. The results of this study suggest that CaFtsH06 plays a very crucial role in the defense mechanisms of pepper plants to unfavorable environmental conditions and its regulatory network with other CaFtsH genes should be examined across variable environments.


Assuntos
Capsicum/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
6.
Plant Sci ; 310: 110962, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315587

RESUMO

The ORANGE (OR) gene has been reported to regulate chromoplast differentiation and enhance carotenoid biosynthesis in many dicotyledonous plants. However, the function of the OR gene in monocotyledons, especially rice, is poorly known. Here, the OR gene from rice, OsOR, was isolated and characterized by generating overexpressing and genome editing mutant lines. The OsOR-overexpressing plants exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes, such as alternating transverse green and white sectors on leaves at the early tillering stage, that were due to changes in thylakoid development and reduced carotenoid content. In addition, the number of tillers significantly increased in OsOR-overexpressing plants but decreased in osor mutant lines, a result similar to that previously reported for the carotenoid isomerase mutant mit3. The expression of the DWARF3 and DWARF53 genes that are involved in the strigolactone signalling pathway were similarly downregulated in OsOR-overexpressing plants but upregulated in osor mutants. Moreover, the OsOR-overexpressing plants exhibited greater sensitivity to salt and cold stress, and had lower total chlorophyll and higher MDA contents. All results suggest that the OsOR gene plays an important role not only in carotenoid accumulation but also in tiller number regulation and in responses to environmental stress in rice.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201662

RESUMO

Gene expression and phytohormone contents were measured in response to elevating ascorbate in the absence of other confounding stimuli such as high light and abiotic stresses. Young Arabidopsis plants were treated with 25 mM solutions of l-galactose pathway intermediates l-galactose (l-gal) or l-galactono-1,4-lactone (l-galL), as well as L-ascorbic acid (AsA), with 25 mM glucose used as control. Feeding increased rosette AsA 2- to 4-fold but there was little change in AsA biosynthetic gene transcripts. Of the ascorbate recycling genes, only Dehydroascorbate reductase 1 expression was increased. Some known regulatory genes displayed increased expression and included ANAC019, ANAC072, ATHB12, ZAT10 and ZAT12. Investigation of the ANAC019/ANAC072/ATHB12 gene regulatory network revealed a high proportion of ABA regulated genes. Measurement of a subset of jasmonate, ABA, auxin (IAA) and salicylic acid compounds revealed consistent increases in ABA (up to 4.2-fold) and phaseic acid (PA; up to 5-fold), and less consistently certain jasmonates, IAA, but no change in salicylic acid levels. Increased ABA is likely due to increased transcripts for the ABA biosynthetic gene NCED3. There were also smaller increases in transcripts for transcription factors ATHB7, ERD1, and ABF3. These results provide insights into how increasing AsA content can mediate increased abiotic stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ascorbato Oxidase/genética , Ascorbato Oxidase/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/genética , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Galactose/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Ácidos Hexurônicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201749

RESUMO

Plant abiotic stress responses are tightly regulated by different players at multiple levels. At transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels, several RNA binding proteins (RBPs) regulate stress response genes through RNA metabolism. They are increasingly recognized as critical modulators of a myriad of biological processes, including stress responses. Plant RBPs are heterogeneous with one or more conservative RNA motifs that constitute canonical/novel RNA binding domains (RBDs), which can bind to target RNAs to determine their regulation as per the plant requirements at given environmental conditions. Given its biological significance and possible consideration as a potential tool in genetic manipulation programs to improve key agronomic traits amidst frequent episodes of climate anomalies, studies concerning the identification and functional characterization of RBP candidate genes are steadily mounting. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of canonical and novel RBPs and their functions in major abiotic stresses including drought, heat, salt, and cold stress conditions. To some extent, we also briefly describe the basic motif structure of RBPs that would be useful in forthcoming studies. Additionally, we also collected RBP genes that were modulated by stress, but that lacked functional characterization, providing an impetus to conduct further research.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Secas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Domínios Proteicos , Salinidade , Estresse Salino/fisiologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204152

RESUMO

In nature, plants are exposed to an ever-changing environment with increasing frequencies of multiple abiotic stresses. These abiotic stresses act either in combination or sequentially, thereby driving vegetation dynamics and limiting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Plants' responses against these combined and sequential stresses clearly differ from that triggered by an individual stress. Until now, experimental studies were mainly focused on plant responses to individual stress, but have overlooked the complex stress response generated in plants against combined or sequential abiotic stresses, as well as their interaction with each other. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the combined and sequential abiotic stresses overlap with respect to the central nodes of their interacting signaling pathways, and their impact cannot be modelled by swimming in an individual extreme event. Taken together, deciphering the regulatory networks operative between various abiotic stresses in agronomically important crops will contribute towards designing strategies for the development of plants with tolerance to multiple stress combinations. This review provides a brief overview of the recent developments in the interactive effects of combined and sequentially occurring stresses on crop plants. We believe that this study may improve our understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms in untangling the combined stress tolerance in plants, and may also provide a promising venue for agronomists, physiologists, as well as molecular biologists.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Homeostase , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
10.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1133-1147, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059979

RESUMO

Hypoxia has gradually become common in aquatic ecosystems and imposes a significant challenge for fish farming. The loss of equilibrium (LOE), 50% lethal time (LT50), plasma cortisol, glucose, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), gill histological alteration, and related parameters (lamellar length [SLL] and width [SLW], interlamellar distance [ID], basal epithelial thickness [BET], lamellar surface area [LA], and gill surface area [GSA]); respiratory rate; the proportion of the secondary lamellae available for gas exchange (PAGE); and hypoxia-inducible factor (hif-1α, hif-2α) mRNA expression were determined during progressive hypoxia and reoxygenation (R-0, R-12, R-24 h) to illustrate the underlying physiological response mechanisms in black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii. Results showed that the DO concentration significantly decreased during progressive hypoxia, while DO at LOE and LT50 were 2.42 ± 0.10 mg L-1 and 1.67 ± 0.38 mg L-1, respectively. Cortisol and glucose were significantly increased at LOE and LT50, with the highest levels observed at LT50, and then gradually recovered to normal within reoxygenation 24 h. RBC number and Hb results were like those of glucose. Hypoxia stress resulted in lamellar clubbing, hypertrophy, and hyperplasia. Respiratory frequency significantly increased at LOE and decreased at LT50. Lamellar perimeters, SLL, ID, LA, GSA, and PAGE, significantly increased at LOE and LT50, with the highest values observed at LT50. However, SLW and BET significantly decreased at LOE, LT50, and R-0. These parameters recovered to nearly normal levels at R-24 h. hif-1α mRNAs in gill and liver were significantly upregulated at LOE and LT50, and recovery to normal after reoxygenation 24 h. hif-2α mRNAs in gill was similar to that of hif-1α, whereas hepatic hif-2α mRNAs remained unchanged during hypoxia-reoxygenation. These results indicated that progressive hypoxia stress elevated RBC number, Hb, cortisol, and glucose levels, induced the alteration of gill morphology, increased LA and GSA, stimulated respiratory frequency and PAGE, and upregulated the transcription of hif-1α and hif-2α in gill and liver. Reoxygenation treatment for 24 h alleviated the stress mentioned above effects. These findings expand current knowledge on hypoxia tolerance in black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii.


Assuntos
Brânquias/patologia , Oxigênio , Perciformes/fisiologia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Glicemia/análise , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Expressão Gênica , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Oxigênio/análise , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/sangue , Perciformes/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
11.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(9): 1751-1772, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173048

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Early induction of OsFEX was insufficient for fluoride adaptation in IR-64. Overexpression of OsFEX in yeast and Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced fluoride tolerance. The present study delineates the regulation of fluoride exporter (FEX) in the fluoride-sensitive rice cultivar, IR-64 and its efficacy in generating high fluoride tolerance in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana. Gene and protein expression profiling revealed that OsFEX exhibited early induction during fluoride stress in the vegetative and reproductive tissues of IR-64, although the expression was suppressed upon prolonged stress treatment. Analysis of OsFEX promoter in transgenic N. benthamiana, using ß-glucuronidase reporter assay confirmed its early inducible nature, since the reporter expression and activity peaked at 12 h of NaF stress, after which it was lowered. OsFEX expression was up regulated in the presence of gibberellic acid (GA) and melatonin, while it was suppressed by abscisic acid (ABA). Complementation of ΔFEX1ΔFEX2 yeast mutants with OsFEX enabled high fluoride tolerance, thus validating the functional efficiency of the transgene. Bioassay of transgenic N. benthamiana lines, expressing OsFEX either under its own promoter or under CaMV35S promoter, established that constitutive overexpression, rather than early induction of OsFEX was essential and crucial for generating fluoride tolerance in the transgenics. Overall, the suppression of OsFEX in the later growth phases of stressed IR-64 due to enhanced ABA conservation and lowered synthesis of GA, as supported by the application of the respective phytohormone biosynthetic inhibitors, such as sodium tungstate and paclobutrazol, accounted for the fluoride-hyperaccumulative nature of the rice cultivar.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/toxicidade , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tabaco/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Teste de Complementação Genética , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
12.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(7): 1101-1114, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100122

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: PePIP2;7, a leaf-specific aquaporin gene in bamboo, is upregulated under abiotic stresses. Overexpressing PePIP2;7 confers abiotic stresses tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plant and yeast. Aquaporins (AQPs) participate in the regulation of water balance in plants. However, the function of AQPs in bamboo remains unclear. Here, PePIP2;7 was identified as a leaf-specific aquaporin gene in moso bamboo based on the expression analysis of transcriptome data and PCR. In situ hybridization further indicated that PePIP2;7 was mainly expressed in mesophyll cells of mature leaves, while in immature leaves it was dominant in blade edge cells followed by mesophyll cells. Interestingly, PePIP2;7 was strongly expressed in the mesophyll cells near bulliform cells of immature leaves, suggesting that PePIP2;7 might function in water transport and contribute to leaf unfolding. The transient expression assay showed that PePIP2;7 was a plasma membrane intrinsic protein. Furthermore, PePIP2;7 was upregulated under abiotic stresses such as high light, drought, and NaCl. Compared with Col-0, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PePIP2;7 had better seed germination rate, longer taproot length, higher SOD activity, and lower MDA content under abiotic stresses. Besides, yeasts expressing PePIP2;7 also had higher tolerance to stress compared to the control. Taken together, our results show that PePIP2;7 is leaf-specific and involved in stress response, which provides new insights into aquaporin function in bamboo.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sasa/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Clorofila/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Enzimas/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Manitol/farmacologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
13.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 634, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112935

RESUMO

Fatigue is a pervasive public health and safety issue. Common fatigue countermeasures include caffeine or other chemical stimulants. These can be effective in limited circumstances but other non-pharmacological fatigue countermeasures such as non-invasive electrical neuromodulation have shown promise. It is reasonable to suspect that other types of non-invasive neuromodulation may be similarly effective or perhaps even superior. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of cervical transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (ctVNS) to mitigate the negative effects of fatigue on cognition and mood. Two groups (active or sham stimulation) of twenty participants in each group completed 34 h of sustained wakefulness. The ctVNS group performed significantly better on arousal, multi-tasking, and reported significantly lower fatigue ratings compared to sham for the duration of the study. CtVNS could be a powerful fatigue countermeasure tool that is easy to administer, long-lasting, and has fewer side-effects compared to common pharmacological interventions.


Assuntos
Privação do Sono/psicologia , Privação do Sono/terapia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Fadiga/patologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Fadiga/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Privação do Sono/patologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Nervo Vago/metabolismo , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Vigília/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(8): 1495-1512, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089089

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Expression pattern indicates that JA biosynthesis pathway via regulating JA levels might control root system architecture to improve nutrient use efficiency (NUE) and N, P, K+ deficiency tolerance in rice. Deficiencies of macronutrients (N, P and K+) and consequent excessive use of fertilizers have dramatically reduced soil fertility. It calls for development of nutrient use efficient plants. Plants combat nutrient deficiencies by altering their root system architecture (RSA) to enhance the acquisition of nutrients from the soil. Amongst various phytohormones, Jasmonic acid (JA) is known to regulate plant root growth and modulate RSA. Therefore, to understand the role of JA in macronutrient deficiency in rice, expression pattern of JA biosynthesis genes was analyzed under N, P and K+ deficiencies. Several members belonging to different families of JA biosynthesis genes (PLA1, LOX, AOS, AOC, OPR, ACX and JAR1) showed differential expression exclusively in one nutrient deficiency or in multiple nutrient deficiencies. Expression analysis during developmental stages showed that several genes expressed significantly in vegetative tissues, particularly in root. In addition, JA biosynthesis genes were found to have significant expression under the treatment of different phytohormones, including Auxin, cytokinin, gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), JA and abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity and cold. Analysis of promoters of these genes revealed various cis-regulatory elements associated with hormone response, plant development and abiotic stresses. These findings suggest that JA biosynthesis pathway by regulating the level of JA might control the RSA thus, it may help rice plant in combating macronutrient deficiency.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Fósforo/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
15.
J Plant Physiol ; 263: 153451, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119743

RESUMO

Plants and animals utilize various regulatory mechanisms for control of gene expression during development in different tissues and cell types. About 30 years ago, a new mechanism of gene regulation, termed RNA interference (RNAi), was discovered and proved revolutionary for the mechanistic understanding of gene regulation. Noncoding RNAs, including short, 21-24 nucleotide (nt) long microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenously-generated from MIR genes, are key components of RNAi processes, by post-transcriptionally controlling transcripts with antisense complementarity through either translational repression or mRNA degradation. Since their discovery, important roles in regulation of ontogenetic development, cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis in eukaryotes have been elucidated. In plants, miRNAs are known regulatory elements of basic endogenous functions and responses to the environmental stimuli. While the role of miRNAs in regulation of nutrient uptake, circadian clock and general response to abiotic stress is already well understood, a comprehensive understanding of their immune-regulatory roles in response to various biotic stress factors has not yet been achieved. This review summarizes the current understanding of the function of miRNAs and their targets in plants during interaction with microbial pathogens and symbionts. Additionally, we provide a consensus conclusion regarding the typical induction or repression response of conserved miRNA families to pathogenic and beneficial fungi, bacteria, and oomycetes, as well as an outlook of agronomic application of miRNAs in plants. Further investigation of plant miRNAs responsive to microbes, aided with novel sequencing and bioinformatics approaches for discovery and prediction in non-model organisms holds great potential for development of new forms of plant protection.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
16.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(8): 1345-1365, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169360

RESUMO

Global climate change has drastically affected natural ecosystems and crop productivity. Among several factors of global climate change, CO2 is considered to be the dynamic parameter that will regulate the responses of all biological system on earth in the coming decade. A number of experimental studies in the past have demonstrated the positive effects of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis, growth and biomass, biochemical and physiological processes such as increased C:N ratio, secondary metabolite production, as well as phytohormone concentrations. On the other hand, elevated CO2 imparts an adverse effect on the nutritional quality of crop plants and seed quality. Investigations have also revealed effects of elevated CO2 both at cellular and molecular level altering expression of various genes involved in various metabolic processes and stress signaling pathways. Elevated CO2 is known to have mitigating effect on plants in presence of abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, temperature etc., while contrasting effects in the presence of different biotic agents i.e. phytopathogens, insects and herbivores. However, a well-defined crosstalk is incited by elevated CO2 both under abiotic and biotic stresses in terms of phytohormones concentration and secondary metabolites production. With this background, the present review attempts to shed light on the major effects of elevated CO2 on plant growth, physiological and molecular responses and will highlight the interactive effects of elevated CO2 with other abiotic and biotic factors. The article will also provide deep insights into the phytohormones modulation under elevated CO2.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Metabolismo Secundário
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069397

RESUMO

Drought stress is a major constraint in global maize production, causing almost 30-90% of the yield loss depending upon growth stage and the degree and duration of the stress. Here, we report that ectopic expression of Arabidopsis glutaredoxin S17 (AtGRXS17) in field grown maize conferred tolerance to drought stress during the reproductive stage, which is the most drought sensitive stage for seed set and, consequently, grain yield. AtGRXS17-expressing maize lines displayed higher seed set in the field, resulting in 2-fold and 1.5-fold increase in yield in comparison to the non-transgenic plants when challenged with drought stress at the tasseling and silking/pollination stages, respectively. AtGRXS17-expressing lines showed higher relative water content, higher chlorophyll content, and less hydrogen peroxide accumulation than wild-type (WT) control plants under drought conditions. AtGRXS17-expressing lines also exhibited at least 2-fold more pollen germination than WT plants under drought stress. Compared to the transgenic maize, WT controls accumulated higher amount of proline, indicating that WT plants were more stressed over the same period. The results present a robust and simple strategy for meeting rising yield demands in maize under water limiting conditions.


Assuntos
Glutarredoxinas/genética , Glutarredoxinas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Secas , Expressão Ectópica do Gene/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Termotolerância/genética , Zea mays/genética
18.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067188

RESUMO

Emotional stress negatively affects the quality of a person's daily life. From a physiological point of view, stress is expressed in the excitation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis, which leads to the release of the hormone cortisol into the blood. We developed a lateral flow immunoassay to detect cortisol in human salivary fluid and tested it on 10 healthy volunteers daily for about one month (n = 293 saliva samples). Cortisol was detected in concentrations ranging from 1 to 70 ng/mL. Salivary cortisol levels were confirmed by ELISA. The straightness range of LFIA calibration was from 1 to 100 ng/mL. The diagnostic sensitivity of the method was 73%. It was found that in 3 out of 10 subjects, fluctuations in the level of cortisol in saliva partially corresponded to the subjectively assessed level of stress.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Saliva/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070465

RESUMO

Environmental or abiotic stresses are a common threat that remains a constant and common challenge to all plants. These threats whether singular or in combination can have devastating effects on plants. As a semiaquatic plant, rice succumbs to the same threats. Here we systematically look into the involvement of salicylic acid (SA) in the regulation of abiotic stress in rice. Studies have shown that the level of endogenous salicylic acid (SA) is high in rice compared to any other plant species. The reason behind this elevated level and the contribution of this molecule towards abiotic stress management and other underlying mechanisms remains poorly understood in rice. In this review we will address various abiotic stresses that affect the biochemistry and physiology of rice and the role played by SA in its regulation. Further, this review will elucidate the potential mechanisms that control SA-mediated stress tolerance in rice, leading to future prospects and direction for investigation.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Metais/metabolismo , Metais/toxicidade , Oryza/enzimologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/fisiologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3539, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112787

RESUMO

Decreased pleasure-seeking (anhedonia) forms a core symptom of depression. Stressful experiences precipitate depression and disrupt reward-seeking, but it remains unclear how stress causes anhedonia. We recorded simultaneous neural activity across limbic brain areas as mice underwent stress and discovered a stress-induced 4 Hz oscillation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) that predicts the degree of subsequent blunted reward-seeking. Surprisingly, while previous studies on blunted reward-seeking focused on dopamine (DA) transmission from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the NAc, we found that VTA GABA, but not DA, neurons mediate stress-induced blunted reward-seeking. Inhibiting VTA GABA neurons disrupts stress-induced NAc oscillations and rescues reward-seeking. By contrast, mimicking this signature of stress by stimulating NAc-projecting VTA GABA neurons at 4 Hz reproduces both oscillations and blunted reward-seeking. Finally, we find that stress disrupts VTA GABA, but not DA, neural encoding of reward anticipation. Thus, stress elicits VTA-NAc GABAergic activity that induces VTA GABA mediated blunted reward-seeking.


Assuntos
Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Relógios Biológicos/fisiologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Neurônios GABAérgicos/efeitos da radiação , Imuno-Histoquímica , Sistema Límbico/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos da radiação , Optogenética , Restrição Física/fisiologia , Restrição Física/psicologia , Recompensa , Área Tegmentar Ventral/efeitos da radiação
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