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1.
Gene ; 761: 145039, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777527

RESUMO

The wood frog (Rana sylvatica) can tolerate full body freezing in winter. As a protective response, wood frogs dehydrate their cells and accumulate large quantities of glucose as an intracellular cryoprotectant. Freezing causes ischemia since blood delivery to organs is interrupted. Fascinatingly, wood frogs can tolerate dehydration, extreme hyperglycemia, and anoxia independently of freezing. In response to low oxygen levels, wood frogs strategically reduce their metabolic rates and allocate the finite amount of intracellular fuel available to pro-survival processes while reducing or interrupting all others. In this study, the involvement of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein in activating RAGE (AGE receptor) were investigated. The results show that freezing, anoxia and dehydration induced the expression of total HMGB1 and its acetylation in the heart. RAGE levels were induced in response to all stress conditions, which resulted in differential regulation of the ETS1 transcription factor. While the nuclear localization of total ETS1 was not affected, the DNA binding activity of total and its active form increased in response to freezing and dehydration but not in response to anoxia. Current results indicate that ETS1 acts as a transcriptional activator for peroxiredoxin 1 in response to freezing but acts as a transcriptional repressor of several nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes in response to all stresses. Altogether, current results show that the HMGB1/RAGE axis may activate ETS1 and that this activation could result in both transcriptional activation and/or repression in a stress-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ranidae/metabolismo , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Animais , Desidratação/metabolismo , Congelamento , Glucose/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/fisiologia , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Proteína HMGB1/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ranidae/genética , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
3.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(3): R264-R281, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609539

RESUMO

Long-term exposure of Mytilus galloprovincialis to temperatures beyond 26°C triggers mussel mortality. The present study aimed to integratively illustrate the correlation between intermediary metabolism, hsp gene expression, and oxidative stress-related proteins in long-term thermally stressed Mytilus galloprovincialis and whether they are affected by thermal stress magnitude and duration. We accordingly evaluated the gene expression profiles, in the posterior adductor muscle (PAM) and the mantle, concerning heat shock protein 70 and 90 (hsp70 and hsp90), and the antioxidant defense indicators Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and the metallothioneins mt-10 and mt-20. Moreover, we determined antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress through lipid peroxidation, and activities of intermediary metabolism enzymes. The pattern of changes in relative mRNA expression levels indicate that mussels are able to sense thermal stress even when exposed to 22°C and before mussel mortality is initiated. Data indicate a close correlation between the magnitude and duration of thermal stress with lipid peroxidation levels and changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the enzymes of intermediary metabolism. The gene expression and increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes support a scenario, according to which exposure to 24°C might trigger reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which is closely correlated with anaerobic metabolism under hypometabolic conditions. Increase and maintenance of oxidative stress in conjunction with energy balance disturbance seem to trigger mussel mortality after long-term exposure at temperatures beyond 26°C. Eventually, in the context of preparation for oxidative stress, certain hypotheses and models are suggested, integrating the several steps of cellular stress response.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Mytilus/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
4.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 7(22): 365-368, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress hyperglycemia (SH) is a common finding in patients in pediatric emergency departments (PED) and has been related to increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence of SH among children visiting the PED. To identify which diseases predispose patients to SH and whether they indicate a worse outcome. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from the medical records of all children aged 0-18 years who visited the PED during the years 2010-2014 and who had a glucose level of ≥ 150 mg/dl. Data collected included age, gender, weight, blood glucose level, presence or absence of a pre-existing or a new diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and previous treatment with medications affecting blood glucose levels or with intravenous fluids containing dextrose. Data were collected regarding hospitalization, duration of hospitalization, discharge diagnosis, and survival status. RESULTS: The study population included 1245 children with SH, which comprised 2.6% of all patients whose blood glucose level was measured in the PED during the study period. The mean age of children with SH was 49 months; 709 (56.9%) were male. The mean blood glucose level was 184 mg/dl. The rate of hospitalization was 57.8%. The mean duration of hospital stay was 5.6 days and mortality rate was 0.96%. The majority were diagnosed with a respiratory illness. CONCLUSIONS: SH is a common phenomenon among children evaluated in the PED and is associated with a high incidence of hospitalization. It may serve as an additional clinical indicator of disease severity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Glicemia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
5.
Clin Auton Res ; 30(4): 299-315, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700055

RESUMO

The pandemic viral illness COVID-19 is especially life-threatening in the elderly and in those with any of a variety of chronic medical conditions. This essay explores the possibility that the heightened risk may involve activation of the "extended autonomic system" (EAS). Traditionally, the autonomic nervous system has been viewed as consisting of the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system, and the enteric nervous system. Over the past century, however, neuroendocrine and neuroimmune systems have come to the fore, justifying expansion of the meaning of "autonomic." Additional facets include the sympathetic adrenergic system, for which adrenaline is the key effector; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis; arginine vasopressin (synonymous with anti-diuretic hormone); the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, with angiotensin II and aldosterone the main effectors; and cholinergic anti-inflammatory and sympathetic inflammasomal pathways. A hierarchical brain network-the "central autonomic network"-regulates these systems; embedded within it are components of the Chrousos/Gold "stress system." Acute, coordinated alterations in homeostatic settings (allostasis) can be crucial for surviving stressors such as traumatic hemorrhage, asphyxiation, and sepsis, which throughout human evolution have threatened homeostasis; however, intense or long-term EAS activation may cause harm. While required for appropriate responses in emergencies, EAS activation in the setting of chronically decreased homeostatic efficiencies (dyshomeostasis) may reduce thresholds for induction of destabilizing, lethal vicious cycles. Testable hypotheses derived from these concepts are that biomarkers of EAS activation correlate with clinical and pathophysiologic data and predict outcome in COVID-19 and that treatments targeting specific abnormalities identified in individual patients may be beneficial.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico
6.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 67-79, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621165

RESUMO

Acetylation and deacetylation of histones are important for regulating a series of biological processes in plants. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) control the histone deacetylation that plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stress. In our study, we show the evidence that GhHDT4D (a member of the HD2 subfamily of HDACs) is involved in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) response to drought stress. Overexpression of GhHDT4D in Arabidopsis increased plant tolerance to drought, whereas silencing GhHDT4D in cotton resulted in plant sensitivity to drought. Simultaneously, the H3K9 acetylation level was altered in the GhHDT4D silenced cotton, compared with the controls. Further study revealed that GhHDT4D suppressed the transcription of GhWRKY33, which plays a negative role in cotton defense to drought, by reducing its H3K9 acetylation level. The expressions of the stress-related genes, such as GhDREB2A, GhDREB2C, GhSOS2, GhRD20-1, GhRD20-2 and GhRD29A, were significantly decreased in the GhHDT4D silenced cotton, but increased in the GhWRKY33 silenced cotton. Given these data together, our findings suggested that GhHDT4D may enhance drought tolerance by suppressing the expression of GhWRKY33, thereby activating the downstream drought response genes in cotton.


Assuntos
Secas , Gossypium/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Acetilação , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Gossypium/genética , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560522

RESUMO

Women experience more stress in middle age than in other life stages, and health in middle age is vital, because it influences the quality of life in old age. In this study, the effects of a forest therapy program on physiological changes in 53 middle-aged women (divided into two groups) who lived in the city were examined. One group participated in a three-day program in the forest, followed by three days in the city; the other group participated in a three-day program in the city, followed by three days in the forest. Forest experiments were conducted in a "healing forest," and urban experiments were conducted near a university campus. Blood tests were performed to evaluate the physiological effects of forest therapy. Differences in serotonin levels and vitamin D levels were verified before and after the forest (experimental group) and urban (control group) programs through paired t-tests. Statistically significant increases in serotonin levels were noted for participants in the forest program; vitamin D levels also increased, but not by statistically significant values. The findings of this study verify that forest therapy programs promote health among middle-aged women, and may prevent disease and improve quality of life.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Florestas , Fadiga Mental , Terapias Mente-Corpo/métodos , Terapia de Relaxamento/métodos , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/sangue , Cidades , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Envelhecimento Saudável/sangue , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Massagem/psicologia , Meditação/psicologia , Fadiga Mental/sangue , Fadiga Mental/fisiopatologia , Fadiga Mental/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapias Mente-Corpo/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Terapia de Relaxamento/psicologia , República da Coreia , Serotonina/sangue , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Saúde da População Urbana , População Urbana , Vitamina D/sangue , Caminhada/fisiologia , Caminhada/psicologia , Ioga/psicologia
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1929): 20200744, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546088

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are metabolic hormones that promote catabolic processes, which release stored energy and support high metabolic demands such as during prolonged flights of migrating birds. Dietary antioxidants (e.g. anthocyanins) support metabolism by quenching excess reactive oxygen species produced during aerobic metabolism and also by activating specific metabolic pathways. For example, similar to GCs' function, anthocyanins promote the release of stored energy, although the extent of complementarity between GCs and dietary antioxidants is not well known. If anthocyanins complement GCs functions, birds consuming anthocyanin-rich food can be expected to limit the secretion of GCs when coping with a metabolically challenging activity, avoiding the exposure to potential hormonal detrimental effects. We tested this hypothesis in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) flying in a wind tunnel. We compared levels of corticosterone, the main avian GC, immediately after a sustained flight and at rest for birds that were fed diets with or without an anthocyanin supplement. As predicted, we found (i) higher corticosterone after flight than at rest in both diet groups and (ii) anthocyanin-supplemented birds had less elevated corticosterone after flight than unsupplemented control birds. This provides novel evidence that dietary antioxidants attenuate the activation of the HPA axis (i.e. increased secretion of corticosterone) during long-duration flight.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Estorninhos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Dieta , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234546, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589642

RESUMO

Perennial crops in agricultural systems can increase sustainability and the magnitude of ecosystem services, but yield may depend upon biotic context, including soil mutualists, pathogens and cropping diversity. These biotic factors themselves may interact with abiotic factors such as drought. We tested whether perennial crop yield depended on soil microbes, water availability and crop diversity by testing monocultures and mixtures of three perennial crop species: a novel perennial grain (intermediate wheatgrass-Thinopyrum intermedium-- that produces the perennial grain Kernza®), a potential perennial oilseed crop (Silphium intregrifolium), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Perennial crop performance depended upon both water regime and the presence of living soil, most likely the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the whole soil inoculum from a long term perennial monoculture and from an undisturbed native remnant prairie. Specifically, both Silphium and alfalfa strongly benefited from AM fungi. The presence of native prairie AM fungi had a greater benefit to Silphium in dry pots and alfalfa in wet pots than AM fungi present in the perennial monoculture soil. Kernza did not benefit from AM fungi. Crop mixtures that included Kernza overyielded, but overyielding depended upon inoculation. Specifically, mixtures with Kernza overyielded most strongly in sterile soil as Kernza compensated for poor growth of Silphium and alfalfa. This study identifies the importance of soil biota and the context dependence of benefits of native microbes and the overyielding of mixtures in perennial crops.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Medicago sativa/fisiologia , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Biota/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Simbiose/fisiologia
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1241: 167-194, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383121

RESUMO

Sugar beet is used not only in the sugar production, but also in a wide range of industries including the production of bioethanol as a source of renewable energy, extraction of pectin and production of molasses. The red beetroot has attracted much attention as health-promoting and disease-preventing functional food. The negative effects of environmental stresses, including abiotic and biotic ones, significantly decrease the cash crop sugar beet productivity. In this paper, we outline the mechanisms of sugar beet response to biotic and abiotic stresses at the levels of physiological change, the genes' functions, transcription and translation. Regarding the physiological changes, most research has been carried out on salt and drought stress. The functions of genes from sugar beet in response to salt, cold and heavy metal stresses were mainly investigated by transgenic technologies. At the transcriptional level, the transcriptome analysis of sugar beet in response to salt, cold and biotic stresses were conducted by RNA-Seq or SSH methods. At the translational level, more than 800 differentially expressed proteins in response to salt, K+/Na+ ratio, iron deficiency and resupply and heavy metal (zinc) stress were identified by quantitative proteomics techniques. Understanding how sugar beet respond and tolerate biotic and abiotic stresses is important for boosting sugar beet productivity under these challenging conditions. In order to minimize the negative impact of these stresses, studying how the sugar beet has evolved stress coping mechanisms will provide new insights and lead to novel strategies for improving the breeding of stress-resistant sugar beet and other crops.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Beta vulgaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Secas , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
12.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(4-5): 561-580, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405802

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: CmHKT1;1 selectively exports Na+ from plant cells. Upon NaCl stress, its expression increased in a salt-tolerant melon cultivar. Overexpression of CmHKT1;1 increased transgenic Arabidopsis salt tolerance through improved K+/Na+ balance. High-affinity K+ transporters (HKTs) are thought to be involved in reducing Na+ in plant shoots under salt stress and modulating salt tolerance, but their function in a moderately salt-tolerant species of melon (Cucumis melo L.) remains unclear. In this study, a Na+ transporter gene, CmHKT1;1 (GenBank accession number: MK986658), was isolated from melons based on genome data. The transcript of CmHKT1;1 was relatively more abundant in roots than in stems or leaves from melon seedlings. The tobacco transient expression system showed that CmHKT1;1 was plasma-membrane localized. Upon salt stress, CmHKT1;1 expression was more strongly upregulated in a salt-tolerant melon cultivar, 'Bingxuecui' (BXC) compared with a salt-sensitive cultivar, 'Yulu' (YL). Electrophysiological evidence demonstrated that CmHKT1;1 only transported Na+, rather than K+, when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Overexpression of CmHKT1;1 increased salt sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under NaCl treatments, transgenic Arabidopsis plants accumulated significantly lower concentrations of Na+ in shoots than wild type plants and showed a better K+/Na+ balance, leading to better Fv/Fm, root length, biomass, and enhanced plant growth. The CmHKT1;1 gene may serve as a useful candidate for improving crop salt tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cucumis melo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Clonagem Molecular , Cucumis melo/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Tolerância ao Sal , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Simportadores/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
13.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374403

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate whether acute pain associated with castration and tail docking of male piglets may modulate the expression of salivary microRNAs (miRNAs) and to explore their potential use as biomarkers. Thirty-six healthy 4-d-old piglets (Hermitage × Duroc) were randomly assigned to three groups: the first group (12 piglets) has been pretreated with anesthetic and anti-inflammatory drugs (ANA) and then castrated and tail docked; the second one (12 piglets) has been castrated and tail docked without any drugs (CONV); the third one (12 piglets) has been only handled (SHAM). Saliva was collected 10 min before (control group) and 30 to 45 min after the procedures. Salivary cortisol has been quantified. The expression concentrations of seven miRNAs, namely miR-19b, miR-27b-3p, miR-215, miR-22-3p, miR-155-5p, hsa-miR-365-5p, and hsa-miR-204, were measured and assessed as potential biomarkers of pain by quantitative Polimerase Chain Reaction using TaqMan probes. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of miRNAs. The concentration of salivary cortisol increased after treatment in CONV and ANA, while no significant variation was observed in the SHAM group. The comparative analysis demonstrated that the concentrations of salivary miR-19b (P = 0.001), miR-27b (P = 0.042), and miR-365 (P < 0.0001) were significantly greater in CONV as compared with pretreatment. The AUC of pretreatment vs. CONV and CONV vs. ANA were excellent for miR-19b and miR-365 and fair for miR-27b. Combining two miRNAs, namely miR-19b and miR-365, in a panel increased the efficiency of distinguishing between pre- and post-treatment groups. No differences have been identified between SHAM and ANA groups. mRNA potential targets of differentially expressed-miRNA were investigated, and genes related to pain and inflammation were identified: miR-19b potentially modulates TGF-beta and focal adhesion pathways, miR-365 regulates cytokines expression (i.e., IL-1, Tumor Necross Factor-alpha, and IL-8 cytokine), and miR-27b regulates macrophage inflammatory protein pathways (i.e., MIP1-beta). In conclusion, we demonstrated that the abundance of miR-19b, miR-27b, and miR-365 increases in the saliva of piglets castrated and tail docked without the administration of pain-relieving drugs. Further studies are needed to assess their potential during routine husbandry procedures and to extend their assessment in other stressful events, such as weaning or chronic pain.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Suínos/sangue , Cauda/cirurgia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Citocinas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamação , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , RNA Mensageiro , Suínos/metabolismo
14.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415838

RESUMO

Postnatal heat stress (HS) effects on pig physiology and performance are widely studied but prenatal HS studies, albeit increasing, are still limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chronic prenatal HS effects in growing pigs raised in postnatal thermoneutral (TN) or in HS environment. For prenatal environment (PE), mixed-parity pregnant sows were exposed to either TN (PTN; cyclic 18 to 24 °C; n = 12) or HS (PHS; cyclic 28 to 34 °C; n = 12) conditions from day 9 to 109 of gestation. Two female offspring per sow were selected at 10 wk of age and allotted to one of two postnatal growing environments (GE): GTN (cyclic 18 to 24 °C; n = 24) and GHS (cyclic 28 to 34 °C; n = 24). From 75 to 140 d of age, GTN pigs remained in GTN conditions, while GHS pigs were in GTN conditions from 75 to 81 d of age and in GHS conditions from 82 to 140 d of age. Regardless of PE, postnatal HS increased rectal and skin temperatures (+0.30 and +1.61 °C on average, respectively; P < 0.01) and decreased ADFI (-332 g/d; P < 0.01), resulting in lower ADG and final BW (-127 g/d and -7.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.01). The GHS pigs exhibited thicker backfat (P < 0.01), lower carcass loin percentage (P < 0.01), increased plasma creatinine levels (P < 0.01), and decreased plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, T3, and T4 levels (P < 0.05). Prenatal HS increased feed intake in an age-dependent manner (+10 g·kg BW-0.60·d-1 for PHS pigs in the last 2 wk of the trial; P = 0.02) but did not influence BW gain (P > 0.10). Prenatal HS decreased the plasma levels of superoxide dismutase on day 3 of GHS (trend at P = 0.08) and of T4 on day 49 (P < 0.01) but did not affect T3 on day 3 nor 49 (P > 0.10). Prenatal HS increased rectal and skin temperatures and decreased temperature gradient between rectal and skin temperatures in GTN pigs (+0.10, +0.33 and -0.22 °C, respectively; P < 0.05) but not in GHS pigs (P > 0.10). There were also PE × GE interactions found with lower BW (P = 0.06) and higher backfat (P < 0.01) and perirenal adiposity (P < 0.05) for GHS-PHS pigs than the other groups. Overall, increased body temperature and altered thyroid functions and physiological stress responses suggest decreased heat tolerance and dissipation ability of pigs submitted to a whole-gestation chronic prenatal HS. Postnatal HS decreased growth performance, increased carcass adiposity, and affected metabolic traits and thyroid functions especially in pigs previously submitted to prenatal HS.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Animais , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Gravidez , Temperatura Cutânea , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Suínos , Vitaminas
15.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13382, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378301

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the Salvia officinalis hydroalcoholic extract on fertility capacity and behavioral features in rats exposed to immobilization stress. Male rats were randomly divided into five groups; Control; Stressed rats; and Stressed rats received 50, 100 and/or 200 mg/kg bw S. officinalis hydroalcoholic extract. To induce stress, rats were immobilized for 49 days and received S. officinalis extract orally. On day 56, we analyzed behavioral tests and evaluated reproduction capacity by measuring LH, FSH, and testosterone. Sperm parameters such as motility, viability, and total count were also determined. Bodyweight changes were also calculated on day 56. Male rats from different groups were mated with healthy female rats. Data showed that the use of 100 and 200 mg/kg bw S. officinalis extract in stressed rats increased bodyweight gain and improved behavioral disorders compared to control-matched groups (p < .05). Besides, administration of 100 and 200 mg/kg bw S. officinalis extract had the potential to improve sperm parameters and fertility capacity in stressed rats (p < .05). Decreased testosterone levels were blunted in the stressed rats that received plant extract coincided with the reduction of LH and FSH compared to control-matched stressed rats (p < .05). We found neutral effects in stressed rats that received 50 mg/kg bw plant extract. Collectively, the hydroalcoholic extract of S. officinalis could improve the fertility capacity and behavioral features under stressful conditions in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Restrição Física/efeitos adversos , Salvia officinalis/química , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Estimulação Química
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428039

RESUMO

Stress-associated proteins (SAPs) are favorable targets to improve stress tolerance in plants, owing to their roles in developmental processes and stress responses. However, the role of SAPs and the molecular mechanisms by which they regulate plant stress responses remain poorly understood. Previously, it was reported that LmSAP expression was upregulated by various abiotic stressors in Lobularia maritima, and that transgenic tobacco lines with constitutively expressed LmSAPΔA20 and LmSAPΔA20-ΔAN1 showed dwarf phenotypes due to the deficiency of cell elongation under salt and osmotic stresses. In this study, we examined the function of A20 domain in the GA pathway in response to abiotic stresses. Transient expression of acGFP-LmSAPΔA20 and acGFP-LmSAPΔA20-ΔAN1 in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that these fused proteins were localized in the nucleo-cytoplasm. However, the truncated form acGFP-LmSAPΔAN1 was localized in the nucleus. Moreover, comparison of native and truncated LmSAP showed dramatic structural changes caused by the deletion of the A20 domain, leading to loss of function and localization. Interestingly, overexpression LmSAP and truncated LmSAPΔAN1 led to up-regulation of GA biosynthetic genes and increased total gibberellins (GAs) content, corresponding with accelerated development in transgenic tobacco plants. Moreover, the dwarf phenotype of the transgenic lines that express LmSAPΔA20 and LmSAPΔA20-ΔAN1 under stress conditions was fully restored by the application of exogenous GA3. These findings improve our understanding of the role of LmSAP in regulating GA homeostasis, which is important for regulating plant development under abiotic stress conditions.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Homeostase , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Domínios Proteicos/fisiologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2650, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461583

RESUMO

Although the feeling of stress is ubiquitous, the neural mechanisms underlying this affective experience remain unclear. Here, we investigate functional hippocampal connectivity throughout the brain during an acute stressor and use machine learning to demonstrate that these networks can specifically predict the subjective feeling of stress. During a stressor, hippocampal connectivity with a network including the hypothalamus (known to regulate physiological stress) predicts feeling more stressed, whereas connectivity with regions such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (associated with emotion regulation) predicts less stress. These networks do not predict a subjective state unrelated to stress, and a nonhippocampal network does not predict subjective stress. Hippocampal networks are consistent, specific to the construct of subjective stress, and broadly informative across measures of subjective stress. This approach provides opportunities for relating hypothesis-driven functional connectivity networks to clinically meaningful subjective states. Together, these results identify hippocampal networks that modulate the feeling of stress.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Emoções/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adulto , Conectoma/métodos , Conectoma/psicologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipotálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Neurociências/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1926): 20192909, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370673

RESUMO

A shift from the traditional perspective that maternal stress is invariably costly has instigated recent interest into its adaptive role in offspring sex allocation. Stress generated by social instability has been linked to offspring sex ratio biases that favour the production of female offspring, which converges with the theoretical prediction that mothers in the poor condition are better off investing in daughters rather than sons. However, previous research has failed to disentangle two different processes: the passive consequence of maternal stress on sex-specific mortality and the adaptive effect of maternal stress at the time of conception. Here, I show that exposure to high male density social conditions leads to elevated stress hormone levels and female-biased in utero offspring sex ratios in house mice (Mus musculus domesticus), and identify that sex-specific offspring production-not sex-specific mortality-is the mechanism accounting for these sex ratio skews. This outcome reflects the optimal fitness scenario for mothers in a male-dominated environment: the production of daughters, who are guaranteed high mate availability, minimizes male-male competition for their sons. Overall, this study supports the idea that maternal stress has the potential to be adaptive and advances our understanding of how exposure to different social conditions can influence sex allocation in mammals.


Assuntos
Camundongos/fisiologia , Razão de Masculinidade , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Masculino , Mamíferos , Reprodução
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232228, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353077

RESUMO

Heat stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that impair plant growth and crop productivity. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPEB) and humic acid (HA) are used as bio-stimulants and ecofriendly approaches to improve agriculture crop production and counteract the negative effects of heat stress. Current study aimed to analyze the effect of thermotolerant SA1 an isolate of Bacillus cereus and HA on tomato seedlings. The results showed that combine application of SA1+HA significantly improved the biomass and chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato plants under normal and heat stress conditions. Heat stress increased abscisic acid (ABA) and reduced salicylic acid (SA) content; however, combined application of SA1+HA markedly reduced ABA and increased SA. Antioxidant enzymes activities revealed that SA1 and HA treated plants exhibited increased levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, heat stress markedly reduced the amino acid contents; however, the amino acids were increased with co-application of SA1+HA. Similarly, inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry results showed that plants treated with SA1+HA exhibited significantly higher iron (Fe+), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K+) uptake during heat stress. Heat stress increased the relative expression of SlWRKY33b and autophagy-related (SlATG5) genes, whereas co-application of SA1+HA augmented the heat stress response and reduced SlWRKY33b and SlATG5 expression. The heat stress-responsive transcription factor (SlHsfA1a) and high-affinity potassium transporter (SlHKT1) were upregulated in SA1+HA-treated plants. In conclusion, current findings suggest that co-application with SA1+HA can be used for the mitigation of heat stress damage in tomato plants and can be commercialized as a biofertilizer.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Termotolerância/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Substâncias Húmicas , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
20.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(3): 287-302, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240472

RESUMO

Volatile components in fresh leaves are involved in the regulation of many stress responses, such as insect damage, fungal infection and high temperature. However, the potential function of volatile components in hyperosmotic response is largely unknown. Here, we found that 7-day hyperosmotic treatment specifically led to the accumulation of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E)-2-hexenal and methyl salicylate. Transcriptome and qRT-PCR analyses suggested the activation of linolenic acid degradation and methyl salicylate processes. Importantly, exogenous (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol pretreatment dramatically enhanced the hyperosmotic stress tolerance of tea plants and decreased stomatal conductance, whereas (E)-2-hexenal and methyl salicylate pretreatments did not exhibit such a function. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that exogenous ABA induced the expressions of related enzyme genes, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol could up-regulate the expressions of many DREB and RD genes. Moreover, exogenous (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol tremendously induced the expressions of specific LOX and ADH genes within 24 h. Taken together, hyperosmotic stress induced (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol accumulation in tea plant via the activation of most LOX, HPL and ADH genes, while (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol could dramatically enhance the hyperosmotic stress tolerance via the decrease of stomatal conductance and MDA, accumulation of ABA and proline, activation of DREB and RD gene expressions, and probably positive feedback regulation of LOXs and ADHs. KEY MESSAGE: Hyperosmotic stress induced (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol accumulation in Camellia sinensis via the up-regulation of most LOX, HPL and ADH genes, while (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol could dramatically enhance the hyperosmotic stress tolerance via the decrease of stomatal conductance, accumulation of proline, activation of DREB and RD gene expressions, and probably positive feedback regulation of LOXs and ADHs.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Hexanóis/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Água , Aldeídos/farmacologia , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/metabolismo
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