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1.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252359

RESUMO

Chronic stress and low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) are key underlying factors formany diseases, including bone and body composition impairments. Objectives of this narrativereview were to examine the mechanisms by which chronic stress and LGCI may influenceosteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) syndrome, originally named as ostoesarcopenic obesity (OSO).We also examined the crucial nutrients presumed to be affected by or cause of stress andinflammation and compared/contrasted them to those of our prehistoric ancestors. The evidenceshows that stress (particularly chronic) and its related inflammatory processes, contribute toosteoporosis, sarcopenia, and adiposity ultimately leading to OSA as a final and most derangedstate of body composition, commencing at the mesenchymal cell lineage disturbance. Thefoods/nutrients consumed by modern humans, as well as their altered lifestyle, also contribute tostress, LGCI and subsequently to OSA. The processes can also go in opposite direction when stressand inflammation impact nutritional status, particularly some micronutrients' levels. Whilenutritional management of body composition and LGCI have been studied, the nutrients (and theirquantities) most affected by stressors and those which may act toward the alleviation of stressfulstate, ultimately leading to better body composition outcomes, need to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Dieta , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Inflamação , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/etiologia , Osteoporose/etiologia
2.
Gene ; 741: 144523, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142858

RESUMO

Chitinases play an important role in many biological processes in crustaceans, including molting, digestion, and immunity. In order to further explore the immune defense mechanism of chitinase in Portunus trituberculatus, the PtCht-1 gene was cloned by RACE (rapid-amplification of cDNA ends). This cDNA with a full length of 1910 bp, and an ORF (open reading frame) 1749 bp, coded for 582 amino acid residues and was classified into P. trituberculatus chitinase GH18-group4. It had the typical structural characteristics of GH18 chitinase family. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression of PtCht-1 in different tissues, molting stages, after pathogen infection, and low salinity (11‰). PtCht-1 was expressed in all tissues, with the highest expression in the hepatopancreas. In the hepatopancreas of different molting stages, the expression level decreased successively during post-molt stages (A/B), pre-molt stage (D) and inter-molt stage (C). Under normal circumstances, after artificial infection with WSSV and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression of PtCht-1 in hepatopancreas reached the maximum at 48 h, and in hemolymph at 72 h and 24 h, respectively. Overall PtCht-1 expression was up-regulated compared with the control group. Low salinity stress significantly inhibited the expression of PtCht-1, up to 42 folds. Under low salinity stress, the time when WSSV infection reached the peak was markedly delayed by at least 24 h. The results of this study indicate that PtCht-1, as an immune factor, is likely involved in pathogen defense of P. trituberculatus, the immune function of which may be inhibited to some extent after low salinity stress.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/genética , Quitinases/genética , Sistema Imunitário , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/imunologia , Braquiúros/imunologia , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Salinidade , Alinhamento de Sequência
3.
Immunity ; 52(2): 374-387.e6, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075729

RESUMO

Animals require complex metabolic and physiological adaptations to maintain the function of vital organs in response to environmental stresses and infection. Here, we found that infection or injury in Drosophila induced the excretion of hemolymphatic lipids by Malpighian tubules, the insect kidney. This lipid purge was mediated by a stress-induced lipid-binding protein, Materazzi, which was enriched in Malpighian tubules. Flies lacking materazzi had higher hemolymph concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased lipid peroxidation. These flies also displayed Malpighian tubule dysfunction and were susceptible to infections and environmental stress. Feeding flies with antioxidants rescued the materazzi phenotype, indicating that the main role of Materazzi is to protect the organism from damage caused by stress-induced ROS. Our findings suggest that purging hemolymphatic lipids presents a physiological adaptation to protect host tissues from excessive ROS during immune and stress responses, a process that is likely to apply to other organisms.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/imunologia , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/imunologia , Túbulos de Malpighi/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Diglicerídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/química , Proteínas de Drosophila/deficiência , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/imunologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/imunologia , Túbulos de Malpighi/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia
4.
J Surg Res ; 246: 52-61, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-density neutrophils (LDN) have been shown to be increased in peripheral blood in patients with various diseases and closely related to immune-mediated pathology. However, the frequency and function of LDN in circulating blood of the patients following abdominal surgery have not been well understood. METHODS: LDN were determined by CD66b(+) cells, which were copurified with mononuclear cells by density gradient preparations of peripheral blood of surgical patients. The effects of the purified LDN on T cell proliferation and tumor cell lysis were examined in vitro. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) production was examined by extracellular nuclear staining. RESULTS: The number of LDN with an immature phenotype is markedly increased in peripheral blood samples in patients after abdominal surgery. The frequency of LDN correlated positively with operative time and intraoperative blood loss. The purified LDN significantly suppressed the proliferation of autologous T cells stimulated with anti-CD3 mAb coated on plate and partially inhibited the cytotoxicity of lymphocytes activated with recombinant interleukin-2 against a human gastric cancer cell, OCUM-1. The LDN also produced NETs after short-term culture in vitro, which efficiently trap many OCUM-1. These results suggest that surgical stress recruits immunosuppressive LDN in the circulation in the early postoperative period. CONCLUSIONS: The LDN may support the lodging of circulating tumor cells via NETs formation and inhibit T cell-mediated antitumor response in target organs, which may promote postoperative cancer metastases. Functional blockade of LDN might be an effective strategy to reduce tumor recurrence after abdominal surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/imunologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Técnicas de Cocultura , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/imunologia , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/imunologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Duração da Cirurgia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
5.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4053-4065, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581299

RESUMO

Selection for production traits with little or no emphasis on health-related traits has the potential to increase susceptibility to disease in food-producing animals. A possible genetic strategy to mitigate such effects is to include both production and health traits in the breeding objective when selecting animals. For this to occur, reliable methodologies are required to assess beneficial health traits, such as the immune capacity of animals. We describe here a methodology to assess the immune competence of beef cattle which is both practical to apply on farm and does not restrict the future sale of tested animals. The methodology also accommodates variation in prior vaccination history of cohorts of animals being tested. In the present study, the immune competence phenotype of 1,100 Angus calves was assessed during yard weaning. Genetic parameters associated with immune competence traits were estimated and associations between immune competence, temperament, and stress-coping ability traits were investigated. Results suggested that immune competence traits, related to an animal's ability to mount both antibody and cell-mediated immune responses, are moderately heritable (h2 = 0.32 ± 0.09 and 0.27 ± 0.08, respectively) and favorably genetically correlated with the temperament trait, flight time (r = 0.63 ± 0.31 and 0.60 ± 0.29 with antibody and cell-mediated immune responses, respectively). Development of methodologies to assess the immune competence phenotype of beef cattle is a critical first step in the establishment of genetic selection strategies aimed at improving the general disease resistance of beef herds. Strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of disease in beef cattle are expected to significantly improve animal health and welfare, reduce reliance on the use of antibiotics to treat disease, and reduce disease-associated costs incurred by producers.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/imunologia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Temperamento/fisiologia , Desmame , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética
6.
Nat Genet ; 51(10): 1530-1539, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548720

RESUMO

Bread wheat improvement using genomic tools is essential for accelerating trait genetic gains. Here we report the genomic predictabilities of 35 key traits and demonstrate the potential of genomic selection for wheat end-use quality. We also performed a large genome-wide association study that identified several significant marker-trait associations for 50 traits evaluated in South Asia, Africa and the Americas. Furthermore, we built a reference wheat genotype-phenotype map, explored allele frequency dynamics over time and fingerprinted 44,624 wheat lines for trait-associated markers, generating over 7.6 million data points, which together will provide a valuable resource to the wheat community for enhancing productivity and stress resilience.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Genômica/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/imunologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Seleção Genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética
7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 27-37, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465876

RESUMO

In teleost fish, myelopoiesis is maintained both in the head (HK) and trunk kidney (TK), but only the HK holds the endocrine cells that produce the stress hormone cortisol. We now compared the effects of prolonged restraint stress (in vivo) and cortisol (in vitro) on the polarization of HK and TK-derived carp macrophages. Monocytes/macrophages from both sources were treated in vitro with cortisol, lipopolysaccharide or with both factors combined. In vivo, fish were challenged by a prolonged restraint stress. Gene expression of several markers typical for classical M1 and alternative M2 macrophage polarization, as well as glucocorticoid receptors, were measured. Cells from both sources did not differ in the constitutive gene expression of glucocorticoid receptors, whereas they significantly differed in their response to cortisol and stress. In the LPS-stimulated HK monocytes/macrophages, cortisol in vitro counteracted the action of LPS while the effects of cortisol on the activity of TK monocytes/macrophages were less explicit. In vivo, restraint stress up-regulated gene expression of M2 markers in freshly isolated HK monocytes/macrophages, while at the same time it did not affect TK monocytes/macrophages. Moreover, LPS-stimulated HK monocytes/macrophages from stressed animals showed only minor differences in the gene expression of M1 and M2 markers, compared to LPS-treated monocytes/macrophages from control fish. In contrast, stress-induced changes in TK-derived LPS-treated cells were more pronounced. However, these changes did not clearly indicate whether in TK monocytes/macrophages stress will stimulate classical or alternative polarization. Altogether, our results imply that cortisol in vitro and stress in vivo direct HK, but not TK, monocytes/macrophages to the path of alternative polarization. These findings reveal that like in mammals, also in fish the glucocorticoids form important stimulators of alternative macrophage polarization.


Assuntos
Anexina A1/administração & dosagem , Carpas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixes/administração & dosagem , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hidrocortisona/administração & dosagem , Macrófagos/imunologia , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Animais , Carpas/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Macrófagos/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3042, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316054

RESUMO

Stress resistance and longevity are positively correlated but emerging evidence indicates that they are physiologically distinct. Identifying factors with distinctive roles in these processes is challenging because pro-longevity genes often enhance stress resistance. We demonstrate that TCER-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of human transcription elongation and splicing factor, TCERG1, has opposite effects on lifespan and stress resistance. We previously showed that tcer-1 promotes longevity in germline-less C. elegans and reproductive fitness in wild-type animals. Surprisingly, tcer-1 mutants exhibit exceptional resistance against multiple stressors, including infection by human opportunistic pathogens, whereas, TCER-1 overexpression confers immuno-susceptibility. TCER-1 inhibits immunity only during fertile stages of life. Elevating its levels ameliorates the fertility loss caused by infection, suggesting that TCER-1 represses immunity to augment fecundity. TCER-1 acts through repression of PMK-1 as well as PMK-1-independent factors critical for innate immunity. Our data establish key roles for TCER-1 in coordinating immunity, longevity and fertility, and reveal mechanisms that distinguish length of life from functional aspects of aging.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Longevidade/genética , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Fertilidade/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Modelos Animais , Mutação , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
9.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103610, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288065

RESUMO

The WRKY transcription factors (TFs) family constitutes a major group of TFs in spermatophytes. Different studies have endorsed the considerable biological roles performed by WRKY TFs in plant growth, biotic and abiotic stress responses. Genomic and transcriptomic profiling facilitate us in understanding the WRKY genes in various plants and reveal how WRKY TFs perform their action in response to different plant stresses. WRKY TFs actively take part in metabolism including carbohydrate synthesis, senescence, and secondary metabolites production. Molecular organization of WRKY TFs in plants highlight most predicted outcome of multiple responses simultaneously. Repression and activation related to W-box and other such elements is controlled at transcriptional, translational and domain level. WRKY TFs are becoming more important in crop improvement because of their binding with downstream elements. Additionally, WRKY proteins intermingle with various other TFs for modulating plant immunity. However, WRKY TFs self-regulation and crosstalk between different signaling pathways using WRKY TFs still need extensive investigations. In this review, we focused characteristics of WRKY TFs in Capsicum annum and related research advancement on their functional involvement in plant responses to the challenges of high temperature stress and pathogens infection. We summarized information about Capsicum annum WRKY TFs on the basis of their functions, their target genes and signaling pathways. Moreover, the mechanisms for synergistic responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses, WRKY target genes and other TFs as well will be of more interest with increments in existing information.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Umidade , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Metabolismo Secundário , Transdução de Sinais , Temperatura , Fatores de Transcrição
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7408-7420, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178180

RESUMO

The high metabolic demand during the transition into lactation places cows at greater risk of metabolic and infectious disease than at any other time in their lactation cycle. Additionally, a change occurs in the innate immune response during this period, which contributes to increased risk of disease. In the current study, we compared the transcriptomes of neutrophils from dairy cows divergent in their metabolic health post-calving. Cows (n = 5 per risk group) were selected from a parent experiment (n = 45 cows). Those with high or low concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids, plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate, and liver triacylglycerol in both wk 1 and 2 were deemed to be at "high risk" (HR) or "low risk" (LR) of metabolic dysfunction, respectively. Circulating neutrophils were isolated at 3 time points during the transition period (d 0 and wk 1 and 4 post-calving), and gene expression was analyzed using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression between the risk groups was determined using edgeR (http://bioconductor.org), and pathway analysis was conducted using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Ingenuity Systems, Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Statistical analysis indicated no interaction between risk and week. Therefore, the overall effect of risk was analyzed across all time points. In total, 3,500 genes were differentially expressed between the HR and LR cows (false discovery rate < 0.05). Of these, 2,897 genes were identified by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and used for pathway analysis. Of the relevant pathways identified, neutrophils isolated from HR cows showed downregulation of genes involved in the recruitment of granulocytes, interferon signaling, and apoptosis, and upregulation of genes involved in cell survival. The results indicate that metabolically stressed cows had reduced neutrophil function during the peripartum period, highlighting a potential relationship between subclinical metabolic disease and innate immune function that suggests that metabolic health negatively affects the innate immune system and may contribute to the state of immunosuppression during the peripartum period. In this way, the metabolic stress among the HR cows may reduce their ability to combat infection during the transition period.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Período Periparto/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Imunidade/genética , Lactação/fisiologia , Fígado/química , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Triglicerídeos/análise , Regulação para Cima
12.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(2): 292-305, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127305

RESUMO

It is frequently hypothesized that animals employ a generalized "stress response," largely mediated by glucocorticoid (GC) hormones, such as corticosterone, to combat challenging environmental conditions. Under this hypothesis, diverse stressors are predicted to have concordant effects across biological levels of an organism. We tested the generalized stress response hypothesis in two complementary experiments with juvenile and adult male Eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus). In both experiments, animals were exposed to diverse, ecologically-relevant, acute stressors (high temperature or red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta) and we examined their responses at three biological levels: behavioral; physiological (endocrine [plasma corticosterone and blood glucose concentrations] and innate immunity [complement and natural antibodies]); and cellular responses (gene expression of a panel of five heat-shock proteins in blood and liver) at 30 or 90 min post stress initiation. In both experiments, we observed large differences in the cellular response to the two stressors, which contrasts the similar behavioral and endocrine responses. In the adult experiment for which we had innate immune data, the stressors affected immune function independently, and they were correlated with CORT in opposing directions. Taken together, these results challenge the concept of a generalized stress response. Rather, the stress response was context specific, especially at the cellular level. Such context-specificity might explain why attempts to link GC hormones with life history and fitness have proved difficult. Our results emphasize the need for indicators at multiple biological levels and whole-organism examinations of stress.


Assuntos
Formigas , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Lagartos/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Corticosterona/sangue , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/sangue , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Masculino , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 99: 103405, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145913

RESUMO

The Gamma interferon inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) plays a key biological role in the immune responses and involves in the processing of class II MHC-restricted antigen by stimulating disulfide bond reduction in mammals. To determine the biological function of GILT in the innate immune system of crustaceans, we sequenced and cloned GILT gene from red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii (Pc-GILT). The deduced amino acid sequence of Pc-GILT contained the putative conserved structures of the GILT family proteins: the GILT signature (CQHGX2ECX2NX4C) sequence and the active site (CXXS) motif. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis suggested that a recombinant Pc-GILT protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that Pc-GILT transcript level was highest in the hepatopancreas followed by the gut, heart and muscles. Additionally, we analyzed the transcription level of Pc-GILT gene in hepatopancreas of red swamp crayfish under biotic stress conditions. The expression of Pc-GILT gene upregulated after viral (poly I:C) and bacterial (peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide) infection. The suppression of Pc-GILT by double stranded RNA influenced the transcript levels of various immune-related genes. These observations indicate that the Pc-GILT probably plays a key biological role in the innate immune responses of red swamp crayfish, since it modulates the expression of genes associated with immune pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Astacoidea/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo Enxofre/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Astacoidea/classificação , Astacoidea/genética , Sequência de Bases , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo Enxofre/antagonistas & inibidores , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo Enxofre/química , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo Enxofre/genética , Filogenia , Interferência de RNA , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Distribuição Tecidual
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 91: 369-375, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999042

RESUMO

Comparative transcriptome analysis via high throughput sequencing was applied to gain knowledge on the immune response in Litopenaeus vannamei reared in biofloc technology systems (BFT). Two types of carbon sources, namely, traditional carbon sources (molasses) and biodegradable polymers [hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid (PHBV)] were used in BFT systems. Clear water systems without the addition of carbon sources were treated as the control. Water quality assays showed that the average concentrations of several stress factors, including nitrite, nitrate and TSS, were the highest in molasses-based BFT systems. After sequencing and comparing the transcriptome profiles of the L. vannamei hepatopancreas, 743 and 201 genes were significantly differentially expressed in molasses- and PHBV-based BFT systems, respectively. GO enrichment analysis, which was performed using the differentially expressed genes, revealed seven significantly over-represented GO terms in molasses-based BFT systems, including catabolic process, hydrolase activity, cellular localization, organic substance metabolic process, cellular metabolic process, establishment of localization and response to stress. The captured key genes were mainly involved in the pathways including cellular stress response, immune response and pathogen recognition. However, no GO terms were significantly over-represented in PHBV-based BFT systems compared with control. This study indicates that shrimp are subject to stress in BFT systems when molasses serves as the carbon source. Thus, PHBV may be a better alternative.


Assuntos
Hepatopâncreas/imunologia , Penaeidae/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Melaço , Penaeidae/genética , Poliésteres/metabolismo , Qualidade da Água
15.
Georgian Med News ; (287): 114-118, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958301

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to investigate the peculiarities of changes in the indices of cellular and humoral immunity in the case of immobilization stress, which is implemented against the background of hypothyroidism. It was used 84 white Wistar male rats to study the peculiarities of the stress reaction against hypothyroidism. The study of cellular and humoral immunity was performed on a Beckman Coulter Epics-XL flow cytometer. During the immobilization stress in rats, the cellular immunity indices reliably decrease at the anxiety stage with adaptation to the effect of stress after 48 h in the resistance stage with subsequent exhaustion of the adaptation reserves at the depletion stage. Against the background of a decrease in the T-lymphocyte level at the anxiety stage, the B-lymphocyte population significantly increased (by 26.5%). In animals with deficiency of iodine-containing thyroid hormones, we noted a significant decrease in cellular and humoral immunity at all stages of immobilization stress, which was accompanied by a significant decrease of immunoregulatory index (p<0.05).


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo , Imobilização , Imunidade Humoral , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Hormônios Tireóideos
16.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 210: 23-27, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947976

RESUMO

Immunity can be modulated by different internal and external factors, being stress one of the most important. However, the stress effects on the immunocompetence of the skeletal muscle has not been studied in detail in earlier vertebrates. Here, we examine the effect of chronic (4 and 7 weeks) crowding stress on the immunocompetence of skeletal muscle and head kidney in the fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus). Corticosteroid receptor transcript levels and their target genes; pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Toll-, NOD-, and RIG-like receptors were quantified by qPCR. The results indicate that chronic stress down-regulates the expression of these genes in muscle, compromising skeletal muscle immunocompetence, while the expression of these genes is upregulated in head kidney after seven weeks of crowding stress. The data suggests that chronic stress modulates the expression of these immune-related genes in a tissue-specific manner.


Assuntos
Aglomeração , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Linguado/imunologia , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Músculo Esquelético/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Citocinas/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Linguado/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
17.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 92(3): 326-338, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986114

RESUMO

Parasites can cause chronic stress in some animal species, and this type of stress response has been associated with adverse consequences for the host. In order to know whether parasitism elicited a stress response associated with decreased host fitness, hookworm (Uncinaria sp.) infection was studied in a colony of South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) in which hookworms infect nearly all pups born in a reproductive season. A parasite-free group was generated by treating a subset of pups with an antiparasitic drug before they developed patent hookworm infection. Stress and metabolic hormones, energy balance, and humoral and cellular immune parameters were measured in this group and hookworm-infected pups. Hookworms elicited a marked increase in plasma cortisol levels in fur seal pups. These hookworm-infected pups were able to maintain constant glucose levels, despite losing body mass over the course of infection potentially because of increased protein catabolism. Infected pups were able to mount an effective immune response against the parasite and eliminated hookworms from the intestine, recovering partial body mass lost as a result of hookworm infection at the end of the study period. As shown in previous studies, adequate glucose levels are critical for proper T lymphocyte reactivity, and it is possible that, through activation of a stress response, energy can be readily available for immune response against the parasite contributing to early recovery from infection. Although there are potential fitness costs to mounting a sustained stress response, these could also be adaptive and promote survival during critical life-history stages.


Assuntos
Otárias/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/veterinária , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Infecções por Uncinaria/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Uncinaria/parasitologia , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino
18.
EBioMedicine ; 43: 594-606, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic heavy alcohol drinking (CHD) leads to significant organ damage, increased susceptibility to infections, and delayed wound healing. These adverse outcomes are believed to be mediated by alterations in the function of myeloid cells; however, the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. METHODS: We determined the impact of CHD on the phenotype of splenic macrophages using flow cytometry. Changes in functional responses to LPS were measured using luminex and RNA-Seq. Finally, alterations in chromatin accessibility were uncovered using ATAC-Seq. FINDINGS: A history of CHD led to increased frequency of splenic macrophages that exhibited a heightened activation state at resting. Additionally, splenic macrophages from CHD animals generated a larger inflammatory response to LPS, both at protein and gene expression levels. Finally, CHD resulted in increased levels of H3K4me3, a histone mark of active promoters, as well as chromatin accessibility at promoters and intergenic regions that regulate inflammatory responses. INTERPRETATION: These findings suggest that a history of CHD alters the immune fitness of tissue-resident macrophages via epigenetic mechanisms. FUND: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institutes of Health (NIH) - R24AA019431, U01 AA13641, U01 AA13510, R21AA021947, and R21AA025839.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Alcoolismo/genética , Epigênese Genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Baço/citologia , Baço/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Imunofenotipagem , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Macaca mulatta , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Baço/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Transcriptoma
19.
Immunity ; 50(4): 892-906, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995505

RESUMO

The interleukin 17 (IL-17) family of cytokines contains 6 structurally related cytokines, IL-17A through IL-17F. IL-17A, the prototypical member of this family, just passed the 25th anniversary of its discovery. Although less is known about IL-17B-F, IL-17A (commonly known as IL-17) has received much attention for its pro-inflammatory role in autoimmune disease. Over the past decade, however, it has become clear that the functions of IL-17 are far more nuanced than simply turning on inflammation. Accumulating evidence indicates that IL-17 has important context- and tissue-dependent roles in maintaining health during response to injury, physiological stress, and infection. Here, we discuss the functions of the IL-17 family, with a focus on the balance between the pathogenic and protective roles of IL-17 in cancer and autoimmune disease, including results of therapeutic blockade and novel aspects of IL-17 signal transduction regulation.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Interleucina-17/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/imunologia
20.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(3): 1514-1529, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether underweight calves respond differently to transport stress, enhancing their disease risk, is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of low body weight and transport stress on immune variables. ANIMALS: Twenty-one 2- to 4-week-old male Holstein calves, housed on a commercial farm. METHODS: Randomized clinical trial. Full factorial design with 4 treatment groups: low body weight (≤46 kg)/no transport (LOWCON); low body weight/transport (LOWTRANS); normal body weight (>46 kg)/no transport (NORMCON), and normal body weight/transport (NORMTRANS). Transport duration was 2 hours. RESULTS: Transport significantly increased serum cortisol concentration (77.8 µg/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI], 37.8-131.6; P < .001), interleukin (IL)-17A (344.9 pg/mL; 95% CI, 32.2-556.5; P = .04), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (218.2 pg/mL; 95% CI, 32.5-368.3; P = .03) production after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Body weight did not affect any of the studied variables. However, the interaction of transport and body weight was significant. LOWTRANS calves showed increased monocyte count (2.0 × 109 /L; 95% CI, 0.6-4.2; P < .05) and interleukin IL-17A production (106.0 pg/mL; 95% CI, 4.2-306.9; P = .03) compared to normal weight calves and increased TNF-α production (275.6 pg/mL; 95% CI, 2.6-463.0; P = .02) compared to LOWCON calves in unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after transport. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: These findings contribute to our understanding of increased disease susceptibility of underweight calves when transported. Gamma globulin concentration was identified as important interfering factor in studies on immune variables in neonatal calves.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Transportes , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Interleucina-17/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
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