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1.
Elife ; 92020 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377870

RESUMO

Postmitotic tissues are incapable of replacing damaged cells through proliferation, but need to rely on buffering mechanisms to prevent tissue disintegration. By constitutively activating the Ras/MAPK-pathway via RasV12-overexpression in the postmitotic salivary glands (SGs) of Drosophila larvae, we overrode the glands adaptability to growth signals and induced hypertrophy. The accompanied loss of tissue integrity, recognition by cellular immunity, and cell death are all buffered by blocking stress signaling through a genuine tissue-autonomous immune response. This novel, spatio-temporally tightly regulated mechanism relies on the inhibition of a feedback-loop in the JNK-pathway by the immune effector and antimicrobial peptide Drosomycin. While this interaction might allow growing SGs to cope with temporary stress, continuous Drosomycin expression in RasV12-glands favors unrestricted hypertrophy. These findings indicate the necessity to refine therapeutic approaches that stimulate immune responses by acknowledging their possible, detrimental effects in damaged or stressed tissues.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/imunologia , IMP Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Hipertrofia , IMP Desidrogenase/genética , Larva , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases
2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(10): 3247-3250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971311

RESUMO

NASA implements required medical tests and clinical monitoring to ensure the health and safety of its astronauts. These measures include a pre-launch quarantine to mitigate the risk of infectious diseases. During space missions, most astronauts experience perturbations to their immune system that manifest as a detectable secondary immunodeficiency. On return to Earth, after the stress of re-entry and landing, astronauts would be most vulnerable to infectious disease. In April 2020, a crew returned from International Space Station to NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Post-flight quarantine protocols (both crew and contacts) were enhanced to protect this crew from SARS-CoV-2. In addition, specific additional clinical monitoring was performed to determine post-flight immunocompetence. Given that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prognosis is more severe for the immunocompromised, a countermeasures protocol for spaceflight suggested by an international team of scientists could benefit terrestrial patients with secondary immunodeficiency.


Assuntos
Astronautas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/métodos , Voo Espacial , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Betacoronavirus , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Terapia por Exercício , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-2/uso terapêutico , Política Organizacional , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Quarentena/organização & administração , Astronave , Texas , Estados Unidos , United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration
3.
Mol Immunol ; 124: 180-189, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592984

RESUMO

Stress is a physiological manifestation of the body's defense against adverse effects of external environment, but the molecular regulatory mechanism of stress effects on immune function of poultry has not been fully clarified. In this study, 7-day-old Chinese local breed Gushi cocks were used as model animal, and the stress model was successfully constructed by adding corticosterone (CORT) 30 mg/kg basic diet for 7 days. The spleen transcriptomes of the control group (B_S group) and the stress model group (C_S group) was determined by high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology, and a total of 269 significantly differentially expressed genes (SDEGs) were obtained (Padj < 0.05, |FC| ≥ 2 and FPKM > 1). Compared with B_S group, there were 140 significantly up-regulated genes and 129 significantly down-regulated genes in C_S group. The immune/stress-related Gene Ontology (GO) terms included positive regulation of T cell mediated immunity, chemokine-mediated signaling pathway, T cell mediated immunity and so on. The SDEGs such as IL8L1, HSPA8, HSPA2, RSAD2, CCR8L and DMB1 were involved in these GO terms. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis showed that the SDEGs participated in many immune-related signaling pathways. The immune-related genes HSPA2, HSPA8, HSP90AA1, HSPH1 and HERPUD1 were enriched in Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum pathway, IL8L1, CXCL13L2, CCR6, LEPR, CCR9 and CCR8L were enriched in Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway. The protein-protein interactions (PPI) analysis showed HSPA8, HSPA2 and IL8L1 as key core nodes had 7 interactions and may play important roles in the regulation of CORT-induced stress effects on immune function. The data onto this study enriched the genomic study of stress effects on immune function, and provided unique insights into the molecular mechanism of stress effects on immune function, and the genes identified in this study can be candidates for future research on stress response.


Assuntos
Baço/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9932-9941, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312819

RESUMO

Cellular starvation is typically a consequence of tissue injury that disrupts the local blood supply but can also occur where cell populations outgrow the local vasculature, as observed in solid tumors. Cells react to nutrient deprivation by adapting their metabolism, or, if starvation is prolonged, it can result in cell death. Cell starvation also triggers adaptive responses, like angiogenesis, that promote tissue reorganization and repair, but other adaptive responses and their mediators are still poorly characterized. To explore this issue, we analyzed secretomes from glucose-deprived cells, which revealed up-regulation of multiple cytokines and chemokines, including IL-6 and IL-8, in response to starvation stress. Starvation-induced cytokines were cell type-dependent, and they were also released from primary epithelial cells. Most cytokines were up-regulated in a manner dependent on NF-κB and the transcription factor of the integrated stress response ATF4, which bound directly to the IL-8 promoter. Furthermore, glutamine deprivation, as well as the antimetabolic drugs 2-deoxyglucose and metformin, also promoted the release of IL-6 and IL-8. Finally, some of the factors released from starved cells induced chemotaxis of B cells, macrophages, and neutrophils, suggesting that nutrient deprivation in the tumor environment can serve as an initiator of tumor inflammation.


Assuntos
Inflamação/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-8/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Antimetabólitos/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxiglucose/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Inanição/genética , Inanição/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia
5.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(4): 509-512, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238633

RESUMO

The thymus is a vital organ for functional immune systems, and is the site of T cell development, which plays a central role in cellular immune defenses. Unlike other major organs, the thymus is highly dynamic in size and structure. It shrinks immediately upon bacterial infection, aging, pregnancy, mental stress, nutritional deficiency, and more. The reduction in size and function of the thymus during such biological events is called thymic involution or thymic atrophy; thymic involution is a particularly important issue because dysfunctional T cell immunity increases the risks of tumorigenesis and infectious diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying thymic involution remain obscure. Our recent study indicated that blood vessels are remodeled during thymic involution that occurs upon aging, estradiol-treatment, or nutritional deficiency. We also found that prostanoid synthesis is induced during thymic involution. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aspirin or etodolac, at least partially inhibited thymic involution-induced remodeling of the blood vessels, suggesting that prostanoids are involved in blood vessel remodeling. Our results revealed the potential role of blood vessel remodeling during thymic involution, which can lead to biological stress-induced immunosenescence.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos/imunologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiopatologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Timo/imunologia , Remodelação Vascular , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Prostaglandinas/metabolismo , Prostaglandinas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Timo/patologia , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252359

RESUMO

Chronic stress and low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) are key underlying factors formany diseases, including bone and body composition impairments. Objectives of this narrativereview were to examine the mechanisms by which chronic stress and LGCI may influenceosteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) syndrome, originally named as ostoesarcopenic obesity (OSO).We also examined the crucial nutrients presumed to be affected by or cause of stress andinflammation and compared/contrasted them to those of our prehistoric ancestors. The evidenceshows that stress (particularly chronic) and its related inflammatory processes, contribute toosteoporosis, sarcopenia, and adiposity ultimately leading to OSA as a final and most derangedstate of body composition, commencing at the mesenchymal cell lineage disturbance. Thefoods/nutrients consumed by modern humans, as well as their altered lifestyle, also contribute tostress, LGCI and subsequently to OSA. The processes can also go in opposite direction when stressand inflammation impact nutritional status, particularly some micronutrients' levels. Whilenutritional management of body composition and LGCI have been studied, the nutrients (and theirquantities) most affected by stressors and those which may act toward the alleviation of stressfulstate, ultimately leading to better body composition outcomes, need to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Dieta , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Inflamação , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/etiologia , Osteoporose/etiologia
7.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1862-1874, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241466

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on the inflammatory response and gut microbiota of broiler chickens subjected to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. One hundred and forty 1-day-old Arbor Acres male birds were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement including diet treatment (with or without 0.3% Arg supplementation) and immunological stress (with or without S. typhimurium challenge). Samples were obtained at 7 D after infection (day 23). Results showed that S. typhimurium challenge caused histopathological and morphological damages, but Arg addition greatly reduced these intestinal injuries. S. typhimurium challenge elevated the levels of serum inflammatory parameters, including diamine oxidase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, IL-1ß, IL-8, and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor (LITNF) homolog. However, Arg supplementation decreased the serum procalcitonin, IL-1ß, IL-8, and LITNF concentration. S. typhimurium challenge significantly increased jejunal IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17 mRNA expression and tended to upregulate IL-22 mRNA expression, but Arg supplementation remarkably reduced IL-8 mRNA expression, tended to downregulate IL-22 mRNA expression, and dramatically elevated IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA expression. In addition, sequencing data of 16S rDNA indicated that the population of Proteobacteria phylum; Enterobacteriaceae family; Escherichia-Shigella, and Nitrosomonas genera; and Escherichia coli and Ochrobactrum intermedium species were more abundant, but the population of Rhodocyclaceae and Clostridiaceae_1 families and Candidatus Arthromitus genus were less abundant in the ileal digesta of birds with only S. typhimurium infection when compared with the controls. Treatment with Arg in birds subjected to S. typhimurium challenge increased the abundances of Firmicutes phylum, Clostridiaceae_1 family, Methylobacterium and Candidatus Arthromitus genera but decreased the abundance of Nitrosomonas genus and Rhizobium cellulosilyticum and Rubrobacter xylanophilus species as compared with the only S. typhimurium-challenged birds. In conclusion, Arg supplementation can alleviate intestinal mucosal impairment by ameliorating inflammatory response and modulating gut microbiota in broiler chickens challenged with S. typhimurium.


Assuntos
Arginina/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Galinhas/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Arginina/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/microbiologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia
8.
Gene ; 741: 144523, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142858

RESUMO

Chitinases play an important role in many biological processes in crustaceans, including molting, digestion, and immunity. In order to further explore the immune defense mechanism of chitinase in Portunus trituberculatus, the PtCht-1 gene was cloned by RACE (rapid-amplification of cDNA ends). This cDNA with a full length of 1910 bp, and an ORF (open reading frame) 1749 bp, coded for 582 amino acid residues and was classified into P. trituberculatus chitinase GH18-group4. It had the typical structural characteristics of GH18 chitinase family. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression of PtCht-1 in different tissues, molting stages, after pathogen infection, and low salinity (11‰). PtCht-1 was expressed in all tissues, with the highest expression in the hepatopancreas. In the hepatopancreas of different molting stages, the expression level decreased successively during post-molt stages (A/B), pre-molt stage (D) and inter-molt stage (C). Under normal circumstances, after artificial infection with WSSV and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression of PtCht-1 in hepatopancreas reached the maximum at 48 h, and in hemolymph at 72 h and 24 h, respectively. Overall PtCht-1 expression was up-regulated compared with the control group. Low salinity stress significantly inhibited the expression of PtCht-1, up to 42 folds. Under low salinity stress, the time when WSSV infection reached the peak was markedly delayed by at least 24 h. The results of this study indicate that PtCht-1, as an immune factor, is likely involved in pathogen defense of P. trituberculatus, the immune function of which may be inhibited to some extent after low salinity stress.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/genética , Quitinases/genética , Sistema Imunitário , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/imunologia , Braquiúros/imunologia , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Salinidade , Alinhamento de Sequência
9.
Immunity ; 52(2): 374-387.e6, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075729

RESUMO

Animals require complex metabolic and physiological adaptations to maintain the function of vital organs in response to environmental stresses and infection. Here, we found that infection or injury in Drosophila induced the excretion of hemolymphatic lipids by Malpighian tubules, the insect kidney. This lipid purge was mediated by a stress-induced lipid-binding protein, Materazzi, which was enriched in Malpighian tubules. Flies lacking materazzi had higher hemolymph concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased lipid peroxidation. These flies also displayed Malpighian tubule dysfunction and were susceptible to infections and environmental stress. Feeding flies with antioxidants rescued the materazzi phenotype, indicating that the main role of Materazzi is to protect the organism from damage caused by stress-induced ROS. Our findings suggest that purging hemolymphatic lipids presents a physiological adaptation to protect host tissues from excessive ROS during immune and stress responses, a process that is likely to apply to other organisms.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/imunologia , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/imunologia , Túbulos de Malpighi/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Diglicerídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/química , Proteínas de Drosophila/deficiência , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/imunologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/imunologia , Túbulos de Malpighi/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia
10.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 734-743, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029158

RESUMO

In poultry production, vaccination is an effective measure to protect chickens from diseases. Vaccination, however, is a stressor that may induce stress responses that interfere with the growth and development of chickens. The interaction between the skeletal and immune systems on bone quality has gained more attention. In the present study, the influence of high frequency vaccinations on the bone development of layer pullets was investigated. Thirty 35-day-old SPF White Leghorn layer pullets were obtained and randomly subjected to the following treatments: vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND) with LoSota vaccine once at 35-day-old (V1, control); 4 times at 35, 49, 63, and 77 d of age (V4); and 7 times at 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, and 77 d of age (V7). The body weight and organ index of the spleen, thymus, and tibia were recorded. The antibody titer and serum and the tibia calcium and phosphorus concentrations were measured. The transcription levels of the IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) genes were determined in spleen, thymus, and the tibia. The results showed that V7 decreased body weight and increased the ND antibody titer, compared to V1-chickens. The expression levels of IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α were upregulated in spleen, thymus, and the tibia of V7 chickens. In the tibia, RANKL was upregulated, while OPG was downregulated by V7 treatment. The results indicate that high frequency vaccination induces immune stress and impairs bone development. The results suggest that the augmented cytokine expression in immune organs and the tibia is associated with activation of the OPG/RANKL pathway, which, in turn, enhances osteoclastogenesis. The appropriate frequency of vaccination should support optimal bone development and full immunoprotection in layer pullets.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Ósseo/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Osteogênese , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tíbia/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941102

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that immune system development and weaning stress are closely related to the maturation of gut microbiota. The early-life period is a "window of opportunity" for microbial colonization, which potentially has a critical impact on the development of the immune system. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and probiotics are often used to regulate gut microbial colonization. This study aims to test whether early intervention with FMT using fecal microbiota from gestation sows combined with Clostridium butyricum and Saccharomyces boulardii (FMT-CS) administration could promote the maturation of gut microbiota and development of immune system in piglets. Piglets were assigned to control (n = 84) and FMT-CS treatment (n = 106), which were treated with placebo and bacterial suspension during the first three days after birth, respectively. By 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we found that FMT-CS increased the α-diversity and reduced the unweighted UniFrac distances of the OTU community. Besides, FMT-CS increased the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria, while decreasing that of opportunistic pathogens. FMT-CS also enhanced the relative abundance of genes related to cofactors and vitamin, energy, and amino acid metabolisms during the early-life period. ELISA analysis revealed that FMT-CS gave rise to the plasma concentrations of IL-23, IL-17, and IL-22, as well as the plasma levels of anti-M.hyo and anti-PCV2 antibodies. Furthermore, the FMT-CS-treated piglets showed decreases in inflammation levels and oxidative stress injury, and improvement of intestinal barrier function after weaning as well. Taken together, our results suggest that early-life intervention with FMT-CS could promote the development of innate and adaptive immune system and vaccine efficacy, and subsequently alleviate weaning stress through promoting the maturation of gut microbiota in piglets.


Assuntos
Clostridium butyricum/imunologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Saccharomyces boulardii/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Citocinas/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Suínos , Desmame
12.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822918

RESUMO

The present study explored the potential effect of pterostilbene as a prophylactic treatment on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury of broiler chickens by monitoring changes in mucosal injury indicators, redox status, and inflammatory responses. In total, 192 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups. This trial consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial design with a diet factor (supplemented with 0 or 400 mg/kg pterostilbene from 1 to 22 d of age) and a stress factor (intraperitoneally injected with saline or LPS at 5.0 mg/kg BW at 21 da of age). The results showed that LPS challenge induced a decrease in BW gain (P < 0.001) of broilers during a 24-h period postinjection; however, this decrease was prevented by pterostilbene supplementation (P = 0.031). Administration of LPS impaired the intestinal integrity of broilers, as indicated by increased plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) activity (P = 0.014) and d-lactate content (P < 0.001), reduced jejunal villus height (VH; P < 0.001) and the ratio of VH to crypt depth (VH:CD; P < 0.001), as well as a decreased mRNA level of jejunal tight junction protein 1 (ZO-1; P = 0.002). In contrast, pterostilbene treatment increased VH:CD (P = 0.018) and upregulated the mRNA levels of ZO-1 (P = 0.031) and occludin (P = 0.024) in the jejunum. Consistently, pterostilbene counteracted the LPS-induced increased DAO activity (P = 0.011) in the plasma. In addition, the LPS-challenged broilers exhibited increases in nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 (P < 0.001), the protein content of tumor necrosis factor α (P = 0.033), and the mRNA abundance of IL-1ß (P = 0.042) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3; P = 0.019). In contrast, pterostilbene inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 (P = 0.039) and suppressed the mRNA expression of IL-1ß (P = 0.003) and NLRP3 (P = 0.049) in the jejunum. Moreover, pterostilbene administration induced a greater amount of reduced glutathione (P = 0.017) but a lower content of malondialdehyde (P = 0.023) in the jejunum of broilers compared with those received a basal diet. Overall, the current study indicates that dietary supplementation with pterostilbene may play a beneficial role in alleviating the intestinal damage of broiler chicks under the conditions of immunological stress.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Estilbenos/administração & dosagem , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Ocludina/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
J Surg Res ; 246: 52-61, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-density neutrophils (LDN) have been shown to be increased in peripheral blood in patients with various diseases and closely related to immune-mediated pathology. However, the frequency and function of LDN in circulating blood of the patients following abdominal surgery have not been well understood. METHODS: LDN were determined by CD66b(+) cells, which were copurified with mononuclear cells by density gradient preparations of peripheral blood of surgical patients. The effects of the purified LDN on T cell proliferation and tumor cell lysis were examined in vitro. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) production was examined by extracellular nuclear staining. RESULTS: The number of LDN with an immature phenotype is markedly increased in peripheral blood samples in patients after abdominal surgery. The frequency of LDN correlated positively with operative time and intraoperative blood loss. The purified LDN significantly suppressed the proliferation of autologous T cells stimulated with anti-CD3 mAb coated on plate and partially inhibited the cytotoxicity of lymphocytes activated with recombinant interleukin-2 against a human gastric cancer cell, OCUM-1. The LDN also produced NETs after short-term culture in vitro, which efficiently trap many OCUM-1. These results suggest that surgical stress recruits immunosuppressive LDN in the circulation in the early postoperative period. CONCLUSIONS: The LDN may support the lodging of circulating tumor cells via NETs formation and inhibit T cell-mediated antitumor response in target organs, which may promote postoperative cancer metastases. Functional blockade of LDN might be an effective strategy to reduce tumor recurrence after abdominal surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/imunologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Técnicas de Cocultura , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/imunologia , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/imunologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Duração da Cirurgia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
14.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 288: 113360, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830472

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined the mechanism by which neonatal immune stress reduces the sexual behavior of female rats in adulthood. METHODS: Neonatal female rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control (n = 11), postnatal day 10 lipopolysaccharide (PND10LPS) (n = 23), and PND25LPS (n = 11) groups, which received intraperitoneal injections of LPS (100 µg/kg) or saline on PND10 and 25. Daily inspections of the vaginal opening (VO) were performed from PND27 to PND37. Thereafter, the frequency of estrus was assessed for 15 days. Female rats (at 11-12 weeks of age) were placed in a cage with male rats, and their sexual behavior was monitored for 30 min. The hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of factors related to sexual behavior were examined via real-time PCR. RESULTS: VO occurred later and the frequency of estrus was lower in the PND10LPS group compared to the control group. The number of lordosis behaviors and the total number of mounts performed by male partners were lower in the PND10LPS and PND25LPS groups than in the control group. Acceptability: The lordosis quotient and lordosis rating were lower in the PND10LPS group than in the control group. Proceptive behavior: the number of ear wiggling events was lower in the PND10LPS group than in the other groups, and the number of hops/darts was lower in the PND10LPS group than in the control group. The hypothalamic mRNA expression level of progesterone receptors (PR)A + B was lower in the PND10LPS group than in the control group, and the hypothalamic PRB mRNA expression level was lower in the PND10LPS and PND25LPS groups than in the control group. CONCLUSION: Neonatal immune stress impeded sexual behavior and hypothalamic PR mRNA expression in female rats. Decreased progesterone activity in the hypothalamus might explain the reduction in sexual behavior seen in these rats.


Assuntos
Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiopatologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19741, 2019 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874975

RESUMO

Due to increased temperatures and aquaculture density, thermal and hypoxia stresses have become serious problems for the aquaculture of abalone Haliotis diversicolor. Stresses lead to immunosuppression, which can cause severe negative impacts on aquaculture farms. To study the mechanism of immunosuppression after hypoxia stress and bacterial challenge, transcriptomes of H. diversicolor hemocytes involved in immunity were profiled. A total of 307,395,572 clean reads were generated and assembled into 99,774 unigenes. KEGG analysis indicated that 225 unigenes with immunologic function were mapped into immune-related pathways. Expression of 41 unigenes measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed consistent results with that of transcriptome analysis. When exposure challenge of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, it is indicated that the PI3K-AKT, MAPK, NF-κB and P53 signal pathways were involved in the hypoxia-induced immunosuppression of H. diversicolor. Furthermore, when the AKT gene (HdAKT) was inhibited by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), expression levels of HdAKT was lower than the blank and control group in hemocytes at 4 h, 12 h and 24 h (p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hemócitos , Hipóxia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Estresse Fisiológico , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/imunologia , Animais , Gastrópodes/genética , Gastrópodes/imunologia , Gastrópodes/microbiologia , Hemócitos/imunologia , Hemócitos/microbiologia , Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia/imunologia , Hipóxia/microbiologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 95: 180-189, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600595

RESUMO

Low levels of stresses cause eustress while high stressful situations result in distress. Female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was reared under crowded conditions to mimic the stressful environment of intensive fishery production. Trout was stocked for 300 days with initial densities of 4.6 ±â€¯0.02 (final: 31.1 ±â€¯0.62), 6.6 ±â€¯0.03 (final: 40.6 ±â€¯0.77), and 8.6 ±â€¯0.04 (final: 49.3 ±â€¯1.09) kg/m3 as SD1, SD2 and SD3. We assessed molecular, cellular and organismal parameters to understand the flexibility of neuro-endocrine-immune network during stress. Trout with higher initial density (SD3) displayed the slightly activated hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis with positively increased antioxidant enzyme activities and anti-inflammatory cytokine transcriptions on day 60 or 120. These results indicated that low level of stress was capable of exerting eustress by activating neuro-endocrine-immune network with beneficial adaptation. Transition from eustress to distress was induced by the increased intensity and duration of crowding stress on day 240 and 300. The prolonged activation of HPI axis resulted in suppressed growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis, up-regulated cytokine transcriptions and severe reactive oxygen species stress. Stress means reset of neuro-endocrine-immune network with energy expenditure and redistribution. Digestive ability of trout with distress was also inhibited on day 240 and 300, indicating a decreased total energy supplement and energy distribution for functions are not necessary for surviving such as growth and reproduction. Consequently, we observed the dyshomeostasis of energy balance and neuro-endocrine-immune network of trout during long-term crowding conditions.


Assuntos
Aglomeração , Glândulas Endócrinas/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Hipotálamo/imunologia , Hipófise/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4053-4065, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581299

RESUMO

Selection for production traits with little or no emphasis on health-related traits has the potential to increase susceptibility to disease in food-producing animals. A possible genetic strategy to mitigate such effects is to include both production and health traits in the breeding objective when selecting animals. For this to occur, reliable methodologies are required to assess beneficial health traits, such as the immune capacity of animals. We describe here a methodology to assess the immune competence of beef cattle which is both practical to apply on farm and does not restrict the future sale of tested animals. The methodology also accommodates variation in prior vaccination history of cohorts of animals being tested. In the present study, the immune competence phenotype of 1,100 Angus calves was assessed during yard weaning. Genetic parameters associated with immune competence traits were estimated and associations between immune competence, temperament, and stress-coping ability traits were investigated. Results suggested that immune competence traits, related to an animal's ability to mount both antibody and cell-mediated immune responses, are moderately heritable (h2 = 0.32 ± 0.09 and 0.27 ± 0.08, respectively) and favorably genetically correlated with the temperament trait, flight time (r = 0.63 ± 0.31 and 0.60 ± 0.29 with antibody and cell-mediated immune responses, respectively). Development of methodologies to assess the immune competence phenotype of beef cattle is a critical first step in the establishment of genetic selection strategies aimed at improving the general disease resistance of beef herds. Strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of disease in beef cattle are expected to significantly improve animal health and welfare, reduce reliance on the use of antibiotics to treat disease, and reduce disease-associated costs incurred by producers.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/imunologia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Temperamento/fisiologia , Desmame , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética
18.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 31(4): 328-348, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634422

RESUMO

Macrophage aggregates (MAs) are focal accumulations of pigmented macrophages in the spleen and other tissues of fish. A central role of MAs is the clearance and destruction of degenerating cells and recycling of some cellular components. Macrophage aggregates also respond to chemical contaminants and infectious agents and may play a role in the adaptive immune response. Tissue damage or physiological stress can result in increased MA accumulation. As a result, MAs may be sensitive biomarkers of environmental stress in fish. Abundance of MAs in tissues has been reported in a variety of ways-most commonly as density, mean size, and relative area-but the utility of these estimates has not been compared. In this study, four different types of splenic MA abundance estimates (abundance score, density, relative area, and total volume) were compared in two fish populations (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis and White Perch M. americana) with a wide range in ages. Stereological estimates of total volume indicated an increase in MA abundance with spleen volume, which generally corresponded to fish age, and with splenic infections (mycobacteria or trematode parasites). Abundance scores were generally limited in the ability to detect changes in MA abundance by these factors, whereas density estimates were greatly influenced by changes in spleen volume. In some instances, densities declined while the total volume of MAs and spleen volume increased. Experimentally induced acute stress resulted in a decrease in spleen volume and an increase in MA density, although the total volume of MAs remained unchanged. Relative area estimates accounted for the size and number of MAs but not for changes in organ volume. Total volume is an absolute measure of MA abundance irrespective of changes in organ volume or patterns of accumulation and may provide an improved means of quantifying MAs in the spleens of fish.


Assuntos
Bass/imunologia , Técnicas Imunológicas/veterinária , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Baço/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Técnicas Imunológicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Imunológicas/métodos , Masculino , Esplenopatias/imunologia , Esplenopatias/veterinária
20.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222856, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539413

RESUMO

Immune responses have been mostly studied at a specific time in anuran species. However, time-changes related to immunomodulation associated with glucocorticoid (GC) alterations following stressors and GC treatment are complex. The present study describes time-related changes in immune response and corticosterone (CORT) plasma levels following restraint challenge, short, mid and long-term captivity, and CORT exogenous administration by transdermal application (TA) in Rhinella ornata toads. We observed increased neutrophil: lymphocyte ratios after restraint challenge and CORT TA, without changes following short and mid-term captivity. Plasma bacterial killing ability was sustained in all treatments, except long-term captivity, with decreased values after 90 days under such conditions. Phagocytic activity of peritoneal cells increased after mid-term captivity, and the phytohemagglutinin swelling response was impaired in those animals treated with CORT TA for 20 consecutive days. Plasma CORT levels increased or were sustained after restraint challenge (depending on initial values), decreased following mid and long-term captivity (for those animals showing high CORT in the field) and increased after 20 days of CORT TA. By performing assessments of time-changes in immune processes and CORT plasma levels in R. ornata, we demonstrate immuno-enhancing effects following restraint, short and mid-term stressors, while long-term stressors and CORT TA promoted immunosuppression in these toads.


Assuntos
Bufonidae/imunologia , Corticosterona/imunologia , Imunomodulação/imunologia , Restrição Física , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Bufonidae/fisiologia , Corticosterona/administração & dosagem , Corticosterona/sangue , Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Fagócitos/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
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