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1.
Psicol. cienc. prof ; 29(2): 276-289, jun. 2009.
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: psi-44681

RESUMO

A meditação, descrita como uma prática de auto-regulação do corpo e da mente, caracteriza-se por um conjunto de técnicas que treinam a focalização da atenção. Também conhecida como treinamento mental, essa prática constitui uma técnica capaz de produzir efeitos psicossomáticos. Este artigo apresenta a revisão de algumas evidências acerca dos benefícios da meditação e do seu papel na aplicação clínica. Inúmeros estudos vêm mostrando a sua eficácia, que está especialmente relacionada à diminuição dos sintomas ligados ao estresse e à ansiedade. Além disso, as pesquisas revelam que essa prática pode produzir efeitos de curta e longa duração que podem afetar positivamente as funções cognitivas e afetivas. Discutemse aspectos relacionados às definições e às particularidades de cada técnica e aos contextos aos quais pode estar atrelada. Apesar do crescente acúmulo de evidências sobre a relação entre meditação e saúde física e mental, ainda são necessárias mais investigações.(AU)


Meditation, described as a practice of body and mind self-regulation, is characterized by a set of techniques that train the focalization of attention. Also known as a mental training, this practice characterizes a technique capable of producing psychosomatic effects. This paper presents a revision of some evidence on the benefits of meditation and its role for clinical application. A great deal of research has shown its efficacy, especially concerning its association with the reduction of symptoms related to stress and anxiety. Besides that, research has indicated that this practice can produce short and long term effects, affecting positively the cognitive and affective functions. We discuss the aspects related to the definitions and particularities of each technique and the contexts to which meditation can be linked to. Despite growing evidence on the relationship between meditation and physical and mental health, it is still necessary to carry out further investigation.(AU)


La meditación, descrita como una práctica de autorregulación del cuerpo y de la mente, se caracteriza por un conjunto de técnicas que entrenan la focalización de la atención. También conocida como entrenamiento mental, esa práctica constituye una técnica capaz de producir efectos psicosomáticos. Este artículo presenta la revisión de algunas evidencias acerca de los beneficios de la meditación y de su papel en la aplicación clínica. Numerosos estudios vienen mostrando su eficacia, que está especialmente relacionada a la disminución de los síntomas relacionados al estrés y a la ansiedad. Además, las pesquisas revelan que esa práctica puede producir efectos de corta y larga duración que pueden afectar positivamente las funciones cognoscitivas y afectivas. Se discuten aspectos relacionados a las definiciones y a las particularidades de cada técnica y a los contextos a los cuales puede estar unida. A pesar de la creciente acumulación de evidencias sobre la relación entre meditación y salud física y mental, aún son necesarias más averiguaciones.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Meditação , Saúde Mental , Atenção , Estresse Fisiológico/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade
2.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 22(1): 60-68, 2009. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: psi-44411

RESUMO

O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do treino de controle de stress (TCS) em um grupo de pacientes hipertensas. Utilizou-se como critério para avaliação alterações na via L-arginina-óxido nítrico (NO). Participaram do estudo mulheres hipertensas (n=44) e normotensas (n=25), sendo que o TCS em grupo foi administrado em 14 hipertensas, observando-se as mudanças no nível de stress e no transporte da L-arginina. Em hipertensão, o transporte de L-arginina, através do sistema y+L, mostrou-se reduzido, assim como o transporte de L-arginina pelos sistemas y+L e y+ em pacientes hipertensas estressadas quando comparadas com normotensas estressadas. A redução do stress pelo TCS em hipertensas estressadas, restaurou o transporte de L-arginina através do sistema y+ em níveis observados em pacientes hipertensas não-estressadas.(AU)


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of stress management training in a group of hypertensive patients. Alterations of L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway were used as an evaluation criterion. Hypertensive (n=44) and normotensive (n=25) women participated in this study, and the stress management training was performed with a group of 14 hypertensive patients, observing the changes in the stress level and in L-arginine transport. In hypertension, the transport of L-arginine, via system y+, was reduced. Moreover, stressed hypertensive patients had a reduction of L-arginine transport by both systems, y+ and y+L, compared to stressed normotensive patients. The reduction of stress with stress management training in stressed hypertensive patients restored the transport of L-arginine via system y+ to the same levels of non-stressed hypertensive patients.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Fisiológico/prevenção & controle , Arginina , Hipertensão/psicologia
3.
Cultura (Asoc. Docentes Univ. San Martín Porres) ; 26(22): 227-246, dic. 2008. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LIPECS | ID: biblio-1107729

RESUMO

Se realizó un estudio en 117 escolares de secundaria de Lima (65 varones) para determinar si existe relación entre el nivel de la comunicación del adolescente con sus padres y su capacidad de afrontamiento al estrés. Se empleó la Escala de Afrontamiento para Adolescentes (ACS) de Frydenberg & Lewis y la Escala de Comunicación Padres-Adolescente de Barnes &Olson. En ambos géneros, la calidad de la comunicación es mejor con la madre que con el padre. Los varones obtuvieron puntuaciones más altas en el estilo de afrontamiento dirigido a resolver el problema (t=2,059; p<,05) y recurren con mayor frecuencia que las mujeres a las estrategias de invertir en amigos íntimos (t=2,486; p<,05), ignorar el problema (t=2,554, p<,05), reservarlo para sí (t=3,084, p< ,01) y distracción física (t=2,2254, p<,05). La apertura de la comunicación, ya sea con el padre o con la madre, se relaciona positivamente con resolver el problema y esforzarse (p<,05 o p<,01). Algunas otras estrategias se relacionaron también con la apertura o los problemas de la comunicación. En la discusión se enfatiza la asociación entre la calidad de la comunicación padres-adolescentes y el desarrollo en el adolescente de estrategias de afrontamiento dirigidas a la solución del problema.


A study was carried out in 117 (65 males) high school students from Lima, in order to determine whether a relationship exists between the level of communication of adolescents with their parents and their capability to stress coping. They were employed the Frydenberg & Lewis’ Adolescents Coping Scale and the Barnes & Olson’s Parents-Adolescent Communication Scale. In both genders, quality of communication is better with mothers than with fathers. Males obtained higher scores in the coping style oriented to solve problems (t=2,059; p<,05) and they use more frequently than females strategies of invest friends (t=2,486; p<,05), ignore problems (t=2,554, p<,05), leave for themselves (t=3,084, p< ,01) and physical distraction (t=2,2254, p<,05). Opening communication, with father or mother, is positively related with to solve problems and to make an effort (p<,05 o p<,01). Some another strategies was also related to opening or problems of communication. In the discussion it is emphasized that association between the quality o of parent-adolescent communication and the development in adolescents, of coping strategies oriented to solve problems.


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Comunicação , Estresse Fisiológico/prevenção & controle , Estudantes , Relações Pais-Filho , Peru
4.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 22(6): 547-554, nov.-dic. 2008. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-61245

RESUMO

Introducción: Este estudio pretende obtener información sobreel marco sanitario y el entorno psicosocial de la población inmigrantemagrebí en Cataluña, para orientar las actuacionesen planificación y provisión de servicios sociales y de las organizacionesque apoyan a este colectivo.Método: Se utilizó un cuestionario de creación propia queexplora aspectos sanitarios y psicosociales, incluidos los factoresestresores y de apoyo social. La recogida de datos serealizó mediante encuestadores y en lengua árabe.Resultados: Se realizaron 403 entrevistas. La mayoría delos encuestados tenían tarjeta sanitaria y sabían a dónde acudirpara recibir asistencia. Los servicios más utilizados sonlos de atención primaria y urgencias hospitalarias. En atenciónprimaria, casi todos los encuestados reciben explicaciones,pero un 30% no las comprende adecuadamente. Se percibeque los profesionales sanitarios no tienen muy en cuenta lasdiferencias culturales o religiosas. Trabajo, vivienda, alejamientofamiliar y legalización son factores estresores para más de lamitad de esta población. El apoyo social es bajo. Tres cuartaspartes de los encuestados se sienten solos. Más de la mitadde esta población ve cumplidas total o parcialmente sus expectativasmigratorias y un 11% considera estar peor.Conclusiones: Las principales áreas de acción pasan por reforzarla información sobre condiciones de acceso al sistemasanitario, fomentar la interacción social y el asociacionismoentre los inmigrantes, especialmente durante las primeras fasesdel proceso migratorio, y facilitar las actividades religiosas. Pareceimportante formar a los profesionales sanitarios sobrelas culturas de origen(AU)


Introduction: The aim of this study was to gather informationon the healthcare background and social environment ofthe Maghrebian immigrant population in Catalonia in order toguide the management and provision of social services andthe work of the organizations supporting this collective.Methods: To gather data, we used a questionnaire exploringhealthcare and social variables, including stressors and socialsupport. Data collection was performed by pollsters in Arabic.Results: We performed 403 interviews. Most interviewees hada health card providing access to public healthcare and knewwhere to access healthcare. The most frequently used serviceswere primary care and emergency departments. In primarycare, almost all of the interviewees were provided explanations,but 30% were unable to understand them properly.Health professionals seemed to have inadequate awarenessof cultural and religious differences. Work, housing, distancefrom the family, and legal status were stressful factors for morethan half of this population. Social support was low. Three quartersof the interviewees felt lonely. More than half of this populationhad completely or partially fulfilled their expectationsof migration, while 11% felt they were in a worse situation.Conclusions: The main areas for improvement are the provisionof information on conditions of healthcare access, promotionof social interaction, the use of associations for immigrants—especially during the first phases of the migrationprocess— and facilitating religious activities. Health professionalsshould be provided with training in intercultural issues(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Impacto Psicossocial , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/psicologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Fisiológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários/classificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Enquete Socioeconômica
6.
Rev Med Suisse ; 4(171): 2001-4, 2008 Sep 17.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18847134

RESUMO

Fast track (FT) surgery is a multimodal concept aiming to reduce postoperative pain and stress-induced organ dysfunction. Key elements are perioperative fluid restriction, epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and early mobilization. Therefore, multidisciplinary teamwork is required in order to obtain the optimal outcome of reduced postoperative complications and a hospital stay of only three or four days after open colectomy. Most of the patients undergoing colorectal surgery qualify for FT surgery. Meanwhile, FT principles are applied in a variety of open and laparoscopic procedures. The aim of this review is to highlight the principles of FT and to answer the question why FT surgery should nowadays be considered as standard care.


Assuntos
Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Humanos , Monitorização Intraoperatória , Período Pós-Operatório , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estresse Fisiológico/etiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/reabilitação
9.
Harefuah ; 147(6): 543-6, 573, 572, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18693633

RESUMO

Peri-operative surgical stress (SS) is characterized by increased secretion of pituitary hormones and sympathetic activation and is correlated with changed blood levels of stress hormones and metabolites. Adverse effects of perioperative stress include mortality and morbidity and a negative nitrogen balance. Although peri-operative analgesia and stress response-free period are commonly considered as synonyms, pain seems not to be the only factor determining the hormonal-metabolic response to surgery. Other factors playing a role in the creation of SS in newborns include blood loss, site of surgery, superficial and visceral trauma, surgery duration, hypothermia, infection, prematurity and factors related to cardiac surgery. Potent semi-synthetic opioids attenuate the SS better than morphine. However, supplementation of general anesthesia (GA) with local anesthetics either by way of regional or local anesthesia seems to decrease SS more effectively than GA with IV opioids. Hemodynamic monitoring may not suffice for SS or analgesia quality estimation. The most accessible laboratory measure for the monitoring of the stress response for non-cardiac surgery and pre-bypass phase of cardiac surgery may be blood glucose. Blood glucose increases with stress and when analgesia is inadequate; it is easily measured and treated almost immediately once an excessive response is identified. This individualized approach and real-time feedback may be far better than using either excessive opioid doses (hoping to ablate stress response) or minimal opioid dosages.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estresse Fisiológico/etiologia , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estresse Fisiológico/prevenção & controle
10.
PLoS One ; 3(8): e2943, 2008 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18698405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distance running performance is a viable model of human locomotion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the physiologic strain during competitions ranging from 5-100 km, we evaluated heart rate (HR) records of competitive runners (n = 211). We found evidence that: 1) physiologic strain (% of maximum HR (%HRmax)) increased in proportional manner relative to distance completed, and was regulated by variations in running pace; 2) the %HRmax achieved decreased with relative distance; 3) slower runners had similar %HRmax response within a racing distance compared to faster runners, and despite differences in pace, the profile of %HRmax during a race was very similar in runners of differing ability; and 4) in cases where there was a discontinuity in the running performance, there was evidence that physiologic effort was maintained for some time even after the pace had decreased. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The overall results suggest that athletes are actively regulating their relative physiologic strain during competition, although there is evidence of poor regulation in the case of competitive failures.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida , Esportes , Estresse Fisiológico/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Altitude , Homeostase , Humanos , Umidade , Masculino
11.
Ann Fr Anesth Reanim ; 27(7-8): 604-10, 2008.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18585000

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the role of sedation and myorelaxant agents in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and to propose an updated management according to recent literature. EXTRACTION OF DATA: From Medline and Cochrane database of English and French language articles. Keywords were: acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute lung injury, general anaesthetics, inhalation, intravenous anaesthetics and intensive care. Selection of original articles, reviews and expert reports. Case reports have been included. TOPIC: ARDS is a clinical picture in which respiratory constraints are major because of hypoxemia. To insure correct haematosis, mechanical ventilation has to be considered. It constitutes, then, the most frequent indication of sedation in the intensive care unit. The objectives are to help the ventilation of lungs and to improve gas exchange, by controlling agitation, fight against ventilation and to reduce mechanical ventilation associated injuries. In this situation, use of myorelaxant agents is aimed at facilitating synchronization of the patient with his/her ventilator and serves to improve oxygenation during the early inflammatory phase of ARDS. Several mechanisms may enflame this improvement of oxygenation. One of the most probable effect on optimization is the possibility of optimize protective ventilation at the cares phase of ARDS and to reduce mechanical ventilation-associated injuries. CONCLUSION: With regard to benefits and inconvenient, sedation is considered as a treatment of ARDS. Its goals are the well being of patient and his/her adaptation to ventilator, but also the prevention on mechanical ventilation associated injuries. Hence, most authors suggest using a deep sedation at the early phase of ARDS. In this contact, use of myorelaxant agent is an intersecting adjuvant if sedation is not enough. The benefit is terms of survival and outcome remains to show.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Sedação Profunda/métodos , /terapia , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/uso terapêutico , Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuromusculares/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuromusculares/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , /fisiopatologia , Estresse Fisiológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Fisiológico/etiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/prevenção & controle
13.
Altern Med Rev ; 13(2): 85-115, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18590347

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease, AD, is the most common form of dementia. AD initially targets memory and progressively destroys the mind. The brain atrophies as the neocortex suffers neuronal, synaptic, and dendritic losses, and the hallmark amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles proliferate. Pharmacological management, at best, is palliative and transiently effective, with marked adverse effects. Certain nutrients intrinsic to human biochemistry (orthomolecules) match or exceed pharmacological drug benefits in double-blind, randomized, controlled trials, with superior safety. Early intervention is feasible because its heritability is typically minimal and pathological deterioration is detectable years prior to diagnosis. The syndrome amnestic mild cognitive impairment exhibits AD pathology and to date has frustrated attempts at intervention. The condition age-associated memory impairment is a nonpathological extreme of normal brain aging, but with less severe cognitive impairment than amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Age-associated memory impairment is a feasible target for early intervention against AD, beginning with the modifiable AD risk factors - smoking, hypertension, homocysteine, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and obesity. Stress reduction, avoidance of toxins, and mental and physical exercise are important aspects of prevention. The diet should emphasize omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid; flavonoids and other antioxidant nutrients; and B vitamins, especially folate, B6 and B12. Dietary supplementation is best focused on those proven from randomized, controlled trials: the phospholipids phosphatidylserine and glycerophosphocholine, the energy nutrient acetyl-L-carnitine, vitamins C and E, and other antioxidants. A comprehensive integrative strategy initiated early in cognitive decline is the most pragmatic approach to controlling progression to Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Amnésia/complicações , Amnésia/diagnóstico , Amnésia/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/complicações , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Fisiológico/prevenção & controle
14.
Vet Rec ; 163(3): 73-80, 2008 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18641375

RESUMO

This study was designed to determine the potential value of dog-appeasing pheromone (dap) in reducing stress in puppies newly adopted from a pet shop. The trial was triple-blinded and placebo-controlled. After their arrival at the pet shop, 32 puppies were fitted with a dap collar and 34 were fitted with a control collar, according to a randomisation protocol. Adopting owners were contacted by telephone, three and 15 days after they had adopted a puppy, to obtain information about the puppy's integration into the family, and particularly about any signs of distress shown by the puppy when it was socially isolated. All the isolated puppies from the control group vocalised during the first night. Signs of distress, particularly vocalisation, were significantly lower in the dap group on day 3 and throughout the rest of the study, and vocalisation during the night ceased significantly sooner in this group. These differences were observed in puppies of small, medium and large breeds. The dap collars had no effect on the incidence of house soiling.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feromônios/farmacologia , Isolamento Social , Estresse Fisiológico/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Estresse Fisiológico/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J UOEH ; 30(2): 215-9, 2008 Jun 01.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18655549

RESUMO

Commuting transportation is one of the important factors in the administration of safety management in industries. Most workers commute to work by car and are certain to make use of highways, mainly because of the special condition of factory locations. In this study, we investigated the effect of communicating by car on the health of factory workers. The proportion of males was significantly higher in the highway (HW) group than in the non-highway (NHW) group, and the former was younger than the latter. BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol deteriorated significantly in the NHW group after 5-year periodic medical checkups. However, in the HW group, those factors did not change except for systolic blood pressure and significant improvements in triglyceride. The percentage of those who follow a good lifestyle regarding excise and nutrition, and have a solution for stress, was lower in the HW group than in the NHW group. Nevertheless, the percentage of those who did not feel stress was significantly higher in the HW group than in the NHW group, suggesting a stress-relieving effect of highway driving. Highway driving might have an unexpectedly good impact on the health of factory workers.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Saúde do Trabalhador , Gestão da Segurança , Estresse Fisiológico/prevenção & controle , Transportes/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Rev. adm. sanit. siglo XXI ; 6(3): 513-524, jul. 2008.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-69198

RESUMO

Hoy día tenemos suficientes evidencias de que la exposición mantenida a ambientes psicosocialesadversos en el trabajo provoca reacciones sostenidas de estrés con nefastas consecuenciaspara la salud. Un gran número de enfermedades se han relacionado con la exposición a tales condicionespsicosociales adversas (sobre todo cardiovasculares, musculoesqueléticas y mentales). Lainvestigación del estrés relacionado con el ambiente laboral desfavorable difiere sustancialmentede la investigación biomédica tradicional de las enfermedades profesionales, y precisa definir conceptosteóricos para delimitar las características laborales estresantes y, a continuación, trasladartales conceptos a medidas, con la ayuda de métodos selectivos de investigación psicológica ysociológica (cuestionarios, técnicas de observación, etc). Entre los modelos teóricos desarrolladosmerecen especial atención el modelo “demanda-control”, el modelo “desequilibrio esfuerzo-recompensa”y el modelo “justicia organizativa”. En este artículo se describen las características más importantesde tales modelos y se discuten las implicaciones políticas subsiguientes orientadas a la promociónde la salud en el puesto de trabajo


Currently there is sufficient evidence that maintained exposure to psychosocial factors at workmay cause sustained reactions of stress with devastating consequences for ones health. Many diseaseshave been related to adverse psychosocial conditions in the workplace (above all coronary heartdiseases, musculoskeletal disorders, and mental illness).There have been several different approachesto measurement of work stress and, more recently, research has tended to focus on a few explicittheoretical concepts.Among these, the model of job demand-control, effort-reward imbalance and organizationaljustice model have received special attention. These theoretical concepts are operationalizedusing standardized methods of social and behavioral sciences (e.g. structured interviews, systematicobservation, standardized questionnaires (so called paper and pencil tests))This article describes the most important characteristics of the models mentioned above and thepolicy implications of the findings for improved worksite health promotion are discussed


Assuntos
Trabalho/ética , Trabalho/psicologia , Trabalho/tendências , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/métodos , Eficiência , Eficiência Organizacional/normas , Eficiência Organizacional/tendências , Trabalho/história , Emprego/história , Emprego/organização & administração , Impacto Psicossocial , Estresse Fisiológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração
17.
Clin Obstet Gynecol ; 51(2): 349-59, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18463465

RESUMO

Studies have indicated that various societal factors such as toxicant exposure, maternal habits, occupational hazards, psychosocial factors, socioeconomic status, racial disparity, chronic stress, and infection may impact pregnancy outcomes. These outcomes include spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, alterations in the development of the fetus, and long-term health of offspring. Although much is known about individual pregnancy outcomes, little is known about the associations between societal factors and pregnancy outcomes. This manuscript reviews some of the literature available on the effects of the above-mentioned societal factors on pregnancy outcomes and examines some potential remedies for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes in the future.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Pobreza , Resultado da Gravidez , Estresse Fisiológico/complicações , Aborto Espontâneo/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Estilo de Vida , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Classe Social , Estresse Fisiológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/prevenção & controle
18.
Can Fam Physician ; 54(5): 722-9, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18474706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the dimensions of family physician resilience. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with family physician peers. SETTING: Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Purposive sample of 17 family physicians. METHOD: An iterative process of face-to-face, in-depth interviews that were audiotaped and transcribed. The research team independently reviewed each interview for emergent themes with consensus reached through discussion and comparison. Themes were grouped into conceptual categories. MAIN FINDINGS: Four main aspects of physician resilience were identified: 1) attitudes and perspectives, which include valuing the physician role, maintaining interest, developing self-awareness, and accepting personal limitations; 2) balance and prioritization, which include setting limits, taking effective approaches to continuing professional development, and honouring the self;3) practice management style, which includes sound business management, having good staff, and using effective practice arrangements; and 4) supportive relations, which include positive personal relationships, effective professional relationships, and good communication. CONCLUSION: Resilience is a dynamic, evolving process of positive attitudes and effective strategies.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/organização & administração , Médicos de Família/psicologia , Apoio Social , Estresse Fisiológico/prevenção & controle , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Prática de Grupo/organização & administração , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Ontário , Recursos Humanos
19.
Pediatrics ; 121(5): e1267-78, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18450869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Screening examination for retinopathy of prematurity is distressing and painful. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program intervention during a retinopathy of prematurity examination results in less adverse behavioral, pain, and stress responses as compared with standard care. METHODS: The first 2 eye examinations in 36 preterm infants were evaluated. The infants were randomly assigned at the first eye examination to receive either Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program care or standard care. At the second examination, crossover of subject assignment was performed. The assessments included behavioral responses; recordings of heart rate, respiration, and oxygenation; pain scores (premature infant pain profile); and salivary cortisol at defined time points up to 4 hours after the eye examination. The nursing support given during the eye examinations (intervention score) were scored using predefined criteria. RESULTS: Altogether, 68 examinations were evaluated. Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program care was associated with better behavioral scores during the examination but there was no difference in heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygenation, or premature infant pain profile score between the 2 care strategies before or after the eye examination. Salivary cortisol increased from baseline to 30 minutes after the eye examination independent of care strategy and decreased significantly between 30 and 60 minutes when infants were subjected to Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program care but not after standard care. During the study period the intervention score for standard care increased and approached the score for Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program care at the later eye examinations. CONCLUSION: A Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program-based intervention during eye examination does not decrease pain responses but results in faster recovery, as measured by lower salivary cortisol 60 minutes after the examination. The differences were seen despite the influence from the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program intervention on the standard care treatment that occurred during the study period.


Assuntos
Triagem Neonatal/efeitos adversos , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Estresse Fisiológico/etiologia , Seleção Visual/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Comportamento do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Midriáticos/administração & dosagem , Midriáticos/efeitos adversos , Oxigênio/sangue , Medição da Dor , Respiração , Saliva/química , Estresse Fisiológico/prevenção & controle
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