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1.
Gene ; 806: 145920, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455026

RESUMO

Depression is deemed a mood disorder characterized by a high rate of relapse. Therefore, overcoming of the recurrent depression is globally expecting. Kososan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, has been clinically used for mild depressive mood, and our previous studies have shown some evidence for its antidepressive-like efficacy in experimental animal models of depression. However, it remains unclear whether kososan has beneficial effects on recurrent depression. Here, we examined its effect using a mouse model of modified repeated social defeat stress (SDS) paradigm. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to a 5-min SDS from unfamiliar aggressive CD-1 mice for 5 days. Kososan extract (1.0 kg/kg/day) or an antidepressant milnacipran (60 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 26 days (days 7-32) to depression-like mice with social avoidant behaviors on day 6. Single 5 min of SDS was subjected to mice recovered from the social avoidance on day 31, and then the recurrence of depression-like behaviors was evaluated on day 32. Hippocampal gene expression patterns were also assayed by DNA microarray analysis. Water- or milnacipran-administered mice resulted in a recurrence of depression-like behaviors by re-exposure of single SDS, whereas kososan-administered mice did not recur depression-like behaviors. Distinct gene expression patterns were also found for treating kososan and milnacipran. Collectively, this finding suggests that kososan exerts a preventive effect on recurrent depression-like behaviors in mice. Pretreatment of kososan is more useful for recurrent depression than that of milnacipran.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Derrota Social , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Depressão/genética , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Japão , Masculino , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Milnaciprano/farmacologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/classificação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Recidiva , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211322, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1254256

RESUMO

Mood disorders such as stress and depression can promote alterations of several hormones Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate if symptoms of depression and stress are associated with halitosis. The hypothesis is that halitosis is associated with stress and depression symptoms. Methods: All university students' entrants in the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel) were invited to participate. Self-reported halitosis was measured using a visual analog scale. Students were also asked about the presence of halitosis perceived by close individuals. The stress level was measured using a modified version of the Perceived Stress Scale and symptoms of depression were screened by Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Poisson Regression Models were performed. Results: Of a total of 2,058 students who participated in the study, only 16% of them have reported not having any degree of halitosis and 17.6% were informed of closed individuals having halitosis. After adjustments, stress and depression symptoms remained associated with halitosis selfreported. Individuals from the higher stressed quartile presented higher scores of halitosis (RR 1.37 CI95% [1.24­1.53]). Students who presented depressive symptoms showed higher scores of self-perceived halitosis (RR 1.20 CI95% [1.10­1.32]). When the association of stress and halitosis reported by close individuals was tested, symptoms of depression lost the association in the adjusted model, while individuals from the highest quartile from stress remained associated (PR 1.36 CI95% [1.02­1.81]). Conclusion: Halitosis was associated with stress even after control for oral health and socioeconomic variables


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estresse Psicológico , Depressão , Halitose
3.
Nurs Open ; 8(3): 1157-1167, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482657

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effect of a supportive program on coping strategies and stress in women with breast cancer. DESIGN: A randomized, two-armed, controlled trial. METHODS: Sixty women were randomly allocated to intervention group (N = 30) and control group (N = 30). The interventions were held in six sessions, weekly from August 2018-March 2019 It was consisting of education regarding breast cancer; progressive muscle relaxation; stress management; emotional coping; and problem-solving strategies. RESULTS: At baseline, there was no difference between the two groups regarding the mean score of coping strategies and stress. Supportive program group participants experienced a significantly higher increase on their problem-oriented coping strategies score in comparison with the control group. At the same time, scores in emotion-oriented coping strategies and stress decreased significantly in the intervention group compared with the control group. Result of this study can be used to develop relevant interventions targeting coping strategies to reduce stress among women with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adaptação Psicológica , Treinamento Autógeno , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas , Estresse Psicológico
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 437, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An internal locus of control (LoC I) refers to the belief that the outcome of events in one's life is contingent upon one's actions, whereas an external locus of control (LoC E) describes the belief that chance and powerful others control one's life. This study investigated whether LoC I and LoC E moderated the relationship between COVID-19 stress and general mental distress in the general population during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey study analysed data from a Norwegian (n = 1225) and a German-speaking sample (n = 1527). We measured LoC with the Locus of Control-4 Scale (IE-4), COVID-19 stress with a scale developed for this purpose, and mental distress with the Patient Health Questionnaire 4 (PHQ-4). Moderation analyses were conducted using the PROCESS macro for SPSS. RESULTS: The association between COVID-19 stress and general mental distress was strong (r = .61 and r = .55 for the Norwegian and the German-speaking sample, respectively). In both samples, LoC showed substantial moderation effects. LoC I served as a buffer (p < .001), and LoC E exacerbated (p < .001) the relation between COVID-19 stress and general mental distress. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic is easier to bear for people who, despite pandemic-related strains, feel that they generally have influence over their own lives. An external locus of control, conversely, is associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. The prevention of mental distress may be supported by enabling a sense of control through citizen participation in policy decisions and transparent explanation in their implementation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle Interno-Externo , Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico
5.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(9): e636-e640, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine how the mismatch between telecommuting preference and telecommuting frequency was associated with psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data from 33,302 workers throughout Japan were obtained using an Internet survey. Among 33,302 participants, 20,395 who telecommuted were included in the analysis. Participants' telecommuting preference and frequency during the COVID-19 pandemic were determined using a questionnaire. Psychological distress was assessed using Kessler 6 (K6). RESULTS: Among participants who did and did not prefer to telecommute, those who telecommuted four or more days per week had an OR of psychological distress of 0.67 (P < 0.001) and 1.87 (P = 0.001), respectively, compared with those who rarely telecommuted. CONCLUSIONS: The association between telecommuting and psychological distress differs depending on telecommuting preference.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Angústia Psicológica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Teletrabalho
6.
Bull Menninger Clin ; 85(3): 254-270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468214

RESUMO

Sleep problems among frontline medical staff during the COVID-19 epidemic require attention. A total of 249 frontline medical staff who were recruited to support Wuhan completed this cross-sectional study. A web-based questionnaire about insomnia, depression, anxiety, and fatigue was used to assess mental health status. The prevalence of sleep disorders among frontline medical staff was 50.6%. More time spent in Wuhan and a history of insomnia, depression, anxiety, and fatigue were associated with a higher risk of insomnia. People who stayed in Wuhan for a long time with a history of insomnia, depression, anxiety, and fatigue symptoms might be at high risk of insomnia.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/psicologia , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adulto , China , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17595, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475457

RESUMO

Pandemics such as the Covid-19 pandemic have shown to impact our physical and mental well-being, with particular challenges for children and families. We describe data from 43 adults (31♀, ages = 22-51; 21 mothers) and 26 children (10♀, ages = 7-17 years) including pre-pandemic brain function and seven assessment points during the first months of the pandemic. We investigated (1) changes in child and adult well-being, (2) mother-child associations of mental well-being, and (3) associations between pre-pandemic brain activation during mentalizing and later fears or burden. In adults the prevalence of clinically significant anxiety-levels was 34.88% and subthreshold depression 32.56%. Caregiver burden in parents was moderately elevated. Overall, scores of depression, anxiety, and caregiver burden decreased across the 11 weeks after Covid-19-onset. Children's behavioral and emotional problems during Covid-19 did not significantly differ from pre-pandemic levels and decreased during restrictions. Mothers' subjective burden of care was associated with children's emotional and behavioral problems, while depression levels in mothers were related to children's mood. Furthermore, meeting friends was a significant predictor of children's mood during early restrictions. Pre-pandemic neural correlates of mentalizing in prefrontal regions preceded later development of fear of illnesses and viruses in all participants, while temporoparietal activation preceded higher subjective burden in mothers.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , COVID-19 , Depressão , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico por imagem , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 444, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little data exists regarding depression and its associated factors in medical residents and doctors in Sub-Saharan Africa. Residents are at high risk of developing depression owing to the stressful nature of their medical practice and academic training. Depression in medical residents leads to decreased clinical efficiency, and poor academic performance; it can also lead to substance abuse and suicide. Our primary aim was to measure depression prevalence among medical residents in Kenya's largest national teaching and referral hospital. Secondary aims were to describe how depression was associated with perceived stress, perceived social support, substance use, and educational environment. METHODS: We sampled 338 residents belonging to 8 different specialties using self administered questionnaires in this cross-sectional survey between October 2019 and February 2020. Questionnaires included: sociodemographics, the Centres for Epidemiology Depression Scale - Revised, Perceived Stress Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test, and Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression were used to assess for risk factors for depression. RESULTS: Mean participant age was 31.8 years and 53.4% were males. Most residents (70.4%) reported no to mild depressive symptoms, 12.7% had moderate, and 16.9% had severe depressive symptoms. Most residents had high social support (71.8%) and moderate stress (61.6%). The educational environment was rated as more positive than negative by 46.3% of residents. Bivariate analyses revealed significant correlations between depressive symptoms, perceived stress, substance use, perceived social support, and educational environment. Multivariate analysis showed that depression was strongly associated with: fewer hours of sleep (ß = - 0.683, p = 0.002), high perceived stress (ß = 0.709, p < 0.001) and low perceived social support (ß = - 2.19, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Only 30% of medical residents in our study had moderate and severe depressive symptoms. Most residents in our study reported high levels of social support, and moderate levels of stress. Though their overall appraisal of medical residency experience was positive, mental health support and self-care skills in the training of medical professionals needs prioritization.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Faculdades de Medicina , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Korean J Med Educ ; 33(3): 203-213, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474527

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health crisis that has impacted daily life due to the policies created to contain the outbreak. Recent studies showed that medical students, a high-stress population, experienced deteriorated mental well-being during the pandemic. The aim of the present study was to assess stress and the need for support among Thai medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic, as a multicenter study. METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study which collected data from second through sixth year medical students. Data was collected during the pandemic from multiple medical schools spanning all six regions of Thailand. Questionnaires included: demographic data; the Thai version of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (T-PSS-10) assessing stress level and the sources of stress; and the received supports from medical schools, the satisfaction with the supports, and the further necessary needs. RESULTS: There were 1,395 medical students who responded to the questionnaires. Mean T-PSS-10 score was 17.8. Most of the sources of stress were related to the changing of teaching and evaluation system. Students residing in larger medical schools were significantly more satisfied with received support and tended to gain greater support than those in medium and small sized schools. Stress-relieving activities arrangement was considered the most sought after additional support by students. CONCLUSION: Medical student stress levels were higher during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic levels. Stress relieving activities, availability and access to mental health resources, and other strategies to reduce stress among medical students are urgently needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501747

RESUMO

COVID-19 has impacted people psychologically globally, including healthcare providers. Anxiety, depression, and stress are the most common impacts that have affected these people. Thus, this study was aimed to ascertain the estimated prevalence of psychological impacts among healthcare providers in the Asian region. A systematic search was performed in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Scopus databases for original research articles published between 2020 and April 2021. Only studies published in English were included. The quality of data was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis, and the analysis was performed using generic inverse variance with a random-effects model by Review Manager software. A total of 80 studies across 18 countries in Asia region were pooled to assess the data prevalence on anxiety (34.81% (95% CI: 30.80%, 38.83%)), depression (34.61% (95% CI: 30.87%, 38.36%)), stress (31.72% (95% CI: 21.25%, 42.18%)), insomnia (37.89% (95% CI: 25.43%, 50.35%)), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15.29% (95% CI: 11.43%, 19.15%)). Subgroup analyses were conducted across regions, type of healthcare providers, sex, and occupation. This review has identified a high prevalence of anxiety, depression, stress, and insomnia but a low prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among healthcare providers in Asia regions. Effective intervention support programs are urgently needed to improve psychological health of healthcare providers and maintaining the health system.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
11.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(238): 580-584, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508398

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies among health care workers from different part of world during the coronavirus disease 19 pandemic have reported substantial impact on their physical, mental and emotional well-being. This study measured the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on the mental health of Nepali healthcare workers in different parts of the world during the pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was carried out from December 25, 2020 to Jan 25, 2021. Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Review Committee (reference number: 372). Online questionnaire including demographic profiles and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21 instrument were sent to Nepali healthcare workers around the world through social media apps using convenience sampling. Data were entered into Microsoft Excel for Mac version 16.49 and analysed. RESULTS: Among 208 who participated in the study, 62 (30%) participants were positive for anxiety, 47 (22.5%) for depression and 25 (12%) for stress. Higher prevalence of depression 18 (30%) and stress 10 (17%) was found in nurses compared to paramedics, among whom depression was seen in 5 (20%) and stress in 4 (16%). Among doctors, depression was found in 24 (19%) and stress in 11 (9%). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that a high proportion of healthcare workers were suffering from depression, anxiety and stress. Our findings are similar to the data from other national and international studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
12.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(3): 349-352, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468595

RESUMO

Stress and burnout can result in errors, reduction in patient safety, and decreased productivity. They can cause absenteeism, depression, destructive behavior, alcohol, drug abuse, and even suicide. Several factors lead to professional stress, many of which are out of one's control, thus making intervention impossible. Physicians often neglect their health and ignore stress and burnout. They often deny the existence of stress as a way of adapting to it, which is an ineffective method of coping with this problem that can lead to negative coping strategies. For managing stress and burnout, it is paramount to recognize situations/conditions that may trigger them, identify their signs, and invest in well-being strategies. In this article, well-being promotion is addressed with a focus on strategies that can be used at the individual level. Topics such as stress management and resilience should be valued in medical training and profession. As long as they form a part of the "hidden curriculum", well-being will continue to be undervalued, when in fact it should be seen as fundamental to the health of professionals and patients.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Estresse Ocupacional , Médicos , Adaptação Psicológica , Esgotamento Psicológico , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico
13.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3468, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to assess if changes in salivary alpha-amylase activity are associated with anxiety and stress among hospital nursing professionals and whether anxiety and stress are associated with sociodemographic, epidemiological, and occupational factors. METHOD: cross-sectional, quantitative study, carried out with 210 nursing professionals from a hospital. For data collection, we used a questionnaire to characterize workers, Beck's Anxiety Inventory, Lipp's Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults and samples and saliva samples collected in work shifts. The data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially using the software Statistical Package for the Social Science and GraphPad Prism. RESULTS: most professionals experienced stress and anxiety. The variables age group, number of children, use of medication and workload were associated with anxiety; age group, smoking and medication use were associated with stress. An increase in the salivary alpha-amylase activity was observed in the middle of the work shift. Professionals who had stress and anxiety had significant changes in alpha-amylase in the night shift. CONCLUSION: changes in salivary alpha-amylase were associated with anxiety and stress among nursing professionals, indicating that this enzyme can be a possible biomarker of anxiety and stress in workers.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , alfa-Amilases Salivares , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Saliva , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
14.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(6): 541-558, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519620

RESUMO

The manualized focused infant/toddler-parent psychotherapy fSKEPT is a psychodynamic focal treatment of early childhood regulatory disorders, in which either a conflict-related or a personality functioning-related treatment focus is carried out. The aim of the study is to review the effectiveness of fSKEPT depending on two different therapeutic treatment focuses. For this purpose, n = 81 families who received fSKEPT were examined as part of secondary analyzes of a randomized controlled study. The therapeutic treatment focus did not predict the effectiveness for any of the examined target criteria (maternal psychological stress F(1,70) = 0.71, p = .401, maternal depression F(1,70) = 0.18, p = .678, infant regulatory symptoms F(1,70) = 0.11, p = .753, maternal self-efficacy F(1,70) = 0.038, p = .847, maternal reflective functioning F(1,50) = 0.56, p = .458). In a subsample of n = 33 families (40 % of the total sample) we tested whether the therapeutic interventions used in the therapy correspond to the treatment focus of the therapists. No significant difference was found between personality functioning-specific interventions (t(28) = 1.71, p = .099) and unspecific interventions (t(28) = 1.77, p = .087) when comparing the two treatment focus groups. In the conflict focus group significantly more conflict-specific interventions were used (t(28) = 2,71, p = .011). The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the focus concept of the fSKEPT treatment. The focus and the flexible individual adaptation of the interventions in the course of the treatment may help offering parents with different psychological vulnerabilities and ressources an equally effective treatment. In addition, the relevance of unspecific interventions and relationship-promoting aspects of the treatment are discussed.


Assuntos
Pais , Psicoterapia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos da Personalidade , Estresse Psicológico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20200422, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the occupational injuries and psychological support received by nurses and to investigate the relationship between the two. METHOD: This was a nation-wide cross-sectional study of nurses working across 1858 hospitals in China. Data were collected using an online structured, self-administered questionnaire between 2016 and 2017. RESULTS: Nearly half of respondents had experienced aggressive behavior from patients or their attendants; 13.4% respondents had experienced aggressive behavior on more than three occasions. 78.96% respondents had experienced needle-stick injuries and 51.22% had experienced psychological trauma. 20.5% respondents believed that hospitals do not pay any attention to occupational safety. 86.1% respondents expressed the need for little or moderate psychological support. Nurses who had experienced aggressive behavior expressed a greater need for psychological support. Nurses working at hospitals that adequately addressed the occupational safety issues expressed the lowest need for psychological support. CONCLUSION: We found a high prevalence of psychological stress and occupational injuries among nurses. Nursing managers need to address this issue and implement interventions to prevent and reduce injuries.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Traumatismos Ocupacionais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Psychol Aging ; 36(6): 752-766, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516176

RESUMO

Views on aging (VoA) are meaningful predictors of well-being, health, cognitive impairment, and mortality. One underlying pathway could be that negative VoA promote perceived stress. However, little is known about the role of stress perceptions as an antecedent of personal VoA. In this study, we therefore investigated the longitudinal reciprocal association between perceived stress and three established constructs representing personal VoA: (a) subjective age; (b) attitude toward own aging (ATOA); and (c) aging-related cognitions comprising social loss, physical decline, and continuous growth. We also examined whether these associations are moderated by chronological age. Two adjacent measurement occasions (2014 and 2017) of the German Ageing Survey with 4,588 individuals aged between 40 and 95 years were analyzed. Cross-lagged models controlling for VoA and perceived stress at baseline, chronological age, subjective health, depressive symptoms, education, gender, region of residence, and year of individual study entry revealed significant reciprocal longitudinal relations between VoA and perceived stress. For three of the five VoA indicators, the pathway from perceived stress to subsequent VoA was of the same magnitude as the reversed pathway. With increasing chronological age, ATOA was less strongly associated with subsequent stress perceptions. Moreover, the impact of higher perceived stress on an older subjective age was weaker with advancing age. In conclusion, the trend in prior subjective aging research to conceptualize stress in midlife and old age exclusively as a consequence of VoA needs reconsideration, as higher perceived stress levels also seem to be a risk factor for less favorable personal VoA. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Atitude , Cognição , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 688462, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540782

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting lockdowns have had a disproportionate impact on parents of children under 18, particularly women. Mandatory school closures and loss of childcare resulted in parents balancing work, teaching, and childcare needs. A number of studies have examined changes in mental health of parents, but to date no studies have compared the differences in stress and anxiety levels between women with and without children in the United States. Adult women from the Washington State Twin Registry (WSTR) (N = 1,014, pair N = 529) and mothers of twin children enrolled in the WSTR (N = 147) completed an online survey examining several health-related behaviors and outcomes and their self-reported changes due to COVID-19. We conducted two studies to examine the impact of children on stress and anxiety levels among women. In study 1, we assessed whether women living in households with children under the age of 18 have higher levels of stress and anxiety than those without children in their household. We found that perceived stress levels did not differ between women with and without children in the household, but anxiety levels were higher among women living with children than those without. In study 2, we assessed whether the correlation between children in the household and stress/anxiety is accounted for by non-random genetic and environmental selection effects, causal processes, or both using a sample of adult female twins. We found that the presence of children in the household was associated with higher levels of stress and anxiety. However, this association is confounded by genetic and shared environmental factors. Our findings highlight the need to provide supporting resources to women living with children in the household during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 31(3): 573-580, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483614

RESUMO

Background: Medical students often experience chronic stress. Self-esteem is one of the most important factors in the process of psychosocial growth and has remarkable effect on thoughts, feelings, values, and goals. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of low self-esteem (LSE) and mental distress among Medical Students of Jimma University. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Jimma University from June to July, 2018. Self-esteem was measured with Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Self-administered Short form with General Health Questionnaire was used to assess presence of mental distress. Result: Out of 422 students enrolled to the study, 279 (66.1%) were male, and 413 (97.9 %) were 18 to 25 years of age. The prevalence of LSE and mental distress were 19.0%, and 19.7 %, respectively. Students who had LSE had 5 times higher risk of having mental distress, AOR= 5.1 (95% CI, 2.9-8.9). Moreover, female students had higher risk of developing mental distress (AOR=1.9, 95% CI, 1.1-3.3). Students who had poor social support were 4.3 times at higher risk of developing LSE, AOR=4.3 (95% CI, 1.9-9.8). Those who reported to have poor academic performance were also more likely to have LSE AOR= 3.7 (95% CI, 1.3-10.0). Conclusion: One in five medical students had LSE and it is strongly associated with metal distress. Female students were at higher risk of mental distress. Preventive, curative and rehabilitative mental health services should be available for medical students with particular attention to those with poor social support.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Universidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211042190, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused considerable stress throughout the world. Little is known about how postpartum women who gave birth during the early months of the pandemic were impacted. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the associations between potential risk, protective factors, and psychological distress among postpartum women who gave birth during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Postpartum women over the age of 18 years who gave birth in the US hospitals between March and July of 2020 and spoke English completed a survey about their experiences. Demographic and health variables were measured via self-report. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale-10. Mastery was measured with the Pearlin Mastery Scale. Resilience was measured with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2. RESULTS: This study included 885 women. Participants had higher stress and lower resilience relative to pre-pandemic norms. Participants had high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Women who had an infant admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit had more stress. Income, full-time employment, and partnered relationships were associated with lower stress. Resilience and mastery were related to lower stress, depression, and anxiety. Black, Indigenous, or People of Color women showed higher stress and lower resiliency. Single women were likely to report lower levels of mastery than partnered women. CONCLUSION: Stress, depression, and anxiety were high in postpartum women in this study. Income, partnered relationships, and employment security, along with protective traits such as mastery and resilience, may reduce the impact of stress on postpartum women in a pandemic. Care models should be modified to support women during a pandemic. Health disparities exist in postpartum stress. Future interventions should focus on building resiliency and mastery and ensuring appropriate resources are available to postpartum women in a pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Proteção , Angústia Psicológica , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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