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1.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(8. Vyp. 2): 45-48, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study neurological status and structural changes in the tracheal lymphoid tissue in rats with different resistance to emotional stress in experimental hemorrhagic stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Evaluation of neurological deficit on the Menzies scale and a histological study of structural features of tracheal lymphoid tissue were performed on days 1, 3 and 7 of experimental hemorrhagic stroke in 98 Wistar male rats with different resistance to emotional stress. Stroke simulation was preceded by animal testing to determine individual stress resistance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Neurological disorders are more pronounced in non-stress-resistant animals during all periods of observation. Lymphoid nodules of the tracheal wall of rats react with destruction of lymphoid cells and depletion of small lymphocytes observed in stress-resistant rats already on the 1st day of a stroke. On the 3rd day, the neurological deficit and changes in the cellular composition of the lymphoid formations of the trachea are most pronounced in both groups of rats. By the 7th day, a positive trend towards the restoration of the structure of tracheal lymphoid tissue and normal neurological status is detected only in rats resistant to emotional stress.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Traqueia , Animais , Tecido Linfoide , Masculino , Angústia Psicológica , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
2.
Work ; 66(4): 731-737, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has become a major cause of stress and anxiety worldwide. Due to the global lockdown, work, employment, businesses and the economic climate have been severely affected. It has generated stress among people from all sections of society, especially to workers who have been assigned to cater to healthcare service or those constrained to secure daily essential items. It is widely perceived that elderly or those affected by diabetes, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases are prone to COVID-19. As per an ongoing survey, the initial data shows that the above-mentioned anxiety and stress cause insomnia, and has the considerable potential to weaken the immune system, the sole protection against the virus. OBJECTIVE: This study focuses on the need of Yoga practice at work places and at home during the global lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Literature was searched using PubMed and Google Scholar for COVID-19-related stress and anxiety at work and society due to the worldwide lockdown. The predisposing comorbidities, viral mechanism of action and treatment regimen were also searched. Yoga-based intervention studies and online programs were also searched. RESULTS: As the lockdown cannot last forever and workplaces will have to be functional soon, there is an increased possibility of recurrent infection. Therefore, Yoga can provide the necessary tool for risk reduction, amelioration of stress and anxiety and strengthening of the immune function. The online platforms provide a good media for Yoga training at work places and homes. CONCLUSION: Due to social distancing norms, the availability of Yoga trainers has become restricted. Yoga practice is actively sought to achieve reduced anxiety and stress so that improved sleep may positively impact immunity. As a consequence, there is a spurt in social media, catering to daily online Yoga sessions which apparently prove useful in providing accessible means to achieve mental as well as physical well-being.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/prevenção & controle , Telecomunicações , Ioga , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/reabilitação , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/imunologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Distância Social , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/reabilitação , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
3.
Arch Iran Med ; 23(9): 633-638, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is a global health problem. It is necessary to provide evidence on its unprecedented psychological effects to develop effective psychological interventions. The current study aims to determine the anxiety severity level, coping strategies, and influencing factors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic among people aged 15 years and above in Gonabad, Iran. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey via online questionnaires between February and March 2020. We evaluated the anxiety severity levels and coping strategies using the Corona Disease Anxiety Scale (CDAS) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations-Short Form (CISS-SF), respectively. Multinomial and ordinal logistic regression models were used to identify the predictors of coping strategies and anxiety. RESULTS: Totally, 500 people completed the questionnaires (response rate: 73%). Of them, 53.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 48.9%- 57.8%) suffered moderate to severe levels of anxiety. More than half of the respondents (52.0%; 95% CI: 47.5%-56.4%) utilized emotional-based or avoidant coping strategies. People with no academic education (odds ratio [OR]: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.41- 3.31) and without physical exercise (OR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.22-3.33) preferred emotional-based coping instead of problem-based coping strategy. Female gender (OR: 1.60, 95%, CI: 1.13-2.28), underlying medical conditions (OR: 2.52, 95% CI: 1.65-3.87), and emotional-based coping (OR: 4.06, 95% CI: 2.76-5.99) were associated with higher severity levels of anxiety. CONCLUSION: The severity of anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic was significant among participants. Further attention is needed to enhance the mental health of the vulnerable population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings also identified some factors related to the severity level of anxiety related to COVID-19 that could help formulate better psychological interventions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012417, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living in 'humanitarian settings' in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are exposed to a constellation of physical and psychological stressors that make them vulnerable to developing mental disorders. A range of psychological and social interventions have been implemented with the aim to prevent the onset of mental disorders and/or lower psychological distress in populations at risk, and it is not known whether interventions are effective. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and acceptability of psychological and social interventions versus control conditions (wait list, treatment as usual, attention placebo, psychological placebo, or no treatment) aimed at preventing the onset of non-psychotic mental disorders in people living in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Review Group (CDAG) Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (OVID), Embase (OVID), PsycINFO (OVID), and ProQuest PILOTS database with results incorporated from searches to February 2020. We also searched the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify unpublished or ongoing studies. We checked the reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing psychological and social interventions versus control conditions to prevent the onset of mental disorders in adults and children living in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises. We excluded studies that enrolled participants based on a positive diagnosis of mental disorder (or based on a proxy of scoring above a cut-off score on a screening measure). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We calculated standardised mean differences for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous data, using a random-effects model. We analysed data at endpoint (zero to four weeks after therapy) and at medium term (one to four months after intervention). No data were available at long term (six months or longer). We used GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: In the present review we included seven RCTs with a total of 2398 participants, coming from both children/adolescents (five RCTs), and adults (two RCTs). Together, the seven RCTs compared six different psychosocial interventions against a control comparator (waiting list in all studies). All the interventions were delivered by paraprofessionals and, with the exception of one study, delivered at a group level. None of the included studies provided data on the efficacy of interventions to prevent the onset of mental disorders (incidence). For the primary outcome of acceptability, there may be no evidence of a difference between psychological and social interventions and control at endpoint for children and adolescents (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.10; 5 studies, 1372 participants; low-quality evidence) or adults (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.50; 2 studies, 767 participants; very low quality evidence). No information on adverse events related to the interventions was available. For children's and adolescents' secondary outcomes of prevention interventions, there may be no evidence of a difference between psychological and social intervention groups and control groups for reducing PTSD symptoms (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.16, 95% CI -0.50 to 0.18; 3 studies, 590 participants; very low quality evidence), depressive symptoms (SMD -0.01, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.31; 4 RCTs, 746 participants; very low quality evidence) and anxiety symptoms (SMD 0.11, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.31; 3 studies, 632 participants; very low quality evidence) at study endpoint. In adults' secondary outcomes of prevention interventions, psychological counselling may be effective for reducing depressive symptoms (MD -7.50, 95% CI -9.19 to -5.81; 1 study, 258 participants; very low quality evidence) and anxiety symptoms (MD -6.10, 95% CI -7.57 to -4.63; 1 study, 258 participants; very low quality evidence) at endpoint. No data were available for PTSD symptoms in the adult population. Owing to the small number of RCTs included in the present review, it was not possible to carry out neither sensitivity nor subgroup analyses. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Of the seven prevention studies included in this review, none assessed whether prevention interventions reduced the incidence of mental disorders and there may be no evidence for any differences in acceptability. Additionally, for both child and adolescent populations and adult populations, a very small number of RCTs with low quality evidence on the review's secondary outcomes (changes in symptomatology at endpoint) did not suggest any beneficial effect for the studied prevention interventions. Confidence in the findings is hampered by the scarcity of prevention studies eligible for inclusion in the review, by risk of bias in the studies, and by substantial levels of heterogeneity. Moreover, it is possible that random error had a role in distorting results, and that a more thorough picture of the efficacy of prevention interventions will be provided by future studies. For this reason, prevention studies are urgently needed to assess the impact of interventions on the incidence of mental disorders in children and adults, with extended periods of follow-up.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia , Problemas Sociais/psicologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Viés , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Listas de Espera
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the suicide rate in China has decreased over the past 20 years, there have been reports that the younger age group has been experiencing an increased incidence of completed suicide. Given that undergraduate groups are at higher risks of suicidality, it is important to monitor and screen for risk factors for suicidal ideation and behaviors to ensure their well-being. OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk and protective factors contributing to suicidality among undergraduate college students in seven provinces in China. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 13,387 college students from seven universities in Ningxia, Shandong, Shanghai, Jilin, Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Xinjiang. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: Higher scores in the psychological strain, depression, anxiety, stress, and psychache (psychological risk factors for suicidality) and lower scores in self-esteem and purpose in life (psychological protective factors against suicidality) were associated with increased suicidality among undergraduate students in China. Demographic factors which were associated with higher risks of suicidality were female gender, younger age, bad academic results, were an only child, non-participation in school associations, and had an urban household registration. Perceived good health was protective against suicidality. CONCLUSIONS: Knowing the common risk and protective factors for suicidality among Chinese undergraduate students is useful in developing interventions targeted at this population and to guide public health policies on suicide in China.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Med Life ; 13(2): 164-169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742508

RESUMO

Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis. Mucocutaneous involvement is the most prominent finding, but triggering factors are not well-known. We decided to assess the beliefs of patients with Behçet's disease regarding the potential role of food, mucosal injury, menstruation, and stress in the appearance of symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, 60 patients with Behçet's disease who fulfilled the International Study Group criteria for Behçet's disease and referred to the outpatient Behçet's clinic of Motahari, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, were included. A questionnaire was designed by the research team consisting of the rheumatologist involved in the study, two dietitians, and a psychiatrist. The patients were interviewed face-to-face to fill in the questionnaire. The assessed variables were all food categories, menstruation, psychological stress, and oral mucosal injury as the potential triggers of symptoms onset. The most common foods reported as triggers for oral ulcers were eggplant (78.3%), melon (68.3%), walnut (68.2%), and cantaloupe (66.7%). Walnut was reported by three patients (5%) as the most common trigger for genital ulcers. Nervous tension (83%) and annoying arguments (45%) were the two most common psychological stress triggers for oral ulcers. Seven patients (11.7%) reported tooth brushing, as the trigger for oral ulcers. The irregular menstrual cycle was a trigger for oral ulcers in only two patients. Food items such as eggplant, walnut and melon were common self-reported triggers for mucocutaneous lesions in patients with Behçet's disease. Nervous tension and annoying arguments were also common psychological triggers for oral aphthous ulcers.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Behçet/psicologia , Cultura , Alimentos , Menstruação/psicologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto , Síndrome de Behçet/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Úlceras Orais/complicações , Úlceras Orais/psicologia , Dor/etiologia , Recidiva
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21607, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769917

RESUMO

Job-related stress had adverse effects on both patients and community nurses. To evaluate stress, an effective and reliable instrument was needed. The aim of this study was to develop a short-form Chinese Community Nurse Stress Scale and examine its psychometric properties.A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 969 community nurses were selected from 56 community centers/stations in Sichuan Province. The socio-demographic data and job stress assessed by the Chinese Community Nurse Stress Scale (CNSS) were collected. After randomly splitting the sample into group 1 and group 2, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were carried out to shorten the scale and test its reliability and construct validity.There were no significant differences in socio-demographic variables between group 1 (n = 488) and group 2 (n = 481). During exploratory factor analysis, 4 factors were selected, including management and interpersonal relationships (8 items), patient care (7 items), environment and resources of work (6 items), and career promotion (4 items), which explained 62.66% of all variance. Cronbachs α coefficient of the short-form CNSS was 0.94, and the cross-sample validity test supported the best fit model for this 25-item CNSS.The results in this study supported that the 25-item CNSS had a good reliability and validity when it was administrated to Chinese community nurses.


Assuntos
Enfermeiros de Saúde Comunitária/psicologia , Psicometria/normas , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiros de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/normas
8.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(6): 572-575, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744843

RESUMO

The aim of this report is to provide a picture about Hungarians' attitudes and behaviors 1 month after the first COVID-19 case was confirmed in Hungary. Based on survey data from 1,552 adults that were collected in mid-April 2020, it appears that Hungarians agree with and follow the preventive measures of the government. There are, however, differences between 3 age groups (i.e., 18-30, 31-59, and 60+ years), people with different perceived health status (i.e., good, average, and below average), and the genders. In Hungary young people, those with perceived average or below-average health, and women report the most stress during the early phase of the COVID-19 period. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668576

RESUMO

Online poker is a form of gambling where an element of skill may influence the outcome of the game. 'Tilt' in poker describes an episode during which the player can no longer control their game by rational decisions. It leads to a loss of control over the game, a loss of emotional regulation, higher cognitive distortion, and a loss of money. This phenomenon, experienced by most players, could be the gateway to excessive gambling. The aim of this study was to assess the links between the frequency of tilt episodes, cognitive distortion, anxiety, depression, sensation seeking and excessive online poker gambling. Our sample is composed of 291 online poker players, with a mean age of 33.8 years (SD = 10.6). Participants completed an online self-assessment questionnaire, measuring the frequency of tilt episodes, cognitive distortion, anxiety, depression and impulsivity. The findings indicated that the frequency of tilt episodes and cognitive distortion were the only significant predictors of excessive online gambling (respectively, r = 0.49 and r = 0.20). Tilt frequency and cognitive distortion were strongly correlated (GRCS, r = 0.60), moderate to low correlations were found for tilt and anxiety (HADS, r = 0.40), and positive and negative urgency (UPPS, r = 0.27). To date, tilt has seldom been studied, and could improve our understanding of online poker gamblers. It could be a new means of identifying at risk gamblers, and thus facilitating preventive measures specifically adapted to this population.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Internet , Adulto , Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Depressão/complicações , Jogo de Azar/complicações , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(2): H488-H506, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618516

RESUMO

Although chronic stress is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) onset, the underlying mechanisms driving such pathophysiological complications remain relatively unknown. Here, dysregulation of innate stress response systems and the effects of downstream mediators are strongly implicated, with the vascular endothelium emerging as a primary target of excessive glucocorticoid and catecholamine action. Therefore, this review article explores the development of stress-related endothelial dysfunction by focusing on the following: 1) assessing the phenomenon of stress and complexities surrounding this notion, 2) discussing mechanistic links between chronic stress and endothelial dysfunction, and 3) evaluating the utility of various preclinical models currently employed to study mechanisms underlying the onset of stress-mediated complications such as endothelial dysfunction. The data reveal that preclinical models play an important role in our efforts to gain an increased understanding of mechanisms underlying stress-mediated endothelial dysfunction. It is our understanding that this provides a good foundation going forward, and we propose that further efforts should be made to 1) more clearly define the concept of stress and 2) standardize protocols of animal models with specific guidelines to better indicate the mental complications that are simulated.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701959

RESUMO

Chronic social defeat (CSD) can lead to impairments in social interaction and other behaviors that are supposed to model features of major depressive disorder (MDD). Not all animals subjected to CSD, however, develop these impairments, and maintained social interaction in some animals is widely used as a model for resilience to stress-induced mental dysfunctions. So far, animals have mainly been studied shortly (24 hours and 7 days) after CSD exposure and longitudinal development of behavioral phenotypes in individual animals has been mostly neglected. We have analyzed social interaction and novel object recognition behavior of stressed mice at different time points after CSD and have found very dynamic courses of behavior of individual animals. Instead of the two groups, resilient or susceptible, that are found at early time points our data suggest four groups with (i, ii) animals behaving resilient or susceptible at early and late time points, respectively (iii) animals that start susceptible and recover with time or (iv) animals that are resilient at early time points but develop vulnerability later on.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Agressão/psicologia , Animais , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Animal , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(2)2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-604929

RESUMO

The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and spread all over the world leading to declaration of a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) on 11th March 2020. Most countries around the world have been on lockdown in an effort to halt the spread of virus. People around the world have been pushed into uncharted waters of uncertainty, fear, anxiety, stress and depression due to economic crash down, job losses and fear for their own health and that of their loved ones. There is a known association between anxiety/stress and sleep disturbances and vice versa. The most vulnerable population in this isolation like condition, in this lockdown, are the chief earning member of the family, women, young ones, and people with psychiatric illness.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Higiene do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/prevenção & controle , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
13.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(9): 1409-1417, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571612

RESUMO

AIMS: CoV-19/SARS-CoV-2 is a highly pathogenic virus that is causing a global pandemic with a high number of deaths and infected people. To contain the diffusion of infection, several governments have enforced restrictions on outdoor activities or even collective quarantine on the population. The present commentary briefly analyzes the effects of quarantine on lifestyle, including nutrition and physical activity and the impact of new technologies in dealing with this situation. DATA SYNTHESIS: Quarantine is associated with stress and depression leading to unhealthy diet and reduced physical activity. A diet poor in fruit and vegetables is frequent during isolation, with a consequent low intake of antioxidants and vitamins. However, vitamins have recently been identified as a principal weapon in the fight against the Cov-19 virus. Some reports suggest that Vitamin D could exert a protective effect on such infection. During quarantine, strategies to further increase home-based physical activity and to encourage adherence to a healthy diet should be implemented. The WHO has just released guidance for people in self-quarantine, those without any symptoms or diagnosis of acute respiratory illness, which provides practical advice on how to stay active and reduce sedentary behavior while at home. CONCLUSION: Quarantine carries some long-term effects on cardiovascular disease, mainly related to unhealthy lifestyle and anxiety. Following quarantine, a global action supporting healthy diet and physical activity is mandatory to encourage people to return to a good lifestyle routine.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Ansiedade/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Caracteres Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
14.
Life Sci ; 256: 118018, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598935

RESUMO

Aim While stress causes brain dysfunction, crocin (as an active component of saffron) and exercise (as part of a healthy lifestyle) improve stress-induced memory impairment. The present study investigated the protective effects of crocin administration, exercise, and crocin-accompanied exercise on neuronal excitability and long-term potentiation (LTP) at the CA1 of hippocampus as well as serum corticosterone and glucose levels in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). MAIN METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to six groups: Control, Sham, CUS, CUS-Crocin30, CUS-Exercise, and CUS-Crocin30-Exercise. The chronic unpredictable stress and treadmill running at 20-21 m/min were applied 2 h/day and 1 h/day, respectively, for 21 days. Crocin (30 mg/kg) was daily intraperitoneally injected to the rats. Electrophysiological variables were recorded from the CA1 of hippocampus. While corticosterone and glucose levels were also measured. KEY FINDINGS: CUS and CUS-Exercise significantly attenuated excitability and LTP. Compared to the CUS and CUS-Exercise treatments, CUS-Crocin30 and CUS-Crocin30-Exercise led to significant increases in slope and amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potential. The changes in serum corticosterone and glucose levels nearly matched the electrophysiological data. SIGNIFICANCE: CUS was found to be a highly destructive stress as it failed to allow exercises to edify the CUS-induced memory deficit. This is while crocin (as a herbal drug) was found more effective than exercise (as a daily routine) in remedying the CUS-induced memory deficit. Also, although the treatment with crocin-accompanied exercise did help recovery from the CUS-induced memory deficit, the interaction of crocin administration and exercise had no synergic effects; the protective effect observed was due to crocin administration rather than the exercise.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/farmacologia , Transtornos da Memória/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Região CA1 Hipocampal/efeitos dos fármacos , Região CA1 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Corticosterona/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Potenciação de Longa Duração/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciação de Longa Duração/fisiologia , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
15.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(1): R106-R113, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493036

RESUMO

Electroacupuncture (EA) is widely used as an effective method to treat stress-related disorders. However, its mechanisms remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of EA on gastric slow wave (GSW) dysrhythmia and c-Fos expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) induced by stress in a rodent model of functional dyspepsia (FD). Rats in the neonatal stage were treated using intragastric iodoacetamide. Eight weeks later, the rats were implanted with electrodes in the stomach for the measurement of GSW and electrodes into accupoints ST36 for EA. Autonomic functions were assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Rats were placed for 30 min in a cylindrical plastic tube for acute restraint stress. The involvement of a central afferent pathway was assessed by measuring c-Fos-immunoreactive cells in the NTS. 1) EA normalized restraint stress-induced impairment of GSW in FD rats. 2) EA significantly increased vagal activity (P = 0.002) and improved sympathovagal balance (P = 0.004) under stress in FD rats. 3) In FD rats under restraint stress, plasma norepinephrine concentration was increased substantially (P < 0.01), which was suppressed with EA. 4) The EA group showed increased c-Fos-positive cell counts in the NTS compared with the sham EA group (P < 0.05) in FD rats. Acute restraint stress induces gastric dysrhythmia in a rodent model of FD. EA at ST36 improves GSW under stress in FD rats mediated via the central and autonomic pathways, involving the NTS and vagal efferent pathway.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Dispepsia/fisiopatologia , Dispepsia/terapia , Eletroacupuntura , Gastropatias/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Vias Aferentes/fisiopatologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Iodoacetamida , Masculino , Norepinefrina/sangue , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/biossíntese , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Restrição Física , Núcleo Solitário/metabolismo , Gastropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia
16.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510516

RESUMO

The insulin tolerance test is commonly used in metabolic studies to assess whole body insulin sensitivity in rodents. It is a relatively simple test that involves measurement of blood glucose levels over time following a single intraperitoneal injection of insulin. Given that it is performed in the conscious state and blood is often collected via a tail snip, it has the potential to elicit a stress response from animals due to anxiety associated with handling and blood collection. As such, a stress-induced rise in blood glucose can occur, making it difficult to detect and interpret the primary endpoint measure, namely an insulin-mediated reduction in blood glucose. This has been seen in many mouse strains, and is quite common in diabetic db/db mice, where glucose levels can increase, rather than decrease, after insulin administration. Here, we describe a method of acclimating mice to handling, injections and blood sampling prior to performing the insulin tolerance test. We find that this lowers stress-induced hyperglycemia and results in data that more accurately reflects whole body insulin sensitivity.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Artefatos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/psicologia , Resistência à Insulina , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos
17.
Gene ; 754: 144817, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473965

RESUMO

Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is reported to have neuroprotective effects to suppress cell apoptosis of cortical neurons induced by Aß25-35 through inhibiting oxidative stress. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the effects of Tan IIA on depressive disorder. Here, we aimed to measure the effects of Tan IIA on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced mouse model and its underlying mechanism. For 28 days, mice were subjected to CUMS while Tan IIA was administered once daily at doses of 0, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg. CUMS exposure increased depressive-like behaviors, as indicated by increased immobility time in the forced swim and tail suspension tests, decreased sucrose preference in the sucrose preference test, and reduced exploratory behavior in the open field test. All of these behaviors were reversed dose-dependently by Tan IIA treatment. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity. Levels of pro-inflammatory factors IL-1ß and IL-18, cAMP response element binding protein and brain derived neurotrophic factor were detected by ELISA and western blot assay, respectively. The results showed that CUMS increased oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory factors and decreased levels of cAMP response element binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Tan IIA treatment again reversed these effects. Importantly, RasGRF1 expression increased in CUMS-exposed mice but decreased after Tan IIA administration. Using RasGRF1-/- mice to determine the role of RasGRF1 in mice exposed to CUMS, we found that knockdown of RasGRF1 reversed the effects of CUMS on mice, just like Tan IIA. These results indicate that Tan IIA may reverse depressive-like behaviors in CUMS-exposed mice by regulating RasGRF1.


Assuntos
Abietanos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , ras-GRF1/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/psicologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Natação , ras-GRF1/genética
18.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): 1-11, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503005

RESUMO

Objective: Little is known about how lifestyle affects psychological well-being in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We investigated the effects of behavioral modification on psychological well-being and the impact of well-being and personality traits on successful weight loss. Design: A 4-month randomized controlled trial with a 12-month follow-up at a University Hospital. Methods: Sixty-eight women with PCOS, aged 18 to 40 years with a BMI ≥27 kg/m2, were randomized (1:1) into a behavioral modification program (intervention) or minimal intervention (control). The outcome measures were the psychological well being index and the Swedish universities scales of personality. Results: At baseline, 60% had a global psychological well being index corresponding to severe distress and 40% to moderate distress. There was no significant change in mean global well-being score at 4 months within or between groups. However, after 4 months, the intervention group expressed less anxiety (P = .035), higher general health (P = .012) and lower depressed mood (P = .033). Anxiety and general health tended to differ between groups (P = .06, respectively) favoring intervention. In the whole population, women achieving ≥5% weight loss at 12 months (n = 18) were less anxious at baseline compared to those who had not (P = .004). Personality trait-analysis showed that the weight-loss group had higher social desirability (P = .033) and lower embitterment (P = .023). Conclusions: Psychological well-being is severely impacted in overweight women with PCOS. Behavioral modification can positively impact dimensions of well-being, although not fully significant, compared to control treatment. Personality factors could contribute to the understanding of successful weight loss.


Assuntos
Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Personalidade , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/psicologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
19.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(2)2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548993

RESUMO

The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and spread all over the world leading to declaration of a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) on 11th March 2020. Most countries around the world have been on lockdown in an effort to halt the spread of virus. People around the world have been pushed into uncharted waters of uncertainty, fear, anxiety, stress and depression due to economic crash down, job losses and fear for their own health and that of their loved ones. There is a known association between anxiety/stress and sleep disturbances and vice versa. The most vulnerable population in this isolation like condition, in this lockdown, are the chief earning member of the family, women, young ones, and people with psychiatric illness.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Higiene do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/prevenção & controle , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
20.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 66(2): 133-148, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552586

RESUMO

The need for psychosocial support and patients' desire for psychosocial support in female cancer patients - predictors and correlates Objectives: The aims of the present study were to determine the need for psychosocial support of cancer patients, the subjective request for support and to examine the relationship between the need for psychosocial counselling, psychological distress and quality of life. Methods: 112 patients (consecutive) answered questionnaires about mental stress (GAD-2 and PHQ-2), quality of life (SF-8) as well as the Hornheide Screening Instrument (HSI) during their hospital stay (T1), two weeks (T2) and three months after their discharge (T3). Results: The need for psychosocial support goes down from 65.2 % (T1) to 39.3 % (T3). The psychological distress was in a positive (GAD-2 - HSI T1: r = 0.44, p < 0.01; PHQ-2 - HSI T1: r = 0.54, p < 0.01), the quality of life in a negative relationship to the need for support (SF-8 PCS - HSI T1: r = -0.45, p < 0.01; SF-8 MCS - HSI T1: r = -0.56, p < 0.01). The match between the need for support and the subjective desire to be cared for by psychologists was low (conversation persons not needing support: T1: 17.1 %, T2: 3.8 %, T3: 5.5 %; conversation persons needing support: T1: 13.7 %, T2: 18.4 %, T3: 18.2 %). Conclusions: The divergence between the assessed need for support and the subjective desire for consultations leads to the conclusion that both methods, screening and asking for desire of counseling, should be adopted in combination to provide adequate psychooncological support.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Feminino , Humanos
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