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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 208, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pregnant women suffer from varying levels of pregnancy-related anxiety (PRA) which can negatively affect pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess PRA and its associated factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2020 on 318 pregnant women purposively recruited from primary healthcare centers in Sari and Amol, Iran. Data were collected using questionnaires (PRAQ, Edinburg, KAP of COVID-19, CDA-Q and Demographic questionnaire), which were provided to participants through the social media or were completed for them over telephone. Data were analyzed with the linear regression and the logistic regression analysis, at the significance level of 0.05 using the SPSS software (v. 21). RESULTS: Around 21% of participants had PRA, 42.1% had depression, and 4.4% had COVID-19 anxiety. The significant predictors of PRA were number of pregnancies (P = 0.008), practice regarding COVID-19 (P < 0.001), COVID-19 anxiety (P < 0.001), depression (P < 0.001), and social support (P = 0.025) which explained 19% of the total variance. Depression and COVID-19 anxiety increased the odds of PRA by respectively four times and 13%, while good practice regarding COVID-19 decreased the odds by 62%. CONCLUSION: Around 21% of pregnant women suffer from PRA during the COVID-19 pandemic and the significant predictors of PRA during the pandemic include number of pregnancies, practice regarding COVID-19, COVID-19 anxiety, depression, and social support. These findings can be used to develop appropriate strategies for the management of mental health problems during pregnancy in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Complicações na Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Apoio Social , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , /prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6481, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742072

RESUMO

The novel Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020, impacting the lifestyles, economy, physical and mental health of individuals globally. This study aimed to test the model triggered by physical symptoms resembling COVID-19 infection, in which the need for health information and perceived impact of the pandemic mediated the path sequentially, leading to adverse mental health outcomes. A cross-sectional research design with chain mediation model involving 4612 participants from participating 8 countries selected via a respondent-driven sampling strategy was used. Participants completed online questionnaires on physical symptoms, the need for health information, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) questionnaire and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). The results showed that Poland and the Philippines were the two countries with the highest levels of anxiety, depression and stress; conversely, Vietnam had the lowest mean scores in these areas. Chain mediation model showed the need for health information, and the perceived impact of the pandemic were sequential mediators between physical symptoms resembling COVID-19 infection (predictor) and consequent mental health status (outcome). Excessive and contradictory health information might increase the perceived impact of the pandemic. Rapid COVID-19 testing should be implemented to minimize the psychological burden associated with physical symptoms, whilst public mental health interventions could target adverse mental outcomes associated with the pandemic.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 31(1): 3-8, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753570

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare older adults with late-life depression (LLD) and healthy controls in terms of suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to determine predictors of suicidal ideation. METHODS: Between March and April 2020, old adults diagnosed with major depressive disorder (single or recurrent episode) as defined by the DSM-5 were recruited from psychiatric clinics or inpatient wards, whereas 31 healthy older adults without a history of depression or other psychiatric illnesses were recruited from voluntary organisations or elderly community centres. Their depressive symptoms, perceived severity of the pandemic, perceived time spent on receiving related information, perceived health, levels of loneliness, perceived coping efficacy, suicidal ideation, and the level of symptomatic responses to a specific traumatic stressor in the past week were assessed. RESULTS: In total, 21 men and 43 women aged 61 to 89 years were interviewed through telephone by trained research assistants. Of them, 33 were older adults with LLD (cases) and 31 were healthy older adults (controls). Older people with LLD had a higher level of suicidal ideation than healthy controls, after controlling for the level of depression and medical comorbidity (F (1, 59) = 5.72, p = 0.020). Regression analyses showed that coping efficacy and loneliness accounted for a significant portion of the variance in suicidal ideation, and loneliness significantly predicted the level of stress. Mediation analyses reveal an indirect effect between group and suicidal ideation through coping efficacy (Z = 2.43, p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Older people with LLD are at increased suicidal risk and require timely mental health support. Coping efficacy and loneliness are important predictors for suicidal ideation and stress.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Mentais , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , /prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/psicologia , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia
5.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(1): 46-61, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617323

RESUMO

Understanding how Chinese gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) cope with HIV care-related stressors could improve their care engagement. Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with 30 GBMSM living with HIV recruited through clinics and a community-based organization (CBO) in Chengdu, China. Interviews focused on treatment-related stress, coping strategies, social support, and well-being. Half reported symptoms consistent with mild or moderate depression as measured by the PHQ-9 scale. HIV care-related stressors included side effects, difficulty with adherence, and fear of drug resistance. Challenges to coping include navigating contradictory information about HIV and treatment, experiencing stigma and discrimination within medical and nonmedical settings, and managing financial concerns. CBOs, peer groups, and providers were salient sources of social support benefitting coping. To improve sustained HIV care that meets the needs of Chinese GBMSM living with HIV, tailored interventions that address the above-mentioned stressors and coping challenges are likely needed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estigma Social , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Bissexualidade , China , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Sexual , Apoio Social , Estereotipagem , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
6.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246824, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571297

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted the economy, livelihood, and physical and mental well-being of people worldwide. This study aimed to compare the mental health status during the pandemic in the general population of seven middle income countries (MICs) in Asia (China, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam). All the countries used the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to measure mental health. There were 4479 Asians completed the questionnaire with demographic characteristics, physical symptoms and health service utilization, contact history, knowledge and concern, precautionary measure, and rated their mental health with the IES-R and DASS-21. Descriptive statistics, One-Way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and linear regression were used to identify protective and risk factors associated with mental health parameters. There were significant differences in IES-R and DASS-21 scores between 7 MICs (p<0.05). Thailand had all the highest scores of IES-R, DASS-21 stress, anxiety, and depression scores whereas Vietnam had all the lowest scores. The risk factors for adverse mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic include age <30 years, high education background, single and separated status, discrimination by other countries and contact with people with COVID-19 (p<0.05). The protective factors for mental health include male gender, staying with children or more than 6 people in the same household, employment, confidence in doctors, high perceived likelihood of survival, and spending less time on health information (p<0.05). This comparative study among 7 MICs enhanced the understanding of metal health in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Saúde Mental , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 36, 2021 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has shaken the world in early 2020. In France, General Practitioners (GPs) were not involved in the care organization's decision-making process before and during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. This omission could have generated stress for GPs. We aimed first to estimate the self-perception of stress as defined by the 10-item Perceived Stress Score (PSS-10), at the beginning of the pandemic in France, among GPs from the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, a french administrative area severely impacted by COVID-19. Second, we aimed to identify factors associated with a self-perceived stress (PSS-10 ≥ 27) among socio-demographic characteristics of GPs, their access to reliable information and to personal protective equipment during the pandemic, and their exposure to well established psychosocial risk at work. METHODS: We conducted an online cross-sectional survey between 8th April and 10th May 2020. The self-perception of stress was evaluated using the PSS-10, so to see the proportion of "not stressed" (≤20), "borderline" (21 ≤ PSS-10 ≤ 26), and "stressed" (≥27) GPs. The agreement to 31 positive assertions related to possible sources of stress identified by the scientific study committee was measured using a 10-point numeric scale. In complete cases, factors associated with stress (PSS-10 ≥ 27) were investigated using logistic regression, adjusted on gender, age and practice location. A supplementary analysis of the verbatims was made. RESULTS: Overall, 898 individual answers were collected, of which 879 were complete. A total of 437 GPs (49%) were stressed (PSS-10 ≥ 27), and 283 GPs (32%) had a very high level of stress (PSS-10 ≥ 30). Self-perceived stress was associated with multiple components, and involved classic psychosocial risk factors such as emotional requirements. However, in this context of health crisis, the primary source of stress was the diversity and quantity of information from diverse sources (614 GPs (69%, OR = 2.21, 95%CI [1.40-3.50], p < 0.001). Analysis of verbatims revealed that GPs felt isolated in a hospital-based model. CONCLUSION: The first wave of the pandemic was a source of stress for GPs. The diversity and quantity of information received from the health authorities were among the main sources of stress.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Clínicos Gerais , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador/tendências , Autoimagem , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
8.
Curr Oncol ; 28(1): 294-300, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a highly stressful event that may lead to significant psychological symptoms, particularly in cancer patients who are at a greater risk of contracting viruses. This study examined the frequency of stressors experienced in relation to the ongoing coronavirus pandemic and its relationship with psychological symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, insomnia, fear of cancer recurrence) in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Thirty-six women diagnosed with a non-metastatic breast cancer completed the Insomnia Severity Index, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the severity subscale of the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory, and the COVID-19 Stressors Questionnaire developed by our research team. Participants either completed the questionnaires during (30.6%) or after (69.4%) their chemotherapy treatment. RESULTS: Results revealed that most of the participants (63.9%) have experienced at least one stressor related to the COVID-19 pandemic (one: 27.8%, two: 22.2%, three: 11.1%). The most frequently reported stressor was increased responsibilities at home (33.3%). Higher levels of concerns related to the experienced stressors were significantly correlated with higher levels of anxiety, depressive symptoms, insomnia, and fear of cancer recurrence, rs(32) = 0.36 to 0.59, all ps < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer patients experience a significant number of stressors related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which are associated with increased psychological symptoms. These results contribute to a better understanding of the psychological consequences of a global pandemic in the context of cancer and they highlight the need to better support patients during such a challenging time.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Pandemias , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , /psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/psicologia , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
9.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503860

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the impact of food insecurity and poor nutrient intake on the psychological health of middle-aged and older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. A sub-sample of 535 individuals aged 52 years and above, from the earlier cohort and interventional studies (n = 4) from four selected states in Peninsular Malaysia, were recruited during the COVID-19 outbreak (April to June 2020). Telephone interviews were conducted by trained interviewers with a health sciences background to obtain participants' information on health status, physical activity, food security, and psychological health (General Health Questionnaire-12; normal and psychological distress). Univariate analyses were performed for each variable, followed by a logistic regression analysis using SPSS Statistics version 25.0. Results revealed food insecurity (OR = 17.06, 95% CI: 8.24-35.32, p < 0.001), low protein (OR = 0.981, 95% CI: 0.965-0.998, p < 0.05), and fiber intakes (OR = 0.822, 95% CI: 0.695-0.972, p < 0.05) were found to be significant factors associated with the psychological distress group after adjusting for confounding factors. The findings suggested that food insecurity and insufficiencies of protein and fiber intakes heightened the psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Optimal nutrition is vital to ensure the physical and psychological health of the older population, specifically during the current pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Idoso , /psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente/economia , Vida Independente/psicologia , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/economia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
10.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(4): 1281-1288, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486835

RESUMO

AIM: To examine how the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic impacts child well-being and family functioning, particularly among children at risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. METHODS: Families of 73 typically developing children, 54 children born very preterm (VPT) and 73 children with congenital heart disease (CHD) from two prospective cohort studies were assessed prior to (mean age: 10.4 [SD: 1.2] years) and during (mean age: 12.8 [SD: 2.0] years) the pandemic, more specifically, in April/May 2020. Child well-being and family functioning were assessed with validated, parent-reported questionnaires and tested with linear mixed models. Group comparison of child distress and parental concerns related to medical implications of COVID-19 and homeschooling, assessed with 5-point Likert scales, was done with Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: Children's psychological well-being and family functioning (both, p < 0.001) decreased significantly during the pandemic, irrespective of group. Children with CHD were reported to be more concerned about becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2 than were others. Child distress due to homeschooling and parents' concerns about children's academic achievements were significantly higher in VPT and CHD children than in typically developing peers (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic substantially impacts the whole family and leads to additional distress in families with children at risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. These families should receive individualised counselling and assistance from healthcare providers and schools during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde , /prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/psicologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Doenças do Prematuro/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Suíça/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0240146, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428630

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic does not fit into prevailing Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) models, or diagnostic criteria, yet emerging research shows traumatic stress symptoms as a result of this ongoing global stressor. Current pathogenic event models focus on past, and largely direct, trauma exposure to certain kinds of life-threatening events. Yet, traumatic stress reactions to future, indirect trauma exposure, and non-Criterion A events exist, suggesting COVID-19 is also a traumatic stressor which could lead to PTSD symptomology. To examine this idea, we asked a sample of online participants (N = 1,040), in five western countries, to indicate the COVID-19 events they had been directly exposed to, events they anticipated would happen in the future, and other forms of indirect exposure such as through media coverage. We then asked participants to complete the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5, adapted to measure pre/peri/post-traumatic reactions in relation to COVID-19. We also measured general emotional reactions (e.g., angry, anxious, helpless), well-being, psychosocial functioning, and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. We found participants had PTSD-like symptoms for events that had not happened and when participants had been directly (e.g., contact with virus) or indirectly exposed to COVID-19 (e.g., via media). Moreover, 13.2% of our sample were likely PTSD-positive, despite types of COVID-19 "exposure" (e.g., lockdown) not fitting DSM-5 criteria. The emotional impact of "worst" experienced/anticipated events best predicted PTSD-like symptoms. Taken together, our findings support emerging research that COVID-19 can be understood as a traumatic stressor event capable of eliciting PTSD-like responses and exacerbating other related mental health problems (e.g., anxiety, depression, psychosocial functioning, etc.). Our findings add to existing literature supporting a pathogenic event memory model of traumatic stress.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33424020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stressful situations may have a negative effect on population's mental health, including impaired sleep quality. Thus, we analysed the effect on sleep during the confinement due to the COVID-19 outbreak, in a Galicia population sample, measuring subjective sleep satisfaction, and insomnia intensity and incidence. METHODS: Through an adapted questionnaire from the Cuestionario Oviedo de Sueño, distributed telematically and printed, using a convenience sampling in Galicia, we compared sleep situation, before and during the first two weeks of confinement for COVID-19. We compared the results of the questionnaire before and during confinement with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and McNemar's test. RESULTS: In 451 analysed subjects, there was about half point decrease in sleep satisfaction (in a 1 to 7 scale), three points increase in insomnia score (9 to 45 scale) and an increase from 23.1 to 36.3% in the insomnia incidence (p<0.001 for all the comparisons). There existed less affectation in the insomnia incidence in elderly above 65 years (from 21.7 to 26.1%, p=1) and in subjects that telecommuted (unchanged 28.1% incidence, p=1). In a post-hoc analysis of a health workers subgroup, sleep affectation was similar to that of others workers. CONCLUSIONS: Confinement situation in COVID-19 outbreak context in our environment has caused important alterations in the population's sleep quality, increasing the symptoms and incidence of insomnia.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ann Surg ; 273(4): 625-629, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between surgeon gender and stress during the Covid-19 pandemic. BACKGROUND: Although female surgeons face difficulties integrating work and home in the best of times, the Covid-19 pandemic has presented new challenges. The implications for the female surgical workforce are unknown. METHODS: This cross-sectional, multi-center telephone survey study of surgeons was conducted across 5 academic institutions (May 15-June 5, 2020). The primary outcome was maximum stress level, measured using the validated Stress Numerical Rating Scale-11. Mixed-effects generalized linear models were used to estimate the relationship between surgeon stress level and gender. RESULTS: Of 529 surgeons contacted, 337 surgeons responded and 335 surveys were complete (response rate 63.7%). The majority of female respondents were housestaff (58.1%), and the majority of male respondents were faculty (56.8%) (P = 0.008). A greater proportion of male surgeons (50.3%) than female surgeons (36.8%) had children ≤18 years (P = 0.015). The mean maximum stress level for female surgeons was 7.51 (SD 1.49) and for male surgeons was 6.71 (SD 2.15) (P < 0.001). After adjusting for the presence of children and training status, female gender was associated with a significantly higher maximum stress level (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings that women experienced more stress than men during the Covid-19 pandemic, regardless of parental status, suggest that there is more to the gendered differences in the stress experience of the pandemic than the added demands of childcare. Deliberate interventions are needed to promote and support the female surgical workforce during the pandemic.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Médicas/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Postgrad Med ; 133(2): 223-230, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-care workers exposed to coronavirus19 disease could be psychologically stressed. The objective of this study is to assess the anxiety, depression levels, and psychological resilience of physicians working during the Covid-19 outbreak and to evaluate the related factors that are associated with their psychological resilience. METHODS: The sample of this descriptive study was composed of medical doctors and dentists. The data were obtained online between April 13-23, 2020 through a survey prepared by the researchers. In addition, a questionnaire about the participants' sociodemographic characteristics, the Psychological Resilience Scale and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD-A/HAD-D) was given. RESULTS: The average age of the 671 participants was 44.0 ± 9.0 years. Psychological resilience scores were significantly higher in those who had children, who had worked for 15 years or more, and who had received training about COVID-19 (p < 0.05). Depression scores were higher among women and in those who reported having a chronic disease, whose workload increased after the outbreak, and who had physical contact with COVID-positive patients. The anxiety scores were also higher among women and in those whose workload had increased and who had contact with COVID-positive patients (p < 0.05). The physicians with scores below the cutoff point on the HAD-D/HAD-A had significantly higher scores on the Psychological Resilience Scale (p < 0.05). DISCUSSION: Depression and anxiety levels were found to be significantly lower in physicians with greater psychological resilience. Psychological and social support of all health-care workers, especially physicians, is important in the struggle with the pandemic. It is thought that determining the variables related to psychological resilience in health-care workers will be a guide for psychosocial services.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Médicos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Sci Med Sport ; 24(4): 320-326, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess physical activity (PA), mental health and well-being of adults in the United Kingdom (UK), Ireland, New Zealand and Australia during the initial stages of National governments' Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) containment responses. DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional. METHODS: An online survey was disseminated to adults (n=8,425; 44.5±14.8y) residing in the UK, Ireland, New Zealand and Australia within the first 2-6 weeks of government-mandated COVID-19 restrictions. Main outcome measures included: Stages of Change scale for exercise behaviour change; International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short-form); World Health Organisation-5 Well-being Index; and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-9. RESULTS: Participants who reported a negative change in exercise behaviour from before initial COVID-19 restrictions to during the initial COVID-19 restrictions demonstrated poorer mental health and well-being compared to those demonstrating either a positive-or no change in their exercise behaviour (p<0.001). Whilst women reported more positive changes in exercise behaviour, young people (18-29y) reported more negative changes (both p<0.001). Individuals who had more positive exercise behaviours reported better mental health and well-being (p<0.001). Although there were no differences in PA between countries, individuals in New Zealand reported better mental health and well-being (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The initial COVID-19 restrictions have differentially impacted upon PA habits of individuals based upon their age and sex, and therefore have important implications for international policy and guideline recommendations. Public health interventions that encourage PA should target specific groups (e.g., men, young adults) who are most vulnerable to the negative effects of physical distancing and/or self-isolation.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 125: 105111, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most widely used protocol for activating a stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and other stress-mediating systems. A number of variants of the TSST exist, including ones for children, groups, and virtual reality. All of these versions, though, require in-person assessment. The COVID-19 pandemic has made in-person assessment impossible or extremely difficult and potentially dangerous. The purpose of this study was to validate a completely remote, online, version of the TSST for children. METHOD: A sample of 68 (27 female) 15- and 16-year old participants were administered the TSST-Online (TSST-OL) during the late afternoon hours (3-6 p.m. start time). The participants, judges (one male, one female), and experimenter (female) all joined the assessment from their own homes via the online platform, ZOOM™. Two sessions were conducted, one to obtain consent, explain procedures, work with the family to arrange the computer and room set-up for the TSST-OL and one within two weeks to conduct the procedure. The participants were trained to take their own saliva samples and a saliva sampling kit was mailed to the home in between the first and second session. The samples were then mailed to the researchers within a day of collection. The participant was observed during saliva collection to determine correct procedures were followed. Salivary cortisol, salivary α-amylase and self-reports of stress were measured multiple times over the second session. RESULTS: rmANOVAs yielded a significant effect of trials, for cortisol, F(1.37,90.46) = 15.13, p = .001, sAA, F(2.75,146.68) = 6.91, p = .001, and self-rated stress, F(3.43,222.69) = 118.73, p = .001. There were no significant sex by trials interactions for any measure, although females reported more stress than males, F(1,65) = 9.14, p = .004. For cortisol, from baseline to expected peak (30 min after the onset of speech preparation), the Cohen's effect size was dz = 0.57. Using 1.5 nmol/l (or 0.54 µg/dl) as the criterion for a response (Miller, Plessow, Kirschaum, & Stalder, 2013), 63% of the participants produced a significant increase in cortisol. CONCLUSIONS: The responses to the TSST-OL are consistent with in-person responses among children and adolescents (see recent meta-analysis (Seddon et al., 2020). The protocol is a viable way of assessing reactivity of the HPA axis and other stress systems without needing to bring the participant into the research laboratory. This method will be useful during periods of widespread infection. It should also work to study populations who all live too far from the research laboratory to be assessed in person.


Assuntos
Internet , Testes Psicológicos , Psicologia do Adolescente/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , /psicologia , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Sistemas On-Line , Pandemias , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Saliva/química , alfa-Amilases Salivares/análise , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
18.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 189-196, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307858

RESUMO

Objectives: To explore psychological problems (Anxiety, Depression and Stress) in general population during Covid-19 pandemic. To find predictive effects of cognitive emotion regulation on psychological problems. Methodology: Convenient sampling technique was used to obtain the sample of 500 participants (Male = 239, Female = 261). Research instrument consists of four parts. First part comprised of consent form, second part was about demographic profile, third part was Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS-21) while Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was the last part of the instrument. Results: SPSS 23.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version was used for study analysis. Descriptive statistics used to summarize the raw data. The inferential statistics such as regression, correlation and t-test were used to calculate the findings according to research objectives. Results indicated that 33%, 40% and 27% individuals were experiencing Depression, Anxiety and Stress respectively during Covid-19 pandemic. Among these participants, 48% (N = 242) were experiencing normal level of all these targeted psychological problems while remaining 52% (N = 258) respondents have mild to very severe level of all these disorders. Furthermore, findings of linear regression analysis illustrated that cognitive emotion regulation significantly predicts psychological problems [R 2=.216; F = 51.223, p < .01] and 21% variation in psychological problems is due to cognitive emotion regulation. Conclusion: This study recommended that policy makers must develop and implement some necessary programmes to prevent and cure people from devastating psychological and mental health consequences of covid-19 on priority basis.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Regulação Emocional , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(1): 20-28, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307818

RESUMO

Scales assessing stressor exposure often fail to demonstrate adequate psychometric qualities, demonstrating low interitem reliability or complex factor structures, as would be expected, given that the majority of stressors are independent events. However, in large-scale mass crisis events, the stressors may be highly interrelated, indicating shared experience. Furthermore, few stressor exposure scales also measure appraised stressfulness of those stressors. Development of a psychometrically sound measure of both stressor exposure and appraisal advances the study of highly stressful events such as community-wide crises, especially in providing a useful measure of its cumulative stressfulness. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an enduring, worldwide stressor with an indefinite timeline. The COVID-19 Stressor Scale is a 23-item measure of stressor exposure and appraisal related to the pandemic developed within the first weeks of widespread shelter-in-place practices in the Unites States. We present initial psychometric results of the COVID-19 Stressor Scale. Results of a principal components analysis indicate that the measure is unidimensional and has strong internal consistency. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated. The COVID-19 Stressor Scale is a useful measure for studying the ongoing stressors associated with the pandemic and presents a model for measuring other massive, ongoing crises.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Percepção , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(4): 164-170, dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145436

RESUMO

Introducción: como profesionales de la salud hemos observado distintas conductas en los pacientes pediátricos, sin psicoprofilaxis, que ingresan para ser intervenidos quirúrgicamente de urgencia; pacientes que, según su edad, su entorno social, familiar y cultural, podrán manifestar dichas conductas interpretadas como estrés, de distintas maneras. Objetivo: se midió el estrés prequirúrgico de los niños que fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente de urgencia, los sábados y domingos por Guardia, en el Hospital de Niños Sor María Ludovica en la ciudad de La Plata. Materiales y métodos: hemos realizado un estudio piloto de diseño observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal, aplicando para la recolección de datos la escala de YALE modificada (EAPY-m). Resultados: reclutamos 16 pacientes, de los cuales 10 fueron varones (62,50%), que ingresaron para ser tratados quirúrgicamente por las especialidades de traumatología y cirugía general en partes iguales. La mediana en edad fue de 7 años y la mediana en escolarización obligatoria de 6 años. Dentro de la muestra obtenida, un 56,25% concurrían a la escuela primaria y el 25% se encontraban en la etapa preescolar. La mitad de los niños tomaron como referente a su madre como la persona que lo calma y que les gustaría que estuviese presente en el momento previo a la cirugía. La conjunción de los resultados obtenidos ha superado los valores referenciales mínimos para la medición del estrés prequirúrgico: un 80% de los niños sufría de estrés prequirúrgico. Conclusiones: el estrés prequirúrgico es un hecho presente en los pacientes pediátricos que han sido incluidos en la realización del estudio, quedando en evidencia que la cirugía es un factor estresante para los niños. (AU)


Introduction: As health professionals, we have observed different behaviors in pediatric patients, without psychoprophylaxis, who are admitted for emergency surgery; patients who, according to their age, their social, family and cultural environment may manifest such behaviors interpreted as stress, in different ways. Objective: Therefore, the general objective of our research was to measure the presurgical stress of children who would undergo emergency surgery, on Saturdays and Sundays by guard, at the Sor María Ludovica children's hospital in the city of La Plata. Materials and methods: We have conducted a pilot study of observational, descriptive, cross-sectional design; applying the modified YALE scale (EArPY-m) for data collection. Results: We recruited 16 patients of which 10 were male (62.50%), who were admitted to be treated surgically by the specialties of traumatology and general surgery in equal parts. The median in age was 7 years and the median in compulsory schooling was 6 years. Within the sample obtained 56.25% attended primary school and 25% were in the preschool stage. 50% of the participants indicated that the mother was the one who calms them when they are nervous; while 43.75% was the mother who would like to be present at the time before surgery. The combination of the results obtained has exceeded the minimum reference values for the measurement of presurgical stress, 80% of children suffered from presurgical stress. Conclusions: We conclude that presurgical stress is a fact present in pediatric patients who have been included in the study, making it clear that surgery is a stressful factor for children. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/psicologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Argentina , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/psicologia
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