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1.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255211, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310616

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in severe detrimental effects on the mental well-being of health care workers (HCW). Consequently, there has been a need to identify health-promoting resources in order to mitigate the psychological impact of the pandemic on HCW. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the association of sense of coherence (SOC), social support and religiosity with self-reported mental symptoms and increase of subjective burden during the COVID-19 pandemic in HCW. METHODS: Our sample comprised 4324 HCW of four professions (physicians, nurses, medical technical assistants (MTA) and pastoral workers) who completed an online survey from 20 April to 5 July 2020. Health-promoting resources were assessed using the Sense of Coherence Scale Short Form (SOC-3), the ENRICHD Social Support Inventory (ESSI) and one item on religiosity derived from the Scale of Transpersonal Trust (TPV). Anxiety and depression symptoms were measured with the PHQ-2 and GAD-2. The increase of subjective burden due to the pandemic was assessed as the retrospective difference between burden during the pandemic and before the pandemic. RESULTS: In multiple regressions, higher SOC was strongly associated with fewer anxiety and depression symptoms. Higher social support was also related to less severe mental symptoms, but with a smaller effect size, while religiosity showed minimal to no correlation with anxiety or depression. In professional group analysis, SOC was negatively associated with mental symptoms in all groups, while social support only correlated significantly with mental health outcomes in physicians and MTA. In the total sample and among subgroups, an increase of subjective burden was meaningfully associated only with a weaker SOC. CONCLUSION: Perceived social support and especially higher SOC appeared to be beneficial for mental health of HCW during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the different importance of the resources in the respective occupations requires further research to identify possible reasons.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Pandemias , Senso de Coerência , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Religião , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254825, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected all age groups worldwide, but older adults have been affected greatly with an increased risk of severe illness and mortality. Nepal is struggling with the COVID-19 pandemic. The normal life of older adults, one of the vulnerable populations to COVID-19 infection, has been primarily impacted. The current evidence shows that the COVID-19 virus strains are deadly, and non-compliance to standard protocols can have serious consequences, increasing fear among older adults. This study assessed the perceived fear of COVID-19 and associated factors among older adults in eastern Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and September 2020 among 847 older adults (≥60 years) residing in three districts of eastern Nepal. Perceived fear of COVID-19 was measured using the seven-item Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S). Multivariate logistic regression identified the factors associated with COVID-19 fear. RESULTS: The mean score of the FCV-19S was 18.1 (SD = 5.2), and a sizeable proportion of older adults, ranging between 12%-34%, agreed with the seven items of the fear scale. Increasing age, Dalit ethnicity, remoteness to the health facility, and being concerned or overwhelmed with the COVID-19 were associated with greater fear of COVID-19. In contrast, preexisting health conditions were inversely associated with fear. CONCLUSION: Greater fear of the COVID-19 among the older adults in eastern Nepal suggests that during unprecedented times such as the current pandemic, the psychological needs of older adults should be prioritized. Establishing and integrating community-level mental health support as a part of the COVID-19 preparedness and response plan might help to combat COVID-19 fear among them.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Pandemias , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255158, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic lead to high levels of morbidity and mortality around the globe. Consequences of this outbreak and possible associated infection are an increase in mental health disorders and an increased likelihood of internalizing problems, particularly depression. However, to date few studies have tested this hypothesis while taking into account individuals' preexisting mental health difficulties. METHODS: We used longitudinal data collected among 729 persons in the context of the French TEMPO cohort between March and June 2020 (7 waves of data collection). COVID-19-like symptoms as well as anxiety/depression (assessed by the Adult Self Report), were reported at each wave of data collection. To study the relationship between COVID-19-like symptoms and anxiety/depression, we used generalized estimation equation (GEE) models controlled for socio-demographic and health-related characteristics, including anxiety/depression prior to 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 27.2% of study participants reported anxiety/depression during lockdown. 17.1% of participants reported COVID-19-like symptoms during the course of follow-up, 7.3% after the beginning of lockdown, with an average number of 2.7 symptoms, and 3.6% reported respiratory distress. In multivariate analyses, nearly all the considered indicators of COVID-19-like symptoms were associated with higher odds of symptoms of anxiety/depression (symptoms Yes/No: OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.08-2.55; symptoms after the beginning of lockdown: OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.03-3.52; number of symptoms: OR for each additional symptom = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.02-1.39. This relationship exists after taking into account prior symptoms of anxiety/depression, which are associated with a 5-fold increased likelihood of psychological distress. And this impact is stronger among men than women. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows higher risk of anxiety/depression among persons who experienced COVID-19-like symptoms, even after accounting for prior mental health difficulties. COVID-19 infection could have both a direct and indirect impact on the occurrence of psychological difficulties, and this association should be studied in greater detail.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
4.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 86(6): 746-760, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225598

RESUMO

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a structural and functional element of the neurovascular unit (NVU), which includes cells of neuronal, glial, and endothelial nature. The main functions of NVU include maintenance of the control of metabolism and chemical homeostasis in the brain tissue, ensuring adequate blood flow in active regions, regulation of neuroplasticity processes, which is realized through intercellular interactions under normal conditions, under stress, in neurodegeneration, neuroinfection, and neurodevelopmental diseases. Current versions of the BBB and NVU models, static and dynamic, have significantly expanded research capabilities, but a number of issues remain unresolved, in particular, personification of the models for a patient. In addition, application of both static and dynamic models has an important problem associated with the difficulty in reproducing pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the damage of the structural and functional integrity of the barrier in the diseases of the central nervous system. More knowledge on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of BBB and NVU damage in pathology is required to solve this problem. This review discusses current state of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control BBB permeability, pathobiochemical mechanisms and manifestations of BBB breakdown in stress and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the problems and prospects of creating in vitro BBB and NVU models for translational studies in neurology and neuropharmacology. Deciphering BBB (patho)physiology will open up new opportunities for further development in the related areas of medicine such as regenerative medicine, neuropharmacology, and neurorehabilitation.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
5.
Surg Clin North Am ; 101(4): 541-554, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242598

RESUMO

Surgical education requires proficiency with multiple types of learning to create capable surgeons. This article reviews a conceptual framework of learning that starts with the biological basis of learning and how neural networks encode memory. We then focus on how information can be absorbed, organized, and recalled, discussing concepts such as cognitive load, knowledge retrieval, and adult learning. Influences on memory and learning such as stress, sleep, and unconscious bias are explored. This overview of the biological and psychological aspects to learning provides a foundation for the articles to follow.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/psicologia , Ensino/psicologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Humanos , Preconceito/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estados Unidos
6.
Health Psychol ; 40(5): 316-325, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals who report greater minority stress (e.g., discrimination) are at an elevated risk for multiple health problems. However, few studies have examined physiological mechanisms that might link minority stress to health. This study tested how cardiovascular and cortisol responses to a laboratory-induced social stressor differed when that stressor contained an additional minority stress component. METHOD: LGB adults (n = 141; 51% male, 49% female) participated in a social stress task in which they were interviewed by a prerecorded confederate. Participants were randomized to receive information that their interviewer held either antigay or progay social/political beliefs. Cardiovascular reactivity and salivary cortisol were assessed at baseline, during the task, and during recovery. RESULTS: All participants experienced significant task-related increases in heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). However, participants in the antigay condition had greater increases in HR and SBP during the task and smaller decreases in SBP during recovery. Salivary cortisol increased significantly only in the antigay condition. High frequency heart rate variability (hfHRV) was constant throughout the stress task for participants in the progay condition but decreased significantly during the task for participants in the antigay condition. CONCLUSIONS: Minority stress has the potential to affect LGB individuals' health through cardiovascular and endocrine mechanisms. Moreover, its physiological signature may differ from other social stress in ways that have implications for health and emotion regulation more broadly. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/química , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 368504211026121, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137643

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the psychological well-being of healthcare professionals, among them, on medical and nursing occupational specialists. This study describes the psychological distress that this group has suffered, analyzing the effect that the sense of coherence related with the history of contact with infected people has generated in their mental health. Cross-sectional descriptive study using online questionnaires. Data were collected on a sample of 499 subjects, representing 42.0% and 38.8% of the associations of specialists in Occupational Medicine and Nursing, respectively. A univariate data analysis, independence test, and the CHAID multivariate method were carried out. The percentage of workers with high psychological distress was higher among women than among men; this was also higher in public sector workers than in the private sector. No differences have been observed regarding psychological distress and educational level, coexistence, having children, working away from home, having a pet, or between being a physician or nurse. The most efficient measure to prevent psychological distress was acting regarding the comprehensibility dimension of the sense of coherence. Sex, contact with any infected person, age, living as a couple, working in public or private centers, the availability of diagnostic tests, and the correlation with the manageability dimension were modulating factors. Sense of coherence is an effective measure to prevent psychological distress due to contact with people affected by COVID-19 in Occupational Health professionals.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , Senso de Coerência , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 368504211025873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143706

RESUMO

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused dramatic changes in the daily lives of Romanians, affecting their mental health. The COVID-19 pandemic has evolved at three significant peaks, which sequentially occurred on: April 29, 2020; September 18, 2020; and the third wave registered the highest severity on November 27, 2020. Little is known about the mental health changes during this phase of this pandemic. This study evaluated mental health levels in Romania at the end of the first wave of the pandemic and amidst the third and most severe wave. We administered a two-phase internet-based survey among 543 and 583 participants, respectively, recruited through snowball sampling at a 6-month interval. The IPAT Anxiety Scale measured anxiety, the Beck's Depression Inventory measured depression, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale measured dissociation. We observed no statistically significant differences in the number of participants with clinically relevant scores at either time point. In the first survey, 23.8%, 19.2%, and 32.6% reported being clinically anxious, clinically depressed, and showed clinical dissociation, respectively. Binary logistic regressions indicated that age, education level, and previous traumatic events were significantly associated with clinical levels of anxiety and depression. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis reported a collective significant effect of gender, age, psychological impact, traumatic events, and dissociation on predicting high levels of anxiety and depression. Romanian adults' mental health status was affected during the COVID-19 pandemic, and it did not change 6 months after the first lockdown.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Escala de Ansiedade Manifesta , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Romênia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
9.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 368504211026409, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166132

RESUMO

The COVID-19 has been spreading across the world since December 2019. The pandemic has created tremendous fear of death from infection and awful psychological pressure on healthcare professionals (HCPs). The measures of psychological effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on the Bangladeshi HCPs are unknown. The present study aimed to assess the mental health outcomes of Bangladeshi HCPs and associated risk factors. We conducted this cross-sectional study from July 15 to September 20, 2020. A total of 355 HCPs aged between 20 and 60 years residing in Bangladesh participated in this study. All the participants completed a self-administered questionnaire through Google Forms consisting of socio-demographic characteristics and mental health outcomes. We measure loneliness, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance using the UCLA loneliness scale-8, patient health questionnaire-9, 7-item generalized anxiety disorder scale, Pittsburgh sleep quality index. The present study observed the prevalence of loneliness, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance among HCPs were 89%, 44%, 78%, and 87%, respectively. The factors significantly associated with the development of mental health problems among HCPs were working environment, economic condition, education level, area of residence, marital status, gender differences, professional category, body mass index, and smoking habit. Moreover, we have seen significant correlations among the different mental health outcomes. In Bangladesh, a large portion of HCPs reported mental health issues during the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic incredibly impacted the psychological health of Bangladeshi healthcare professionals. Appropriate supportive programs and interventional initiatives might help the HCPs with mental health problems during and after this pandemic.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Maturitas ; 149: 16-25, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134886

RESUMO

Many factors appear to contribute to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among incarcerated women. Imprisonment is associated with a bodyweight gain and an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity. Inadequate physical activity and unhealthy nutrition further contribute to this positive energy balance. Classical CVD risk factors are common, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and smoking. Moreover, imprisonment is associated with an increased incidence of mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety, with coping mechanisms, including substance abuse, being frequently adopted. Specific attitudes in the correctional environment, including hunger strikes, bullying, abuse and solitary confinement, are effectors of cardiovascular and mental ill-health. Furthermore, the plethora of psychological stressors induces an accelerated aging process, paired with CVD risk. Communicable diseases, mainly human immunodeficiency virus, opportunistic infections and inadequate sunlight exposure increase cardiovascular dysregulation. Health care needs associated with the female sex are not always met, adding to the frustration and compromised well-being. All these factors act independently and cumulatively, increasing CVD risk among incarcerated women.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071053

RESUMO

Under stressful conditions, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis acts to promote transitory physiological adaptations that are often resolved after the stressful stimulus is no longer present. In addition to corticosteroids (e.g., cortisol), the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone, 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one) participates in negative feedback mechanisms that restore homeostasis. Chronic, repeated exposure to stress impairs the responsivity of the HPA axis and dampens allopregnanolone levels, participating in the etiopathology of psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). MDD and PTSD patients present abnormalities in the HPA axis regulation, such as altered cortisol levels or failure to suppress cortisol release in the dexamethasone suppression test. Herein, we review the neurophysiological role of allopregnanolone both as a potent and positive GABAergic neuromodulator but also in its capacity of inhibiting the HPA axis. The allopregnanolone function in the mechanisms that recapitulate stress-induced pathophysiology, including MDD and PTSD, and its potential as both a treatment target and as a biomarker for these disorders is discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Pregnanolona/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Feminino , Agonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Pregnanolona/biossíntese , Receptores de GABA-A/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/fisiologia
12.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 904: 174182, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004212

RESUMO

Restraint stress (RS) is an unavoidable stress model that triggers activation of the autonomic nervous system, endocrine activity, and behavioral changes in rodents. Furthermore, RS induces secretion of oxytocin into the bloodstream, indicating a possible physiological role in the stress response in this model. The presence of oxytocin receptors in vessels and heart favors this possible idea. However, the role of oxytocin secreted in RS and effects on the cardiovascular system are still unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of oxytocin on cardiovascular effects during RS sessions. Rats were subjected to pharmacological (blockade of either oxytocin, vasopressin, or muscarinic receptors) or surgical (hypophysectomy or sinoaortic denervation) approaches to study the functional role of oxytocin and its receptor during RS. Plasma levels of oxytocin and vasopressin were measured after RS. RS increased arterial pressure, heart rate, and plasma oxytocin content, but not vasopressin. Treatment with atosiban (a Gi biased agonist) inhibited restraint-evoked tachycardia without affecting blood pressure. However, this effect was no longer observed after sinoaortic denervation, homatropine (M2 muscarinic antagonist) treatment or hypophysectomy, indicating that parasympathetic activation mediated by oxytocin secreted to the periphery is responsible for blocking the increase in tachycardic responses observed in the atosiban-treated group. Corroborating this, L-368,899 (oxytocin antagonist) treatment showed an opposite effect to atosiban, increasing tachycardic responses to restraint. Thus, this provides evidence that oxytocin secreted to the periphery attenuates tachycardic responses evoked by restraint via increased parasympathetic activity, promoting cardioprotection by reducing the stress-evoked heart rate increase.


Assuntos
Ocitocina/metabolismo , Restrição Física/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Hormônios Antidiuréticos/farmacologia , Barorreflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Masculino , Agonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Ocitocina/sangue , Parassimpatolíticos/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Receptor Muscarínico M2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Vasopressinas/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Taquicardia/fisiopatologia , Tropanos/farmacologia , Vasopressinas/sangue , Vasotocina/análogos & derivados , Vasotocina/farmacologia
13.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 562: 112-118, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049204

RESUMO

Mood dysregulation refers to the inability of a person to control their negative emotions, and it is linked to various stressful experiences. Dysregulated neural synaptic plasticity and actin-filament dynamics are important regulators of stress response in animal models. However, until now, there is no evidence to differential the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and actin-filament dynamics in stress susceptibility and stress-resistant. Here we found that depression-like behaviour was observed in the susceptible group following chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) exposure, but not in stress-resistant mice. High-frequency stimulation-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired in the CSDS-induced depression-susceptible group. Further, the levels of pro-brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), mature BDNF, PSD-95, phosphorylated CaMKII, and phosphorylated Cofilin, an actin-filament dynamics regulator, were reduced in CSDS-induced depression-susceptible mice unlike in stress-resistant mice. These results demonstrate that synaptic plasticity-related molecules, such as BDNF and phosphorylated Cofilin, are important for maintaining synaptic functions and structure in mice that experience more stress.


Assuntos
Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Potenciação de Longa Duração , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Sinapses/metabolismo
14.
Life Sci ; 278: 119598, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984361

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine if treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline reduces the bladder dysfunction caused by water avoidance stress in mice. MAIN METHODS: Adult female mice were randomly allocated to (1) Unstressed, (2) Stressed or (3) Stress + Sertraline experimental groups. Stressed mice were subjected to water avoidance for 1 h/day for 10 days and received sertraline or vehicle in drinking water, starting 10-days prior to the first stress exposure. Age matched control/unstressed mice were house under normal conditions without stress exposure. Voiding behaviour was assessed throughout the experimental protocol. After the final stress exposure, a blood sample was taken to measure plasma corticosterone levels and bladders were removed, catheterised and intravesical pressure responses recorded during distension and in response to pharmacological agents. KEY FINDINGS: Plasma corticosterone levels in sertraline-treated animals were equivalent to unstressed controls and significantly decreased compared to the stressed group. Voiding frequency was significantly increased in the stressed group, and treatment with sertraline significantly decreased voiding frequency, however, this remained elevated compared to unstressed control animals. Bladders from stressed mice displayed enhanced maximal contractile response to the muscarinic agonist carbachol and greater release of ACh in the serosal fluid, which was reduced to control levels by sertraline treatment. Spontaneous phasic contractions were not altered by stress but were significantly reduced in bladders from sertraline treated animals, relative to controls. SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that management of voiding dysfunction caused by psychological stress may be aided by the addition of an SSRI such as sertraline.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Sertralina/uso terapêutico , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Micção/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 129: 105269, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the relationship between competitive anxiety, fear/anxiety of COVID-19, and autonomic and endocrine stress responses in professional football players after returning to competition during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Ninety male professional football players (age: 26.33 ± 2.48 yr) volunteered to participate in this study, which included an official competition. Psychophysiological responses, including the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised, were collected 30 min before the competition. In addition, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol (sCort) were collected at 8 a.m. and 15 min before the competition. RESULTS: The main findings, based on the Pearson correlation, showed significant positive correlations between COVID-19 anxiety and somatic competitive anxiety (p = 0.01), cognitive competitive anxiety (p = 0.01), and competition response of sCort and sAA (p = 0.01). Moreover, fear of COVID-19 was positively correlated with COVID-19 anxiety (p = 0.01). On the contrary, the awakening response of sCort and sAA was not found to be correlated with psychological parameters (all p > 0.05). The analysis also indicated that there was no significant correlation between self-confidence with other psychological and physiological variables (all p > 0.05). The regression analysis showed that cognitive anxiety was a relevant predictor for the competition response of sCort and sAA (p < 0.05). Moreover, COVID-19 anxiety was the only predictor of somatic and cognitive anxiety (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the first preliminary evidence that COVID-19 anxiety and competitive anxiety might pose a negative impact on the athletic performance of professional football players during COVID-19 pandemic competitions. Thus, research is needed to build a strategy to reduce the psychophysiological stress related to COVID-19 and competition response.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Atletas , COVID-19 , Comportamento Competitivo , Medo , Futebol , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Atletas/psicologia , Medo/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Saliva , alfa-Amilases Salivares/metabolismo , Futebol/fisiologia , Futebol/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3166, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039978

RESUMO

Stress is a significant risk factor for the development of major depressive disorder (MDD), yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Preclinically, adaptive and maladaptive stress-induced changes in glutamatergic function have been observed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we examine stress-induced changes in human mPFC glutamate using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in two healthy control samples and a third sample of unmedicated participants with MDD who completed the Maastricht acute stress task, and one sample of healthy control participants who completed a no-stress control manipulation. In healthy controls, we find that the magnitude of mPFC glutamate response to the acute stressor decreases as individual levels of perceived stress increase. This adaptative glutamate response is absent in individuals with MDD and is associated with pessimistic expectations during a 1-month follow-up period. Together, this work shows evidence for glutamatergic adaptation to stress that is significantly disrupted in MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Pessimismo/psicologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Anedonia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 268, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947833

RESUMO

Maternal stress has debilitating implications for both mother and child, including increased risk for anxiety. The current COVID-19 pandemic escalates these phenomena, thus, urging the need to further explore and validate feasible therapeutic options. Unlike the protracted nature of clinical studies, animal models could offer swift evidence. Prominent candidates for treatment are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to the mother, that putatively accommodate maternal functioning, and, thereby, also protect the child. However, SSRIs might have deleterious effects. It is important to assess whether SSRIs and other pharmacotherapies can moderate the transference of anxiety by soothing maternal anxiety and to examine the extent of offspring's exposure to the drugs via lactation. To our knowledge, the possibility that antenatal stress exacerbates lactation-driven exposure to SSRIs has not been tested yet. Thirty ICR-outbred female mice were exposed to stress during gestation and subsequently administered with either the SSRI, escitalopram, or the novel herbal candidate, shan-zha, during lactation. Upon weaning, both dams' and pups' anxiety-like behavior and serum escitalopram levels were assessed. The major findings of the current study show that both agents moderated the antenatal stress-induced transgenerational transference of anxiety by ameliorating dams' anxiety. Interestingly though, pups' exposure to escitalopram via lactation was exacerbated by antenatal stress. The latter finding provides a significant insight into the mechanism of lactation-driven exposure to xenobiotics and calls for a further consideration vis-à-vis the administration of other drugs during breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Lactação/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , COVID-19 , Citalopram/administração & dosagem , Citalopram/farmacologia , Citalopram/uso terapêutico , Crataegus , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Pandemias , Gravidez , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Xenobióticos/metabolismo
18.
Am Fam Physician ; 103(10): 597-604, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983001

RESUMO

Dyspareunia is recurrent or persistent pain with sexual intercourse that causes distress. It affects approximately 10% to 20% of U.S. women. Dyspareunia may be superficial, causing pain with attempted vaginal insertion, or deep. Women with sexual pain are at increased risk of sexual dysfunction, relationship distress, diminished quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Because discussing sexual issues may be uncomfortable, clinicians should create a safe and welcoming environment when taking a sexual history, where patients describe the characteristics of the pain (e.g., location, intensity, duration). Physical examination of the external genitalia includes visual inspection and sequential pressure with a cotton swab, assessing for focal erythema or pain. A single-digit vaginal examination may identify tender pelvic floor muscles, and a bimanual examination can assess for uterine retroversion and pelvic masses. Common diagnoses include vulvodynia, inadequate lubrication, vaginal atrophy, postpartum causes, pelvic floor dysfunction, endometriosis, and vaginismus. Treatment is focused on the cause and may include lubricants, pelvic floor physical therapy, topical analgesics, vaginal estrogen, cognitive behavior therapy, vaginal dilators, modified vestibulectomy, or onabotulinumtoxinA injections.


Assuntos
Dispareunia , Exame Ginecológico/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Dispareunia/diagnóstico , Dispareunia/etiologia , Dispareunia/psicologia , Dispareunia/terapia , Feminino , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/complicações , Exame Ginecológico/psicologia , Humanos , Anamnese/métodos , Anamnese/normas , Medição da Dor , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
19.
PLoS Biol ; 19(4): e3001186, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822780

RESUMO

Wild animals face novel environmental threats from human activities that may occur along a gradient of interactions with humans. Recent work has shown that merely living close to humans has major implications for a variety of antipredator traits and physiological responses. Here, we hypothesize that when human presence protects prey from their genuine predators (as sometimes seen in urban areas and at some tourist sites), this predator shield, followed by a process of habituation to humans, decouples commonly associated traits related to coping styles, which results in a new range of phenotypes. Such individuals are characterized by low aggressiveness and physiological stress responses, but have enhanced behavioral plasticity, boldness, and cognitive abilities. We refer to these individuals as "preactive," because their physiological and behavioral coping style falls outside the classical proactive/reactive coping styles. While there is some support for this new coping style, formal multivariate studies are required to investigate behavioral and physiological responses to anthropogenic activities.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Animais Selvagens/psicologia , Interação Humano-Animal , Agressão/fisiologia , Agressão/psicologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Meio Ambiente , Atividades Humanas/psicologia , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802338

RESUMO

Early life stress (ELS) is strongly associated with psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia in adulthood. To date, biological, behavioral, and structural aspects of ELS have been studied extensively, but their functional effects remain unclear. Here, we examined NeuroPET studies of dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and serotonergic systems in ELS animal models. Maternal separation and restraint stress were used to generate single or complex developmental trauma. Body weights of animals exposed to single trauma were similar to those of control animals; however, animals exposed to complex trauma exhibited loss of body weight when compared to controls. In behavioral tests, the complex developmental trauma group exhibited a decrease in time spent in the open arm of the elevated plus-maze and an increase in immobility time in the forced swim test when compared to control animals. In NeuroPET studies, the complex trauma group displayed a reduction in brain uptake values when compared to single trauma and control groups. Of neurotransmitter systems analyzed, the rate of decrease in brain uptake was the highest in the serotonergic group. Collectively, our results indicate that developmental trauma events induce behavioral deficits, including anxiety- and depressive-like phenotypes and dysfunction in neurotransmitter systems.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/metabolismo , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Privação Materna , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Natação/fisiologia
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