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1.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 575-591, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711395

RESUMO

Early Life Stress Stress and daily hassles are a normal part of day-to day-life. The amount of control that is experienced strongly contributes to resilience and coping. Children very frequently do not experience control over the stressors within their lives. Starting from pregnancy, they are subjected - via the maternal endocrine system - to a variety of stressors ranging from normal stress regarding the transition to parenthood to maternal abuse or torture. This article collects research of the last two decades regarding the influence of stress on the developing brain. Both, animal and human studies will shed light on the effect of pre- and postnatal stress demonstrating an influence of early life stressors reaching far into adulthood. A direct influence of stress on multiple developmental characteristics has been postulated and shown. The results of this review will underline the necessity of early life programs focusing stress reduction and resilience in children and their parents. Also, a need for programs targeting stress reduction in pregnancy will be demonstrated and emphasized.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Animais , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
2.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 592-605, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711402

RESUMO

Coping with Stress During Childhood and Adolescence Humans already start to show stress responses on a physical and mental level in early childhood. Numerous studies have demonstrated age- and gender-related differences in experiencing and managing stress. During the transitional period of adolescence young people often experience higher stress-levels. This might lead to a higher vulnerability for maladaptive stress responses. In other words, adolescents who do not have adequate coping strategies to deal with the developmental challenges of puberty might be at risk for later physical and mental symptoms. On the other hand, adequate coping strategies represent a protective factor. Therefore, education and prevention in home and school settings are of particular relevance for adolescent age groups.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
3.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 23(4): 415-432, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586496

RESUMO

This paper introduces a new measure to evaluate heart output from a dynamical systems approach. The measure is based on the time delay technique for two-dimensional state space reconstruction from time series of interbeat intervals. The system's trajectories within this space are depicted and the mean distance, as well as the total and maximum distances travelled by the system, are calculated in pixels. Preliminary data from adolescents with highly positive emotional regulation (HPER) style (n=10) and adolescents with highly negative (HNER) style (n=10) who underwent a protocol of stress induction show the usefulness of the new metrics to distinguish the dynamical behavior of the heart systems from these groups. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that changes in all three distances across conditions (baseline, anticipation of stress, exposure to stress, and recovery) were significant in the HPER group but not in the HNER group. As to the physiological meaning of the new measure a correlational analysis revealed that associations with time-domain HRV measures were stronger than associations with frequency-domain HRV measures in both groups. Because of the small sample size, bootstrap resampling was used to obtain confidence intervals. Distances calculated with the new measure are sensitive to the ER-related cardiac flexibility under acute stress conditions. However, the physiological meaning of the new indices remains unclear.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Emoções , Humanos
4.
Georgian Med News ; (292-293): 102-108, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560673

RESUMO

The article discusses the problems of the process of environmental adaptations appearance which are based on the general principles of functional systems' constitution. The value of the theory of functional systems development as the basis for physiological cybernetics (P. Anokhin, 1935) is also given. A general adaptation syndrome ("a stress - syndrome") that was discovered by H. Selye is chosen as an example to explain the development of the stages of the functional system of the stress, the sequence and value of ongoing physiological reactions and negative feedback interactions. The stress - syndrome reactions are the nonspecific response of a particular organism to various factors: emotional shock, trauma, infections, surgery, burns etc. The article also paid attention to the reasons and conditions for the failure of adaptations' emergence and the transformation of adaptive reactions into pathological ones. The key role of stress syndrome reactions as the main or auxiliary etiological factor in the development of coronary heart disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, lesions of the stomach and duodenum, immunodeficiencies, etc. is indicated. To be effective in interactions with the environment, organisms have developed different mechanisms which are not only activating but also suppressing the excessive activity of the functional stress system that damages the organs. Therefore, the article considers the significance of negative feedback adaptations that act as stress - initiating and stress - limiting mechanisms.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Síndrome de Adaptação Geral , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2942, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270312

RESUMO

Depression and transient ischaemic attack represent the common psychological and neurological diseases, respectively, and are tightly associated. However, studies of depression-affected ischaemic attack have been limited to epidemiological evidences, and the neural circuits underlying depression-modulated ischaemic injury remain unknown. Here, we find that chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) and chronic footshock stress (CFS) exacerbate CA1 neuron loss and spatial learning/memory impairment after a short transient global ischaemia (TGI) attack in mice. Whole-brain mapping of direct outputs of locus coeruleus (LC)-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, Th:) positive neurons reveals that LC-CA1 projections are decreased in CSDS or CFS mice. Furthermore, using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs)-based chemogenetic tools, we determine that Th:LC-CA1 circuit is necessary and sufficient for depression-induced aggravated outcomes of TGI. Collectively, we suggest that Th:LC-CA1 pathway plays a crucial role in depression-induced TGI vulnerability and offers a potential intervention for preventing depression-related transient ischaemic attack.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiopatologia , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Locus Cerúleo/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Humanos , Isquemia/complicações , Isquemia/psicologia , Masculino , Memória , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Espacial , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
6.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 26(2): 170-177, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012142

RESUMO

RESUMO A literatura apresenta a necessidade de investigar as dores osteoarticulares crônicas em idosos, uma vez que essas influenciam negativamente parâmetros biopsicossociais. Entender a relação entre as dimensões da dor e parâmetros de saúde dos indivíduos acometidos é necessário para melhor abordagem preventiva e terapêutica. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de identificar relações entre níveis de dores crônicas e força, qualidade de vida, estresse e sono em mulheres (as mais acometidas pelas dores osteoarticulares crônicas). Foram recrutadas participantes de um programa de educação física para idosos, com idade entre 50 e 70 anos. A dor foi avaliada por meio de um instrumento multidimensional. Foram avaliados também estado cognitivo global, nível de atividade física, qualidade de vida, estresse e sono. A força muscular das participantes foi analisada por meio do teste de sentar e levantar e do teste de flexão e extensão de cotovelo. Participaram 56 mulheres, com média de idade de 63,7±7,7 anos, e 28,7±4,7kg/m2 de índice de massa corporal (IMC). A maior parte das participantes relatou sentir dor (89,2%); 21,4% relataram dor nos membros inferiores e 67,8% relataram dor nos membros superiores. A dimensão sensorial de dor foi associada ao estresse, mas não às demais variáveis, que não se relacionaram a nenhum dos aspectos da dor. Além disso, pode haver influência da idade na interpretação da dor avaliativa.


RESUMEN La literatura presenta la necesidad de investigar los dolores osteoarticulares crónicos en ancianos, ya que estos dolores influencian negativamente parámetros biopsicosociales. Entender la relación entre las dimensiones del dolor y los parámetros de salud de los individuos afectados es necesario para un mejor enfoque preventivo y terapéutico. Este trabajo tiene el objetivo de identificar relaciones entre niveles de dolores crónicos y fuerza, calidad de vida, estrés y sueño en mujeres (las más acometidas por los dolores osteoarticulares crónicos). Se reclutaron participantes de un programa de educación física para ancianos, con edad entre 50 y 70 años. El dolor fue evaluado por medio de un instrumento multidimensional. Se evaluaron también el estado cognitivo global, el nivel de actividad física, la calidad de vida, el estrés y el sueño de las participantes. La fuerza muscular fue analizada por medio de la prueba de sentarse y levantarse y de la prueba de flexo-extensión de codos. Participaron de la investigación 56 mujeres, con media de edad de 63,7±7,7 anos, y 28,7±4,7kg/m2 de índice de masa corporal (IMC). La mayoría de las participantes relató sentir dolor (89,2%); el 21,4% relató dolor en los miembros inferiores y el 67,8% relató dolor en los miembros superiores. La dimensión sensorial del dolor se asoció al estrés, pero no a las demás variables, que no se relacionaron a ninguno de los aspectos del dolor. Además, puede haber influencia de la edad en la interpretación del dolor evaluativo.


ABSTRACT The literature presents the need for investigations related to the chronic osteoarticular pains of older adults, which are more prevalent in women, since they negatively influence biopsychosocial parameters. To understand the relationship between pain dimensions and health parameters of these individuals is necessary for a better preventive and therapeutic approach. This study aims to identify associations between levels of chronic pain and levels of strength, quality of life, stress and sleep in women. Participants were recruited from a physical education program for older adults, aged between 50 and 70 years. Pain was assessed using a multidimensional instrument on pain parameters. Global cognitive status, physical activity level, quality of life, stress and sleep were also assessed. The muscular strength of the participants was analyzed using the sit up test and the elbow flexion and extension test. The participants were 56 women, mean age 63.7±7.7 years, and 28.7±4.7 kg/m2 body mass index (BMI). Most participants reported feeling pain (89.2%), 21.4% reported lower limb pain, and 67.8% reported experiencing upper limb pain. The sensory dimension of pain was associated with stress, but not with the other variables, which were not related to any aspects of pain. In addition, there may be an influence of age in the interpretation of evaluative pain.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Sono/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Limiar da Dor , Cognição , Atividade Motora
7.
Int J Behav Med ; 26(4): 352-364, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the deleterious impact of psychological distress on patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is recognized, few studies have examined the influence of change in psychological distress on health outcomes over time. This study investigated whether three common manifestations of distress (depression, anxiety, and perceived stress) and their changes predicted the decline in physical functioning in CHD patients over 12 months. In addition, perceived social support was examined as a buffer of psychological distress or a direct predictor of physical functioning. METHODS: Participants were 255 CHD patients with a mean age of 63 (SD = 8.65) years, including 208 men and 47 women. Psychological distress and physical functioning were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the influences of psychological factors on physical functioning over 12 months. All models were adjusted for baseline physical functioning, age, gender, marital status, education, BMI, and length of participation at a wellness center. RESULTS: For each psychological distress variable (depression, anxiety, or perceived stress), both the baseline (ßs = - 0.19 to - 0.32, ps = 0.008 to < 0.001) and its respective change over time (ßs = - 0.17 to - 0.38, ps = 0.020 to < 0.001) independently and significantly predicted greater decline in physical functioning at 6 and 12 months, after adjusting for covariates. Perceived social support predicted greater improvement in physical functioning at 12 months (ß = 0.13, p = 0.050), but it did not buffer impact of psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: Findings underscore the importance of monitoring various forms of psychological distress continuously over time for CHD patients.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Doença das Coronárias/psicologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/psicologia , Doença das Coronárias/fisiopatologia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Life Sci ; 232: 116605, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254588

RESUMO

AIM: The present study was designed to investigate the possible role of T-type Ca2+ channels and HCN channels in the development of stress adaptation in cold-water immersion stress-subjected mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The mice were subjected to cold-water immersion stress by placing them individually in a water tank (depth = 15.5 cm; temperature = 15 ±â€¯2 °C) for 5 min. The mice were subjected to single episode of cold-water immersion stress for inducing acute stress; while for inducing stress adaptation, mice were subjected to repeated episodes of homotypic stressor (5 min) for 5 consecutive days. Animals were administered with ethosuximide (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and ivabradine (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) before subjecting them to stress for five days. The stress-related behavioral alterations were assessed using the actophotometer, the hole board, the open field and the social interaction tests. The plasma corticosterone levels were quantified as a biochemical parameter of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. RESULTS: Acute stress altered the behavioral and biochemical parameters of the animals. However, repeated stress significantly restored the behavioral and biochemical alterations signifying the development of adaptation. Administration of ethosuximide and ivabradine abolished the restoration of behavioral and biochemical changes in the animals subjected to repeated stress. CONCLUSION: The ethosuximide and ivabradine mediated attenuation of stress adaptation demonstrates that the opening of T-type Ca2+ channels and activation of HCN channels are involved in inducing stress adaptation in repeated stress-subjected animals.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/fisiologia , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Corticosterona/sangue , Etossuximida/farmacologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Ivabradina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
9.
J Therm Biol ; 82: 242-251, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128655

RESUMO

In this experiment, psychogenic (mental arithmetic), thermogenic (mean body temperature elevation of 0.6 °C) and combined thermo-psychogenic treatments were used to explore eccrine sweat-gland recruitment from glabrous (volar hand and forehead) and non-glabrous skin surfaces (chest). It was hypothesised that each treatment would activate the same glands, and that glandular activity would be intermittent. Nine individuals participated in a single trial with normothermic and mildly hyperthermic phases. When normothermic, a 10-min arithmetical challenge was administered, during which sudomotor activity was recorded. Following passive heating and thermal clamping, sweating responses were again evaluated (10 min). A second arithmetical challenge (10 min) was administered during clamped hyperthermia, with its sudorific impact recorded. The activity of individual sweat glands was recorded at 60-s intervals, using precisely positioned, and uniformly applied, starch-iodide papers. Those imprints were digitised and analysed. Peak activity typically occurred during the thermo-psychogenic treatment, revealing physiologically active densities of 128 (volar hand), 165 (forehead) and 77 glands.cm-2 (chest). Except for the hand (46%), glands uniquely activated by one treatment were consistently <10% of the total glands identified. Glandular activations were most commonly of an intermittent nature, particularly during the thermogenic treatment. Accordingly, we accepted the hypothesis that psychogenic, thermogenic and thermo-psychogenic stimuli activate the same sweat glands in both the glabrous and non-glabrous regions. In addition, this investigation has provided detailed descriptions of the intermittent nature of sweat-gland activity, revealing that a consistent proportion of the physiologically active glands are recruited during these thermal and non-thermal stimuli.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Estresse Psicológico , Sudorese , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal , Glândulas Écrinas/fisiologia , Glândulas Écrinas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15345, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045776

RESUMO

The brain has multiple functions, and its structures are very closely related to one another. Thus, the brain areas associated with stress, emotion, and intelligence are closely connected. The purpose of this study was to investigate the multiple associations between stress and emotional intelligence (EI), between EI and intelligence quotient (IQ), between cytokines and stress, and between cytokines and IQ. We measured the stress, EI, cognitive intelligence using IQ, and cytokine levels of 70 healthy subjects. We also analyzed the association of cytokines with IQ according to hemispheric dominance using the brain preference indicator (BPI). We found significant negative correlations between stress and the components of EI, such as emotional awareness and expression, emotional thinking, and emotional regulation. High levels of anger, which is a component of stress, were significantly related to poor emotional regulation. Additionally, emotional application was positively correlated with full-scale IQ scores and scores on the vocabulary, picture arrangement, and block design subtests of the IQ test. High IL-10 levels were significantly associated with low stress levels only in the right-brain-dominant group. High IL-10 and IFN-gamma levels have been associated with high scores of arithmetic intelligence. TNF-alpha and IL-6 were negatively associated with vocabulary scores and full-scale IQ, but IL-10 and IFN-gamma were positively associated with scores on the arithmetic subtest in left-brain-dominant subjects. On the other hand, IL-10 showed positive correlations with scores for vocabulary and for vocabulary and arithmetic in right-brain-dominant subjects. Furthermore, we found significant linear regression models which can show integrative associations and contribution on emotional and cognitive intelligence. Thus, we demonstrated that cytokines, stress, and emotional and cognitive intelligence are closely connected one another related to brain structure and functions. Also, the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 had negative effects, whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10 and IFN-gamma) showed beneficial effects, on stress levels, and multiple dimensions of emotional and cognitive intelligence. Additionally, these relationships among cytokines, stress, and emotional and cognitive intelligence differed depending on right and left hemispheric dominance.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Escalas de Wechsler , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dominância Cerebral/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Testes de Inteligência , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , República da Coreia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese , Adulto Jovem
11.
Behav Processes ; 165: 4-8, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145966

RESUMO

Investigating the link between stress and functional cerebral asymmetry (FCA) has been a subject of interest in recent years. The demonstration of this link in the field of veterinary medicine is particularly important as measuring FCA has the potential to be an alternative and non-invasive behavioral method to assess stress in dogs. The present study aimed to investigate whether FCA is affected by different environmental conditions in dogs. The main aim of this study was to investigate the changes in FCA in dogs living under different conditions. To this aim, strength and direction of FCA in 40 urban free-ranging dogs were measured by a Kong test. Dogs were divided into four groups considering their environmental conditions: The dogs in Group 1 (n = 8) were rehabilitated urban free ranging dogs, which were kept in enriched shelter conditions. The dogs in Group 2 (n = 9) were adopted free ranging dogs, which lived in home environment for more than 1 year. The dogs in Group 3 (n = 11) were urban free ranging dogs, which stayed in individual cages in a dog shelter for more than 6 months. The dogs in Group 4 (n = 12) were adopted urban free ranging dogs, which stayed in a dog pension for more than 30 days. Considering the length of their stay in a kennel environment, quality of living condition and emotional states, the dogs in Group 3 and 4 were classified as chronically stressed dogs. Statistically significant differences existed between groups considering strength and direction of lateralization. Most of the dogs in Group 1 (87.5 %) and Group 2 (77.8 %) showed significant paw preferences, whereas most of the dogs in the Group 3 (72.7 %) and Group 4 (75 %) were categorized as ambilateral. Considering the individual level asymmetry in dogs and environmental conditions of dogs in Group 3 and 4, one may suggest that high ambilaterality levels is related with chronic stress. Thus, reduced FCA may not be the reason for stress sensibility, rather it can be an outcome of stressful situations. These results are the first to demonstrate the possible link between chronic stress and ambilaterality in dogs.


Assuntos
Cães/fisiologia , Dominância Cerebral/fisiologia , Meio Social , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Reação de Fuga/fisiologia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
12.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(3): 1011-1022, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064568

RESUMO

Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of depression in adolescence; the mediating neurobiological mechanisms, however, are unknown. In this study, we examined in early pubertal youth the associations among ELS, cortisol stress responsivity, and white matter microstructure of the uncinate fasciculus and the fornix, two key frontolimbic tracts; we also tested whether and how these variables predicted depressive symptoms in later puberty. A total of 208 participants (117 females; M age = 11.37 years; M Tanner stage = 2.03) provided data across two or more assessment modalities: ELS; salivary cortisol levels during a psychosocial stress task; diffusion magnetic resonance imaging; and depressive symptoms. In early puberty there were significant associations between higher ELS and decreased cortisol production, and between decreased cortisol production and increased fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus. Further, increased fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus predicted higher depressive symptoms in later puberty, above and beyond earlier symptoms. In post hoc analyses, we found that sex moderated several additional associations. We discuss these findings within a broader conceptual model linking ELS, emotion dysregulation, and depression across the transition through puberty, and contend that brain circuits implicated in the control of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function should be a focus of continued research.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Puberdade/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Sistema Límbico/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Puberdade/fisiologia , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Behav Ther ; 50(3): 558-570, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030873

RESUMO

Recent research suggests that the stress-sleep relationship is mediated by pre-sleep arousal (PSA) and that cognitive arousal has a stronger mediating effect than somatic arousal; however, this has not been directly tested. Using multilevel moderated mediation, we compared the effects of cognitive arousal and somatic arousal within the stress-sleep relationship. We also assessed whether two forms of repetitive negative thought-rumination and worry-are similarly involved in the stress-sleep relationship. Data was collected from 178 participants across the United States via an online platform. Participants completed baseline self-report surveys examining rumination tendencies and worry tendencies. Over the course of 2 weeks, participants completed daily questionnaires assessing daily stress, PSA, and sleep quality. Results indicated that indirect effects from stress to sleep quality via PSA were statistically significant at low and high levels of rumination and worry, and people at high levels of rumination and worry had stronger relationships between stress and PSA. Across all models, cognitive arousal consistently accounted for more of the variance in the stress-sleep relationship as compared to somatic arousal. Implications for the cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia are discussed.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Ruminação Cognitiva/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Complement Ther Med ; 43: 170-175, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935526

RESUMO

Yoga is an increasingly popular activity, perhaps because of its association with stress reduction and relaxation - an association that is generally supported by empirical evidence. Understanding of the mediating variables is, however, limited. Given that, the purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical perspective that encourages systematic research regarding the relationship between yoga, stress, and musculoskeletal activity. This embodied perspective parallels popular interest in the mind-body connection and emphasizes the influence of body position on thinking as well as emotion. Those influences take on added meaning in the context of the Cognitive Appraisal Theory and the Biopsychosocial Model of Challenge and Threat. Investigations of embodied cognition suggest that yoga may reduce stress by affecting the way individuals appraise stressors. The combination of body position and common components of yoga practice may also contribute to that effect, particularly when considering thoughts about the self and feelings of confidence. Findings regarding embodied emotion make a similar contribution to understanding the implications of previous research findings and common yoga practices. Considering yoga and stress from an embodied perspective also highlights the role of the musculoskeletal system in the stress process, leading to the question of whether yoga influences stress by directly influencing the musculoskeletal system, indirectly by influencing awareness of that system, or through a combination of the two. Those questions, in turn, highlight the importance of expanding investigations of psychological processes, body position, musculoskeletal activity during yoga, and the interactions between those variables.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Ioga/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Meditação/psicologia
15.
Life Sci ; 226: 130-139, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965055

RESUMO

AIMS: After menopause, women are more responsive to stress and more prone to exhibit hypertension, which elevates the risk of cardiac diseases. This vulnerability is due, in part, to the decline of ovarian steroids plasma levels. The 4-vinylciclohexane diepoxide (VCD) causes a gradual depletion of ovarian follicles causing loss of the normal ovarian function and a hormonal profile comparable to menopause in humans. We aimed to verify whether the ovarian failure (OF) worsens the cardiovascular autonomic response to stress. MAIN METHODS: Rats were treated with VCD (160 mg/kg) or oil for 15 days, exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) for 10 days and studied 80 and 180 days after VCD treatment. KEY FINDINGS: 80 days after VCD-treatment, stressed rats showed increased sympathetic nerve activity, reduced parasympathetic activity and an increase in the overall spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). 180 days after VCD treatment, BRS was impaired and the vascular sympathetic activity was increased, independently of stress exposure. SIGNIFICANCE: Neither 80 nor 180 days after the onset of VCD-treatment the hypertensive effects of stress were enhanced in rats. However, OF led to a worsening on different aspects of the cardiovascular response to stress, which can cause cardiovascular complications when associated with ovarian aging.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Cicloexenos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Menopausa , Folículo Ovariano , Ovário , Perimenopausa , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Compostos de Vinila/farmacologia
16.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(5): 307-314, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973269

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate if Mental Stress was superior, inferior, or equal navigating on Facebook own profile or others profiles. An experimental manipulation would invalidate the results since it would force the participants to navigate in only one condition each time. To overcome this problem, we used an eye-tracker to get clear time markers that identified the areas where the participants focused during all of the Facebook navigation. While the gazes were being recorded for 30 participants, we simultaneously recorded their psychophysiological signals, which were extracted and paired with each specific focus area. Consequently, we obtained the psychophysiological correlates of Facebook navigation for both the conditions related to "own" and "others." The areas related to own were about the own profile (such as exploring and focusing on one's own information, posting one's own news, and similar activities). The areas related to others were about Facebook friends (e.g., exploring others' profiles and reading comments). The results showed that, based on cardiovascular measures (strong measurements of psychological stress), looking at one's own profile increased mental stress level. Bayesian analyses showed that these differences between the two conditions were not due to the cognitive load or the different attentional and emotional content in the two conditions. The study posed new questions about the expression of one's self to others, and indicated potential detrimental effects of chronic stress deriving from being more oriented to the self than the others.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Mídias Sociais , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Psicofisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
17.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 166(6): 754-758, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028579

RESUMO

We studied immunocorrecting effects of Semax (Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro) on the model of "social" stress caused by sensory contact and intermale confrontation. Functional activity of the immune system of laboratory animals was evaluated in standard immunopharmacological tests: delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, direct agglutination test, latex test for studying phagocytic activity of peripheral blood neutrophils, changes in differential leukocyte count, and weight of immunocompetent organs. It was found that changes in the immune response caused by "social" stress are multidirectional, which confirms the theory of stress-induced "immune imbalance". Semax acted as effective immune corrector restoring cellular and humoral immunogenesis reactions and phagocytic activity of neutrophils. This attested to the presence of immunomodulating properties in Semax and necessitates further studies in this field.


Assuntos
Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/análogos & derivados , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/farmacologia , Agressão , Animais , Animais não Endogâmicos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Fixação do Látex , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
18.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 391-402.e2, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the link between pathophysiologic factors and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), or whether these factors have cumulative effects on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). We investigated whether pathophysiologic alterations associated with IBS have cumulative or independent effects on PROs. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 3 cohorts of patients with IBS (n = 407; 74% female; mean age, 36 ± 12 years), based on Rome II or Rome III criteria, seen at a specialized unit for functional gastrointestinal disorders in Sweden from 2002 through 2014. All patients underwent assessments of colonic transit time (radiopaque markers); compliance, allodynia, and hyperalgesia (rectal barostat); anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale), as pathophysiologic factors. Dysfunction was defined by available normal values. PROs included IBS symptom severity, somatic symptom severity, and disease-specific quality of life. RESULTS: Allodynia was observed in 36% of patients, hyperalgesia in 22%, accelerated colonic transit in 18%, delayed transit in 7%, anxiety in 52%, and depression in 24%: each of these factors was associated with severity of at least 1 symptom of IBS. Rectal compliance was not associated with more severe symptoms of IBS. At least 3 pathophysiologic factors were present in 20% of patients, 2 in 30%, 1 in 31%, and none in 18%. With increasing number of pathophysiologic abnormalities, there was a gradual increase in IBS symptom severity (P < .0001) and somatic symptom severity (P < .0001), and a gradual reduction in quality of life (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Visceral hypersensitivity, including allodynia and hyperalgesia, abnormal colonic transit, and psychologic factors are all associated with IBS symptoms. These factors have a cumulative effect on gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal symptoms, as well as on quality of life, in patients with IBS and are therefore relevant treatment targets.


Assuntos
Trânsito Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hiperalgesia/psicologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Dor Visceral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Colo/inervação , Colo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Dor Visceral/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(8)2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003456

RESUMO

The negative effects of mental stress on human health has been known for decades. High-level stress must be detected at early stages to prevent these negative effects. After the emergence of wearable devices that could be part of our lives, researchers have started detecting extreme stress of individuals with them during daily routines. Initial experiments were performed in laboratory environments and recently a number of works took a step outside the laboratory environment to the real-life. We developed an automatic stress detection system using physiological signals obtained from unobtrusive smart wearable devices which can be carried during the daily life routines of individuals. This system has modality-specific artifact removal and feature extraction methods for real-life conditions. We further tested our system in a real-life setting with collected physiological data from 21 participants of an algorithmic programming contest for nine days. This event had lectures, contests as well as free time. By using heart activity, skin conductance and accelerometer signals, we successfully discriminated contest stress, relatively higher cognitive load (lecture) and relaxed time activities by using different machine learning methods.


Assuntos
Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Fotopletismografia/métodos , Pele/fisiopatologia , Smartphone , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
20.
Biol Psychol ; 145: 142-149, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early life stress is a known risk factor for diseases and premature death. We tested whether parenting style impacts telomere length (TL), a cellular aging biomarker. METHODS: Information on parents' style of parenting was obtained from 199 participants in the Adventist Health Study-1 (AHS-1) who 27+ years later also enrolled in the AHS-2 where blood was collected for relative TL (rTL) assessment. RESULTS: Subjects describing their mothers' parenting style as cold had on average 25% smaller rTL compared to subjects not reporting a cold mother (1.89 vs 2.53). This association was greatest among those with less education, and those who stayed overweight/obese or put on weight during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These results support previous findings that early life stress may have health implications by promoting cellular aging, and expands these stressors to include cold parenting during an individuals' formative years. Higher education and normal weight seem to provide some resilience.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Telômero
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