Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.501
Filtrar
1.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 575-591, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711395

RESUMO

Early Life Stress Stress and daily hassles are a normal part of day-to day-life. The amount of control that is experienced strongly contributes to resilience and coping. Children very frequently do not experience control over the stressors within their lives. Starting from pregnancy, they are subjected - via the maternal endocrine system - to a variety of stressors ranging from normal stress regarding the transition to parenthood to maternal abuse or torture. This article collects research of the last two decades regarding the influence of stress on the developing brain. Both, animal and human studies will shed light on the effect of pre- and postnatal stress demonstrating an influence of early life stressors reaching far into adulthood. A direct influence of stress on multiple developmental characteristics has been postulated and shown. The results of this review will underline the necessity of early life programs focusing stress reduction and resilience in children and their parents. Also, a need for programs targeting stress reduction in pregnancy will be demonstrated and emphasized.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Animais , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
2.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1040-1049, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633420

RESUMO

Sport specialization is a training method now commonly used by young athletes who hope to achieve elite-level success. This may be defined as (1) choosing a main sport, (2) quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport, and (3) year-round training (greater than 8 months per year). A number of sports medicine organizations have published recommendations based on the limited evidence available on this topic. The objective of this article was to perform a narrative review of the currently available evidence and sports medicine organizational recommendations regarding sport specialization and its effects on health to guide athletic trainers and sports medicine providers. To accomplish this goal, we conducted a narrative review of articles and position statements on sport specialization published from 1990 through 2018. Injury, overuse injury, serious overuse injury, and lower extremity injury were likely associated with higher degrees of sport specialization in various populations. Sports medicine organizations in general recommended against sport specialization in young athletes and instead promoted multisport participation for physical and psychological benefits. Few long-term data suggest that sport specialization has negative health-related quality-of-life consequences. Higher degrees of sport specialization likely pose risks of overuse injury; however, the age of specialization at which this risk occurs is not known. Because different populations and sports activities may put children at risk for certain injuries, future researchers should monitor large populations with sport-specific prospective active surveillance.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos , Especialização , Medicina Esportiva , Estresse Psicológico , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Criança , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Esportiva/métodos , Medicina Esportiva/normas , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Esportes Juvenis/fisiologia , Esportes Juvenis/psicologia , Esportes Juvenis/normas
4.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 61(9): 605-616, 2019.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients may experience psychological distress, like anxiety and depressive symptoms. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to alleviate this psychological distress. However, patients experience barriers in participating in face-to-face MBCT. Individual internet-based MBCT (eMBCT) could be an alternative.
AIM: To compare MBCT and eMBCT to treatment as usual (TAU) for psychological distress in cancer patients.
METHOD: 245 cancer patients with psychological distress were randomly allocated to MBCT (n = 77), eMBCT (n = 90) or TAU (n = 78). Patients completed baseline (T0) and post-intervention (T1) assessments. The primary outcome was psychological distress on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Outcomes were analyzed using linear mixed modeling on the intention-to-treat sample. Since both interventions were compared to TAU, the type I error rate was set to p < 0.025.
RESULTS: Compared to TAU, patients reported significantly less psychological distress after both MBCT (Cohen's d = 0.43, p < 0.001) and eMBCT (Cohen's d = 0.63, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Compared to TAU, MBCT and eMBCT were similarly effective in reducing psychological distress in a sample of distressed heterogeneous cancer patients.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Atenção Plena , Neoplasias/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 42: 126-133, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522057

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients have many needs, including strategies to cope with the associated distress, during and after cancer treatment. Establishing and implementing adequate social and emotional support for these women, to reduce the detrimental effects of stress resulting from their treatment and disease, is the need of the hour. This study aims to assess how women, diagnosed and treated for breast cancer, combat emotional stress using mechanisms of coping and control and emotional defense, as well as to identify potential groups among them, with different long-term patterns and needs. METHODS: 98 patients belonging to a local breast cancer support association (ALMOM), were enrolled in this study. A questionnaire specifically designed for them was administered, and its internal consistency and reliability assessed. A hierarchical clustering was employed to classify the women. The questionnaire focused on four sections, including personal feelings, coping strategies, environmental influences and maladaptive coping. RESULTS: An adequate internal reliability was obtained with Cronbach's α near or greater than 0.60. Personal feelings were significant and clearly correlated with coping strategies and maladaptive coping. Three groups of women with different patterns of emotional characteristics and needs were identified: positivist, unsafe, and hopeless women, with different long-term emotional needs to be satisfied. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological therapeutic interventions should be maintained in many breast cancer patients over time, even after treatment completion, in order to consolidate adaptive and sustainable responses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509993

RESUMO

An increase in the prevalence of stress among college students is compromising their mental health and academic success. One approach to stress prevention that has seen a surge in implementation is the use of university-based Animal Visitation Programs (AVPs). Despite their popularity and promising causal findings, program evaluations on students' responsiveness (e.g., enjoyment, attendance, perceptions on usefulness and behavioral change) have yet to be conducted. Using a mixed methods approach, this study reports results of a program evaluation embedded in a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of incorporating various levels (0%, 50% or 100%) of Human Animal Interaction (HAI) into a four-week long university-based stress prevention program resulting in three conditions: (1) Evidence-based Academic Stress Management content only (0% HAI), (2) Human Animal Interaction with therapy dogs only (100% HAI) and (3) equal combinations of Academic Stress Management and HAI (50% HAI). Responsiveness (e.g., enjoyment, usefulness, recommendation and behavioral change) was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively using self-reported survey data collected immediately following the program and again six weeks later. The results suggest that combining evidence-based content presentations with HAI was associated with higher levels of enjoyment, perceived usefulness, and likelihood of recommendation compared to presenting content presentation or HAI alone, although doing so did not result in differences in perceived behavioral change by condition. Themes of students' perceptions on the role of HAI in shaping program enjoyment, usefulness, recommendations and behavioral change were described.


Assuntos
Vínculo Homem-Animal de Estimação , Cães , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Autorrelato , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 331-337, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488749

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Academic learning is the most important source of stress among young students worldwide and appears to be quite severe in eastern countries. We aimed to examine the relationship between academic stress and depression among adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in United Arab Emirates using the Perceived Stress Scale - 14 (PSS-14) and Educational Stress Scale (ESS) for Adolescents (English and Arabic versions). RESULTS: The overall PSS was high in 186 (20%) of the respondents, and moderate in 695 (76%). A multiple regression model of predictors of the PSS showed statistically significant correlations between the total PSS-14 scores and age (p<0.0004), gender (p<0.0001), and grade (p<0.001). A multiple regression model of the PSS-14 questionnaire as predictors of the ESSA revealed that Four variables on PSS-14 were statistically significant predictors of the ESSA: history of depression (p<0.0001), content with academic achievement (p<0.0001), high academic expectation of parents (p<0.003), and a believe capable of meeting parental expectations (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with severe academic stress need to be identified early. We suggest that an interdisciplinary team in the schools including student advisors and counselors be developed to further address stressors. In addition, students should be taught different stress management techniques such as cognitive behavioral skills to improve their ability to cope with school demands. The identification of stressors may lead to strategies that might address the quality of teaching and mental health evaluation among adolescents.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Depressão/psicologia , Motivação , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Emirados Árabes Unidos
8.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 139, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migrant women at risk of social exclusion often experience health inequities based on gender, country of origin or socioeconomic status. Traditional health promotion programs designed for this population have focused on covering their basic needs or modifying lifestyle behaviors. The salutogenic model of health could offer a new perspective enabling health promotion programs to reduce the impact of health inequities. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a salutogenic health promotion program focused on the empowerment of migrant women at risk of social exclusion. METHODS: A four-session salutogenic health promotion program was conducted over a period of 6 months. In a quasi-experimental pre-test post-test design, an ad hoc questionnaire was administered to 26 women to collect sociodemographic data, together with 5 validated instruments: Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence (SOC-13), Duke-UNC-11 (perceived social support), Quality of Life Short Form-36 (SF-36), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and the Cohen et al. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10). Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression models were performed. Statistical tests were considered significant with a two-tailed p value < 0.05. RESULTS: Participants had a low initial SOC-13 score (60.36; SD 8.16), which did not show significant change after the health promotion program. Perceived social support (37.07; SD 6.28) and mental quality of life also remained unchanged, while physical quality of life increased from 50.84 (SD 4.60) to 53.08 (SD 5.31) (p = 0.049). Self-esteem showed an increasing trend from 30.14 (SD 4.21) to 31.92 (SD 4.38) (p = 0.120). Perceived stress decreased from 20.57 (SD 2.91) to 18.38 (SD 3.78) (p = 0.016). A greater effect was observed at the end of the program in women with lower initial scores for SOC-13 and quality of life and higher initial scores of perceived stress. CONCLUSIONS: The health promotion program reduced perceived stress, increased physical quality of life and showed a trend toward increased self-esteem, especially among migrant women with multiple vulnerability factors. The salutogenic model of health should be considered as a good practice to apply in health promotion programs and to be included in national policies to reduce health inequity in migrant populations.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Autoimagem , Distância Social , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(12): 5073-5077, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473951

RESUMO

Social skills intervention is an evidence-based practice for enhancing communication and interpersonal skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participation in the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS®), a manualized social skills intervention for adolescents with ASD, is associated with improved social skills and peer interactions, as well as decreased autism symptoms. Participation in PEERS® has also been linked to increased parent self-efficacy and decreased family chaos. The present study examined parenting stress in the context of PEERS®. Following participation in PEERS®, parents reported lower levels of parenting stress associated with adolescent mood and social isolation. These findings provide further evidence of the family-wide benefits of adolescent-focused social skills intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/reabilitação , Criança , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Autoeficácia , Habilidades Sociais , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
10.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 501-520, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395328

RESUMO

Reducing the frequency of drug administration in the treatment of exotic pets is advantageous because it may decrease handling frequency and thus potential stress and injury risk for the animal, increase owner compliance with the prescribed treatment, and decrease need for general anesthesia in patients that cannot be handled safely. Increasing efficient drug plasma concentration using sustained-released delivery systems is an appealing solution. Potential candidates that could provide a promising solution have been investigated in exotic pets. In this article, the technologies that are the closest to being integrated in exotic pet medicine are reviewed: osmotic pumps, nanoparticles, and hydrogels.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Medicina Veterinária/instrumentação , Animais , Aves , Implantes de Medicamento , Peixes , Hidrogéis , Bombas de Infusão/economia , Bombas de Infusão/veterinária , Lipossomos , Mamíferos , Nanomedicina/tendências , Nanopartículas , Osmose/fisiologia , Coelhos , Ratos , Répteis , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Medicina Veterinária/métodos
11.
Rech Soins Infirm ; 137(2): 62-76, 2019 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453674

RESUMO

Context : Since 2006, all students in healthcare, including student nurses, follow an emergency care curriculum. This curriculum uses simulation, which can be psychologically harmful to students. Objective : this study explores tutors' strategies to establish and maintain students' psychological safety during the emergency care simulations. Method : A qualitative study was conducted within an exploratory framework. Qualitative data were collected by semi-structured interviews. The sample subjects were emergency care tutors. Results : The tutors identified risk factors affecting the students' psychological wellbeing during simulations. Having assessed these risks, tutors deploy prevention strategies. When a student is in psychological distress, they implement several remedial tools. These strategies intervene at the three stages of the simulation : the briefing, the scenario, and the debriefing. Discussion : The importance of psychological risks for students must be taken into consideration by the tutors in simulation. Those risks must be anticipated from the design to the execution of simulation sessions. Conclusion : The management of students in psychological distress should be better addressed in the tutors' own training.


Assuntos
Enfermagem em Emergência/educação , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Currículo , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(9): 1668-1685, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346924

RESUMO

Given the recent rise in adolescent mental health issues, many researchers have turned to school-based mental health programs as a way to reduce stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among large groups of adolescents. The purpose of the current systematic review and meta-analysis is to identify and evaluate the efficacy of school-based programming aimed at reducing internalizing mental health problems of adolescents. A total of 42 articles, including a total of 7310 adolescents, ages 11-18, met inclusion for the meta-analyses. Meta-analyses were completed for each of the three mental health outcomes (stress, depression, and anxiety) and meta-regression was used to determine the influence of type of program, program dose, sex, race, and age on program effectiveness. Overall, stress interventions did not reduce stress symptoms, although targeted interventions showed greater reductions in stress than universal programs. Overall, anxiety interventions significantly reduced anxiety symptoms, however higher doses may be necessary for universal programs. Lastly, depression interventions significantly reduced depressive symptoms, but this reduction was moderated by a combination of program type, dose, race, and age group. Although, school-based programs aimed at decreasing anxiety and depression were effective, these effects are not long-lasting. Interventions aimed at reducing stress were not effective, however very few programs targeted or included stress as an outcome variable. Implications for practice, policy and research are discussed.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
13.
Psicothema ; 31(3): 284-291, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental separation is a stressful experience that can lead to parents suffering mental health problems (MHPs). Parental separation education programs for coping with post-separation adjustment have proven to be effective in reducing conflict and improving co-parenting. However, the effects of these programs on MHPs have not been assessed. A field study was carried out to assess the impact of a parental separation education program on parental MHPs. METHOD: A total of 116 separated parents who completed the program "Parental separation, not family breakdown" completed the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS: Separated parents had significantly higher pre-intervention scores on the nine symptom dimensions and the global indexes of distress in comparison to the normative population. The intervention yielded a significant improvement (i.e., reduction of clinical symptoms) in all MHPs, ranging from 19% in phobic anxiety to 36% in depression and general anxiety; and in the global indexes of distress (36% in the global severity index; 28% in the positive symptom distress index; and 33% in the positive symptom total). Approximately 45% of parents significantly improved through the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The implications of the outcomes of the separation and intervention in parents' MHPs and children wellbeing are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Estado Civil , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Pais/educação , Adulto , Criança , Custódia da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/educação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 47(6): 503-526, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269864

RESUMO

Intervention programs for psychological stress in children of military personnel in the USA - Results of a systematic literature review with regard to transferability to Germany Abstract. Military personnel who have been deployed in war zones or other unstable regions are at an increased risk to develop mental health disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder. Likewise, their children are at high risk to develop mental health problems as well as emotional and behavioral difficulties. Most research on prevalence of mental health problems as well as on interventions within this group was conducted in the USA. In Germany, no systematic intervention for children of military members focusing on their experiences of deployment exist. The systematic literature review aimed to analyze existing intervention programs in the USA, in particular for children of military members regarding evidence, type and addressed target group (parents, children, both). Compared to the social welfare and health care systems in the USA, the German systems are different. Hence, a second aim was to examine the transferability of these programs to the specific needs of children of German military members (Bundeswehr). 27 intervention programs could be included in the review. Programs, directly or indirectly, are addressing the needs of children of a deployed parent. They are usually focusing on the "emotional cycle of deployment" (phase of preparation of deployment, separation phase of deployment and the return of the deployed parent). The programs mainly focused on parenting skills, family reactions to stress, coping strategies of families, and the feeling of coherence within the family. Only 20 % of the interventions could be assigned to the type of indicated prevention. Nine interventions have shown positive effects (either in RCT or non-experimental designs). Several elements of the programs are transferable to the German situation of children of military members. In particular, contents which address the specific situation of families with a military member are desperately needed in Germany. Transferability is limited by the non-comparability of health care and social welfare systems in the USA and in Germany.


Assuntos
Militares , Pais , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Criança , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Alemanha , Humanos , Militares/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Seguridade Social , Estados Unidos
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012582, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and treatment of a brain or spinal cord tumour can have a huge impact on the lives of patients and their families with family caregiving often resulting in considerable burden and distress. Meeting the support needs of family caregivers is critical to maintain their emotional and physical health. Although support for caregivers is becoming more widely available, large-scale implementation is hindered by a lack of high-quality evidence for its effectiveness in the neuro-oncology caregiver population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of supportive interventions at improving the well-being of caregivers of people with a brain or spinal cord tumour. To assess the effects of supportive interventions for caregivers in improving the physical and emotional well-being of people with a brain or spinal cord tumour and to evaluate the health economic benefits of supportive interventions for caregivers. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 7), MEDLINE via Ovid, and Embase via Ovid. We also handsearched relevant published conference abstracts (previous five years), publications in the two main journals in the field (previous year), searched for ongoing trials via ClinicalTrials.gov, and contacted research groups in the field. The initial search was in March 2017 with an update in August 2018 (handsearches completed in January 2019). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where caregivers of neuro-oncology patients constituted more than 20% of the sample and which evaluated changes in caregiver well-being following any supportive intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies and carried out risk of bias assessments. We aimed to extract data on the outcomes of psychological distress, burden, mastery, quality of patient-caregiver relationship, quality of life, and physical functioning. MAIN RESULTS: In total, the search identified 2102 records, of which we reviewed 144 in full text. We included eight studies. Four interventions focused on patient-caregiver dyads and four were aimed specifically at the caregiver. Heterogeneity of populations and methodologies precluded meta-analysis. Risk of bias varied, and all studies included only small numbers of neuro-oncology caregivers (13 to 56 participants). There was some evidence for positive effects of caregiver support on psychological distress, mastery, and quality of life (low to very low certainty of evidence). No studies reported significant effects on caregiver burden or quality of patient-caregiver relationship (low to very low certainty of evidence). None of the studies assessed caregiver physical functioning. For secondary outcomes (patient emotional or physical well-being; health economic effects), we found very little to no evidence for the effectiveness of caregiver support. We identified five ongoing trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The eight small-scale studies included employed different methodologies across different populations, with low certainty of evidence overall. It is not currently possible to draw reliable conclusions regarding the effectiveness of supportive interventions aimed at improving neuro-oncology caregiver well-being. More high-quality research is needed on support for family caregivers of people diagnosed, and living, with a brain or spinal cord tumour.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Cuidadores/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Apoio Social , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/psicologia
16.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 107(3): 425-431, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258449

RESUMO

Background: In an increasingly digital age, the role of the library is changing to better serve its community. The authors' library serves health care professionals who experience high levels of stress due to everyday demands of work or study, which can have negative impacts on physical and mental health. Our library is committed to serving the needs of our community by identifying opportunities to improve their well-being. Case Presentation: Librarians at the Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library at Yale University developed a group mindfulness program and a space for self-defined personal care to assist health care professionals in alleviating stress. Surveys were used to evaluate the mindfulness program and self-care space. Conclusions: We successfully implemented two collaborative wellness and self-care initiatives with students and other stakeholders, as demonstrated by program attendance, diverse space use, and positive survey responses for both initiatives. While these endeavors do not replace the need to challenge structural problems at the root of stress in the health care professions, this case report offers a blueprint for other medical libraries to support the well-being of their communities.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Bibliotecas Médicas/organização & administração , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Connecticut , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(7): 1967-1971, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350952

RESUMO

Background: Gastrointestinal cancer is the third most common types of cancer in the world which leads to a lot of stress among sufferers. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches are used to treat stress induced by serious diseases. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) technique is considered as one of non-pharmacological method for decreasing patient's stress. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the effect of home care using EMDR technique on the stress of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Materials and Methods: The current semi-experimental study was performed on patients with gastrointestinal cancer residing in Ilam, Iran. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n=30) and control (n=30). Home care was provided for intervention group in patients' homes which included 2 sessions (a total of 60 sessions for all patients). Each session lasted for 45 to 60 minutes according to EMDR protocol. The data were analyzed using SPSS (version 16). Results: The findings of this study showed that most of patients were male (36, 60%), had diploma degrees (44, 73.3%), had a monthly income less than 500 thousand (38, 63.3%), were married (39, 65 %). The mean age of the patients was 69.18 ± 11.58 years. No statistically significant difference was observed between two groups before the intervention in terms of patients' perceived stress (P>0.05). However, efficacy and perceived distress of the intervention group significantly was decreased following the intervention (P<0.05). Conclusions: According to the findings regarding the impact of home care using EMDR technique on reducing stress in patients with gastrointestinal cancer, the implementation of this intervention and provision of education for patients are recommended to expand the nursing duty to community health wards as well as to improve the health status of patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/complicações , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 182, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maladjustment and emotional distress are extremely prevalent among first-year medical students in college and are associated with numerous negative consequences for medical freshmen, their families and universities. The current research aimed to detect the efficacy of a well-being therapy in promoting adaptation to college life and alleviating emotional distress among medical freshmen. METHODS: One hundred one participants who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Well-being therapy was given to the intervention group weekly for 5 weeks (WBT, n = 50). At the same time, students in the placebo control condition (CC, n = 51) were required to record early memory for 5 weeks and at weekly meetings it would be shared voluntarily. Psychological well-being, adaptation, anxiety and depression were recorded at pretest, posttest, and at three-month follow-up. Data from 87 first-year students with complete follow-ups (WBT, n = 39; CC, n = 48) were analyzed over three time periods. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, students undergoing the 5-week well-being therapy reported larger improvements in psychological well-being and adaptation, and greater alleviation in symptoms of anxiety and depression from pretest to posttest to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Well-being intervention may provide first-year medical students with skills to efficiently manage maladjustment and emotional distress. It seems that medical freshmen would benefit a lot when such an intervention programme could be incorporated into the general medical education. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-ROC-17012636. Registered 11 September 2017 (Retrospectively registered) at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Psicoterapia/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sante Publique ; S1(HS): 249-256, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210484

RESUMO

The role of forests in enhancing human health and well-being has been studied in Finland for more than a decade, and these benefits are increasingly recognized by the Finnish society. The national research has studied the associations of use and availability of nature with health using different research methods such as population surveys, on-site field experiments, and combining GIS-based data describing the provision of nature areas with use of the areas and health status of people. This article sums up research results from multidisciplinary research work in Finland. One of the main study areas has been restorative effects of nature areas using various psychological measures. These studies demonstrate that forests and other nature areas are important in reducing stress and add recovery from work. Moreover, field experiments have confirmed that visiting forests have beneficial psychological and physiological effects on human health. These effects can be explained by psychological stress relief with contribution from reduced air pollution and noise exposure during the visits. In addition, studies looking at long-term effects of nature exposure suggest that physical activity has a mediating role in perceived health benefits, particularly among suburban residents. Recent efforts include national policy-science discussions on how the research knowledge can be implemented within various sectors such as public health and land-use planning and forest management. This work has resulted a suggestion for a national program called Nature for Health and Well-Being in Finland consisting of an action plan and a multidisciplinary research program. More comprehensive research knowledge has contributed to and triggered series of practical experiments and pilots that are briefly discussed in the article.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Florestas , Saúde Mental , Terapia Recreacional , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Exercício , Finlândia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa
20.
Res Nurs Health ; 42(4): 296-305, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173383

RESUMO

In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), mental health is significantly affected and conditioned by many factors, including psychological ones. This study team aimed to determine whether different coping strategies mediate the relationship between health locus of control (HLC) and mental health in MS patients. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 382 patients with MS were included. The patients completed General Health Questionnaire-12, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were collected using a self-report survey and neurological assessment. A mediation analysis was used to test the study hypothesis. Problem-oriented coping was found to be a significant mediator in the relationship between internal HLC and mental health (indirect effect: -0.129 [95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.193, -0.079]; standardized indirect effect: -0.113 [95% CI: -0.165, -0.070]). Emotion-focused coping was found to be a significant mediator in the relationship between power of others HLC and mental health (indirect effect: 0.114 [95% CI: 0.058, 0.178]; standardized indirect effect: 0.125 [95% CI: 0.062, 0.195]). Emotion-focused coping was also found to be a significant mediator in the relationship between chance HLC and mental health (indirect effect: 0.215 [95% CI: 0.154, 0.281]; standardized indirect effect: 0.209 [95% CI: 0.149, 0.272]). Patients with internal HLC were found to have positive mental health due to their problem-focused coping strategies, while patients with external HLC had worse mental health as they used more emotion-focused strategies. Hence, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies can be considered mediators of the relationship between HLC and mental health in patients with MS.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Controle Interno-Externo , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA