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1.
Bull Menninger Clin ; 85(3): 254-270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468214

RESUMO

Sleep problems among frontline medical staff during the COVID-19 epidemic require attention. A total of 249 frontline medical staff who were recruited to support Wuhan completed this cross-sectional study. A web-based questionnaire about insomnia, depression, anxiety, and fatigue was used to assess mental health status. The prevalence of sleep disorders among frontline medical staff was 50.6%. More time spent in Wuhan and a history of insomnia, depression, anxiety, and fatigue were associated with a higher risk of insomnia. People who stayed in Wuhan for a long time with a history of insomnia, depression, anxiety, and fatigue symptoms might be at high risk of insomnia.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/psicologia , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adulto , China , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17595, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475457

RESUMO

Pandemics such as the Covid-19 pandemic have shown to impact our physical and mental well-being, with particular challenges for children and families. We describe data from 43 adults (31♀, ages = 22-51; 21 mothers) and 26 children (10♀, ages = 7-17 years) including pre-pandemic brain function and seven assessment points during the first months of the pandemic. We investigated (1) changes in child and adult well-being, (2) mother-child associations of mental well-being, and (3) associations between pre-pandemic brain activation during mentalizing and later fears or burden. In adults the prevalence of clinically significant anxiety-levels was 34.88% and subthreshold depression 32.56%. Caregiver burden in parents was moderately elevated. Overall, scores of depression, anxiety, and caregiver burden decreased across the 11 weeks after Covid-19-onset. Children's behavioral and emotional problems during Covid-19 did not significantly differ from pre-pandemic levels and decreased during restrictions. Mothers' subjective burden of care was associated with children's emotional and behavioral problems, while depression levels in mothers were related to children's mood. Furthermore, meeting friends was a significant predictor of children's mood during early restrictions. Pre-pandemic neural correlates of mentalizing in prefrontal regions preceded later development of fear of illnesses and viruses in all participants, while temporoparietal activation preceded higher subjective burden in mothers.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , COVID-19 , Depressão , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico por imagem , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
3.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 276-286, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202551

RESUMO

The research objective was to establish relationships of association, interdependence and structural prediction between the variables of test anxiety, self-regulation and stress coping strategies. The theoretical framework of reference was the Competence for Studying, Learning and Performing under Stress (CSLPS) model. Participating were 142 students who were preparing for professional examinations to attain a post as public school teacher (primary education), enrolled at academies in Almería (Spain) for this purpose. Previously validated questionnaires were administered for data collection. The study design was linear ex post-facto, with bivariate, inferential analyses of association (ANOVAs and MANOVAs) and of structural prediction. Results showed a negative relationship between test anxiety self-regulation, especially in students with high emotionality, and a negative impact on decision making. Positive relationships were found between test anxiety and strategies for coping with stress. Finally, a positive predictive relationship was verified between self-regulation and coping strategies, while associative and inferential analyses highlighted the role of goals as determining factors in strategies used for coping with stress, especially strategies that focuson problem solving. Results are discussed and implications for improving these processes in professional examination candidates are established


El objetivo de la investigación fue establecer relaciones de asociación, interdependencia y predicción estructural entre las variables ansiedad evaluativa, authorregulación y estrategias de afrontamiento del estrés. El marco teórico de referencia fue el modelo de la competencia de Studying, Learning, and Performing under Stress (SLPS). Participaron 142 estudiantes, que se estaban preparando en academias de Almería (España) para obtener plaza como maestros en centros públicos. Para la recogida de datos se administraron cuestionarios escritos previamente validados. El diseño fue ex post-facto lineal, con análisis de asociación bivariada, inferenciales (ANOVAs y MANOVAs) y de predicción estructural. Los resultados mostraron una relación negativa entre la ansiedad evaluativa y la autorregulación, especialmente en los estudiantes con alta emocionalidad, con un impacto negativo para la toma de decisiones. También se encontraron relaciones positivas entre la ansiedad evaluativa y las estrategias de afrontamiento del estrés. Por último, se constató la relación de predicción positiva entre la autorregulación y las estrategias de afrontamiento, a la vez que los análisis asociativos e inferenciales destacaron el papel de las metas como determinantes de las estrategias usadas para afrontar el estrés, especialmente, las referidas a la focalización en la resolución de problemas. Se discuten los resultados y se establecen implicaciones para las mejoras de estos procesos en los estudiantes opositores


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ansiedade de Desempenho/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Escala de Ansiedade Frente a Teste , Inquéritos e Questionários , Valores de Referência , Aprendizagem
4.
Psychiatr Pol ; 55(3): 511-523, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assessment of mental state of patients with T1DM - the level of anxiety, stress and general mental health in the stressful conditions of an epidemic. Moreover, it was checked whether the stress response to the epidemic in the T1DM group differed from that in the control group. This is the first study to address these questions in the type 1 diabetes population in Poland. METHODS: An e-mail was sent to all T1DM patients under the care of a diabetes clinic with information about the possibility of online consultation with a psychologist / psychiatrist, with a set of psychological tests attached. The study included 49 patients with T1DM who responded within the first month and agreed to participate in the study. 38 people from the control group were randomly recruited. Each person completed a set of psychological tools. RESULTS: In both groups, the level of stress was higher than typical for the general population in the situation without stressor. T1DM patients who have been ill for over 10 years more often cope with stress through a task-oriented approach. Patients who have been ill for less than 10 years use avoidance strategies. In the first phase of the epidemic,women with T1DM used avoidance strategies. Patients with diabetes and mental disorders react more anxiously and thus require special care in coping with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: In a situation of stress such as a epidemic, patients suffering from T1DM require optimization of treatment and cooperation of specialists in the field of diabetes and psychology / psychiatry.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Chem Senses ; 462021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351415

RESUMO

Olfactory impairment is one of the more unique symptoms of COVID-19 infection and has therefore enjoyed increased public attention in recent months. Olfactory impairment has various implications and consequences ranging from difficulty detecting dangerous pathogens to hindering social functioning and social behaviors. We provide an overview of how olfactory impairment can impact 3 types of close social relationships: family relationships, friendships, and romantic relationships. Evidence is divided into several categories representing potential mechanisms by which olfactory impairment can impact close social relationships: bonding disruptions, decreased social support, missed group-eating experiences, hygiene concerns, and altered sexual behaviors. We conclude with a discussion of emerging future research questions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Solidão , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
7.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371814

RESUMO

Food insecurity is an emerging issue for college students. A nutrition course with an integrated teaching kitchen was developed to address this issue at a large public university. We aimed to determine changes in food insecurity and stress among students who took the course. The course consisted of weekly lectures followed by teaching kitchen lab sessions to teach basic nutrition and culinary concepts and expose students to hands-on skill development cooking experiences. Using a pre-post design, enrolled students completed an anonymous online survey at the beginning and the end of the semester. Food security was assessed with the USDA Six-Item Food Security Module; stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Pre- and post-data were linked for 171 participants. Paired data statistical analysis comparing the post- vs. the pre-test showed an increase in food security and a decrease in very low security rates (from 48% to 70%, and from 23% to 6%, respectively; p < 0.0001), and a decrease on the average PSS score, indicating lower stress (from (Mean ± SD) 19.7 ± 5.9 to 18.1 ± 6.0; p = 0.0001). A nutrition and culinary course may be an effective response to food insecurity and could potentially improve students' wellbeing.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Culinária , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26757, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397819

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The role of cognitive, social and biological factors in the etiology of chronic periodontitis has been reported.The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary cortisol level and interleukin-1 B level in patients of Chronic periodontitis in smokers and stress and nonsmokers without stress.The design of study randomized, prospective, double-blinded, and prospective study.The total sample size was comprised of 600 subjects between the ages of 20 and 50 years. The sample size was divided into 300 males and 300 females. Out of 600 subjects, 200 subjects comprised of subjects with chronic periodontitis with positive depression level with a history of smoking (Group I), 200 subjects comprised of subjects with chronic periodontitis without depression and without smoking (Group II), and 200 subjects who were taken as the control group comprised of healthy subjects without chronic periodontitis, without depression level, and no smoking history (Group III). Salivary cortisol levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The result showed that there was a positive correlation between morning and evening salivary cortisol level in all the groups with correlation coefficient. There was significant higher value of salivary cortisol in Group I patients when compared with Group II and Group III. However, when the comparison of salivary cortisol levels was done between the Group II and Control group, the result showed nonsignificant P value.It is suggested that stress is positively correlated with the salivary cortisol levels in smokers and nonsmokers.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/sangue , Hidrocortisona/análise , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Periodontite Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Saliva/enzimologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26758, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We determined the effects of rational-emotive psychotherapy on the perception of Business Education Students about TVET Image. Negative perception about TVET by youths, parents and the society has made TVET programs unattractive, uninteresting, less productive and by extension created an unhealthy organizational climate. Improving participants' perception will assist them to mitigate the effect of irrational beliefs, emotional distress, strengthening their psychosocial wellbeing and occupational health. METHOD: This study adopted a pre-test-post-test control group design. Data were collected from 568 participants comprising 104, 137, and 333 from nine federal, state and private owned universities in South-East Nigeria. RESULTS: The result showed that rational-emotive psychotherapy significantly improved the emotional distress, perceptions of TVET image and positively addressed the organizational climate among participants in the intervention group compared to the participants in the waitlist group. The result also revealed that occupational risk management practices of the participants in the intervention group improved significantly more than those in the waitlist group. From the result, we conclude that TVET institutions can apply the REBT model as an intervention program for improving the perceptions of stakeholders about TVET image in order to increase students' interest, boost their self-confidence, self-esteem, and zeal for TVET practices. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the REBT-oriented therapy helped to improve the emotional distress, irrational beliefs, and poor perception of the Business Education students who perceived TVET programs as an inferior and low-esteemed profession.


Assuntos
Percepção/fisiologia , Psicoterapia Racional-Emotiva/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Educação Vocacional , Adulto , Idoso , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 627-642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410739

RESUMO

Anti-Asian racism has spiked since the outbreak of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, creating compounded threats to Asian Americans' psychological wellbeing on top of other pandemic stressors (e.g., fears of infection, financial insecurity, or quarantine isolation). COVID-19 anti-Asian racism signifies the relevance of race and racism during public health crises and highlights the importance of examining the psychological impacts of racialized stress and avenues for resilience during a pandemic. This article describes a conceptual model that emphasizes the importance of rechanneling the experience of COVID-19 anti-Asian racism toward resilience. Specifically, the proposed model identifies a tripartite process of collective psychosocial resilience, comprised of (a) critical consciousness of discrimination as a common fate, (b) critical consciousness-informed racial/ethnic identity, and (c) advocacy, for empowering Asian Americans and protecting them against the harmful effects of COVID-19 anti-Asian racism during and beyond the pandemic. Theoretical and empirical underpinnings of the proposed tripartite process for cultivating resilience against COVID-19 anti-Asian racism are delineated. Practice implications and future research directions, as informed and revealed by the conceptual model, are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , COVID-19 , Pandemias , Racismo , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Racismo/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445675

RESUMO

The term resilience, which has been present in science for almost half a century, stands for the capacity of some system needed to overcome an amount of disturbance from the environment in order to avoid a change to another stable state. In medicine, the concept of resilience means the ability to deal with daily stress and disturbance to our homeostasis with the intention of protecting it from disturbance. With aging, the organism becomes more sensitive to environmental impacts and more susceptible to changes. Mental disturbances and a decline in psychological resilience in older people are potentiated with many social and environmental factors along with a subjective perception of decreasing health. Distinct from findings in younger age groups, mental and physical medical conditions in older people are closely associated with each other, sharing common mechanisms and potentiating each other's development. Increased inflammation and oxidative stress have been recognized as the main driving mechanisms in the development of aging diseases. This paper aims to reveal, through a translational approach, physiological and molecular mechanisms of emotional distress and low psychological resilience in older individuals as driving mechanisms for the accelerated development of chronic aging diseases, and to systematize the available information sources on strategies for mitigation of low resilience in order to prevent chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia
12.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455733

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nurses working during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have reported elevated levels of anxiety, burnout and sleep disruption. Hospital administrators are in a unique position to mitigate or exacerbate stressful working conditions. The goal of this study was to capture the recommendations of nurses providing frontline care during the pandemic. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Semi-structured interviews were conducted during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, with 36 nurses living in Canada and working in Canada or the United States. FINDINGS: The following recommendations were identified from reflexive thematic analysis of interview transcripts: (1) The nurses emphasized the need for a leadership style that embodied visibility, availability and careful planning. (2) Information overload contributed to stress, and participants appealed for clear, consistent and transparent communication. (3) A more resilient healthcare supply chain was required to safeguard the distribution of equipment, supplies and medications. (4) Clear communication of policies related to sick leave, pay equity and workload was necessary. (5) Equity should be considered, particularly with regard to redeployment. (6) Nurses wanted psychological support offered by trusted providers, managers and peers. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Over-reliance on employee assistance programmes and other individualized approaches to virtual care were not well-received. An integrative systems-based approach is needed to address the multifaceted mental health outcomes and reduce the deleterious impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the nursing workforce. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Results of this study capture the recommendations made by nurses during in-depth interviews conducted early in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , COVID-19/enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Canadá , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Liderança , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Política Organizacional , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , SARS-CoV-2 , Licença Médica , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Carga de Trabalho
13.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(8): 896-897, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196670

RESUMO

Importance: Emerging vision scientists who have yet to be awarded their first independent funding may have their research careers disproportionately affected by early COVID-19-related disruptions. In September 2020, the Alliance for Eye and Vision Research convened a panel of 22 such scientists (nominated by their academic institutions) to communicate to the US Congress about the importance of vision research. As part of the effort, interviews were conducted with scientists about the effect of the pandemic on their research. Observations: Qualitative areas of adverse consequences from the early months of COVID-19 disruptions included striking interruptions of patient-based research, limits on other types of clinical research, loss of research time for scientists with young children (especially women), challenges with animal colonies and cell cultures, impediments to research collaborations, and loss of training time. Conclusions and Relevance: The early months during the COVID-19 pandemic increased career stress on many early-stage investigators in the vision field and delayed (and may potentially derail) their ability to attract their first independent research funding grant. As a result, federal and private granting agencies may need to take these factors into account to retain talented, early-stage vision researchers.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , COVID-19/complicações , Escolha da Profissão , Oftalmologia/organização & administração , Pesquisadores/educação , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oftalmologia/educação , Quarentena/psicologia , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/organização & administração , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
14.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 136, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal depression may have adverse health effects on mothers and their offspring. Perceived stress is an important risk factor for depression during pregnancy. Studies have shown that both perceived stress and depression may negatively influence birth outcomes. While 20% of pregnancies in Suriname, a middle-income Caribbean country located in northern South America, results in adverse birth outcomes, data on prenatal depression and its risk factors are lacking. This study aimed to assess the influence of perceived stress on depression during pregnancy in Surinamese women. METHODS: Survey data were used from 1143 pregnant women who participated in the Caribbean Consortium for Research in Environmental and Occupational Health-MeKiTamara prospective cohort study that addresses the impact of chemical and non-chemical environmental exposures in mother/child dyads in Suriname. The Edinburgh Depression Scale and Cohen Perceived Stress Scale were used to screen for probable depression (cut-off ≥ 12) and high stress (cut-off ≥ 20), respectively. The association between perceived stress and depression was examined using bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for social support (including resilience) and maternal demographics. RESULTS: The prevalence of high perceived stress during the first two trimesters and the third trimester were 27.2% and 24.7% respectively. 22.4% of the participants had probable depression during first or second trimester and 17.6% during the third trimester. Women experiencing high stress levels during the first two trimesters had 1.92 increased odds (95% CI 1.18-3.11, p = 0.008) of having probable depression during the third trimester of pregnancy than those with low stress levels. Pregnant women with low individual resilience during early pregnancy (52.1%) had 1.65 (95% CI 1.03-2.63, p = 0.038) increased odds of having probable depression during later stages of pregnancy compared to those with high individual resilience. Low educational level (p = 0.004) and age of the mother (20-34 years) (p = 0.023) were significantly associated with probable depression during the third trimester. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection and management of stress and depression during pregnancy are important. Health education programs, targeting the reduction of stress during pregnancy, may help to reduce depression and its potential adverse health effects on the mother and child.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Região do Caribe , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Suriname/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 73, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood adversities pose deleterious consequences on health and well-being, but limited studies explore whether unique patterns of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) impact the mental health of emerging adults and the mediating role of current stressful events (CSEs). This study examined classes of ACEs and how they relate to CSEs, psychological distress, and subjective well-being among Eritrean College undergraduates. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on ACEs, CSEs, symptoms of psychological distress, and subjective well-being were collected from a national sample of college students (N = 507). We identified ACE patterns using latent class analysis and further examined whether CSEs mediated the effects of ACE classes on psychological distress and subjective well-being. RESULTS: 86.4% of the sample experienced at least one ACE. Collective violence, domestic violence, and physical abuse were the most common ACEs. Three subgroups, low ACEs (66.3%), household violence (19.1%), and multiple ACEs (14.6%) were identified. We found that relative to low ACEs, household violence (ß = 0.142, 95% CI 0.046, 0.248) and multiple ACEs (ß = 0.501, 95% CI 0.357, 0.666) indirectly influenced psychological distress through CSEs, and CSEs mediated the relationships between household violence (ß = -0.096, 95% CI -0.176, -0.033), multiple ACEs (ß = -0.338, 95% CI -0.498, -0.210), and subjective well-being. However, there were nonsignificant relative direct effects of ACE patterns on both psychological distress and subjective well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Experiencing multiple ACEs and household violence in conjunction with CSEs significantly predict psychological distress and subjective well-being. Contextual interventions for the early identification of ACEs and the management of CSEs may play a crucial role in the prevention of mental health problems.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Experiências Adversas da Infância/classificação , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Prevalência , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(2): e231-e236, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221470

RESUMO

Objectives: Burnout syndrome is a condition that is well-documented globally among medical students and affects their academic performance due to high levels of associated stress and psychiatric morbidities. This study aimed to assess burnout prevalence and predictors along with its association with academic performance among medical students at Hail University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of medical students was conducted between May and June 2019 at the Medical College at Hail University. The English version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)-Student Survey was used to assess the three components of burnout syndrome-cynicism, emotional exhaustion and professional efficacy. A fixed-model multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted for each of the three MBI components' levels and for total burnout to identify factors significantly associated with burnout syndrome. Results: A total of 218 students were included in this study (response rate: 53.8%). The majority of participants were female (n = 121; 55.5%) medical students ranging between 21-24 years of age. High emotional exhaustion, high cynicism and low professional efficacy was found among 79.4%, 61.0%, and 37.6%, respectively, of respondents. The overall prevalence of high burnout was 27.1% (n = 59). Female students were at almost double the risk for high emotional exhaustion compared to male students (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-4.34; P = 0.034). Students with grade point averages (GPA; on a four-point scale) ranging between 3.51-4.0 were considerably less prone (83% less risk) to experience burnout as compared to students with a GPA ≤2.0 (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.03-0.91, P = 0.039). Conclusion: High levels of overall burnout were reported among Hail University medical students. Students with a higher GPA, however, were found to be less prone to burnout.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Esgotamento Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Adulto , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Fadiga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Faculdades de Medicina , Universidades
17.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(8): 928-934, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294256

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pharmacy student-perceived stress may impact academic experiences. This research aimed to investigate whether there was an increase in student-perceived stress due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Current pharmacy students were surveyed in May 2020 at a public pharmacy school that utilizes an active learning design and follows a flipped classroom approach. In addition to measuring perceived stress, the survey measured coping behaviors, self-efficacy, and emotional status. The collected data were compared with archived data that were collected for internal use in 2018. Student's t-test analyses were used to compare 2020 with 2018 data. RESULTS: A total of 66 students completed the 2020 survey (response rate 26.2%) and 192 students completed the 2018 survey (response rate 63.2%). On a scale from 0 (never or not applicable) to 5 (multiple times each day), average student-perceived stress was 1.75 (SD = 0.93) in 2020. This value of perceived stress presented a slight, but not statistically significant, reduction from 1.85 (SD = 1.04) in 2018. Comparing 2018 and 2020 datasets showed no significant differences in coping behavior, self-efficacy, or emotional status. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the sample with the lower response rate that completed the survey in 2020, student-perceived stress did not increase during online, remote learning associated with the COVID-19 pandemic as compared to the sample with a higher response rate prior to the pandemic. Perhaps the COVID-19 related changes were seamless to students due to their aptitude for remote, online learning.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Educação à Distância/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Educação à Distância/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Res Gerontol Nurs ; 14(4): 180-190, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288785

RESUMO

The current study investigated the psychological well-being and coping mechanisms of care home staff during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown. Among 147 staff members, 21.8%, 24.5%, and 12.9% reported depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. The results of structural equation modeling showed that self-efficacy and coping strategies had direct effects on psychological well-being. In the paths from self-perceived caregiving to psychological well-being, self-efficacy and positive coping strategies played mediating roles independently and together, and social support played a mediating role together with coping strategies. Care home staff's psychological well-being was undermined during the COVID-19 lockdown. Interventions aimed at improving staff's self-efficacy, adoption of positive coping strategies, and avoidance of negative coping strategies or considerations of social support along with coping strategies are suggested to decrease exhibited symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. [Research in Gerontological Nursing, 14(4), 180-190.].


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Distanciamento Físico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Idoso , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social
20.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254883, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324498

RESUMO

Epidemics such as COVID-19 and corresponding containment measures are assumed to cause psychological stress. In a survey during the lockdown in Switzerland (n = 1565), we found substantially increased levels of stress in the population. In particular, individuals who did not agree with the containment measures, as well as those who saw nothing positive in the crisis, experienced high levels of stress. In contrast, individuals who are part of a risk group or who are working in healthcare or in essential shops experienced similar stress levels as the general public. The psychological mechanisms that determine stress, caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and containment measures, are not yet clear. Thus, we conducted a path analysis to gain a deeper understanding of the psychological mechanisms that lead to stress. Experiencing fear of the disease is a key driver for being worried. Our model further shows that worries about the individual, social, and economic consequences of the crisis, strongly boost stress. The infection rate in the canton (i.e., state) of residence also contributes to stress. Positive thinking and perceived social, organizational, and governmental support mitigate worries and stress. Our findings indicate that containment measures increase worries and stress, especially for those who feel that these measures either are not sufficient or go too far. Thus, highlighting positive aspects of the crisis and convincing people of the effectiveness and necessity of mitigation measures can, not only promote compliance, but also reduce stress. Our model suggests that people who feel protected by the authorities have fewer worries, which can, in turn, limit the negative impact of the crisis on mental health.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Atenção à Saúde , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça
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