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1.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(2): 1, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655328

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin (Ig) A, an antibody with a pivotal role in gut homeostasis, can be modulated by stress and bovine lactoferrin (bLf). The aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of chronic stress on the IgA response in the small intestine during bLf treatment. Male BALB/c mice (n=6 mice/group) underwent 1 h of chronic stress by immobilization for 7 consecutive days or were left unstressed, and were untreated or treated with bLf (50, 500 or 5,000 µg). Plasma corticosterone expression levels were determined by ELISA. The distal small intestine was dissected to analyze: i) total IgA, secretory IgA and IgG, as well as and specific IgA and IgG antibody levels in the intestinal liquid by ELISA; ii) α­chain and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) protein expression in epithelial cell extracts analyzed by western blotting; iii) the mRNA expression levels of α­/J­chains, pIgR, IL­2, IL­4, IL­5 and IL­6 in whole mucosal samples by reverse transcription­quantitative PCR. Data were analyzed by one­way ANOVA, and the differences were analyzed by the Holm­Sidák post hoc test and were considered significant if P<0.05. Results from the present study revealed the upregulatory effects of chronic stress on the total antibody levels, protein (α­chain; 78­kDa pIgR) and mRNA (α­ and J­chains; pIgR; IL­6) expression levels were restricted by bLf under stress. The effects of chronic stress on the downregulation of IL­2 and IL­4 mRNA expression were not changed by bLf under stress. The corticosterone response in unstressed mice treated with 5,000 µg bLf and the specific­IgG levels in the unstressed and stressed groups treated with bLf at all doses were increased. The findings suggested an effect of bLf in maintaining homeostasis under stress.


Assuntos
Corticosterona/sangue , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Lactoferrina/farmacologia , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Imunoglobulina A/genética , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/análise , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/genética , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334739

RESUMO

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a rare but life-threatening condition that is still not completely understood. Characterised by rapidly reversible ventricular dysfunction without any prior coronary artery disease, it can imitate a myocardial infarction and lead to death if not managed appropriately. This report examines a case of intraoperative cardiac arrest in a patient with no previous cardiac disease, and discusses the factors that may have precipitated this event, as well as the ways of distinguishing the cause of the arrest based on clinical course and investigations, eventually leading to a diagnosis of TTC.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico , Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Adulto , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Catecolaminas/sangue , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/sangue , Parada Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Complicações Intraoperatórias/sangue , Complicações Intraoperatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Gravidez , Simendana/administração & dosagem , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/sangue , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/etiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244017, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382718

RESUMO

Hormonal changes such as increased cortisol level in blood plasma in response to stress and social environmental stimuli are common among vertebrates including humans and typically accompanied by other physiological processes, such as changes in body pigmentation and/or pupil dilatation. The role of pupil size variation (PSV) as a response to stress have yet to be investigated in fish. We exposed albino and pigmented European catfish to short-term stress and measured changes in pupil size and cortisol level. Albinos showed lower pupil dilatation and higher cortisol levels than did pigmented conspecifics. A clear positive relationship between pupil dilatation and cortisol concentrations was observed for both pigmented and albino specimens, suggesting that PSV can be used as a stress indicator in fish, irrespective of albino's inability to express social communication by coloring. During the follow-up, we investigated whether a penultimate contest between albino individuals would impact contestants' social stress during subsequent contact. We observed PSV during the contact of unfamiliar albino catfish with different penultimate experiences (winner (W) and/or loser (L)). Then, the following treatment combinations were tested: WW, WL and LL. Twenty-four-hour contact of two unfamiliar catfish resulted in higher pupil dilatation among individuals with previous winner experience. Among treatment combinations, a WL contest displayed the highest pupil dilatation for winners. PSV reflected socially induced stress in individuals that was accompanied by the "winner" experience and dominancy in albinos. To conclude, the present study validates pupil dilatation as a non-invasive method to evaluate stress level in pigmented as well as albino fish in various contexts.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Pigmentação da Pele , Estresse Psicológico/sangue
4.
J Med Life ; 13(2): 132-137, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742503

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder with significant co-morbidities and healthcare burdens. Many large studies have investigated the association between perceived stress and DM; however, none investigated this in a larger Indian population. We hypothesized stress as one of the reasons for the progression of people with prediabetes into DM. The present study was, therefore, planned to report on associations between perceived stress and blood glucose markers stratified by diabetic status. The current descriptive study was a subset analysis of the nationwide cross-sectional survey, conducted in all Indian zones under the National Multicentric Diabetes Control Program. The study examined the perceived stress levels using a perceived stress scale (PSS-10) in people with prediabetes (n=649) and DM (n=485) and then segregated them into three categories (minimum, moderate, and severe). Blood glucose markers (fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and HbA1c) were evaluated to report their association with the perceived stress. The study revealed a significantly higher HbA1c level in people with prediabetes, particularly those with severe perceived stress (6.12 ± 0.27) compared to other categories. Those with DM had a higher fasting blood glucose level, particularly with severe perceived stress (239.28 ± 99.52). An increased HbA1c level is noted in severely stressed people with prediabetes, requiring a comprehensive analysis with a longitudinal study of the role of perceived stress in the progression of prediabetes into DM. Additionally, higher fasting blood glucose levels in patients with DM and severe perceived stress suggests the need for establishing comprehensive diabetic care inclusive of stress management.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia
5.
Life Sci ; 258: 118107, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682919

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment has been widely recognized as a common symptom of chronic stress. Ginsenoside Rd (GRd), the major active compound in Panax ginseng, was previously reported in various neurological researches. However, little research is available regarding on the effect of GRd on cognitive improvement in mice subjected to chronic stress. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of GRd in chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced cognitive deficits and explored the potential mechanism in male C57BL/6J mice. Our results demonstrated that oral administration of GRd for 28 days markedly increased the spontaneous alternation in Y-maze and the relative discrimination index in novel object or location recognition tests following CRS. Additionally, GRd treatment considerably increased the antioxidant enzymes activities in the hippocampus. The expression levels of hippocampus and serum inflammation factors in the CRS groups were also counter-regulated by GRd treatment. Meanwhile, GRd treatment could reverse CRS-induced the decrease in phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), camp-reflecting element binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expression in the hippocampus. These findings provided evidences that GRd improves cognitive impairment in CRS mice by mitigating oxidative stress and inflammation, while upregulating the hippocampal BDNF-mediated CREB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Restrição Física , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Doença Crônica , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Biológicos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16258-16263, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581123

RESUMO

Chronic stress has been widely proposed to increase systemic inflammation, a pathway that may link stress with a heightened risk for many diseases. The chronic stress-inflammation relationship has been challenging to study in humans, however, and family caregiving has been identified as one type of stressful situation that might lead to increased inflammation. Previous studies of caregiving and inflammation have generally used small convenience samples, compared caregivers with poorly characterized control participants, and assessed inflammation only after caregivers provided care for extended periods of time. In the current project, changes over a 9-y period were examined on six circulating biomarkers of inflammation for 480 participants from a large population-based study. All participants reported no involvement in caregiving prior to the first biomarker assessment, and 239 participants then took on extensive and prolonged family caregiving responsibilities at some point prior to the second biomarker assessment. Incident caregivers were individually matched on multiple demographic and health history variables with participants who reported no caregiving responsibilities. Of the six biomarkers examined, only tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 1 showed a significantly greater increase in caregivers compared with controls. This effect was small (d = 0.14), and no effects were found for a subset of 45 caregivers who were living with a spouse with dementia. These results are consistent with recent meta-analytic findings and challenge the widespread belief that caregiving is a substantial risk factor for increased inflammation. Future research is warranted on factors that may account for stress resilience in family caregivers.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1927): 20192941, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396799

RESUMO

Mimicry, and especially spontaneous facial mimicry, is a rudimentary element of social-emotional experience that is well-conserved across numerous species. Although such mimicry is thought to be a relatively automatic process, research indicates that contextual factors can influence mimicry, especially in humans. Here, we extend this work by investigating the effect of acute psychosocial stress on spontaneous facial mimicry. Participants performed a spontaneous facial mimicry task with facial electromyography (fEMG) at baseline and approximately one month later, following an acute psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). Results show that the magnitude of the endocrine stress response reduced zygomaticus major reactivity, and specifically spontaneous facial mimicry for positive social stimuli (i.e. smiles). Individuals with higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol showed a more blunted fEMG response to smiles, but not to frowns. Conversely, stress had no effect on corrugator supercilii activation (i.e. frowning to frowns). These findings highlight the importance of the biological stress response system in this basic element of social-emotional experience.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/sangue , Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Músculos Faciais , Humanos
8.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(7): 2031-2042, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388622

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which plays a critical role in the human stress response. Men and women with CUD differ in reactivity to social stressors. The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin is involved in anxiolytic and natural reward processes, and has shown therapeutic potential for addictive disorders and stress reduction. OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of oxytocin (oxytocin (OXY) vs. placebo (PBO)) and gender (female (F) vs. male (M)) on response to a social stress task in individuals with CUD. To explore whether ovarian hormones moderate this stress response. METHODS: One hundred twelve adults with CUD were randomized to receive 40 IU intranasal oxytocin (n = 56) or matching placebo (n = 56). Forty minutes after drug administration, participants were exposed to a social stressor. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine neuroendocrine (cortisol) and subjective (craving, stress) response at pre-stressor, stressor + 0, + 10, + 30, + 60 min. RESULTS: Gender moderated the effect of oxytocin on neuroendocrine response (p = 0.048); women receiving oxytocin (F + OXY) showed blunted cortisol response compared to the other three groups (F + PBO; M + OXY; M + PBO). There was a main effect of gender on subjective stress response; women reported greater stress following the stressor compared to men (p = 0.016). Oxytocin had no significant effect on craving or stress, and gender did not moderate the effect of oxytocin on either measure. Higher endogenous progesterone was associated with lower craving response in women (p = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Oxytocin may have differential effects in men and women with CUD. Women may be at greater risk for relapse in response to social stressors, but ovarian hormones may attenuate this effect.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Ovário/metabolismo , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Caracteres Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Progesterona/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230053, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298279

RESUMO

Although anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent of psychiatric disorders, childhood trauma-related studies seldom consider anxiety proneness as distinct aetiological contributor. We aimed to distinguish between trauma- and anxiety-associated physiological profiles. South African adolescent volunteers were categorised for trauma exposure (CTQ, mean score 39±11) and anxiety proneness (AP)(CASI, mean score 37±7, STAI-T, mean score 41±8). Circulating hormone and leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor levels, as well as leukocyte functional capacity, were assessed. AP was associated with lower DHEAs (P<0.05) and higher leukocyte GR expression (P<0.05). DHEAs was also negatively correlated with anxiety sensitivity (CASI, P<0.05). In conclusion, AP may have more predictive power than trauma in terms of health profile. Increased glucocorticoid sensitivity previously reported after trauma, may be a unique function of anxiety and not trauma exposure per se. DHEAs concentration was identified as potentially useful marker for monitoring progressive changes in HPA-axis sensitivity and correlated with psychological measures of anxiety.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/sangue , Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0221310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to early-life adversity (ELA) can result in long-term changes to physiological systems, which predispose individuals to negative health outcomes. This biological embedding of stress-responsive systems may operate via dysregulation of physiological resources in response to common stressors. The present pilot study outlines a novel experimental design to test how young adults' exposure to ELA influences neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses to acute stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were 12 males (mean age = 21.25), half of whom endorsed at least three significant adverse events up to age 18 years ('ELA group'), and half who confirmed zero ('controls'). Using a randomized within-subjects, between-groups experimental design, we induced acute psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), and included a no-stress control condition one week apart. During these sessions, we obtained repeated measurements of physiological reactivity, gene expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), and plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα) over a 4-hour window post-test. RESULTS: In this pilot study, the ELA group evinced higher cortisol response and blunted NR3C1 gene expression in response to the TSST compared with controls, while no differences were observed in the no-stress condition. For pro-inflammatory cytokines, only IL-6 increased significantly in response to the TSST, with no differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Overall, this pilot feasibility study provides a framework to investigate the biological embedding of early-adversity via dysregulation across physiological and genomic systems in response to acute psychosocial stress. ELA may program such systems in a maladaptive manner more likely to manifest during times of duress, predisposing individuals to the negative health consequences of everyday stressors. Future studies with larger sample size including both males and females are needed to replicate and expand upon these preliminary findings.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Fertil Steril ; 113(4): 865-875, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between psychological stress and male factor infertility as well as testicular function (semen quality, serum reproductive hormones) and erectile dysfunction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University Hospital-based research center. PATIENTS: Men with impaired semen quality were included from infertile couples, and men with naturally conceived pregnant partners were used as a reference population. INTERVENTIONS: Participants completed a questionnaire on health and lifestyle, including a 14-item questionnaire about self-rated psychological stress symptoms and stressful life event (SLEs), had a physical examination performed, delivered a semen sample and had a blood sample drawn. MAIN OUTCOMES: Differences in stress scores (calculated from self-reported stress symptoms) and SLEs between infertile and fertile men were assessed in crude and fully adjusted linear regression models. Secondary outcomes were semen quality, serum reproductive hormones, and erectile dysfunction. RESULTS: Of 423 men, 176 (41.6%) experienced at least one SLE in the 3 months prior to inclusion (50.4%/36.9%: infertile/fertile men, P = .03); ß-coefficient and 95% confidence interval for the difference between the groups on the transformed scale in fully adjusted linear regression models was 0.18 (0.06, 0.30). However, there were no differences in psychological stress symptoms between the two groups (ß-coefficient and 95% confidence interval) on the transformed scale (0.14; -0.02, 0.30). No association between stress (self-reported stress symptoms and SLEs) and testicular function or with erectile dysfunction was found in any of the men. CONCLUSION: Infertile men reported a higher number of SLEs than fertile men but did not report more psychological stress symptoms. Distress and SLEs were not associated with reduced male reproductive function.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Masculina/psicologia , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/sangue , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1119, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111822

RESUMO

The roots of psychopathology frequently take shape during infancy in the context of parent-infant interactions and adversity. Yet, neurobiological mechanisms linking these processes during infancy remain elusive. Here, using responses to attachment figures among infants who experienced adversity as a benchmark, we assessed rat pup cortical local field potentials (LFPs) and behaviors exposed to adversity in response to maternal rough and nurturing handling by examining its impact on pup separation-reunion with the mother. We show that during adversity, pup cortical LFP dynamic range decreased during nurturing maternal behaviors, but was minimally impacted by rough handling. During reunion, adversity-experiencing pups showed aberrant interactions with mother and blunted cortical LFP. Blocking pup stress hormone during either adversity or reunion restored typical behavior, LFP power, and cross-frequency coupling. This translational approach suggests adversity-rearing produces a stress-induced aberrant neurobehavioral processing of the mother, which can be used as an early biomarker of later-life pathology.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Apego ao Objeto , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/psicologia , Ansiedade de Separação/sangue , Ansiedade de Separação/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Corticosterona/antagonistas & inibidores , Corticosterona/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães , Ratos , Estresse Psicológico/sangue
13.
Ann Epidemiol ; 43: 18-24, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144035

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined whether the timing of when a person experienced the loss of a parent to incarceration was significantly associated with allostatic load, a multisystem index of biological dysregulation. METHODS: Data were drawn from waves I and IV of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents in 1994. The final analytic sample was restricted to responses with valid responses and valid sampling weights (n = 13,365). Survey-corrected negative binomial regressions were used to assess relationships between timings of parental incarceration and allostatic load. RESULTS: Compared with respondents with no history of parent incarceration, reporting the incarceration of a parent in childhood was associated with higher allostatic load scores, whereas losing a parent to incarceration in adulthood was associated with significantly lower allostatic load scores. CONCLUSIONS: The physiological consequences of parental incarceration are associated with the developmental period in which the incarceration occurred. The risk of biological dysregulation may be greatest among those who experience the loss of a parent to incarceration in childhood.


Assuntos
Alostase/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pais , Prisioneiros , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prisões , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(3): 935-944, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068300

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study is to investigate whether ketamine could relieve the social stress (SS)-related bladder dysfunction in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The FVB mice were randomly assigned to either undergo SS exposure for 60 minutes per day on seven consecutive days for 4 weeks (SS1) or control without SS (SS0). The SS0 were then allocated to single or no injection of ketamine (SS0K1 and SS0K0). In the group of SS1, the SS1 mice were allocated to receive single injection of saline (SS1K0), single dose (SS1K1) or five daily dose of (SS1K5) ketamine injection (25 mg/kg/day/ip) since day 22. In vivo cystometry and tissue bath wire myography were performed on day 29. Serum and urine level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In mice without social stress exposure, ketamine administration did not significantly affect voiding frequency (P > .05). SS1 K0 , SS1 K1, and SS1 K5 had significantly lower voiding frequency than that of control (SS1 K0 ) (each n = 15, P < .05). Ketamine administration reversed the trend of decreased voiding frequency in SS1 mice. Stressed mice had significant higher serum level of BDNF that reduced by short-term ketamine. Stressed mice had detrusor overactivity and impaired detrusor contractility which were not reversed by short-term ketamine. CONCLUSIONS: Social stress leads to elevated serum BDNF, infrequent voiding, detrusor overactivity, and impaired contractility. Short-term administration of ketamine may improve SS-related infrequent voiding and elevated serum BDNF level. However, ketamine did not improve SS-related bladder dysfunction on urodynamic and myography studies.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Ketamina/farmacologia , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/fisiopatologia , Urodinâmica
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1961, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029791

RESUMO

Previous reports have shown that during chronic inflammation, the tryptophan (TRP)-kynurenine (KYN) pathway plays a pivotal role in the onset of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the serum TRP-KYN pathway metabolite profile in high-risk subjects of major depressive disorder (HRMDD) defined by depression scores. The concentrations of TRP-KYN pathway metabolites {TRP, KYN, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3HAA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK), kynurenic acid (KYNA) and anthranilic acid (AA)} were assessed in serum from HRMDD, chronic pain disorder patients and healthy controls. In serum from HRMDD, elevated levels of AA and decreased levels of TRP were observed, but the levels of other metabolites were not changed. Furthermore, the change in the AA2nd/AA1st ratio in subjects who progressed from a health. y state to a depressive state was correlated with an increase in the CES-D score. The level of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) was negatively correlated with that of AA. Interestingly, we confirmed AA as a possible biomarker for depression-related symptoms, since the metabolite profiles in the chronic pain disorder group and chronic unpredictable mild stress model mice were similar to those in the HRMDD. These results suggest that AA may be an effective marker for HRMDD.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , ortoaminobenzoatos/sangue , Ácido 3-Hidroxiantranílico/análise , Ácido 3-Hidroxiantranílico/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dor Crônica/sangue , Dor Crônica/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/sangue , Ácido Cinurênico/sangue , Ácido Cinurênico/metabolismo , Cinurenina/análogos & derivados , Cinurenina/sangue , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaboloma , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , ortoaminobenzoatos/metabolismo
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2143, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034255

RESUMO

Psychological stress is a suggested risk factor of metabolic disorders, but molecular mediators are not well understood. We investigated the association between the metabolic profiles of fasting plasma and the improvement of psychological well-being using non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) platform. The metabolic profiles of volunteers participating in the face-to-face intervention group (n = 60) in a randomised lifestyle intervention were compared to ones of controls (n = 64) between baseline and 36-week follow-up. Despite modest differences in metabolic profile between groups, we found associations between phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and several parameters indicating stress, adiposity, relaxation, and recovery. The relief of heart-rate-variability-based stress had positive, while improved indices of recovery and relaxation in the intervention group had an inverse association with the reduction of e.g. lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC). Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and adiposity correlated positively with the suppressed PCs and negatively with the elevated plasmalogens PC(P-18:0/22:6) and PC(P-18:0/20:4). Also, we found changes in an unknown class of lipids over time regardless of the intervention groups, which also correlated with physiological and psychological markers of stress. The associations between lipid changes with some markers of psychological wellbeing and body composition may suggest the involvement of these lipids in the shared mechanisms between psychological and metabolic health.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida Saudável , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Adiposidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Plasmalogênios/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/terapia
17.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(4): 1121-1130, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915861

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Stress is a risk factor for psychosis and treatments which mitigate its harmful effects are needed. Cannabidiol (CBD) has antipsychotic and anxiolytic effects. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether CBD would normalise the neuroendocrine and anxiety responses to stress in clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) patients. METHODS: Thirty-two CHR patients and 26 healthy controls (HC) took part in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and their serum cortisol, anxiety and stress associated with public speaking were estimated. Half of the CHR participants were on 600 mg/day of CBD (CHR-CBD) and half were on placebo (CHR-P) for 1 week. RESULTS: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant effect of group (HC, CHR-P, CHR-CBD (p = .005) on cortisol reactivity as well as a significant (p = .003) linear decrease. The change in cortisol associated with experimental stress exposure was greatest in HC controls and least in CHR-P patients, with CHR-CBD patients exhibiting an intermediate response. Planned contrasts revealed that the cortisol reactivity was significantly different in HC compared with CHR-P (p = .003), and in HC compared with CHR-CBD (p = .014), but was not different between CHR-P and CHR-CBD (p = .70). Across the participant groups (CHR-P, CHR-CBD and HC), changes in anxiety and experience of public speaking stress (all p's < .02) were greatest in the CHR-P and least in the HC, with CHR-CBD participants demonstrating an intermediate level of change. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that it is worthwhile to design further well powered studies which investigate whether CBD may be used to affect cortisol response in clinical high risk for psychosis patients and any effect this may have on symptoms.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Canabidiol/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiedade/sangue , Ansiedade/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/sangue , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fala/efeitos dos fármacos , Fala/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 287: 113324, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733208

RESUMO

There is growing interest in the use of glucocorticoid (GC) hormones to understand how wild animals respond to environmental challenges. Blood is the best medium for obtaining information about recent GC levels; however, obtaining blood requires restraint and can therefore be stressful and affect GC levels. There is a delay in GCs entering blood, and it is assumed that blood obtained within 3 min of first disturbing an animal reflects a baseline level of GCs, based largely on studies of birds and mammals. Here we present data on the timing of changes in the principle reptile GC, corticosterone (CORT), in four reptile species for which blood was taken within a range of times 11 min or less after first disturbance. Changes in CORT were observed in cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus; 4 min after first disturbance), rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus; 2 min 30 s), and rock iguanas (Cyclura cychlura; 2 min 44 s), but fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) did not exhibit a change within their 10-min sampling period. In both snake species, samples taken up to 3-7 min after CORT began to increase still had lower CORT concentrations than after exposure to a standard restraint stressor. The "3-min rule" appears broadly applicable as a guide for avoiding increases in plasma CORT due to handling and sampling in reptiles, but the time period in which to obtain true baseline CORT may need to be shorter in some species (rattlesnakes, rock iguanas), and may be unnecessarily limiting for others (cottonmouths, fence lizards).


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , Corticosterona/sangue , Répteis/sangue , Restrição Física/fisiologia , Agkistrodon/sangue , Animais , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/psicologia , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/normas , Corticosterona/análise , Crotalus/sangue , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino/normas , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino/veterinária , Manobra Psicológica , Iguanas/sangue , Lagartos/sangue , Restrição Física/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Eur Addict Res ; 26(1): 28-39, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630140

RESUMO

Both heroin abuse and early life stress (ELS) affect the immune system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Additionally, accelerated aging due to mild inflammation has been indicated in these conditions. The present study aims to compare plasma levels of apoptosis markers, inflammatory markers, and stress hormones during early heroin abstinence period. Thirty-one individuals with heroin/opioid use disorder who had heroin-ELS and 26 of their siblings who were not abusing substances (ELS), and 32 individuals with heroin/opioid use disorder without a history of ELS (heroin-no ELS) were included in the study. The levels of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, albumin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and white blood cell count were assessed as the inflammatory and biochemistry markers. Also, apoptosis markers including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related weak inducer of apoptosis, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type I as apoptosis markers were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ELS was simultaneously evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and beck depression inventory scales. Besides, heroin craving was assessed by Daily Drinking/Drug Questionnaire score in individuals with heroin use disorder. This is the first study to evaluate the inflammatory, stress, and apoptosis markers during heroin abstinence, supporting the association between ELS and peripheral pro-inflammatory markers' levels and HPA axis.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Albuminas/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Citocina TWEAK/sangue , Dependência de Heroína/epidemiologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/sangue , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Fissura , Feminino , Dependência de Heroína/sangue , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Contagem de Leucócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , MMPI , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Irmãos , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Anesth Analg ; 130(5): 1264-1273, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This pilot study investigated the effect of sufentanil titration by 3 different analgesia monitoring devices or clinical signs during general anesthesia. METHODS: Forty-eight patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy with sevoflurane/sufentanil anesthesia were randomly assigned into 4 groups and received sufentanil guided either by 1 of 3 analgesia monitoring devices (Surgical Pleth Index [SPI], Pupillary Pain Index [PPI], Nociception Level [NoL]) or by clinical judgment (control). The primary end point was intraoperative sufentanil consumption. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol were measured at 4 time points during the day of surgery. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and by mixed model and area under the curve (AUC) analyses for group comparisons and time effects of stress hormones. RESULTS: The total amount of sufentanil administration (µg·kg·minute·10) differed between the groups (median [quartiles]: control = 5.6 [4.4-6.4], SPI = 7.2 [4.8-8.4], PPI = 2.0 [1.8-2.9], NoL = 3.8 [3.3-5.1]; PPI versus SPI, -5.1 [-6.6 to -1.3], P < .001; NoL versus SPI, -3.0 [-5.2 to 0.2], P = .024; control versus SPI, -1.6 [-3.7 to 1.7], P = .128; NoL versus PPI, 1.7 [0.6-3.4], P < .001; control versus PPI, 3.4 [2.0-4.6], P < .001; control versus NoL, 1.6 [-0.2 to 3.3], P = .017) (Hodges-Lehmann estimator [99% confidence interval {CI}], P values). The AUC analysis indicated differences among groups in cumulative ACTH levels (ng·liter·minute, natural logarithm (ln)-transformed data) of NoL versus PPI (-1.079 [-1.950 to -0.208], P = .001) and PPI versus SPI (1.192 [0.317-2.068], P= .001), as well as differences in cortisol levels (µg·liter·minute) for PPI versus SPI (46,710 [21,145-72,274], P < .001), NoL versus SPI (27,645 [3163-52,126], P = .003), and control versus SPI (31,824 [6974-56,675], P = .001) (differences in means [99% CI], P value). Secondary end points (postoperative recovery, pain level, and analgesia medication) showed no differences. CONCLUSIONS: The type of analgesia nociception monitoring affected the total amount of sufentanil administered. Lower sufentanil doses in the PPI group were associated with an increased endocrine stress response. Titration by SPI caused no opioid reduction compared to the control but was associated with a reduced endocrine stress response.


Assuntos
Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Sufentanil/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/tendências , Método Simples-Cego , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico
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