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1.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127361, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947662

RESUMO

In female mammals, puberty and fertility are regulated by the synthesis of estradiol (E2) by the ovaries at the infantile stage and at the approach of puberty, a process which may be affected by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC)s acting through the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, there is no information on AhR-mediated regulation of ovarian estrogenic activity during these developmental periods. Here, we assessed in mouse models, the intrinsic and exogenous ligand-induced AhR action on E2 synthesis at the infantile stage (14 days postnatal (dpn)) and at the approach of puberty (28 dpn). Intrinsic AhR pathway became activated in the ovary at the approach of puberty, as suggested by the decreased intra-ovarian expression in prototypical and steroidogenesis-related AhR targets and E2 contents in Ahr knockout (Ahr-/-) mice versus Ahr+/+ mice exclusively at 28 dpn. Accordingly, AhR nuclear localization in granulosa cells, reflecting its activity in cells responsible for E2 synthesis, was much lower at 14 dpn than at 28 dpn in C57BL/6 mice. However, AhR signaling could be activated by exogenous ligands at both ages, as revealed by FICZ- and TCDD-induced Ahrr and Cyp1a1 expression in C57BL/6 mice. Nevertheless, TCDD impacted ovarian estrogenic activity only at 28 dpn. This age-related AhR action may be ligand-dependent, since FICZ had no effect on E2 synthesis at 28 dpn. In conclusion, AhR would not regulate ovarian estrogenic activity before the approach of puberty. Its activation by EDCs may be more detrimental to reproductive health at this stage than during infancy.


Assuntos
Ovário/fisiologia , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Animais , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligantes , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e040644, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review evidence on routinely prescribed drugs in the UK that could upregulate or downregulate ACE2 and potentially affect COVID-19 disease. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science. STUDY SELECTION: Any design with animal or human models examining a currently prescribed UK drug compared with a control, placebo or sham group, and reporting an effect on ACE2 level, activity or gene expression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science and OpenGrey from inception to 1 April 2020. Methodological quality was assessed using the SYstematic Review Centre for Laboratory animal Experimentation (SYRCLE) risk-of-bias tool for animal studies and Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for human studies. RESULTS: We screened 3360 titles and included 112 studies with 21 different drug classes identified as influencing ACE2 activity. Ten studies were in humans and one hundred and two were in animal models None examined ACE2 in human lungs. The most frequently examined drugs were angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) (n=55) and ACE inhibitors (ACE-I) (n=22). More studies reported upregulation than downregulation with ACE-I (n=22), ARBs (n=55), insulin (n=8), thiazolidinedione (n=7) aldosterone agonists (n=3), statins (n=5), oestrogens (n=5) calcium channel blockers (n=3) glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists (n=2) and Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (n=2). CONCLUSIONS: There is an abundance of the academic literature and media reports on the potential of drugs that could attenuate or exacerbate COVID-19 disease. This is leading to trials of repurposed drugs and uncertainty among patients and clinicians concerning continuation or cessation of prescribed medications. Our review indicates that the impact of currently prescribed drugs on ACE2 has been poorly studied in vivo, particularly in human lungs where the SARS-CoV-2 virus appears to enact its pathogenic effects. We found no convincing evidence to justify starting or stopping currently prescribed drugs to influence outcomes of COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/agonistas , Humanos , Insulina/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Reino Unido , Regulação para Cima
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941516

RESUMO

The estrogen-signalling pathway is critical for normal follicular development; however, little is known about its importance during in vitro maturation (IVM) in large animals, particularly yaks (Bos grunniens). Through the present study, we aimed to determine the mechanisms underlying estrogen involvement in cumulus expansion and the subsequent development of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). COCs were cultured in the maturation medium supplemented with different concentrations (10-6-10-3 mM) of 17ß-estradiol (E2) or its receptor antagonist, fulvestrant, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot were performed to determine the expression of cumulus-expansion related factors and oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs). The cumulus expansion of COCs was observed using an inverted microscope, and COCs developmental ability were judged by the evaluation of cleavage and blastulation rates per inseminated oocytes by IVF, and the number of cells in the blastocyst. Cumulus expansion increased with 10-6-10-3 mM E2, but decreased with fulvestrant. HAS2, PTGS2, PTX3 and OSFs expression increased in the 10-6-10-3 mM E2 groups. Significantly higher cleavage and blastocyst rates were observed in the 10-4 mM E2 group than in the fulvestrant and 0 mM E2 groups. Moreover, in the 10-4 mM group, blastocysts at 7 days had higher cell counts than the other groups. In conclusion, the increase in cumulus expansion and subsequent oocyte development after the addition of E2 to IVM medium may have resulted from increased cumulus-expansion-related factor expression and OSF levels.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Células do Cúmulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/métodos , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células do Cúmulo/citologia , Células do Cúmulo/metabolismo , Feminino , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/metabolismo
4.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(5): L843-L847, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996784

RESUMO

The incidence, severity, and mortality of ongoing coronavirus infectious disease 19 (COVID-19) is greater in men compared with women, but the underlying factors contributing to this sex difference are still being explored. In the current study, using primary isolated human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells from normal males versus females as a model, we explored the effect of estrogen versus testosterone in modulating the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a cell entry point for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Using confocal imaging, we found that ACE2 is expressed in human ASM. Furthermore, Western analysis of ASM cell lysates showed significantly lower ACE2 expression in females compared with males at baseline. In addition, ASM cells exposed to estrogen and testosterone for 24 h showed that testosterone significantly upregulates ACE2 expression in both males and females, whereas estrogen downregulates ACE2, albeit not significant compared with vehicle. These intrinsic and sex steroids induced differences may help explain sex differences in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/biossíntese , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/enzimologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Sistema Respiratório/citologia , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Respiratório/enzimologia , Fatores Sexuais , Testosterona/metabolismo , Testosterona/farmacologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915867

RESUMO

Apela, a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the G-protein-coupled apelin receptor, was first discovered and identified in human embryonic stem cells in 2013. Apela has showed some biological functions in promoting angiogenesis and inducing vasodilatation of mammals by binding apelin receptor, but little is known about its expression characteristics and regulatory mechanism in chicken. In the present study, the coding sequences of Apela in chicken was cloned. The evolution history and potential function of Apela were analyzed. Subsequently, the spatiotemporal expression characteristics of chicken Apela were investigated. Furthermore, the regulatory mechanism of Apela mRNA responsing to estrogen was explored by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results showed that the length of the CDs of Apela mRNA was 165 bp and encoded a protein consisting of 54 amino acids residues with a transmembrane domain in chicken. The Apela was derived from the same ancestor of Apelin, and abundantly expressed in liver, kidney and pancreas tissues. The expression levels of Apela in the liver of hens were significantly higher at the peak-laying stage than that at the pre-laying stage (p ≤ 0.05). The Apela mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated in primary hepatocytes treated with 17ß-estradiol (p ≤ 0.05), and could be effectively inhibited by estrogen receptor antagonists MPP, ICI 182780 and tamoxifen. It indicated that chicken Apela expression was regulated by estrogen via estrogen receptor α (ERα). In individual levels, both the contents of TG, TC and VLDL-c in serum, and the expression of ApoVLDLII and Apela in liver markedly up-regulated by 17ß-estradiol induction at 1mg/kg and 2mg/kg concentrations (p ≤ 0.05). This study lays a foundation for further research on Apela involving in hepatic lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fígado/metabolismo , Hormônios Peptídicos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Peptídicos/química , Hormônios Peptídicos/metabolismo , Filogenia
6.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(4): 364-381, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788222

RESUMO

Long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) with tamoxifen (TAM) or aromatase inhibitors leads to endocrine-resistance, whereby physiologic levels of estrogen kill breast cancer (BC). Estrogen therapy is effective in treating patients with advanced BC after resistance to TAM and aromatase inhibitors develops. This therapeutic effect is attributed to estrogen-induced apoptosis via the estrogen receptor (ER). Estrogen therapy can have unpleasant gynecologic and nongynecologic adverse events. Here, we study estetrol (E4) and a model Selective Human ER Partial Agonist (ShERPA) BMI-135. Estetrol and ShERPA TTC-352 are being evaluated in clinical trials. These agents are proposed as safer estrogenic candidates compared with 17ß-estradiol (E2) for the treatment of endocrine-resistant BC. Cell viability assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, luciferase reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, docking and molecular dynamics simulations, human unfolded protein response (UPR) RT2 PCR profiler arrays, live cell microscopic imaging and analysis, and annexin V staining assays were conducted. Our work was done in eight biologically different human BC cell lines and one human endometrial cancer cell line, and results were compared with full agonists estrone, E2, and estriol, a benchmark partial agonist triphenylethylene bisphenol (BPTPE), and antagonists 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen. Our study shows the pharmacology of E4 and BMI-135 as less-potent full-estrogen agonists as well as their molecular mechanisms of tumor regression in LTED BC through triggering a rapid UPR and apoptosis. Our work concludes that the use of a full agonist to treat BC is potentially superior to a partial agonist given BPTPE's delayed induction of UPR and apoptosis, with a higher probability of tumor clonal evolution and resistance. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Given the unpleasant gynecologic and nongynecologic adverse effects of estrogen treatment, the development of safer estrogens for endocrine-resistant breast cancer (BC) treatment and hormone replacement therapy remains a priority. The naturally occurring estrogen estetrol and Selective Human Estrogen-Receptor Partial Agonists are being evaluated in endocrine-resistant BC clinical trials. This work provides a comprehensive evaluation of their pharmacology in numerous endocrine-resistant BC models and an endometrial cancer model and their molecular mechanisms of tumor regression through the unfolded protein response and apoptosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estetrol/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/química , Estrogênios/síntese química , Estrogênios/química , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Mimetismo Molecular , Estrutura Molecular
7.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2143-2158, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: ERα (estrogen receptor alpha) exerts nuclear genomic actions and also rapid membrane-initiated steroid signaling. The mutation of the cysteine 451 into alanine in vivo has recently revealed the key role of this ERα palmitoylation site on some vasculoprotective actions of 17ß-estradiol (E2) and fertility. Here, we studied the in vivo role of the arginine 260 of ERα which has also been described to be involved in its E2-induced rapid signaling with PI-3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) as well as G protein in cultured cell lines. Approach and Results: We generated a mouse model harboring a point mutation of the murine counterpart of this arginine into alanine (R264A-ERα). In contrast to the C451A-ERα, the R264A-ERα females are fertile with standard hormonal serum levels and normal control of hypothalamus-pituitary ovarian axis. Although R264A-ERα protein abundance was normal, the well-described membrane ERα-dependent actions of estradiol, such as the rapid dilation of mesenteric arteries and the acceleration of endothelial repair of carotid, were abrogated in R264A-ERα mice. In striking contrast, E2-regulated gene expression was highly preserved in the uterus and the aorta, revealing intact nuclear/genomic actions in response to E2. Consistently, 2 recognized nuclear ERα-dependent actions of E2, namely atheroma prevention and flow-mediated arterial remodeling were totally preserved. CONCLUSIONS: These data underline the exquisite role of arginine 264 of ERα for endothelial membrane-initiated steroid signaling effects of E2 but not for nuclear/genomic actions. This provides the first model of fertile mouse with no overt endocrine abnormalities with specific loss-of-function of rapid ERα signaling in vascular functions.


Assuntos
Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/agonistas , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Mesentéricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação Puntual , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/lesões , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Ativação Enzimática , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas/metabolismo , Artérias Mesentéricas/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , Reepitelização/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Tempo , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127304, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559490

RESUMO

Humans are exposed to numerous endocrine disruptors on a daily basis, which may interfere with endogenous estrogens, with Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) being one of the most employed. The anterior pituitary gland is a target of 17ß-estradiol (E2) through the specific estrogen receptors (ERs) α and ß, whose expression levels fluctuate in the gland under different contexts, and the ERα/ß index is responsible for the final E2 effect. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vivo and in vitro the DEHP effects on ERα and ß expression in the pituitary cell population, and also its impact on lactotroph and somatotroph cell growth. Our results revealed that perinatal exposure to DEHP altered the ERα and ß expression pattern in pituitary glands from prepubertal and adult female rats and increased the percentage of lactotroph cells in adulthood. In the in vitro system, DEHP down-regulated ERα and ß expression, and as a result increased the ERα/ß ratio and decreased the percentages of lactotrophs and somatotrophs expressing ERα and ß. In addition, DEHP increased the S + G2M phases, Ki67 index and cyclin D1 in vitro, leading to a rise in the lactotroph and somatotroph cell populations. These results showed that DEHP modified the pituitary ERα and ß expression in lactotrophs and somatotrophs from female rats and had an impact on the pituitary cell growth. These changes in ER expression may be a mechanism underlying DEHP exposure in the pituitary gland, leading to cell growth deregulation.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dietilexilftalato/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Lactotrofos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactotrofos/metabolismo , Hipófise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
11.
Life Sci ; 256: 117975, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565251

RESUMO

Our goal is to understand how loss of circulating estrogens and estrogen replacement affect brain physiology and function, particularly in brain regions involved in cognitive processes. We recently conducted a large metabolomics study characterizing the effects of rodent models of menopause and treatment with estrogen receptor (ER) agonists on neurochemical targets in hippocampus, frontal cortex, and striatum. Here we characterize effects on levels of several key enzymes involved in glucose utilization and energy production, specifically phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. We also evaluated effects on levels of ß-actin and α-tubulin, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and levels of ATP citrate lyase. All experiments were conducted in young adult rats. Experiment 1 compared the effects of ovariectomy (OVX), a model of surgical menopause, and 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD)-treatments, a model of transitional menopause, with tissues collected at proestrus and at diestrus. Experiment 2 used a separate cohort of rats to evaluate the same targets in OVX and VCD-treated rats treated with estradiol or with selective ER agonists. Differences in the expression of metabolic enzymes between cycling animals and models of surgical and transitional menopause were detected. These differences were model-, region- and time- dependent, and were modulated by selective ER agonists. Collectively, the findings demonstrate that loss of ovarian function and ER agonist treatments have differing effects in OVX vs. VCD-treated rats. Differences may help to explain differences in the effects of estrogen treatments on brain function and cognition in women who have experienced surgical vs. transitional menopause.


Assuntos
Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Colina O-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Menopausa/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicloexenos/toxicidade , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Compostos de Vinila/toxicidade
12.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(6): L1280-L1281, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326936

RESUMO

There is marked sexual dimorphism in the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here we report that estrogen can regulate the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a key component for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cell entry, in differentiated airway epithelial cells. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms by which sex steroids regulate SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo
13.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(2): 174-179, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although estrogen therapy is widely used against post-menopausal symptoms, it can present adverse effects, including endometrial cancer. Soy isoflavones are considered a possible alternative to estrogen therapy. However, there are still concerns whether isoflavones exert trophic effects on the uterine cervix. To evaluate the histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in the uterine cervix of ovariectomized rats treated with soy isoflavones (Iso). METHODS: Fifteen adult Wistar rats were ovariectomized (Ovx) and divided into three groups: Group I (Ovx), administered with vehicle solution; Group II (OVX-Iso), administered with concentrated extract of Iso (150 mg/kg) by gavage; and Group III (OVX-E2), treated with 17ß-estradiol (10 µg/kg), subcutaneously. After 30 days of treatments, the uterine cervix was fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed for paraffin-embedding. Sections were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin for morphological and morphometric studies or subjected to immunohistochemistry for detections of Ki-67 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A). The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: We noted an atrophic uterine cervix in GI, whereas it was more voluminous in GII and even more voluminous in GIII. The thickness of the cervical mucosa was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to GI and GII. The cell proliferation (Ki-67) was significantly elevated in the estradiol and isoflavones treated groups, whereas Vegf-A immunoexpression was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to groups GII and GI. CONCLUSIONS: Soy isoflavones cause less trophic and proliferative effects in the uterine cervix of rats as compared to estrogen.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo do Útero/patologia , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Antígeno Ki-67/análise , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovariectomia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1242: 89-120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406030

RESUMO

As longevity expands, women are spending a third of their existence in menopause and beyond. The vast majority suffer from symptoms that negatively impact their quality of life. Systemic vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are the classic cluster affecting 80% of peri- and post-menopausal women. Once thought to be relatively brief, they sometimes persist more than 10 years. Compelling, yet enigmatic, is the recent finding that women with bothersome and long VMS compared with age-matched peers often have worst underlying preclinical markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD).Local vulvovaginal and urinary symptoms, now termed genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM), are seen in 50% of postmenopausal women, and it negatively impacts quality of life. Estrogen remains the most effective treatment for both VMS and GSM, for osteoporosis prevention, and for symptom relief as well as chronic disease prevention in women who experience premature menopause whether from primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) or iatrogenic etiologies. For women who have contraindications to estrogen therapy or who personally object, a panoply of nonhormonal modalities can be offered to treat both systemic and local menopausal symptoms. A historical review of estrogen studies reveals why its persona has vacillated from hero to villain (after the WHI) and back to hero. The "timing hypothesis" and its underlying mechanism shed light on the pleiotropic nature of estrogen. Finally reviewed is the compelling argument from notable thought-leaders that estrogen, in those without contraindications, should be considered for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease as well as the prevention of chronic disease.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/farmacologia , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa Precoce/efeitos dos fármacos , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(6): L1280-L1281, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432918

RESUMO

There is marked sexual dimorphism in the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here we report that estrogen can regulate the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a key component for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cell entry, in differentiated airway epithelial cells. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms by which sex steroids regulate SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo
16.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(1): E81-E90, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396496

RESUMO

We have previously shown that systemic injection of erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A7 (EPHA7)-Fc raises serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels before ovulation in female rats, indicating the induction of EPHA7 in ovulation. In this study, we aimed to identify the mechanism and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis level underlying the promotion of LH secretion by EPHA7. Using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, in conjunction with low-dose 17ß-estradiol (E2) treatment, we investigated the association between EPHA7-ephrin (EFN)A5 signaling and E2 negative feedback. Various rat models (OVX, E2-treated OVX, and abarelix treated) were injected with the recombinant EPHA7-Fc protein through the caudal vein to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the promotion of LH secretion by EPHA7. Efna5 was observed strongly expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the female rat by using RNAscope in situ hybridization. Our results indicated that E2, combined with estrogen receptor (ER)α, but not ERß, inhibited Efna5 and gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (Gnrh1) expressions in the hypothalamus. In addition, the systemic administration of EPHA7-Fc restrained the inhibition of Efna5 and Gnrh1 by E2, resulting in increased Efna5 and Gnrh1 expressions in the hypothalamus as well as increased serum LH levels. Collectively, our findings demonstrated the involvement of EPHA7-EFNA5 signaling in the regulation of LH and the E2 negative feedback pathway in the hypothalamus, highlighting the functional role of EPHA7 in female reproduction.


Assuntos
Efrina-A5/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Efrina-A5/efeitos dos fármacos , Efrina-A5/genética , Estradiol/farmacologia , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Retroalimentação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Retroalimentação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas de Hormônios/farmacologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Luteinizante/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Ovariectomia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Receptor EphA7/genética , Receptor EphA7/metabolismo , Receptor EphA7/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes
17.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(1): 265-271, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409924

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Estrogen and prolactin affect vitamin D metabolism. In conditions such as pregnancy and lactation, their interaction in regulating vitamin D metabolism and circulating FGF23 is not clearly defined. The aim of this study is to investigate this interaction in female rats. METHOD: This study was performed on 50 female adult rats, which were divided into five groups of Sham, ovariectomized rats (O), and three groups of ovariectomized rats were indicated with prolactin alone (OP), estradiol alone (OE), and a combination of estradiol and prolactin (OEP). Serum levels of 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D3, FGF23, PTH, vitamin D-binding protein, calcium, and phosphorous were evaluated. RESULTS: Serum 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH in OE were higher than the O group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively). Serum FGF23 in the OE group was lower than the O group (P = 0.016). Serum 1,25(OH)2D3 increased in OP compared to the O group (P < 0.001) and OE group (P < 0.001). Serum FGF23 in OP was lower than the O group (P = 0.04). Furthermore, combining estradiol and prolactin showed no extra effect on increasing serum 1,25(OH)2D3. Serum 1,25(OH)2D3 was positively correlated with serum prolactin levels (r = 0.318, P = 0.017) in all five groups. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that estradiol could increase 1,25(OH)2D3 by elevating PTH and decreasing serum FGF23; however, prolactin was able to increase 1,25(OH)2D3 by lowering serum FGF23. Moreover, prolactin was shown to be more potent in augmenting serum 1,25(OH)2D3 than estrogen itself, which is important in maternal and fetal calcium supply during late pregnancy and lactation.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Prolactina/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/sangue , Animais , Estrogênios/sangue , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Prolactina/sangue , Prolactina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
Nanotoxicology ; 14(6): 740-756, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401081

RESUMO

Despite numerous studies on the environmental health and safety (EHS) of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), most studies looked into their gross toxicities with rather limited understanding on their labyrinthine implicit effects on the target sites, such as the endocrine system. Burgeoning evidence documents the disrupting effects of AgNPs on endocrine functions; however, little research has been invested to recognize the potential impacts on the mammary gland, a susceptible estrogen-responsive organ. Under this setting, we here aimed to scrutinize AgNP-induced effects on the development of pubertal mammary glands at various concentrations that bear significant EHS relevance. We unearthed that AgNPs could accumulate in mouse mammary glands and result in a decrease in the percentage of ducts and terminal ducts in the adult mice after chronic exposure. Strikingly, smaller sized AgNPs showed greater capability to alter the pubertal mammary development than larger sized particles. Intriguingly, mechanistic investigation revealed that the reduction of epithelial proliferation in response to AgNPs was ascribed to reduced ERα expression, which, at least partially, accounted for diseased epithelial morphology in mammary glands. Meanwhile, the decline in fibrous collagen deposition around the epithelium was found to contribute to the compromised development of mammary glands under the exposure of AgNPs. Moreover, as an extension of the mechanism, AgNPs diminished serum levels of estradiol in exposed animals. Together, these results uncovered a novel toxicity feature of AgNPs: compromised development of mouse pubertal mammary glands through the endocrine-disrupting actions. This study would open a new avenue to unveil the EHS impacts of AgNPs.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Disruptores Endócrinos/farmacocinética , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epitélio/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tamanho da Partícula , Transdução de Sinais , Prata/farmacocinética , Propriedades de Superfície , Distribuição Tecidual
19.
Life Sci ; 250: 117598, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243927

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate if autonomic dysregulation is exacerbated in female rats, subjected to diabetes mellitus (DM), via a paradoxical estrogen (E2)-evoked provocation of neuroinflammation/injury of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). MAIN METHODS: We measured cardiac autonomic function and conducted subsequent PVN neurochemical studies, in DM rats, and their respective controls, divided as follows: male, sham operated (SO), ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX with E2 supplementation (OVX/E2). KEY FINDINGS: Autonomic dysregulation, expressed as sympathetic dominance (higher low frequency, LF, band), only occurred in DM E2-replete (SO and OVX/E2) rats, and was associated with higher neuronal activity (c-Fos) and higher levels of TNFα and phosphorylated death associated protein kinase-3 (p-DAPK3) in the PVN. These proinflammatory molecules likely contributed to the heightened PVN oxidative stress, injury and apoptosis. The PVN of these E2-replete DM rats also exhibited upregulations of estrogen receptors, ERα and ERß, and proinflammatory adenosine A1 and A2a receptors. SIGNIFICANCE: The E2-dependent autonomic dysregulation likely predisposes DM female rats and women to hypersensitivity to cardiac dysfunction. Further, upregulations of proinflammatory mediators including adenosine A1 and A2 receptors, TNFα and DAPK3, conceivably explain the paradoxical hypersensitivity of DM females to PVN inflammation/injury and the subsequent autonomic dysregulation in the presence of E2.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Hipotálamo/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Proteínas Quinases Associadas com Morte Celular/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor A1 de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
20.
Cell Prolif ; 53(4): e12789, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Oestrogen is known to inhibit osteoclastogenesis, and numerous studies have identified it as an autophagic activator. To date, the role of oestrogen in the autophagy of osteoclast precursors (OCPs) during osteoclastogenesis remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of autophagy regulated by the biologically active form of oestrogen (17ß-estradiol) on osteoclastogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After treatment with 17ß-estradiol in OCPs (from bone marrow-derived macrophages, BMMs) and ovariectomy (OVX) mice, we measured the effect of 17ß-estradiol on the autophagy of OCPs in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we studied the role of autophagy in the OCP proliferation, osteoclast differentiation and bone loss regulated by 17ß-estradiol using autophagic inhibitor or knock-down of autophagic genes. RESULTS: The results showed that direct administration of 17ß-estradiol enhanced the autophagic response of OCPs. Interestingly, 17ß-estradiol inhibited the stimulatory effect of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) on the autophagy and osteoclastogenesis of OCPs. Moreover, 17ß-estradiol inhibited the downstream signalling of RANKL. Autophagic suppression by pharmacological inhibitors or gene silencing enhanced the inhibitory effect of 17ß-estradiol on osteoclastogenesis. In vivo assays showed that the autophagic inhibitor 3-MA not only inhibited the autophagic activity of the OCPs in the trabecular bone of OVX mice but also enhanced the ability of 17ß-estradiol to ameliorate bone loss. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study showed that oestrogen directly enhanced the autophagy of OCPs, which inhibited its anti-osteoclastogenic effect. Drugs based on autophagic inhibition may enhance the efficacy of oestrogen on osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo
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