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1.
Zootaxa ; 4897(1): zootaxa.4897.1.1, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756842

RESUMO

Even after more than 250 years of taxonomic research on bees, there are still many gaps in the knowledge about their identity, classification and distribution patterns. Regarding the New World tribe Augochlorini, many efforts have been made in the last years to describe and organize its diversity. Within the tribe, Augochlora Smith has the widest distribution range, as these bees occur from Argentina to Southern Canada, including Caribbean islands. The genus comprises 124 described species in two extant subgenera, and, to date, two partial revisions are available, accounting for central Argentina and Uruguay and for northeastern Brazil. In the present study we review the Augochlora species occurring in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and the southern Brazilian states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina. Specimens from other Brazilian states and South American countries were also examined to help with species circumscription. We found 27 species in the studied area, including nine new species (Augochlora atlantica sp. nov., A. australis sp. nov., A. genalis sp. nov., A. helena sp. nov., A. hestia sp. nov., A. hirsuta sp. nov., A. laevicarinata sp. nov., A. mendax sp. nov., and A. scabrata sp. nov.) and the remaining redescribed when necessary. A key for the species occurring in the studied area is provided. Five new synonymies are proposed and the lectotypes of Augochlora francisca and Halictus esox are presently designated. The geographic distribution of most studied species is associated with the Atlantic biome in many ways.


Assuntos
Abelhas/classificação , Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Argentina , Abelhas/anatomia & histologia , Abelhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia
2.
Evol Dev ; 21(6): 311-319, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508876

RESUMO

Large part of the morphological diversity observed across taxa is attributed to the effect of sexual selection; and the static allometry of these structures vary largely from highly positive to negative, depending on their function, and position on the animal's body. In arthropods, information of how sexually selected contact and reaching male structures use during courtship scale on body size is scarce. We tested two complementary hypotheses: the reaching structure hypothesis and the contact-function hypothesis, in the spider Kukulcania hibernalis. We used the length of the proximal segments of the male pedipalp to test the reaching structure hypothesis, and claw features to test the contact-function hypothesis. Our results support both hypotheses. Small males have disproportionally longer pedipalps (highly negative allometry) than large males, increasing the probability of small-bodied males to inseminate even large females. We also found that both distal contact and noncontact homologous structures scaled shallow (slope < 1) on body size, but allometry was significantly shallower for contact than for noncontact distal structures, providing support to the contact-function hypothesis, and allowing teasing apart the effect of sexual selection on distal contact structures with dual functions.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caracteres Sexuais , Aranhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Masculino
3.
Elife ; 82019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549962

RESUMO

Tapeworms grow at rates rivaling the fastest-growing metazoan tissues. To propagate they shed large parts of their body; to replace these lost tissues they regenerate proglottids (segments) as part of normal homeostasis. Their remarkable growth and regeneration are fueled by adult somatic stem cells that have yet to be characterized molecularly. Using the rat intestinal tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, we find that regenerative potential is regionally limited to the neck, where head-dependent extrinsic signals create a permissive microenvironment for stem cell-driven regeneration. Using transcriptomic analyses and RNA interference, we characterize and functionally validate regulators of tapeworm growth and regeneration. We find no evidence that stem cells are restricted to the regeneration-competent neck. Instead, lethally irradiated tapeworms can be rescued when cells from either regeneration-competent or regeneration-incompetent regions are transplanted into the neck. Together, the head and neck tissues provide extrinsic cues that regulate stem cells, enabling region-specific regeneration in this parasite.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hymenolepis diminuta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regeneração , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Estruturas Animais/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Hymenolepis diminuta/efeitos da radiação
4.
Biol Bull ; 237(1): 1-15, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441702

RESUMO

The pen, or gladius, of the squid is an internalized shell. It serves as a site of attachment for important muscle groups and as a protective barrier for the visceral organs. The pen's durability and flexibility are derived from its unique composition of chitin and protein. We report the characterization of the structure, development, and composition of pens from Doryteuthis pealeii. The nanofibrils of the polysaccharide ß-chitin are arranged in an aligned configuration in only specific regions of the pen. Chitin is secreted early in development, enabling us to characterize the changes in pen morphology prior to hatching. The chitin and proteins are assembled in the shell sac surrounded by fluid that has a significantly different ionic composition from squid plasma. Two groups of proteins are associated with the pen: those on its surface and those embedded within the pen. Only 20 proteins are identified as embedded within the pen. Embedded proteins are classified into six groups, including chitin associated, protease, protease inhibitors, intracellular, extracellular matrix, and those that are unknown. The pen proteins share many conserved domains with proteins from other chitinous structures. We conclude that the pen is one of the least complex, load-bearing, chitin-rich structures currently known and is amenable to further studies to elucidate natural construction mechanisms using chitin and protein.


Assuntos
Quitina/metabolismo , Decapodiformes/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/química , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Decapodiformes/química , Decapodiformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6788-6795, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates skeletal muscle development; however, its functions in internal organs have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we compared the morphological, molecular, and biological characteristics of the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and tongue of homozygous MSTN mutant (MSTN-/- ), heterozygous MSTN mutant (MSTN+/- ), and wild-type (WT) piglets. RESULTS: The heart and liver were lighter in MSTN-/- piglets than in MSTN+/- piglets, while the tongue was heavier in MSTN-/- piglets than in WT piglets (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the tongue was longer in MSTN-/- piglets than in WT piglets, and myofibers of the tongue were significantly larger in the former piglets than in the latter ones (P < 0.01). mRNA expression of MSTN in all organs was significantly lower in MSTN-/- and MSTN+/- piglets than in WT piglets (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, mRNA expression of follistatin, which is closely related to MSTN, in the heart and liver was significantly higher in MSTN-/- piglets than in MSTN+/- and WT piglets (P < 0.05). In addition, protein expression of MSTN in the heart, kidneys, and tongue was significantly lower in MSTN-/- piglets than in WT piglets (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that MSTN is widely expressed and has marked effects in multiple internal organs. Myostatin has crucial functions in regulating internal organ size, especially the tongue. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Miostatina/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/genética , Estruturas Animais/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Folistatina/genética , Folistatina/metabolismo , Mutação , Miostatina/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Suínos/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213268, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893324

RESUMO

Surazomus saturninoae sp. nov. is described from eastern Amazon. The male has a pentagonal flagellum, similar to those of three other species in the genus. These four species are herein gathered as the arboreus-group of Surazomus. We present a brief synopsis of chaetotaxy description in hubbardiines and several homology proposals for the flagellum of the species in the arboreus-group: the posterior lobes may be homologous to the lateral lobes of hubbardiine species with trilobed flagella; the setal brush with 4-5 setae on the posterior lobe may be composed of one Dl2 seta and enlarged lobular microsetae; the single, median posterior coupling pocket may be homologous to the pair of posterior pockets seen in other hubbardiines; the single, median anterior coupling pocket may be homologous to the pair of pockets on the anterior border of the flagellum seen in other hubbardiines. Based on the morphology of these pockets and the chelicerae within Surazomus, we discuss the anchoring mechanism during the mating march.


Assuntos
Aracnídeos/classificação , Aracnídeos/fisiologia , Flagelos/fisiologia , Reprodução , Sensilas/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Aracnídeos/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Masculino , Sensilas/anatomia & histologia
7.
Oncogene ; 38(24): 4739-4754, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792539

RESUMO

Organ size is regulated by intercellular signaling for cell growth and proliferation. The TOR pathway mediates a key signaling mechanism for controlling cell size and number in organ growth. Chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT) is a complex that assists protein folding and function, but its role in animal development is largely unknown. Here we show that the CCT complex is required for organ growth by interacting with the TOR pathway in Drosophila. Reduction of CCT4 results in growth defects by affecting both cell size and proliferation. Loss of CCT4 causes preferential cell death anterior to the morphogenetic furrow in the eye disc and within wing pouch in the wing disc. Depletion of any CCT subunit in the eye disc results in headless phenotype. Overgrowth by active TOR signaling is suppressed by CCT RNAi. The CCT complex physically interacts with TOR signaling components including TOR, Rheb, and S6K. Loss of CCT leads to decreased phosphorylation of S6K and S6 while increasing phosphorylation of Akt. Insulin/TOR signaling is also necessary and sufficient for promoting CCT complex transcription. Our data provide evidence that the CCT complex regulates organ growth by directly interacting with the TOR signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chaperonina com TCP-1/fisiologia , Chaperoninas/fisiologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Estruturas Animais/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Chaperoninas/genética , Drosophila/embriologia , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Complexos Multiproteicos/fisiologia , Organogênese/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Asas de Animais/metabolismo
8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 14(10): e1006455, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303951

RESUMO

The morphogenesis of sex combs (SCs), a male trait in many species of fruit flies, is an excellent system in which to study the cell biology, genetics and evolution of a trait. In Drosophila melanogaster, where the incipient SC rotates from horizontal to a vertical position, three signal comb properties have been documented: length, final angle and shape (linearity). During SC rotation, in which many cellular processes are occurring both spatially and temporally, it is difficult to distinguish which processes are crucial for which attributes of the comb. We have used a novel approach combining simulations and experiments to uncover the spatio-temporal dynamics underlying SC rotation. Our results indicate that 1) the final SC shape is primarily controlled by the inhomogeneity of initial cell size in cells close to the immature comb, 2) the final angle is primarily controlled by later cell expansion and 3) a temporal sequence of cell expansion mitigates the malformations generally associated with longer rotated SCs. Overall, our work has linked together the morphological diversity of SCs and the cellular dynamics behind such diversity, thus providing important insights on how evolution may affect SC development via the behaviours of surrounding epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Masculino
9.
PLoS Genet ; 14(5): e1007375, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723190

RESUMO

Convergent phenotypic evolution is often caused by recurrent changes at particular nodes in the underlying gene regulatory networks (GRNs). The genes at such evolutionary 'hotspots' are thought to maximally affect the phenotype with minimal pleiotropic consequences. This has led to the suggestion that if a GRN is understood in sufficient detail, the path of evolution may be predictable. The repeated evolutionary loss of larval trichomes among Drosophila species is caused by the loss of shavenbaby (svb) expression. svb is also required for development of leg trichomes, but the evolutionary gain of trichomes in the 'naked valley' on T2 femurs in Drosophila melanogaster is caused by reduced microRNA-92a (miR-92a) expression rather than changes in svb. We compared the expression and function of components between the larval and leg trichome GRNs to investigate why the genetic basis of trichome pattern evolution differs in these developmental contexts. We found key differences between the two networks in both the genes employed, and in the regulation and function of common genes. These differences in the GRNs reveal why mutations in svb are unlikely to contribute to leg trichome evolution and how instead miR-92a represents the key evolutionary switch in this context. Our work shows that variability in GRNs across different developmental contexts, as well as whether a morphological feature is lost versus gained, influence the nodes at which a GRN evolves to cause morphological change. Therefore, our findings have important implications for understanding the pathways and predictability of evolution.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/genética , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 90(2): 1521-1532, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768572

RESUMO

A study on relative growth, sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic trajectory was carried out in a population of the aeglidAegla marginata coming from Barrinha River, Iguape River Basin, Tunas do Paraná, Paraná State, Brazil. The size the of morphological sexual maturity was estimated for males and females. The analysis of sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic trajectory were performed using geometric morphometric technique. Males reach maturity with 10.58 mm of carapace length (CL) and females with 10.38 mm CL. Sexual size dimorphism was only visible among adults, with males reaching larger sizes. This is probably related to the reproductive strategy of males. However, sexual shape dimorphism was found for both juveniles and adults: the posterior region of the carapace was wider in females. As the contrast of this feature was stronger in adults, it can be considered that large abdomen is advantageous for egg incubation. The allometric trajectories of juveniles presented similar directions, becoming divergent during the adult phase. The shape variation inA. marginataoccurred gradually throughout its development, with no abrupt transformation upon reaching sexual maturity. The reproductive adaptation is the main reason for the morphological variation within populations ofA. marginata.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Decápodes/anatomia & histologia , Decápodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caracteres Sexuais , Estruturas Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Decápodes/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(1): e0006204, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385123

RESUMO

Tsetse flies are important vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Ability to reduce tsetse populations is an effective means of disease control. Lactation is an essential component of tsetse's viviparous reproductive physiology and requires a dramatic increase in the expression and synthesis of milk proteins by the milk gland organ in order to nurture larval growth. In between each gonotrophic cycle, tsetse ceases milk production and milk gland tubules undergo a nearly two-fold reduction in width (involution). In this study, we examined the role autophagy plays during tsetse fly milk gland involution and reproductive output. Autophagy genes show elevated expression in tissues associated with lactation, immediately before or within two hours post-parturition, and decline at 24-48h post-parturition. This expression pattern is inversely correlated with that of the milk gland proteins (lactation-specific protein coding genes) and the autophagy inhibitor fk506-bp1. Increased expression of Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis 1, diap1, was also observed in the milk gland during involution, when it likely prevents apoptosis of milk gland cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown of autophagy related gene 8a (atg8a) prevented rapid milk gland autophagy during involution, prolonging gestation, and reducing fecundity in the subsequent gonotrophic cycle. The resultant inhibition of autophagy reduced the recovery of stored lipids during the dry (non-lactating) periods by 15-20%. Ecdysone application, similar to levels that occur immediately before birth, induced autophagy, and increased milk gland involution even before abortion. This suggests that the ecdysteroid peak immediately preceding parturition likely triggers milk gland autophagy. Population modeling reveals that a delay in involution would yield a negative population growth rate. This study indicates that milk gland autophagy during involution is critical to restore nutrient reserves and allow efficient transition between pregnancy cycles. Targeting post-birth phases of reproduction could be utilized as a novel mechanism to suppress tsetse populations and reduce trypanosomiasis.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Fertilidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Comportamento Sexual Animal
12.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0189985, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29320528

RESUMO

Advances in imaging and modeling facilitate the calculation of biomechanical forces in biological specimens. These factors play a significant role during ontogenetic development of cichlid pharyngeal jaws, a key innovation responsible for one of the most prolific species diversifications in recent times. MicroCT imaging of radiopaque-stained vertebrate embryos were used to accurately capture the spatial relationships of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus in two cichlid species (Haplochromis elegans and Amatitlania nigrofasciata) for the purpose of creating a time series of developmental stages using finite element models, which can be used to assess the effects of biomechanical forces present in a system at multiple points of its ontogeny. Changes in muscle vector orientations, bite forces, force on the neurocranium where cartilage originates, and stress on upper pharyngeal jaws are analyzed in a comparative context. In addition, microCT scanning revealed the presence of previously unreported cement glands in A. nigrofasciata. The data obtained provide an underrepresented dimension of information on physical forces present in developmental processes and assist in interpreting the role of developmental dynamics in evolution.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Ciclídeos/anatomia & histologia , Estresse Mecânico , Estruturas Animais/embriologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Região Branquial , Ciclídeos/embriologia , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simulação por Computador , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Mastigação/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Morfogênese , Contração Muscular , Músculos Faríngeos/embriologia , Músculos Faríngeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculos Faríngeos/fisiologia , Crânio/embriologia , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Development ; 144(23): 4284-4297, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29183941

RESUMO

In 1917, the publication of On Growth and Form by D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson challenged both mathematicians and naturalists to think about biological shapes and diversity as more than a confusion of chaotic forms generated at random, but rather as geometric shapes that could be described by principles of physics and mathematics. Thompson's work was based on the ideas of Galileo and Goethe on morphology and of Russell on functionalism, but he was first to postulate that physical forces and internal growth parameters regulate biological forms and could be revealed via geometric transformations in morphological space. Such precise mathematical structure suggested a unifying generative process, as reflected in the title of the book. To Thompson it was growth that could explain the generation of any particular biological form, and changes in ontogeny, rather than natural selection, could then explain the diversity of biological shapes. Whereas adaptationism, widely accepted in evolutionary biology, gives primacy to extrinsic factors in producing morphological variation, Thompson's 'laws of growth' provide intrinsic directives and constraints for the generation of individual shapes, helping to explain the 'profusion of forms, colours, and other modifications' observed in the living world.


Assuntos
Biologia do Desenvolvimento , Crescimento , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Aves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biologia do Desenvolvimento/tendências , Modelos Biológicos , Morfogênese , Répteis/anatomia & histologia , Répteis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Seleção Genética , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(45): 9817-9827, 2017 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058420

RESUMO

The efficiency with which ruminants convert feed to desirable products is difficult to measure under normal commercial settings. We explored the use of potential biological markers from easily obtainable samples, that is, blood, hair, and feces, to characterize potential causes of divergent efficiency when considered as residual feed intake (RFI) or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). A total of 54 Charolais bulls, 20 in period 1 and 34 in period 2, were examined for individual dry matter intake (DMI) and growth. Bulls were offered a diet of 70:30 wrapped grass silage to concentrate for 99 d. At the conclusion of the test period, blood samples were collected for the determination of vitamins B2 and B6, and plasma used for the determination of metabolites, natural isotopic 15N abundance (15N NIA, expressed as δ15N ‰) and fractionation (Δ15Nplasma proteins-diet and Δ13Cplasma proteins-diet) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Feces were analyzed by NIRS. Bulls were slaughtered at 15-17 months of age and carcass characteristics determined. Bulls were ranked according to RFI with extremes (SD ± 0.5; n = 31) classified as either efficient (Neg-RFI) or inefficient (Pos-RFI). Extreme bulls were then classified for FCE (high vs low FCE), changing the groups. Pos-RFI bulls consumed 14% more feed than Neg-RFI bulls for the same level of weight gain. Low FCE bulls tended to eat more, but had lower weight gains than high FCE bulls. No differences were detected in carcass conformation, fat scores, hot carcass weight, or dressing percentage. Yet, heart and bladder weights were heavier in Pos-RFI, and rumen weight tended to be heavier in Pos-RFI bulls. RFI did not affect bulk 15N or 13C fractionation. A negative correlation was observed between FCE and Δ15Nplasma proteins-diet. Inefficient bulls (Pos-RFI) had higher δ15N in glycine compared to Neg-RFI bulls. Similarly, metabolomic analysis showed a tendency for concentrations of glycine and sarcosine to be elevated in Pos-RFI bulls, whereas aspartic acid and carnosine tended to be elevated, and serine tended to be lower in High FCE. Among vitamins, only flavin adenine dinucleotide concentration was higher in the blood of bulls with High FCE. These results suggest that the two feed efficiency metrics differ in the underlying mechanisms of metabolism, where RFI is driven by differences in the energetic requirements of visceral organs and the extent of AA catabolism.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bovinos/sangue , Aminoácidos/sangue , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fezes/química , Masculino , Carne/análise , Poaceae/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Vitaminas/sangue
15.
Zootaxa ; 4219(1): zootaxa.4219.1.1, 2017 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28187681

RESUMO

The Southeast Asian pholcid genus Calapnita Simon, 1892 is revised, with descriptions of 17 new species, five of them in the phyllicola group (Borneo: C. lehi, C. kubah, C. bidayuh, C. bankirai; Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java: C. anai), 12 in the vermiformis group (Borneo: C. bario, C. bariengi, C. magaseng, C. dayak, C. lawangan, C. loksado; Sulawesi: C. bugis; Philippines: C. bohol, C. dinagat, C. mae, C. nunezae, C. maragusan). New records are listed for six of the eight previously described species. A morphological cladistic analysis supports the monophyly of Calapnita and of its two previously proposed species groups and presents several new phylogenetically informative characters. New data are presented about ultrastructure and natural history (web, egg-sac, egg parasitism).


Assuntos
Aranhas/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia , Aranhas/anatomia & histologia , Aranhas/genética , Aranhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Zootaxa ; 4218(1): zootaxa.4218.1.1, 2017 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28187682

RESUMO

The orbiniid polychaetes chiefly from Antarctic and subantarctic seas and off South America are described based on collections of the National Museum of Natural History and new material from surveys conducted by the United States Antarctic Program and other federal and privately funded sources as well as participation in international programs. A total of 44 species of Orbiniidae distributed in 10 genera are reported from the Pacific Ocean and waters off South America and Antarctica. Twenty-one species are new to science; one species is renamed. Berkeleyia heroae n. sp., B. abyssala n. sp., B. weddellia n. sp.; B. hadala n. sp., Leitoscoloplos simplex n. sp., L. plataensis n. sp., L. nasus n. sp., L. eltaninae n. sp., L. phyllobranchus n. sp., L. rankini n. sp., Scoloplos bathytatus n. sp., S. suroestense n. sp., Leodamas hyphalos n. sp., L. maciolekae n. sp., L. perissobranchiatus n. sp., Califia bilamellata n. sp., Orbinia orensanzi n. sp., Naineris antarctica n. sp., N. argentiniensis n. sp., Orbiniella spinosa n. sp., and O. landrumae n. sp. are new to science. A new name, Naineris furcillata, replaces N. chilensis Carrasco, 1977, a junior homonym of N. dendtritica chilensis Hartmann­Schröder, 1965, which is raised to full species status. Leodamas cochleatus (Ehlers, 1900) is removed from synonymy and redescribed. A neotype is established for Leodamas verax Kinberg, 1966, the type species. A general overview of Leodamas species is provided. The Leitoscoloplos kerguelensis (McIntosh, 1885) complex is reviewed and partially revised. Definitions of the genera of the Orbiniidae are updated to conform to recently described taxa. Several new synonymies are proposed following a reexamination of previously described type specimens. The morphological characters used to identify and classify orbiniids are reviewed. The biogeographic and bathymetric distributions of the South American and Southern Ocean orbiniid fauna are reviewed.


Assuntos
Poliquetos/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Oceano Pacífico , Poliquetos/anatomia & histologia , Poliquetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , América do Sul
17.
Zootaxa ; 4217(1): zootaxa.4217.1.1, 2017 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183098

RESUMO

Sponges collected on the Guyana Shelf, predominantly in Suriname offshore waters, by Dutch HMS 'Snellius' O.C.P.S. 1966, HMS 'Luymes' O.C.P.S. II 1969, and HMS 'Luymes' Guyana Shelf 1970 expeditions are described in this study. Sponges were obtained by trawling, dredging or grabbing on sandy, muddy, shelly, and fossil reef bottoms at 88 stations between 19 and 681 m depth. A total of 351 samples were identified to species level, each consisting of one or more specimens of a given species from each individual station (together comprising 547 individuals and fragments). The collection yielded 119 species together belonging to all sponge classes, but in large majority are Demospongiae. All species are identified to species level, occasionally tentatively, and all are described and illustrated. A new subgenus is proposed, Tedania (Stylotedania) subgen. nov. and a previously synonymized genus, Tylosigma Topsent, 1894 is revived. Thirtysix species were found to be new to science, excluding the first Central West Atlantic record of the genus Halicnemia, not named at the species level because of lack of sufficient material. The new species erected are, in alphabetical order: Amphoriscus ancora sp. nov., Biemna rhabdotylostylota sp. nov., Callyspongia (Callyspongia) scutica sp. nov., Chelonaplysilla americana sp. nov., Cladocroce guyanensis sp. nov., Clathria (Axosuberites) riosae sp. nov., Clathria (Clathria) gomezae sp. nov., Clathria (Microciona) snelliusae sp. nov., Clathria (Thalysias) complanata sp. nov., Clathria (Thalysias) zeai sp. nov., Coelosphaera (Coelosphaera) lissodendoryxoides sp. nov., Craniella crustocorticata sp. nov., Diplastrella spirastrelloides sp. nov., Epipolasis tubulata sp. nov., Erylus rhabdocoronatus sp. nov., Erylus surinamensis sp. nov., Geodia pocillum sp. nov., Geodia sulcata sp. nov., Hemiasterella camelus sp. nov., Hymedesmia (Stylopus) alcoladoi sp. nov., Hymenancora cristoboi sp. nov., Penares sineastra sp. nov., Hymerhabdia kobluki sp. nov., Leucosolenia salpinx sp. nov., Petrosia (Strongylophora) devoogdae sp. nov., Placospongia ruetzleri sp. nov., Pyloderma tropicale sp. nov., Raspailia (Parasyringella) thamnopilosa sp. nov., Raspailia (Raspailia) johnhooperi sp. nov., Sphaerotylus bouryesnaultae sp. nov., Spirastrella erylicola sp. nov., Stelletta vervoorti sp. nov., Suberites crispolobatus sp. nov., Tedania (Stylotedania) folium subgen. nov. sp. nov., Timea tylasterina sp. nov., and Tylosigma ostreicola sp. nov. Two new combinations are proposed: Amphimedon nanaspiculata (Hartman, 1955) comb. nov. and Oceanapia ascidia (Schmidt, 1870) comb. nov. In addition, for two preoccupied combinations, new names, Coelosphaera (Coelosphaera) barbadensis nom. nov. and Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) rowi nom. nov., are erected. The spatial distribution of the collected specimens over the Guyana Shelf was traced and the results were compared with existing information on bottom conditions. There was a convincing correlation between the location of fossil reefs and other hard substrates such as shell ridges with peaks in the occurrence of species diversity and specimen numbers. Stations made on sand and mud bottoms away from these zones of hard substrates were generally poor in species, but some were found to be rich in individuals of specialized soft bottom dwellers such as Tetilla pentatriaena, Tribrachium schmidtii, Fangophilina submersa, and Oceanapia species. The species composition of the Guyana Shelf was compared with that of neighbouring regions of the Caribbean and from North and East Brazil (Díaz in Miloslavich et al. 2010; Muricy et al. 2011). About 35% of the species encountered are widespread in the Central West Atlantic, occurring both to the north and to the south. Indications that the Guyana Shelf sponge fauna is clearly transitional are southernmost occurrences for Caribbean species (about 30%), and northernmost occurrences of Brazilian species (13%), with a high proportion (25%) of new species, which may be expected to have distributions extending to the Caribbean, to Brazil or both regions.


Assuntos
Poríferos/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Guiana , Tamanho do Órgão , Poríferos/anatomia & histologia , Poríferos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Zootaxa ; 4216(6): zootaxa.4216.6.1, 2017 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183099

RESUMO

All the Afrotopical Limnophora Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae) deposited in the Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom) were analyzed, including the types of the species described by Emden, mainly from the British Museum (Natural History) Ruwenzori Expedition of 1934-1935. Diagnoses and notes on all the species recorded from the Afrotropical region are given, together with illustrations of the male terminalia (when sufficient material was available), some of which are given for the first time. We made the following taxonomic changes: Limnophora terrestris Paterson, 1955 is a junior synonym of Limnophora translucida Stein, 1913 (syn. nov.); Limnophora aculeipes latilamellata Malloch, 1921 has its status revised and is elevated to species rank (stat. rev.) with Limnophora aculeipes eurymetopa Emden, 1951 proposed as a junior synonym (syn. nov.); L. majuscula kinangopana Emden, 1951 is also raised to species rank (stat. nov.). Four new species are described: Limnophora alta sp. nov.; Limnophora nuda sp. nov.; Limnophora numerosa sp. nov. and Limnophora sinuosa sp. nov., with illustrations of male terminalia.


Assuntos
Muscidae/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Londres , Masculino , Muscidae/anatomia & histologia , Muscidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Museus , Tamanho do Órgão
19.
Zootaxa ; 4216(6): zootaxa.4216.6.2, 2017 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183100

RESUMO

Illustrated descriptions and data on host plants and distribution for 21 species of Oncopsis of Russia and adjacent countries are given, and O. abdykulovi sp. n. from Central Asia is described. Conspecificity of O. planiscuta from East Siberia and Sakhalin,of O. tristis from Moscow Area, Alati Mts., and Sakhalin, and of O. burjatica from East Siberia and Sakhalin is corroborated by male calling signal analysis.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Ásia Central , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Hemípteros/anatomia & histologia , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Federação Russa
20.
Zootaxa ; 4216(6): zootaxa.4216.6.3, 2017 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183101

RESUMO

Three new species of freshwater crabs of the genus Pseudothelphusa (De Saussure, 1857) from south-central Mexico are described: Pseudothelphusa acahuizotla n. sp., P. ixtapan n. sp., and P. purhepecha n. sp. The new species are included in Pseudothelphusa due to a male gonopod with torsion and the presence of the characteristic mesial process and caudomarginal projection. Pseudothelphusa acahuizotla n. sp. is morphologically similar to P. belliana Rathbun, 1898, but can be distinguished by the relative size of the distal lobe of the caudomarginal projection and by the presence of a conical tooth on the caudal surface of the mesial process of the male gonopod. Pseudothelphusa ixtapan n. sp. is similar to P. dilatata Rathbun, 1898, and P. morelosis Pretzmann, 1968, and can be distinguished by a mesial process of the male gonopod with only one lateral tooth and an inferior margin with small teeth. Pseudothelphusa puerhepechae n. sp. exhibits a mesial process of the male gonopod with two triangular spines on its lateral margin, a character that with some variations is present in P. nayaritae Álvarez & Villalobos, 1994, P. rechingeri Pretzmann, 1965, P. lophophallus Rodríguez & Smalley, 1969, and P. parabelliana Álvarez 1989; but it can be distinguished by the separation and shape of the two spines of the mesial process and the shape of the lobes of the caudomarginal projection. With the new species described herein there are now 29 species in the genus Pseudothelphusa.


Assuntos
Decápodes/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Decápodes/anatomia & histologia , Decápodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Masculino , México , Tamanho do Órgão
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