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1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232164, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330189

RESUMO

Maize (Zea mays L) is one of main nutrients sources for humans and animals worldwide. In Africa, storage of maize ensures food resources availability throughout the year. However, it often suffers losses exceeding 20% due to insects such as the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera; Bostrichidae), major pest of stored maize in the tropical countries. This study aims to select resistant varieties to reduce maize storage losses and explain the physicochemical parameters role in grains susceptibility. In the first study, maize grains were artificially infested under no-choice method with insects. Susceptibility parameters such as weight loss, grain damage, number of emerged insects, median development time and susceptibility index varied significantly through maize varieties. Dobie susceptibility index (SI) was assessed as a major indicator of resistance. The most resistant varieties were Early-Thaï, DMR-ES and Tzee-Yellow. Conversely, Synth-9243, Obatampa and Synth-C varieties were susceptible. SWAN, Across-Pool and Tzee-White were classified as moderately resistant varieties. The insect reproductive potential was significantly different in the nine maize varieties and Early-Thaï, DMR-ES and Tzee-Yellow varieties were the least favourable host. To assess the relationship between grains physicochemical characteristics and varietal susceptibility, moisture, total phenolics, palmitic acid, proteins, amylose, density and grain hardness were evaluated according to standardized methods. Palmitic acid, SI, insects emerged and grain damage were significantly and positively correlated with each other, and negatively correlated with grains hardness, phenolics and amylose contents. Maize susceptibility index was significantly and negatively correlated to amylose, and phenolics contents and positively correlated to palmitic acid content. This study identified three resistant maize varieties to P. tuncatus and revealed that the major factors involved in this resistance were hardness, phenolic and amylose contents of grains.


Assuntos
Besouros/patogenicidade , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/parasitologia , África , Amilose/metabolismo , Animais , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Fenol/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/parasitologia , Zea mays/metabolismo
3.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125850, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931314

RESUMO

Bioremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil using metal-resistant microbes is a promising remediation technology. However, as exogenous bacteria sometimes struggle to survive and grow when introduced to new soils, it is important to develop appropriate carriers for microbial populations. In this study, we report a novel approach to remediating Cd-contaminated rice paddy soil using biochar-supported microbial cell composites (BMCs) produced from agricultural waste (cornstalks). Pot experiments showed that amendment with BMC was more efficient at reducing root and grain Cd content than pure bacteria, while improving soil Cd fractionation toward more stabilized and less labile forms. Bacteria in the BMC medium grew more readily with more abundant metabolites than those raised in free cells, probably because biochar provides shelter via porous structures (as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy) as well as additional nutrients. Overall, the improved long-term production of microbial biomass caused by BMC inoculation results in a higher remediation efficiency. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using biochar as an appropriate carrier for metal-tolerant bacteria to remediate Cd-contaminated paddy fields.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/isolamento & purificação , Carvão Vegetal , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Cádmio/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
4.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 22(2): 212-220, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627255

RESUMO

Leaf venations have elements with relatively lower elasticity than other leaf tissue components, which are thought to contribute to leaf biomechanics. A better mechanistic understanding of relationships between vein traits and leaf mechanical properties is essential for ecologically relevant interpretation of leaf structural variations. We investigated 13 major (first to third order) and minor (>third order) vein traits, six leaf mechanical properties and other structural traits across 58 woody species from a subtropical forest to elucidate how vein traits contribute to leaf biomechanics. Across species, vein dry mass density (ρv ), total vein dry mass per leaf area (VMA) and minor vein diameter (VDmin ), but not the lower-order vein density (VLA1•2 ), were positively correlated with leaf force to punch (Fp ) and force to tear (Ft ). Structural equation models showed that ρv and VDmin not only contribute to leaf mechanical properties directly (direct pathway), but also had impacts on leaf biomechanics by influencing leaf thickness and leaf dry mass per area (indirect pathway). Our study demonstrated that vein dry mass density and minor vein diameter are the key vein properties for leaf biomechanics. We also suggest that the mechanical characteristics of venations are potential factors influencing leaf mechanical resistance, structure and leaf economics spectrum.


Assuntos
Florestas , Folhas de Planta , Estruturas Vegetais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Estruturas Vegetais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Vegetais/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 43(1): 126025, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704194

RESUMO

The main goal of the study was to determine the structure of endophytic bacteria inhabiting different parts (endosperm, germ, roots, coleoptiles, and leaves) of two wheat species, Triticum aestivum L. (cv. 'Hondia') and Triticum spelta L. (cv. 'Rokosz'), in order to provide new knowledge about the stability and/or changeability of the core microbiome in different plant organs. The endophytic core microbiome is associated with plants throughout their whole life cycle; however, plant organs can determine the actual endophytic community. Therefore, next generation sequencing with MiSeq Illumina technology was applied to identify the endophytic microbiome of T. aestivum and T. spelta. Bioinformatic analyses were performed with the use of the DADA2(1.8) package and R software (3.5.1). It was demonstrated that wheat, which is an important crop plant, was associated with beneficial endophytic bacteria inside the endosperms, germs, roots, leaves, and coleoptiles. Importantly, for the first time, biodiversity was recognized in the coleoptiles of the investigated wheat species. Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas and Janthinobacterium were shown to be common genera for both tested wheat cultivars. Among them, Pseudomonas was found to be the only endophytic genus accompanying both wheat species from the endosperm stage to the development of the leaf. Paenibacillus was recognized as a core genus for the 'Hondia' cv., whereas Pedobacter and Duganella constituted the core microbiome in the 'Rokosz' cv. In addition, the first insight into the unique and yet unrecognized endophytic microbiome of T. spelta is presented.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Triticum/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos , Estruturas Vegetais/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Triticum/genética
6.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; 40(1): 64-82, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663377

RESUMO

Structurally diverse natural products are valued for their targeted biological activity. The challenge of working with such metabolites is their low natural abundance and complex structure, often with multiple stereocenters, precludes large-scale or unsophisticated chemical synthesis. Since select plants contain the enzymatic machinery necessary to produce specialized compounds, tissue cultures can be used to achieve key transformations for large-scale chemical and/or pharmaceutical applications. In this context, plant tissue-culture bio-transformations have demonstrated great promise in the preparation of pharmaceutical products. This review describes the capacity of cultured plant cells to transform terpenoid natural products and the specific application of such transformations over the past three decades (1988-2019).


Assuntos
Plantas/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224491, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697705

RESUMO

Hyperspectral imaging enables researchers and plant breeders to analyze various traits of interest like nutritional value in high throughput. In order to achieve this, the optimal design of a reliable calibration model, linking the measured spectra with the investigated traits, is necessary. In the present study we investigated the impact of different regression models, calibration set sizes and calibration set compositions on prediction performance. For this purpose, we analyzed concentrations of six globally relevant grain nutrients of the wild barley population HEB-YIELD as case study. The data comprised 1,593 plots, grown in 2015 and 2016 at the locations Dundee and Halle, which have been entirely analyzed through traditional laboratory methods and hyperspectral imaging. The results indicated that a linear regression model based on partial least squares outperformed neural networks in this particular data modelling task. There existed a positive relationship between the number of samples in a calibration model and prediction performance, with a local optimum at a calibration set size of ~40% of the total data. The inclusion of samples from several years and locations could clearly improve the predictions of the investigated nutrient traits at small calibration set sizes. It should be stated that the expansion of calibration models with additional samples is only useful as long as they are able to increase trait variability. Models obtained in a certain environment were only to a limited extent transferable to other environments. They should therefore be successively upgraded with new calibration data to enable a reliable prediction of the desired traits. The presented results will assist the design and conceptualization of future hyperspectral imaging projects in order to achieve reliable predictions. It will in general help to establish practical applications of hyperspectral imaging systems, for instance in plant breeding concepts.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Hordeum/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo , Cruzamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Calibragem , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Lineares , Nutrientes/genética , Valor Nutritivo , Fenótipo , Estruturas Vegetais/genética
8.
Dev Growth Differ ; 61(9): 475-484, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709526

RESUMO

The green alga, Caulerpa lentillifera, is composed of a single cell with multiple nuclei, but it possesses structures analogous to leaves or fronds, stems or stolons, and roots or rhizoids. To understand molecular mechanisms involved in formation and function of these structures, we carried out RNA-seq analysis of fronds and stolons (including rhizoids). Taking advantage of the decoded genome of C. lentillifera, the present RNA-seq analysis addressed transcripts corresponding to 9,311 genes identified in the genome. RNA-seq data suggested that 8,734 genes are expressed in sporophytes. Despite the siphonous body of the alga, differential gene expression was evident in the two structures. 1,027 (11.8%) and 1,129 (12.9%) genes were preferentially expressed in fronds and stolons, respectively, while the remaining 6,578 (75.3%) genes were expressed at the same level in both. Most genes preferentially expressed in fronds are associated with photosynthesis and plant hormone pathways, including abscisic acid signaling. In contrast, those preferentially expressed in stolons are associated with translation and DNA replication. These results indicate that gene expression is regulated differently between fronds and stolons, which probably governs the function of each structure. Together with genomic information, the present transcriptomic data provide genic information about development and physiology of this unique, siphonous organism.


Assuntos
Caulerpa/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Caulerpa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652630

RESUMO

Potentially harmful elements (PHEs) were investigated in eight groups of vegetables cultivated in southern Poland and the relevant health-risk implications were assessed. The PHE contents belonged to the following ranges (mg/kg wet weight) in edible parts: As < limit of detection (LOD)-0.056, Cd < LOD-0.375, Co < LOD-0.029, Cu < LOD-7.638, Hg < LOD-0.163, Ni < LOD-0.299, Pb < LOD-0.580, Sb < LOD-0.163, Tl < LOD-0.128, and Zn 1.23-34.9. The PHE concentrations decreased in the following order: Zn > Cu > Ni > Cd > Pb > Sb > Hg > Tl > As > Co. The concentrations of essential PHEs decreased as follows: root > leaf > seed > tuber > legume > inflorescence > shoot > fruit, while the unnecessary PHEs followed this sequence: leaf > root > tuber > legume > inflorescence > seed > shoot > fruit. Soil-to-plant transfer factors revealed capacities to adsorb Cd, Hg, and Tl in roots; Cd, Hg, Tl, and Zn in leaves; Cd, Hg, and Sb in tubers; and Cu, Sb, and Zn in legumes and seeds. The daily intake rates, as a percentage of permissible maximum tolerable daily intake, amounted to the following proportions: Cd 23%, Tl 13%, Hg 5.0%, Ni 3.1%, Pb 2.6%, and As 0.4%. Non-carcinogenic risk described as hazard quotient (HQ) was exceeded in root (HQ = 12.1), leafy (HQ = 2.1), and tuber (HQ = 1.4) vegetables. The carcinogenic risk of As (CR = 8.54 × 10-5) was found unacceptable. The margins of exposure for adults (MOE = 3.1) and children (MOE = 1.6), respectively, indicated a low health risk of Pb in consumed vegetables.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras/química , Adulto , Criança , Exposição Dietética/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Polônia , Medição de Risco
10.
Planta ; 250(6): 2147-2158, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620865

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The MIR160 family in Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense was characterized, and miR160a_A05 was found to increase cotton-fiber length by downregulating its target gene (ARF17) and several GH3 genes. Cotton fiber is the most important raw material for the textile industry. MicroRNAs are involved in regulating cotton-fiber development, but a role in fiber elongation has not been demonstrated. In this study, miR160a was found to be differentially expressed in elongating fibers between two interspecific (between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense) backcross inbred lines (BILs) with different fiber lengths. The gene MIR160 colocalized with a previously mapped fiber-length quantitative trait locus. Its target gene ARF17 was differentially expressed between the two BILs during fiber elongation, but in the inverse fashion. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the MIR160 family in both G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis identified MIR160a as the functional MIR160 gene encoding the miR160a precursor during fiber elongation. Using virus-induced gene silencing and overexpression, overexpressed MIR160a_A05 resulted in significantly longer fibers compared with wild type, whereas suppression of miR160 resulted in significantly shorter fibers. Expression levels of the target gene auxin-response factor 17 (ARF17) and related genes GH3 in the two BILs and/or the virus-infected plants demonstrated similar changes in response to modulation of miR160a level. Finally, overexpression or suppression of miR160 increased or decreased, respectively, the cellular level of indole-3-acetic acid, which is involved in fiber elongation. These results describe a specific regulatory mechanism for fiber elongation in cotton that can be utilized for future crop improvement.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109745, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606644

RESUMO

In order to provide a viable option for remediation of PAHs-contaminated soils, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effect of corn straw amendment (1%, 2%, 4% or 6%, w/w) on dissipation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils. Backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was applied to model the relationships between soil properties and PAHs concentration in soils. The removal rate of PAHs, enzyme activity (catalase and dehydrogenase), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in soils were investigated to evaluate the dissipation of PAHs under different ratio of corn straw amendment. The present study showed that corn straw amendment apparently accelerated the dissipation of PAHs after incubation of 112 days, especially under 4% and 6% treatments. Compared with non-amended soil, corn straw amendment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the removal rate of low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs and significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the dissipation of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs only under 6% treatment. Moreover, corn straw amendment increased activities of catalase and dehydrogenase, concentrations of DOC and MBC in soils, which are beneficial to the degradation of PAHs in soils. The performance of the BP-ANN model was assessed through the root mean square error (RMSE) and determination coefficient (R2). The results indicated that BP-ANN model could provide satisfactory prediction of PAHs concentration in soils during incubation period at R2 and RMSE values of 0.948, 187.4 µg kg-1, respectively. The results indicated that high amendment of corn straw was a potential option for remediation of PAHs-contaminated soils and that the BP-ANN model could successfully provide prompt prediction of PAHs concentration in soils.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Estruturas Vegetais , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Zea mays , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Microbiologia do Solo
12.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(8): 561-574, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472893

RESUMO

The shrub Microcos paniulata (MPL; Tiliaceae), distributed in south China, south and southeast Asia, yields a phytomedicine used to treat heat stroke, fever, dyspepsia, diarrhea, insect bites and jaundice. Phytochemical investigations on different parts of MPL indicate the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenoids and organic acids. The MPL leaves, fruits, barks and roots extracts showed antidiarrheal, antimicrobial and insecticidal, anti-inflammation, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular protective, blood lipids reducing, analgesic, jaundice-relieving and antipyretic activities, etc. The review aims to summary the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacological bioactivity, quality control, toxicology and potential mechanisms of MPL. Additionally, this review will highlight the existing research gaps in knowledge and provide a foundation for further investigations on this plant.


Assuntos
Malvaceae , Medicina Tradicional , Animais , China , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Malvaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química
13.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(7)2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277527

RESUMO

Microtubules (MTs) are of importance to fiber development. The Xklp2 (TPX2) proteins as a class of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) play a key role in plant growth and development by regulating the dynamic changes of microtubules (MTs). However, the mechanism underlying this is unknown. The interactions between TPX2 proteins and tubulin protein, which are the main structural components, have not been studied in fiber development of upland cotton. Therefore, a genome-wide analysis of the TPX2 family was firstly performed in Gossypium hirsutum L. This study identified 41 GhTPX2 sequences in the assembled G. hirsutum genome by a series of bioinformatic methods. Generally, this gene family is phylogenetically grouped into six subfamilies, and 41 G. hirsutum TPX2 genes (GhTPX2s) are distributed across 21 chromosomes. A heatmap of the TPX2 gene family showed that homologous GhTPX2 genes, GhWDLA2/7 and GhWDLA4/9, have large differences in expression levels between two upland cotton recombinant inbred lines (69307 and 69362) that are different in fiber quality at 15 and 20 days post anthesis. The relative data indicate that these four genes are down-regulated under oryzalin, which causes microtubule depolymerization, as determined via qRT-PCR. A subcellular localization experiment suggested that GhWDLA2 and GhWDLA7 are localized to the microtubule cytoskeleton, and GhWDLA4 and GhWDLA9 are only localized to the nucleus. However, only GhWDLA7 between GhWDLA2 and GhWDLA7 interacted with GhTUA2 in the yeast two-hybrid assay. These results lay the foundation for further function study of the TPX2 gene family.


Assuntos
Gossypium/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Filogenia , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
14.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(10): 1924-1936, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244380

RESUMO

This study examined the physiological effects of different amounts of nitrogen (N) supplementation (0 to 2.72 kg/year) on the citrus cultivar Huangguogan (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis). Root activity, chlorophyll content, and fruit quality were measured, and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble protein in root, leaf, and fruit tissues were examined at different developmental stages. Root activity, chlorophyll content, fruit quality, antioxidant enzyme activity, MDA content, and soluble protein content increased in plants treated with an appropriate amount of N. Both excessive N and N deficiency decreased the content of MDA and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Application of 1.36-1.81 kg N/year is suggested for citrus fertilization and the lower end of this range is recommended for minimizing environmental impact and production cost.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Citrus/enzimologia , Citrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Citrus/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/enzimologia , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo
15.
Phytopathology ; 109(11): 1878-1887, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241407

RESUMO

Root parasitic weeds in Orobanchaceae pose a tremendous threat to agriculture worldwide. We used an in vitro assay to screen libraries of small molecules for those capable of inhibiting or enhancing haustorium development in the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor. Several redox-modifying molecules and one structural analog of 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquine (DMBQ) inhibited haustorium development in the presence of the haustorium-inducing factor DMBQ, some of these without apparent growth inhibition to the root. Triphysaria seedlings were able to acclimate to some of these redox inhibitors. Transcript levels of four early-stage haustorium genes were differentially influenced by inhibitors. These novel haustorium inhibitors highlight the importance of redox cycling for haustorium development and suggest the potential of controlling parasitic weeds by interrupting early-stage redox-signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Orobanchaceae , Estruturas Vegetais , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Orobanchaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Orobanchaceae/genética , Oxirredução , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Estruturas Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
16.
J Food Sci ; 84(5): 954-962, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994936

RESUMO

Pigmented maize has been extensively studied due to its high anthocyanin content. This study has been focused mainly on kernel, although the whole plant of purple corn is a potential source of anthocyanins. First, general parameters of extraction (solvent system, solvent-to-solid ratio, number of extractions, and acid type) were established depending on the total anthocyanins content. Then, three extraction methods to access anthocyanins were compared: maceration extraction (ME), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Since the residual material still possessed an intense color, a further treatment was performed by application of enzymatic-assisted extraction (EAE). Three enzymatic cocktails (Xylanases, Celluclast, and Depol), pH, and temperature were evaluated to establish optimal reaction conditions. Subsequent analysis and identification of the anthocyanins obtained by four different extraction techniques were performed using HPLC and HPLC-mass spectrometry, respectively. The most efficient method was UAE using 20 min of ultrasound (100 W) preceded by sample treatment in the following conditions: ethanol/water/lactic acid mixture (80:19:1), two extractions, 1:10 solvent-to-solid ratio. As a result, anthocyanins from corn cob and corn husk were extracted at concentrations of 24.32 and 25.80 mg/gDW, respectively. No difference in the anthocyanins profile for samples extracted by three different methods was observed. However, an enhanced presence of cyanidin-3-(6''malonyl)glucoside was detected in the sample corresponding to the EAE method. Therefore, the Cahuacintle corn husk can be considered as a competitive source of anthocyanins with the available commercial sources. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The by-products obtained from Cacahuacintle purple corn can be potentially used as natural colorants thanks to their anthocyanins content. In this work, we established the most efficient extraction method of anthocyanins from corn husk and corn cob, and demonstrated that their anthocyanins profile is comparable to other Peruvian purple corns, which are currently used as natural colorants. Therefore, the extraction procedure described in this study might be scaled-up in an industrial process to get access to anthocyanins from undervalued wastes.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Cor , Extratos Vegetais/química , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Zea mays/química , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Peru , Solventes/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Zea mays/classificação
17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(14): 3135-3150, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989267

RESUMO

Drimia species have been used since ancient times for their medicinal properties. Their bulbs are considered as the main source of secondary metabolites with biological activity but the chemical composition of the other plant parts has not yet been considered. The aim of this study is to contribute to the existing knowledge with new data on the total phenolic content, the antioxidant activity and the chemical profile of different parts of Drimia numidica. The total phenolic content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the antioxidant activity with DPPH· and ABTS·+ reagents. The separation and the identification of the compounds were performed with liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/HRMS). The extract of leaves presented the highest phenolic content while the highest antioxidant activity was presented by the extract of flowers. Results of the chemical analysis verify the presence of bufadienolides and phenolic compounds. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Drimia/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Indicadores e Reagentes/química , Limite de Detecção , Picratos/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química
18.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 647-654, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933762

RESUMO

Rice grain is known to accumulate methylmercury (MeHg) and has been confirmed to be the major pathway of MeHg exposure to residents in mercury (Hg) mining areas in China. Selenium (Se) supplementation has been proven to be effective in mitigating the toxicity of Hg. To understand how Se supplementation influences soil Hg speciation, a wide range of Se (0-500 mg/kg) was applied to Hg polluted paddy soils in this study, which decreased MeHg concentration in soil from 2.95 ±â€¯0.36 to 0.69 ±â€¯0.16 µg/kg (or 77%). After Se addition, humic acid state Hg (F4) was transformed into strong-complexed state Hg (F5), indicating that Hg bound up to the non-sulfur functional groups of humic acid (non-RSH) was released and reabsorbed by strong binding Se functional group (F5). As a result, inorganic Hg (IHg) was reduced by >48%, 18%, and 80% in root, stem, and grain, respectively, however, the reduction was not apparent in leaf. Substantial reductions were also found for MeHg in grain and root, but not in stem and leaf. Soil is suggested to be the main source of both MeHg and IHg in rice grain. Such a finding may provide an idea for improving Hg-polluted paddies through controlling soil IHg and MeHg. Further research on the molecular structure of the strong-complexed Hg in F5 should be conducted to elucidate the mechanism of Hg-Se antagonism.


Assuntos
Compostos de Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Transporte Biológico , China , Grão Comestível/química , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Compostos de Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Mineração , Oryza/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Solo/química
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 76, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dacryocystitis is an inflammation of the lacrimal drainage system. One of the most common causes of dacryocystitis in dogs is due to plant-based foreign bodies typically located in the lacrimal sac. The aim of this case series was to describe an ultrasonography-guided technique for dogs with plant-based foreign bodies in the lacrimal sac, as both a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. CASE PRESENTATION: Four dogs with clinically suspected plant-based foreign body in the lacrimal sac (with a total of five eyes affected) were evaluated by ultrasound with a multifrequency (8-14 MHz) linear probe. Under general anesthesia, the foreign body was removed using Hartmann alligator forceps inserted thorough the upper puncta. Ultrasound was used to guide the forceps in grasping the foreign body. Ultrasound was positive in four out of five lacrimal sac diseases. All identified foreign bodies were successfully removed by the ultrasonography-guided technique. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that ultrasound is a fast, non-invasive, and inexpensive method for the assessment of dacryocystitis due to foreign bodies in dogs. Ultrasound is also useful not only for identification, but also in the non-invasive removal of the foreign body from the lacrimal sac. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first study to describe the sonographic approach to the palpebral medial cantus as an initial diagnostic step in canine dacriocystitis.


Assuntos
Dacriocistite/veterinária , Cães/lesões , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Dacriocistite/diagnóstico por imagem , Dacriocistite/cirurgia , Cães/cirurgia , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Masculino , Ducto Nasolacrimal/diagnóstico por imagem , Ducto Nasolacrimal/cirurgia , Estruturas Vegetais
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