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1.
Dev Growth Differ ; 61(9): 475-484, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709526

RESUMO

The green alga, Caulerpa lentillifera, is composed of a single cell with multiple nuclei, but it possesses structures analogous to leaves or fronds, stems or stolons, and roots or rhizoids. To understand molecular mechanisms involved in formation and function of these structures, we carried out RNA-seq analysis of fronds and stolons (including rhizoids). Taking advantage of the decoded genome of C. lentillifera, the present RNA-seq analysis addressed transcripts corresponding to 9,311 genes identified in the genome. RNA-seq data suggested that 8,734 genes are expressed in sporophytes. Despite the siphonous body of the alga, differential gene expression was evident in the two structures. 1,027 (11.8%) and 1,129 (12.9%) genes were preferentially expressed in fronds and stolons, respectively, while the remaining 6,578 (75.3%) genes were expressed at the same level in both. Most genes preferentially expressed in fronds are associated with photosynthesis and plant hormone pathways, including abscisic acid signaling. In contrast, those preferentially expressed in stolons are associated with translation and DNA replication. These results indicate that gene expression is regulated differently between fronds and stolons, which probably governs the function of each structure. Together with genomic information, the present transcriptomic data provide genic information about development and physiology of this unique, siphonous organism.


Assuntos
Caulerpa/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Caulerpa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224491, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697705

RESUMO

Hyperspectral imaging enables researchers and plant breeders to analyze various traits of interest like nutritional value in high throughput. In order to achieve this, the optimal design of a reliable calibration model, linking the measured spectra with the investigated traits, is necessary. In the present study we investigated the impact of different regression models, calibration set sizes and calibration set compositions on prediction performance. For this purpose, we analyzed concentrations of six globally relevant grain nutrients of the wild barley population HEB-YIELD as case study. The data comprised 1,593 plots, grown in 2015 and 2016 at the locations Dundee and Halle, which have been entirely analyzed through traditional laboratory methods and hyperspectral imaging. The results indicated that a linear regression model based on partial least squares outperformed neural networks in this particular data modelling task. There existed a positive relationship between the number of samples in a calibration model and prediction performance, with a local optimum at a calibration set size of ~40% of the total data. The inclusion of samples from several years and locations could clearly improve the predictions of the investigated nutrient traits at small calibration set sizes. It should be stated that the expansion of calibration models with additional samples is only useful as long as they are able to increase trait variability. Models obtained in a certain environment were only to a limited extent transferable to other environments. They should therefore be successively upgraded with new calibration data to enable a reliable prediction of the desired traits. The presented results will assist the design and conceptualization of future hyperspectral imaging projects in order to achieve reliable predictions. It will in general help to establish practical applications of hyperspectral imaging systems, for instance in plant breeding concepts.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Hordeum/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo , Cruzamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Calibragem , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Lineares , Nutrientes/genética , Valor Nutritivo , Fenótipo , Estruturas Vegetais/genética
3.
Planta ; 250(6): 2147-2158, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620865

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The MIR160 family in Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense was characterized, and miR160a_A05 was found to increase cotton-fiber length by downregulating its target gene (ARF17) and several GH3 genes. Cotton fiber is the most important raw material for the textile industry. MicroRNAs are involved in regulating cotton-fiber development, but a role in fiber elongation has not been demonstrated. In this study, miR160a was found to be differentially expressed in elongating fibers between two interspecific (between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense) backcross inbred lines (BILs) with different fiber lengths. The gene MIR160 colocalized with a previously mapped fiber-length quantitative trait locus. Its target gene ARF17 was differentially expressed between the two BILs during fiber elongation, but in the inverse fashion. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the MIR160 family in both G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis identified MIR160a as the functional MIR160 gene encoding the miR160a precursor during fiber elongation. Using virus-induced gene silencing and overexpression, overexpressed MIR160a_A05 resulted in significantly longer fibers compared with wild type, whereas suppression of miR160 resulted in significantly shorter fibers. Expression levels of the target gene auxin-response factor 17 (ARF17) and related genes GH3 in the two BILs and/or the virus-infected plants demonstrated similar changes in response to modulation of miR160a level. Finally, overexpression or suppression of miR160 increased or decreased, respectively, the cellular level of indole-3-acetic acid, which is involved in fiber elongation. These results describe a specific regulatory mechanism for fiber elongation in cotton that can be utilized for future crop improvement.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
4.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(7)2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277527

RESUMO

Microtubules (MTs) are of importance to fiber development. The Xklp2 (TPX2) proteins as a class of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) play a key role in plant growth and development by regulating the dynamic changes of microtubules (MTs). However, the mechanism underlying this is unknown. The interactions between TPX2 proteins and tubulin protein, which are the main structural components, have not been studied in fiber development of upland cotton. Therefore, a genome-wide analysis of the TPX2 family was firstly performed in Gossypium hirsutum L. This study identified 41 GhTPX2 sequences in the assembled G. hirsutum genome by a series of bioinformatic methods. Generally, this gene family is phylogenetically grouped into six subfamilies, and 41 G. hirsutum TPX2 genes (GhTPX2s) are distributed across 21 chromosomes. A heatmap of the TPX2 gene family showed that homologous GhTPX2 genes, GhWDLA2/7 and GhWDLA4/9, have large differences in expression levels between two upland cotton recombinant inbred lines (69307 and 69362) that are different in fiber quality at 15 and 20 days post anthesis. The relative data indicate that these four genes are down-regulated under oryzalin, which causes microtubule depolymerization, as determined via qRT-PCR. A subcellular localization experiment suggested that GhWDLA2 and GhWDLA7 are localized to the microtubule cytoskeleton, and GhWDLA4 and GhWDLA9 are only localized to the nucleus. However, only GhWDLA7 between GhWDLA2 and GhWDLA7 interacted with GhTUA2 in the yeast two-hybrid assay. These results lay the foundation for further function study of the TPX2 gene family.


Assuntos
Gossypium/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Filogenia , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
5.
Phytopathology ; 109(11): 1878-1887, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241407

RESUMO

Root parasitic weeds in Orobanchaceae pose a tremendous threat to agriculture worldwide. We used an in vitro assay to screen libraries of small molecules for those capable of inhibiting or enhancing haustorium development in the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor. Several redox-modifying molecules and one structural analog of 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquine (DMBQ) inhibited haustorium development in the presence of the haustorium-inducing factor DMBQ, some of these without apparent growth inhibition to the root. Triphysaria seedlings were able to acclimate to some of these redox inhibitors. Transcript levels of four early-stage haustorium genes were differentially influenced by inhibitors. These novel haustorium inhibitors highlight the importance of redox cycling for haustorium development and suggest the potential of controlling parasitic weeds by interrupting early-stage redox-signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Orobanchaceae , Estruturas Vegetais , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Orobanchaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Orobanchaceae/genética , Oxirredução , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Estruturas Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
6.
Genomics ; 111(1): 90-95, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29325965

RESUMO

Soybean is globally cultivated primarily for its protein and oil. The protein and oil contents of the seeds are quantitatively inherited traits determined by the interaction of numerous genes. In order to gain a better understanding of the molecular foundation of soybean protein and oil content for the marker-assisted selection (MAS) of high quality traits, a population of 185 soybean germplasms was evaluated to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the seed protein and oil contents. Using specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology, a total of 12,072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 0.05 were detected across the 20 chromosomes (Chr), with a marker density of 78.7 kbp. A total of 31 SNPs located on 12 of the 20 soybean chromosomes were correlated with seed protein and oil content. Of the 31 SNPs that were associated with the two target traits, 31 beneficial alleles were identified. Two SNP markers, namely rs15774585 and rs15783346 on Chr 07, were determined to be related to seed oil content both in 2015 and 2016. Three SNP markers, rs53140888 on Chr 01, rs19485676 on Chr 13, and rs24787338 on Chr 20 were correlated with seed protein content both in 2015 and 2016. These beneficial alleles may potentially contribute towards the MAS of favorable soybean protein and oil characteristics.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Óleo de Soja/genética , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Soja/genética , Biomarcadores , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Herança Multifatorial , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sementes/genética , Seleção Genética
7.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 41(8): 1303-1306, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068883

RESUMO

Cannabis sativa L. is cultivated worldwide for a variety of purposes, but its cultivation and possession are regulated by law in many countries, necessitating accurate detection methods. We previously reported a DNA-based C. sativa identification method using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. Although the LAMP technique can be used for on-site detection, our previous protocol took about 90 min from sampling to detection. In this study, we report an on-site protocol that can be completed in 30 min for C. sativa identification based on a modified LAMP system. Under optimal conditions, the LAMP reaction started at approximately 10 min and was completed within 20 min at 63°C. It had high sensitivity (10 pg of purified DNA). Its specificity for C. sativa was confirmed by examining 20 strains of C. sativa and 50 other species samples. With a simple DNA extraction method, the entire procedure from DNA extraction to detection required only 30 min. Using the protocol, we were able to identify C. sativa from various plant parts, such as the leaf, stem, root, seed, and resin derived from C. sativa extracts. As the entire procedure was completed using a single portable device and the results could be evaluated by visual detection, the protocol could be used for on-site detection and is expected to contribute to the regulation of C. sativa.


Assuntos
Cannabis/genética , DNA de Plantas/análise , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Colorimetria , Estruturas Vegetais/genética
8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12511, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131566

RESUMO

Rice grain number directly affects crop yield. Identifying alleles that improve panicle architecture would greatly aid the development of high-yield varieties. Here, we show that the quantitative trait locus qSrn7 contains rice FRIZZY PANICLE (FZP), a previously reported gene encoding an ERF transcription factor that promotes floral transition. Reduced expression of FZP in the reproductive stage increases the extent of higher order branching of the panicle, resulting in increased grain number. Genotype analysis of this gene in cultivars from the publicly available National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (NIAS) Core Collection demonstrated that the extent of higher order branching, especially in the upper panicle, was increased in those cultivars carrying the FZP allele associated with qSrn7. Furthermore, chromosome segment substitution lines resulting from a cross between Koshihikari and Kasalath, the latter of which carries qSrn7/FZP, also showed that upper panicle higher order branching and grain yield were increased by qSrn7/FZP. Our findings indicate that qSrn7/FZP influences panicle branching pattern and is thus useful in the breeding of high-yield rice varieties.


Assuntos
Oryza/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução
9.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 82(11): 1902-1910, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130459

RESUMO

RT-qPCR has been widely used for gene expression analysis in recent years. The accuracy of this technique largely depends on the selection of suitable reference genes. In order to facilitate gene expression analysis in wild and cultivated Cannabis, the expression stability of seven candidate reference genes (ACT2, 18S rRNA, GAPDH, UBQ, TUB, PP2A and EF1α) were assessed in leaves samples of different development stages and different organs of both wild and cultivated Cannabis in the present study. Their expression stabilities were evaluated through three software packages (GeNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper). Results showed that UBQ and EF1α were the highly ranked genes in different leaves samples, and PP2A was the most stable reference gene in different organs, while GAPDH was the least stable one. And the validation of the reference genes selected was further confirmed by the expression patterns of MDS and OLS.


Assuntos
Cannabis/genética , Genes de Plantas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Cannabis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Primers do DNA , Expressão Gênica , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software
10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10983, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030488

RESUMO

Secondary cell wall (SCW) deposition in Arabidopsis is regulated among others by NAC transcription factors, where SND1 chiefly initiates xylem fibre differentiation while VND6 controls metaxylem vessel SCW development, especially programmed cell death and wall patterning. The translational relevance of Arabidopsis SCW regulation theory and the utility of characterized transcription factors as modular synthetic biology tools for improving commercial fibre crops is unclear. We investigated inter-lineage gene activation dynamics for potential fibre and vessel differentiation regulators from the widely grown hardwood Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtales). EgrNAC26, a VND6 homolog, and EgrNAC61, an SND1 homolog, were transiently expressed in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts in parallel to determine early and late (i.e. 7 and 14 hours post-transfection) gene targets. Surprisingly, across the time series EgrNAC26 activated only a subset of SCW-related transcription factors and biosynthetic genes activated by EgrNAC61, specializing instead in targeting vessel-specific wall pit and programmed cell death markers. Promoters of EgrNAC26 and EgrNAC61 both induced reporter gene expression in vessels of young Arabidopsis plants, with EgrNAC61 also conferring xylem- and cork cambium-preferential expression in Populus. Our results demonstrate partial conservation, with notable exceptions, of SND1 and VND6 homologs in Eucalyptus and a first report of cork cambium expression for EgrNAC61.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Eucalyptus/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/farmacologia , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Fatores de Tempo , Xilema/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0176878, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28459876

RESUMO

The alternative oxidase (AOX) protein is present in plants, fungi, protozoa and some invertebrates. It is involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, providing an alternative route for the transport of electrons, leading to the reduction of oxygen to form water. The present study aimed to characterize the family of AOX genes in mandarin (Citrus clementina) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) at nucleotide and protein levels, including promoter analysis, phylogenetic analysis and C. sinensis gene expression. This study also aimed to do the homology modeling of one AOX isoform (CcAOXd). Moreover, the molecular docking of the CcAOXd protein with the ubiquinone (UQ) was performed. Four AOX genes were identified in each citrus species. These genes have an open reading frame (ORF) ranging from 852 bp to 1150 bp and a number of exons ranging from 4 to 9. The 1500 bp-upstream region of each AOX gene contained regulatory cis-elements related to internal and external response factors. CsAOX genes showed a differential expression in citrus tissues. All AOX proteins were predicted to be located in mitochondria. They contained the conserved motifs LET, NERMHL, LEEEA and RADE-H as well as several putative post-translational modification sites. The CcAOXd protein was modeled by homology to the AOX of Trypanosona brucei (45% of identity). The 3-D structure of CcAOXd showed the presence of two hydrophobic helices that could be involved in the anchoring of the protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The active site of the protein is located in a hydrophobic environment deep inside the AOX structure and contains a diiron center. The molecular docking of CcAOXd with UQ showed that the binding site is a recessed pocket formed by the helices and submerged in the membrane. These data are important for future functional studies of citrus AOX genes and/or proteins, as well as for biotechnological approaches leading to AOX inhibition using UQ homologs.


Assuntos
Citrus/enzimologia , Citrus/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência Conservada , Éxons , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Filogenia , Estruturas Vegetais/enzimologia , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade da Espécie , Ubiquinona/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0176148, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28437453

RESUMO

The awn is a long needle-like structure formed at the tip of the lemma in the florets of some grass species. It plays a role in seed dispersal and protection against animals, and can contribute to the photosynthetic activity of spikes. Three main dominant inhibitors of awn development (Hd, B1 and B2) are known in hexaploid wheat, but the causal genes have not been cloned yet and a genetic association with awn length diversity has been found only for the B1 allele. To analyze the prevalence of these three awning inhibitors, we attempted to predict the genotypes of 189 hexaploid wheat varieties collected worldwide using markers tightly linked to these loci. Using recombinant inbred lines derived from two common wheat cultivars, Chinese Spring and Mironovskaya 808, both with short awns, and a high-density linkage map, we performed quantitative trait locus analysis to identify tightly linked markers. Because this linkage map was constructed with abundant array-based markers, we converted the linked markers to PCR-based markers and determined the genotypes of 189 hexaploids. A significant genotype-phenotype correlation was observed at the Hd and B1 regions. We also found that interaction among these three awning inhibitors is involved in development of a membranous outgrowth at the base of awn resembling the Hooded mutants of barley. For the hooded awn phenotype, presence of the Hd dominant allele was essential but not sufficient, so B2 and other factors appear to act epistatically to produce the ectopic tissue. On the other hand, the dominant B1 allele acted as a suppressor of the hooded phenotype. These three awning inhibitors largely contribute to the genetic variation in awn length and shape of common wheat.


Assuntos
Genes Dominantes , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
13.
Plant Cell ; 29(1): 39-53, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28087829

RESUMO

ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC (RHS) genes, which contain the root hair-specific cis-element (RHE) in their regulatory regions, function in root hair morphogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that an Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, ROOT HAIR DEFECTVE SIX-LIKE4 (RSL4), directly binds to the RHE in vitro and in vivo, upregulates RHS genes, and stimulates root hair formation in Arabidopsis. Orthologs of RSL4 from a eudicot (poplar [Populus trichocarpa]), a monocot (rice [Oryza sativa]), and a lycophyte (Selaginella moellendorffii) each restored root hair growth in the Arabidopsis rsl4 mutant. In addition, the rice and S. moellendorffii RSL4 orthologs bound to the RHE in in vitro and in vivo assays. The RSL4 orthologous genes contain RHEs in their promoter regions, and RSL4 was able to bind to its own RHEs in vivo and amplify its own expression. This process likely provides a positive feedback loop for sustainable root hair growth. When RSL4 and its orthologs were expressed in cells in non-root-hair positions, they induced ectopic root hair growth, indicating that these genes are sufficient to specify root hair formation. Our results suggest that RSL4 mediates root hair formation by regulating RHS genes and that this mechanism is conserved throughout the tracheophyte (vascular plant) lineage.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/classificação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Microscopia Confocal , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Selaginellaceae/genética , Selaginellaceae/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
14.
Plant Genome ; 9(2)2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27898817

RESUMO

Tanshinones and phenolic acids are the major bioactive constituents in the traditional medicinal crop ; however, transcription factors (TFs) are seldom investigated with regard to their regulation of the biosynthesis of these compounds. Here a complete overview of the APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor family in is provided, including phylogeny, gene structure, conserved motifs, and gene expression profiles of different organs (root, stem, leaf, flower) and root tissues (periderm, phloem, xylem). In total, 170 AP2/ERF genes were identified and divided into five relatively conserved subfamilies, including AP2 (25 genes), DREB (61 genes), ethylene responsive factor (ERF; 79 genes), RAV (4 genes), and Soloist (1 gene). According to the distribution of bioactive constituents and the expression patterns of AP2/ERF genes in different organs and root tissues, the genes related to the biosynthesis of bioactive constituents were selected. On the basis of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, coexpression analysis, and the prediction of -regulatory elements in the promoters, we propose that two genes ( and ) regulate tanshinone biosynthesis and two genes ( and ) participate in controlling phenolic acid biosynthesis. The genes related to tanshinone biosynthesis belong to the ERF-B3 subgroup. In contrast, the genes predicted to regulate phenolic acid biosynthesis belong to the ERF-B1 and ERF-B4 subgroups. These results provide a foundation for future functional characterization of AP2/ERF genes to enhance the biosynthesis of the bioactive compounds of .


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Salvia miltiorrhiza/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Filogenia , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Salvia miltiorrhiza/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição
15.
Traffic ; 17(10): 1125-38, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27405297

RESUMO

Peripheral vesicles in plastids have been observed repeatedly, primarily in proplastids and developing chloroplasts, in which they are suggested to function in thylakoid biogenesis. Previous observations of vesicles in mature chloroplasts have mainly concerned low temperature pretreated plants occasionally treated with inhibitors blocking vesicle fusion. Here, we show that such vesicle-like structures occur not only in chloroplasts and proplastids, but also in etioplasts, etio-chloroplasts, leucoplasts, chromoplasts and even transforming desiccoplasts without any specific pretreatment. Observations are made both in C3 and C4 species, in different cell types (meristematic, epidermis, mesophyll, bundle sheath and secretory cells) and different organs (roots, stems, leaves, floral parts and fruits). Until recently not much focus has been given to the idea that vesicle transport in chloroplasts could be mediated by proteins, but recent data suggest that the vesicle system of chloroplasts has similarities with the cytosolic coat protein complex II system. All current data taken together support the idea of an ongoing, active and protein-mediated vesicle transport not only in chloroplasts but also in other plastids, obviously occurring regardless of chemical modifications, temperature and plastid developmental stage.


Assuntos
Membranas Intracelulares/ultraestrutura , Estruturas Vegetais/ultraestrutura , Plastídeos/ultraestrutura , Vesículas Transportadoras/ultraestrutura , Temperatura Baixa , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/ultraestrutura , Temperatura Alta , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Mutação , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/genética , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/ultraestrutura , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo , Plastídeos/genética , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Vesículas Transportadoras/genética , Vesículas Transportadoras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0148979, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26859489

RESUMO

The genome and transcriptome sequences of the aquatic, rootless, and carnivorous plant Utricularia gibba L. (Lentibulariaceae), were recently determined. Traps are necessary for U. gibba because they help the plant to survive in nutrient-deprived environments. The U. gibba's traps (Ugt) are specialized structures that have been proposed to selectively filter microbial inhabitants. To determine whether the traps indeed have a microbiome that differs, in composition or abundance, from the microbiome in the surrounding environment, we used whole-genome shotgun (WGS) metagenomics to describe both the taxonomic and functional diversity of the Ugt microbiome. We collected U. gibba plants from their natural habitat and directly sequenced the metagenome of the Ugt microbiome and its surrounding water. The total predicted number of species in the Ugt was more than 1,100. Using pan-genome fragment recruitment analysis, we were able to identify to the species level of some key Ugt players, such as Pseudomonas monteilii. Functional analysis of the Ugt metagenome suggests that the trap microbiome plays an important role in nutrient scavenging and assimilation while complementing the hydrolytic functions of the plant.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Lamiales/genética , Metagenoma , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Carnivoridade , DNA de Plantas/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Lamiales/microbiologia , Microbiota , Estruturas Vegetais/microbiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0129870, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26030401

RESUMO

Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environmental stresses on fiber development is poorly understood due to technical difficulties associated with the study of developing fiber tissues and lack of genetic materials to study fiber development. To address this important question and provide the need for scientific community, we have generated transgenic cotton lines harboring cotton fiber specific promoter (CFSP)-reporter constructs from six cotton fiber specific genes (Expansin, E6, Rac13, CelA1, LTP, and Fb late), representing genes that are expressed at different stages of fiber development. Individual CFSP::GUS or CFSP::GFP construct was introduced into Coker 312 via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Transgenic cotton lines were evaluated phenotypically and screened for the presence of selectable marker, reporter gene expression, and insertion numbers. Quantitative analysis showed that the patterns of GUS reporter gene activity during fiber development in transgenic cotton lines were similar to those of the native genes. Greenhouse drought and heat stress study showed a correlation between the decrease in promoter activities and decrease in fiber length, increase in micronaire and changes in other fiber quality traits in transgenic lines grown under stressed condition. These newly developed materials provide new molecular tools for studying the effects of abiotic stresses on fiber development and may be used in study of cotton fiber development genes and eventually in the genetic manipulation of fiber quality.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes Reporter/genética , Gossypium/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Secas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 40(16): 3168-73, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26790286

RESUMO

Fifteen tissues of 4-year-old fruit repining stage Jilin ginseng were chosen as materials, six kinds of monomer saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2 and Rd) content in 15 tissues was measured by HPLC and vanillin-sulfuric acid method. The relative expression of FPS, SQS, SQE, OSC, ß-AS and P450 genes in 15 tissues was analyzed by real-time PCR. The correlations between ginseng saponin content in 15 tissues of Jilin ginseng and biosynthetic pathway -related genes were obtained. The results showed that was a synergistic increase and decrease trend of positive linear correlation among six kinds of monomer saponin content, and there was a significantly (P < 0.01) positive correlation between monomer saponin content and total saponins content. Monomer saponin content and 6 kinds of enzyme gene correlation were different. Biosynthesis of ginseng total saponins and monomer saponin were regulated by six kinds of participation ginsenoside biosynthesis enzyme genes, the expression of these six kinds of genes in different tissues of ginseng showed collaborative increase and decrease trend, and regulated biosynthesis of ginseng ginsenoside by group coordinative manner.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Panax/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Saponinas/análise , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Panax/química , Panax/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Saponinas/metabolismo
19.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 78(4): 574-81, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25036952

RESUMO

An Apios americana lectin (AAL) and a lectin-like protein (AALP) were purified from tubers by chromatography on Butyl-Cellulofine, ovomucoid-Cellulofine, and DEAE-Cellulofine columns. AAL showed strong hemagglutinating activity toward chicken and goose erythrocytes, but AALP showed no such activity toward any of the erythrocytes tested. The hemagglutinating activity of AAL was not inhibited by mono- or disaccharides, but was inhibited by glycoproteins, such as asialofetuin and ovomucoid, suggesting that AAL is an oligosaccharide-specific lectin. The cDNAs of AAL and AALP consist of 1,093 and 1,104 nucleotides and encode proteins of 302 and 274 amino acid residues, respectively. Both amino acid sequences showed high similarity to known legume lectins, and those of their amino acids involved in carbohydrate and metal binding were conserved.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/genética , Lectinas/genética , Lectinas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/genética , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/farmacologia , Hemaglutinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/farmacologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Análise de Sequência , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
20.
Physiol Plant ; 150(3): 339-54, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24102457

RESUMO

Green 'Anjou' pear and its bud mutation, red 'Anjou' were compared to understand their differences in phenolic metabolism and its effect on primary metabolism. In the flesh of the two cultivars, no difference was detected in the concentration of any phenolic compound, the transcript level of MYB10 or the transcript levels or activities of key enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis. Compared with green 'Anjou', the shaded peel of red 'Anjou' had higher anthocyanin concentrations, higher transcript levels of MYB10 and higher activity of UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT), suggesting that MYB10 regulates UFGT to control anthocyanin synthesis in red 'Anjou' peel. In the sun-exposed peel, activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, dihydroflavonol reductase, flavonol synthase and anthocyanidin synthase as well as UFGT were higher in red 'Anjou' than in green 'Anjou'. The peel of red 'Anjou' had higher activities of sorbitol dehydrogenase, raffinose synthase and sucrose synthase and higher levels of raffinose, myo-inositol and starch, indicating that sorbitol metabolism, raffinose synthesis and starch synthesis were upregulated in red 'Anjou'. The flesh of red 'Anjou' had higher concentrations of glucose, but lower activities of ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and lower dark respiration. The peel of red 'Anjou' had higher activities of glutaminase, asparagine synthetase and asparaginase, and higher concentrations of asparagine, aspartate, alanine, valine, threonine and isoleucine. The effects of anthocyanin synthesis on primary metabolism in fruit peel are discussed.


Assuntos
Mutação , Fenóis/metabolismo , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/metabolismo , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos da radiação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Meristema/genética , Meristema/metabolismo , Meristema/efeitos da radiação , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxigenases/genética , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/efeitos da radiação , Pyrus/efeitos da radiação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Luz Solar
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