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1.
Sante Publique ; 32(2): 149-159, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: “Health service”, a French national service-learning program for health profession students, was launched in 2018. It aimed at developing knowledge and skills in health promotion and prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the local implementation of this program, among medical, pharmacy, midwifery and physical therapy students at the Grenoble Alps University. METHODS: Relevant data were extracted from the placement reports, the directors’ feedback forms and an on-line questionnaire for students. We described the teams, the actions, the targeted publics, the students’ satisfaction and directors’ satisfaction. RESULTS: 400 students participated in this service-learning program (207 medical students, 93 pharmacy students, 39 midwifery students and 61 physical therapy students). 92 teams took actions in 91 institutions, including 90 secondary schools. 96.0% of the students were in interprofessional teams. Of 7,926 people reached, 7,872 (99.3%) were secondary school pupils. The main issues addressed were the substance-use prevention program based on life skills development, Unplugged (55 schools) and screen time and cyberstalking (17 schools). CONCLUSIONS: This program achieved interprofessional education and practice, with health-student-delivered activities. Interdisciplinarity was a core strength of the “Health service”. Areas for improvement were the communication and the reimbursement of transportation expenses.


Assuntos
Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Relações Interprofissionais , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , França , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
2.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(5): 294-296, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833394

RESUMO

TeamSTEPPS is a curriculum designed to improve team communication to reduce medical errors and improve patient safety. This exploratory study used a questionnaire to explore differences in attitudes of 130 nursing and respiratory therapy students using a TeamSTEPPS-based interprofessional education seminar and simulation. Results support that students' attitudes regarding the principles Team Structure, Leadership, Situation Monitoring, Mutual Support, and Communication improved from Time 1 (preseminar) to Time 2 (postseminar; p < .05). This improvement was sustained at Time 3 (postsimulation) in all principles except for Mutual Support. Participation in a TeamSTEPPS seminar and simulation can influence attitudes among health care professional students.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Relações Interprofissionais , Treinamento por Simulação/organização & administração , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comunicação , Humanos , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Terapia Respiratória/educação , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237670, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to characterize healthcare professional students' lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) cultural competency are necessary to recommend educational initiatives. Very few studies have evaluated LGBT cultural competency across multiple healthcare disciplines, and no known studies have included students of other healthcare disciplines such as occupational therapy, pharmacy, physical therapy, and physician assistant. METHODS: Healthcare professional students (N = 1701) at three universities across the United States completed a survey consisting of demographics, experiential variables (i.e., LGBT patients and LGBT curricular hours), and the 7-point Likert LGBT-Development of Clinical Skills Scale (LGBT-DOCSS). LGBT-DOCSS scores, annual LGBT patients, and annual LGBT curricular hours were compared across healthcare disciplines. RESULTS: While students reported very high Attitudinal Awareness (M = 6.48, SD = 0.92), they endorsed moderate Basic Knowledge (M = 5.54, SD = 1.16) and low Clinical Preparedness (M = 3.78, SD = 1.28). After controlling for several demographic and experiential variables, there were significant differences among healthcare disciplines on LGBT-DOCSS scores, with social work students reporting the highest on all scores, and dental students reporting the lowest on all scores except Clinical Preparedness. There were also significant differences among healthcare disciplines on annual LGBT patients [mean range: 0.57 (dental) to 7.59 (physician assistant)] and annual LGBT curricular hours [mean range: 0.51 (occupational therapy) to 5.64 (social work)]. Experiential variables were significant predictors for Overall LGBT-DOCSS, Clinical Preparedness, and Basic Knowledge (all p < 0.001); LGBT patients was also a significant predictor for Attitudinal Awareness (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, significant differences in LGBT cultural competency exist across healthcare disciplines, which may result from inadequate experiences with LGBT patients and LGBT curricular education. Future efforts should consider increasing LGBT patient contact hours and LGBT formal education hours to enhance healthcare students' LGBT cultural competency.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Cultural , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 34(7-8): 1284-1313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842877

RESUMO

Objective: To conduct an online survey in order to understand neuropsychology trainees' perspectives during the COVID-19 pandemic and identify pertinent concerns, training gaps, and recommendations.Method: A total of 874 neuropsychology trainees (81% female) completed the 69-item survey. Of the included trainees, 48% were doctoral students, 17% were interns, and 35% were postdoctoral residents (50% of resident respondents were in their first year).Results: The majority of neuropsychology trainees reported some impact of the pandemic on their professional and/or personal life. Overall, the impact did not differ by training level, geographic location, or demographic factors. Trainees' primary professional concerns included uncertainty about the impact of the pandemic on their professional future, loss of clinical hours, and desire for increased and ongoing communication from their leadership. A notable percentage of trainees reported increased personal mental health symptoms (i.e. anxiety/depression; 74%/54%), as well as a number of other personal stressors. Despite the transition to telehealth (mostly interviews/feedback sessions), few trainees have prior training or experience in providing neuropsychological services via phone or video platform. A limited proportion of trainees (approximately 10%) were still seeing patients face-to-face for neuropsychological evaluations during the COVID-19 pandemic as of 14 April 2020.Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting neuropsychological training and the well-being of trainees. This survey highlights the importance of communication with trainees during uncertain times. Based on the survey results, recommendations were developed to assist neuropsychology organizations in developing initiatives to support trainees during the current pandemic and in the future.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Neuropsicologia/educação , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Academias e Institutos/tendências , Adulto , Comitês Consultivos/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Internato não Médico/tendências , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
J Evid Based Soc Work (2019) ; 17(5): 611-623, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to measure growth in interprofessional knowledge, skills, and values in MSW students from three universities who participated in a Behavioral Health Workforce Education and Training program focused on serving children, adolescents, and transition-age youth. METHODS: Students participated in an interprofessional field placement and specialized educational sessions that addressed interprofessional team-based care, engaging at-risk youth and families, and working with vulnerable populations. The Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS) was administered pre- and post-experience. RESULTS: Paired t-tests of the ISVS total score and each subscale showed statistically significant increases over time. Multiple regression models indicated only the pretest score was a significant predictor of the posttest score for the total or subscale of the ISVS. CONCLUSION: Social work programs that create interprofessional education and training opportunities can achieve positive outcomes in student attitudes toward interprofessional practice.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Relações Interprofissionais , Serviço Social/educação , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013684, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resilience can be defined as maintaining or regaining mental health during or after significant adversities such as a potentially traumatising event, challenging life circumstances, a critical life transition or physical illness. Healthcare students, such as medical, nursing, psychology and social work students, are exposed to various study- and work-related stressors, the latter particularly during later phases of health professional education. They are at increased risk of developing symptoms of burnout or mental disorders. This population may benefit from resilience-promoting training programmes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions to foster resilience in healthcare students, that is, students in training for health professions delivering direct medical care (e.g. medical, nursing, midwifery or paramedic students), and those in training for allied health professions, as distinct from medical care (e.g. psychology, physical therapy or social work students). SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 11 other databases and three trial registries from 1990 to June 2019. We checked reference lists and contacted researchers in the field. We updated this search in four key databases in June 2020, but we have not yet incorporated these results. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any form of psychological intervention to foster resilience, hardiness or post-traumatic growth versus no intervention, waiting list, usual care, and active or attention control, in adults (18 years and older), who are healthcare students. Primary outcomes were resilience, anxiety, depression, stress or stress perception, and well-being or quality of life. Secondary outcomes were resilience factors. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data, assessed risks of bias, and rated the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach (at post-test only). MAIN RESULTS: We included 30 RCTs, of which 24 were set in high-income countries and six in (upper- to lower-) middle-income countries. Twenty-two studies focused solely on healthcare students (1315 participants; number randomised not specified for two studies), including both students in health professions delivering direct medical care and those in allied health professions, such as psychology and physical therapy. Half of the studies were conducted in a university or school setting, including nursing/midwifery students or medical students. Eight studies investigated mixed samples (1365 participants), with healthcare students and participants outside of a health professional study field. Participants mainly included women (63.3% to 67.3% in mixed samples) from young adulthood (mean age range, if reported: 19.5 to 26.83 years; 19.35 to 38.14 years in mixed samples). Seventeen of the studies investigated group interventions of high training intensity (11 studies; > 12 hours/sessions), that were delivered face-to-face (17 studies). Of the included studies, eight compared a resilience training based on mindfulness versus unspecific comparators (e.g. wait-list). The studies were funded by different sources (e.g. universities, foundations), or a combination of various sources (four studies). Seven studies did not specify a potential funder, and three studies received no funding support. Risk of bias was high or unclear, with main flaws in performance, detection, attrition and reporting bias domains. At post-intervention, very-low certainty evidence indicated that, compared to controls, healthcare students receiving resilience training may report higher levels of resilience (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07 to 0.78; 9 studies, 561 participants), lower levels of anxiety (SMD -0.45, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.06; 7 studies, 362 participants), and lower levels of stress or stress perception (SMD -0.28, 95% CI -0.48 to -0.09; 7 studies, 420 participants). Effect sizes varied between small and moderate. There was little or no evidence of any effect of resilience training on depression (SMD -0.20, 95% CI -0.52 to 0.11; 6 studies, 332 participants; very-low certainty evidence) or well-being or quality of life (SMD 0.15, 95% CI -0.14 to 0.43; 4 studies, 251 participants; very-low certainty evidence). Adverse effects were measured in four studies, but data were only reported for three of them. None of the three studies reported any adverse events occurring during the study (very-low certainty of evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: For healthcare students, there is very-low certainty evidence for the effect of resilience training on resilience, anxiety, and stress or stress perception at post-intervention. The heterogeneous interventions, the paucity of short-, medium- or long-term data, and the geographical distribution restricted to high-income countries limit the generalisability of results. Conclusions should therefore be drawn cautiously. Since the findings suggest positive effects of resilience training for healthcare students with very-low certainty evidence, high-quality replications and improved study designs (e.g. a consensus on the definition of resilience, the assessment of individual stressor exposure, more attention controls, and longer follow-up periods) are clearly needed.


Assuntos
Resiliência Psicológica , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Ocupações Relacionadas com Saúde/educação , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/psicologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Viés , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Listas de Espera , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 73, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internet addiction is one of the fast-growing addictive behaviors and is a significant public health problem affecting a large number of people worldwide. Excessive use of the internet among university students increases their risk of internet addiction and related negative consequences. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with internet addiction among medical and allied health sciences students in northern Tanzania. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (KCMUCo) from May to June 2018. A total of 500 consenting undergraduate students were sampled using the Simple Random Sampling technique proportional to the size of each class and a self-administered questionnaire used to collect data. Internet addiction was measured using a 20-item internet addiction test (IAT-20). Generalized linear model with Poisson family and log link function was used to estimate prevalence ratio (PR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals for factors associated with internet addiction. RESULTS: The prevalence of internet addiction was 31%. Undergraduate students using the internet at the college were less likely to be addicted to internet (PR = 0.45, 95%CI 0.23, 0.86, p = 0.02) compared to those using both at the hostel/home and college. Higher prevalence of internet addiction was among those who used internet for a long time, i.e., 5 h or more per day (PR = 1.84, 95%CI 1.30, 2.63, p = 0.001) and for social networking (PR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.17, 2.31, p = 0.004) compared to those who used for less than 5 h per day and academic purposes, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Thirty-one percent of undergraduate students in northern Tanzania were addicted to the internet. Internet addiction was associated with using the internet at the college, a long time using the internet per day, and social networking. The college administration should put effort into improving the accessibility, reliability, and regulation of college internet services to promote learning and academic productivity. We also recommend awareness creation intervention about the harmful consequences of excessive internet use in this population. More studies are needed to determine the burden of mental, psychological, and social problems associated with internet addiction in high-risk populations, and associated consequences.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Internet , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Rede Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234462, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525910

RESUMO

PURPOSE: With the emergence of zoonoses such as Ebola, many medical educators, have recommended the need for providing Interprofessional Education (IPE) as a pedagogical tool for familiarizing medical (MD) students with the framework of One Health (OH). This is important as students need to understand, the wider impacts of animal and environmental health factors on human health. IPE initiatives which typically incorporate the principles of OH, can provide MD and veterinary (DVM) students with a greater awareness of the role that animal diseases and climate change have on global health. However, negative attitudes to IPE have been reported as a key limitation to IPE implementation. The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences in readiness for interprofessional learning of medical and other allied human health professional students, including veterinarians and students undertaking dual degrees in combination with a Master of Public Health (MPH). Reflecting on Role Theory (RT) and Social Identity Theory (SIT), the paper aims to contribute to the understanding of differences in perceptions that exist between different types of health professionals. METHODS: Students at a medical University enrolled in MD, DVM, DVM MPH and MD MPH programs, were invited to complete the standardized Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS), which consists of 19 Likert scale items measuring concepts relating to teamwork, professional identity and roles and responsibilities. A total of 364 students across the four programs took part. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed to assess differences between the programmes. RESULTS: Results indicate that MD students score lower on the different RIPLS items compared to DVM, MD MPH and DVM MPH students. DVM and DVM MPH students are generally more positive about the need for teamwork, while MD MPH and DVM MPH students have a stronger positive identity about the need for IPE. CONCLUSIONS: The findings drawn from this study suggests that the MD students keep on seeing themselves as a separate group of health professionals in their own right. In order to guarantee an increased level of understanding on issues relating to the human-animal-environmental spectrum, medical curricula might benefit from the incorporation of shared learning and teamwork, as occurs within the MPH, enabling students to appreciate the value of interprofessional collaboration to their future practice. This is especially important during a time at which human-animal-environmental issues are affecting social and economic life worldwide.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Educação em Veterinária/métodos , Práticas Interdisciplinares , Saúde Pública/educação , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Currículo , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Modelos Educacionais , Setor Privado/organização & administração , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
ABCS health sci ; 45: [1-9], 02 jun 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097567

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inadequate assessment and lack of knowledge of the applicable procedures in emergencies are factors that can result in greater population morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review studies in the national literature on the knowledge of academics and health professionals in basic life support and cardiorespiratory arrest. METHODS: Systematic review of studies published in journals indexed in SciELO and LILACS databases. Search terms: "Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation", "Basic Life Support", "Cardiac Arrest", "Health Education" and "Knowledge". Complete articles published until December 2018 were included. They analyzed the knowledge of students and/or graduated health professionals about basic life support and its procedures, as well as teaching strategies. Studies with undergraduate health professionals and/or with hospital conduct and/or advanced life support were excluded. RESULTS: Searches identified 60 articles, 16 of which were included. Of these, eleven were observational and five were intervention studies. The observational studies identified the lack of knowledge of 1,178 academics and 335 professionals about the identification of cardiorespiratory arrest, the sequence of basic life support, ventilation/compression ratio, interruption of compressions and use of the automatic external defibrillator. The intervention studies, involving 24 students and 189 professionals, indicated that active learning strategies can improve knowledge. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that students and graduated health professionals have limitations in their knowledge about the cardiopulmonary arrest and basic life support, which may result in great damage and short survival to emergency patients.


INTRODUÇÃO: Avaliação inadequada e desconhecimento dos procedimentos aplicáveis em emergências são fatores que podem resultar maior morbidade e mortalidade. OBJETIVO: Revisar sistematicamente estudos da literatura nacional sobre o conhecimento de acadêmicos e profissionais da saúde em suporte básico de vida e parada cardiorrespiratória. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática de estudos publicados em periódicos indexados nas bases SciELO e LILACS. Descritores: "Reanimação Cardiopulmonar", "Suporte Básico de Vida", "Parada Cardíaca", "Educação em Saúde" e "Conhecimento". Foram incluídos artigos completos publicados até dezembro de 2018. Esses analisaram o conhecimento de acadêmicos e/ou profissionais da saúde sobre suporte básico de vida e seus procedimentos, assim como, estratégias de ensino. Foram excluídos estudos com profissionais de nível técnico e/ou, com condutas hospitalares e/ou suporte avançado de vida. RESULTADOS: As buscas identificaram 60 artigos, sendo 16 incluídos. Desses, onze eram observacionais e cinco de intervenção. Os estudos observacionais identificaram o desconhecimento de 1.178 acadêmicos e 335 profissionais sobre a identificação da parada cardiorrespiratória, sequência do suporte básico de vida, relação ventilação/compressão, interrupção das compressões e uso do desfibrilador externo automático. Os estudos de intervenção, envolvendo 24 estudantes e 189 profissionais, indicaram que estratégias de aprendizagem ativas podem melhorar o conhecimento. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam que acadêmicos e profissionais da saúde apresentam limitações no conhecimento sobre parada cardiorrespiratória e suporte básico de vida, o que pode implicar em maiores agravos e menor sobrevida para pacientes em emergência.


Assuntos
Humanos , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Pessoal de Saúde , Parada Cardíaca
11.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 28(1): 26, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus pandemic is a current global health crisis. Many chiropractic institutions, associations, and researchers have stepped up at a time of need. However, a subset of the chiropractic profession has claimed that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is clinically effective in improving one's immunity, despite the lack of supporting scientific evidence. These unsubstantiated claims contradict official public health policy reflecting poorly on the profession. The aim of this commentary is to provide our perspective on the claims regarding SMT and clinically relevant immunity enhancement, drawing attention to the damaging ramifications these claims might have on our profession's reputation. MAIN TEXT: The World Federation of Chiropractic released a rapid review demonstrating the lack of clinically relevant evidence regarding SMT and immunity enhancement. The current claims contradicting this review carry significant potential risk to patients. Furthermore, as a result of these misleading claims, significant media attention and public critiques of the profession are being made. We believe inaction by regulatory bodies will lead to confusion among the public and other healthcare providers, unfortunately damaging the profession's reputation. The resulting effect on the reputation of the profession is greatly concerning to us, as students. CONCLUSION: It is our hope that all regulatory bodies will protect the public by taking appropriate action against chiropractors making unfounded claims contradicting public health policy. We believe it is the responsibility of all stakeholders in the chiropractic profession to ensure this is carried out and the standard of care is raised. We call on current chiropractors to ensure a viable profession exists moving forward.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Manipulação Quiroprática , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Quiroprática/educação , Quiroprática/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia
12.
Med Teach ; 42(7): 756-761, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450049

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare systems around the world, impacting how we deliver medical education. The normal day-to-day routines have been altered for a number of reasons, including changes to scheduled training rotations, physical distancing requirements, trainee redeployment, and heightened level of concern. Medical educators will likely need to adapt their programs to maximize learning, maintain effective care delivery, and ensure competent graduates. Along with a continued focus on learner/faculty wellness, medical educators will have to optimize existing training experiences, adapt those that are no longer viable, employ new technologies, and be flexible when assessing competencies. These practical tips offer guidance on how to adapt medical education programs within the constraints of the pandemic landscape, stressing the need for communication, innovation, collaboration, flexibility, and planning within the era of competency-based medical education.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Betacoronavirus , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Inovação Organizacional , Pandemias , Apoio Social , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia
13.
Occup Ther Int ; 2020: 3025456, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410924

RESUMO

Access to personal mobility is a human right and as such, it implies the provision of wheelchair services for those with mobility impairments that need one. Lack of appropriately trained personnel is a major contributor to the gap in access to wheelchairs. Assistive technology provision is one of the core competencies of occupational therapists. The goal of this study was to assess the current wheelchair provision knowledge of final year occupational therapy students in Colombia as measured by the International Society of Wheelchair Professionals Basic Wheelchair Service Knowledge Test. A total of 83 students from 7 universities took the test. None of the students met the 70% passing threshold. The highest scores were in the assessment domain while the lowest in the fitting and user training domains. These results suggest that the current wheelchair provision education received in these programs do not meet the World Health Organization guidelines on appropriate wheelchair provision. The implementation of strategies to improve current wheelchair provision education in Colombian occupational therapy programs is granted.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional/educação , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cadeiras de Rodas , Adulto , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades , Organização Mundial da Saúde
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 633, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported on the prevalence of dietary supplements among college students; it was deduced that their intake of supplements increased according to their grade (i.e., 13.1% in the first grade to 20.5% in the sixth grade). We also reported that some students had experienced adverse events in Japan due to their intake of these supplements. However, awareness of dietary supplements among college students remains limited, even among pharmaceutical students. Being appropriately educated about them is important for pharmaceutical students, both for themselves as well as for their future careers as pharmacists. METHODS: We conducted a lecture-based educational intervention about dietary supplements on 328 college students in Japan-184 from pharmaceutical science and 144 from environmental science or food and life science disciplines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an educational intervention on college students' understanding of dietary supplements. The intervention involved a lecture that covered the quality of dietary supplements, how they differed from drugs, and a summary of their adverse events. The lecture was evaluated using a 14-question questionnaire. We then compared the pre- and post-intervention responses to the same questionnaire using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The questions were assessed using a Likert scale that ranged from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree"; the latter being the preferred answer. RESULTS: Before the intervention had taken place, the students' understanding of dietary supplements was shown to be deficient. Conversely, post-intervention, their knowledge levels had significantly improved, especially concerning agreement on whether "Dietary supplements are safe because they are just food items". Pre-intervention, 2.7% strongly agreed and 37.5% agreed; post-intervention, 1.2% strongly agreed and 15.6% agreed. On whether "Dietary supplements made from natural ingredients or herbs are safe", at the pre-intervention stage 2.8% strongly agreed and 44.0% agreed and post-intervention, 2.2% strongly agreed and 16.9% agreed. On whether "Dietary supplements made from food items are safe", 4.0% strongly agreed and 43.6% agreed pre-intervention and 0.9% strongly agreed and 16.6% agreed post-intervention. Despite there being a greater number of pharmaceutical students who had a correct understanding of dietary supplements before the intervention, these students still showed improvement after the lecture. CONCLUSION: An intervention in the form of a single educational lecture has the capacity to improve college students' understanding of dietary supplements. It is important for pharmacists to be appropriately educated about dietary supplements when they consult with patients. We will evaluate the long-term effects of the intervention on the alumni (pharmacists) in a subsequent study.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233393, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to evaluate the existing evidence about the knowledge, attitude, and perceptions (KAP) of healthcare students towards pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions reporting (ADRs). METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews via OVID. This review restricted the search to studies published in English from inception until December 2019. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was healthcare students' knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of pharmacovigilance. RESULTS: Of the 664 articles identified, twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, healthcare students vary in their knowledge and attitude towards pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting. There was inconsistency in measuring KAP between the studies and the main drawback in the literature is lacking validated KAP measures. CONCLUSIONS: In summation, optimal KAP assessment can be achieved through developing a standard validated measure. Our future healthcare providers should have basics pharmacovigilance knowledge in order to rationally reporting ADRs and preventing serious health problems.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Farmacovigilância , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos
16.
Phys Ther ; 100(9): 1701-1711, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated that muscle ultrasound (US) can be reliably performed at the patient bedside by novice assessors with minimal training. The primary objective of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of muscle US image acquisition by physical therapists and physical therapist students. Secondarily, this study was designed to elucidate the process for training physical therapists to perform peripheral skeletal muscle US. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational study. Four novices and 1 expert participated in the study. Novice sonographers engaged in a structured training program prior to implementation. US images were obtained on the biceps brachii, quadriceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles in 3 groups: patients in the intensive care unit, patients on the hospital ward, and participants in the outpatient gym who were healthy. Reliability of image acquisition was analyzed compared with the expert sonographer. RESULTS: Intraclass correlation coefficient values ranged from 0.76 to 0.97 with an average for all raters and all muscles of 0.903, indicating excellent reliability of image acquisition. In general, the experienced physical therapist had higher or similar intraclass correlation coefficient values compared with the physical therapist students in relation to the expert sonographer. CONCLUSIONS: Excellent interrater reliability for US was observed regardless of the level of experience, severity of patient illness, or patient setting. These findings indicate that the use of muscle US by physical therapists can accurately capture reliable images in patients with a range of illness severity and different clinical practice settings across the continuum of care. IMPACT: Physical therapists can utilize US to obtain images to assess muscle morphology. LAY SUMMARY: Physical therapists can use noninvasive US as an imaging tool to assess the size and quality of peripheral skeletal muscle. This study demonstrates that physical therapists can receive training to reliably obtain muscle images in patients admitted to the intensive care unit who may be at risk for muscle wasting and may benefit from early rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Fisioterapeutas , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Fisioterapeutas/educação , Músculo Quadríceps , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Sobreviventes , Ultrassom/educação , Adulto Jovem
17.
Acad Med ; 95(8): 1210-1214, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324634

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Health professionals need to learn how to relate to one another to ensure high-quality patient care and to create collaborative and supportive teams in the clinical environment. One method for addressing both of these goals is teaching empathy during professional training to foster connection and commonality across differences. The authors describe a pilot improvisational theater (improv) course and present the preliminary outcomes showing its impact on interprofessional empathy. APPROACH: In 2016-2017, the authors piloted a 15-hour course to teach interprofessional empathy to health professions students at the University of Wisconsin-Madison using improv techniques. The authors used a convergent mixed-methods design to evaluate the course's impact on interprofessional empathy. Students enrolled in the course (intervention group, n = 45) and a comparison group (n = 41) completed 2 validated empathy questionnaires (Interpersonal Reactivity Index [IRI], Consultative and Relational Empathy [CARE] measure) and a facial expression recognition task to measure empathy in the pre- and postintervention periods. Differences were examined using paired t tests. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 8 course participants to gain a deeper understanding of the course's effects. OUTCOMES: The intervention group's mean scores on 5 CARE items improved significantly: ease, care, explain, help, and plan. On the IRI, personal distress levels decreased significantly in both the intervention and comparison groups. In the interviews, students who took the class reported a positive impact on their interprofessional relationships and on their ability to think on their feet. They also reported improv influenced other areas of their lives, including patient care and interactions with people outside their work life. NEXT STEPS: The authors have continued to offer the course. They aim to conduct a randomized controlled study with medical students and test durability by measuring empathy again 3-6 months following the intervention.


Assuntos
Currículo , Drama , Empatia , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Relações Interprofissionais , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Educação em Enfermagem , Educação em Farmácia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Farmácia
18.
J Physiother ; 66(2): 113-119, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291213

RESUMO

QUESTIONS: Do one or two factors best represent clinical performance scores obtained via the Assessment of Physiotherapy Practice (APP) and what is the nature of their characterisation? To what extent are the same number of factors and their interpretation, and item scaling captured equally over time and across contexts (eg, clinical subdisciplines) for assessments of clinical performance via the APP? DESIGN: Archival and longitudinal study of undergraduate students' clinical performances for each of four final-year clinical placements. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 561 undergraduate physiotherapy students from one Australian university who were enrolled to complete their final-year clinical placements between 2014 and 2017. OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical educators' assessments of student performance across seven key domains of clinical practice: professional behaviour, communication, assessment, analysis and planning, intervention, evidence-based practice and risk management. RESULTS: Factor analyses supported the superiority of a two-factor representation of the APP, including dimensions characterised by professional and clinical domains, when compared with a unidimensional structure of an overarching 'clinical performance' factor. It was also found that the two-factor representation and item scaling was consistent across four clinical placements covering typical areas of physiotherapy practice. In other words, the same constructs are being assessed equally well across context and time. CONCLUSIONS: The APP is the nationally adopted assessment tool that is used to evaluate clinical competence to practise as a physiotherapist in Australia and New Zealand. These findings provide new evidence for an updated scoring protocol in which clinical factors are distinguished from professional competencies.


Assuntos
Estágio Clínico , Competência Clínica , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Fisioterapeutas/educação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321094

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the prevalence of blood donors' test-seeking behavior and related factors among health sciences undergraduate students. METHODS: A total of 750 students were invited. Data regarding sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, blood donation practices, and test-seeking behavior were collected. RESULTS: Of the invited students, 341 (45.5%) agreed to participate and answered questions regarding test-seeking behavior. The sample comprised 83.1% females, 96.8% singles, 87.2% heterosexuals, and 32.6% of them had previously donated blood. A high prevalence of blood donor test-seeking behavior (14.4%; 95% CI: 10.8%-18.5%) was observed and associated with blood donation practices. CONCLUSIONS: Test-seeking behavior was common among the interviewed students, thereby highlighting the importance of developing a better understanding of its determinants to prevent this behavior in key populations.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(2): 285-292, mar.-abr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190592

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: las personas con obesidad suelen ser objeto de estigmas asociados al peso por parte de la población. Los estudiantes del área de la salud, al formar parte de la sociedad, también experimentan actitudes antiobesidad, lo que puede afectar a la calidad de la atención que ofrecen. OBJETIVOS: analizar las diferencias por sexo, en estudiantes universitarios vinculados al área de la salud, con respecto a las actitudes antiobesidad, la obsesión por la delgadez, la bulimia y la insatisfacción corporal, identificando las variables que permitan predecir las actitudes negativas respecto a la obesidad. Además, se exploraron los significados asociados a la malnutrición por exceso. MÉTODO: con un diseño no experimental transversal y un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia, se accedió a 212 participantes. Los instrumentos fueron: AFA, EDI-2 y redes semánticas naturales. RESULTADOS: las mujeres presentaron valores más altos que los hombres en todas las variables estudiadas (p < 0,05), excepto en la bulimia (p > 0,05). La obsesión por la delgadez fue el único predictor de las actitudes antiobesidad (R2 = 0,40). Los significados más prevalentes hacia las personas con obesidad fueron "enfermedad" y "aspectos psicológicos". CONCLUSIONES: la presencia de obsesión por la delgadez en estudiantes que trabajarán en el abordaje integral de la obesidad es un predisponente a experimentar actitudes antiobesidad. Dentro de los significados asociados al sobrepeso más prevalentes en este grupo están los aspectos psicológicos, antes que los conceptos relacionados con la alimentación y la actividad física. Todo esto puede tener un impacto negativo en la calidad de la atención que ofrezcan


INTRODUCTION: people with obesity are often subjected to weight-related stigma by the population. Career students linked to the approach to obesity, as part of society, also experience anti-obesity attitudes, which can affect the quality of care they will offer. OBJECTIVES: to analyze the differences by sex, in university students linked to the health area, in anti-obesity attitudes, drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction, identifying variables allowing to predict negative attitudes regarding obesity. In addition, the meanings associated with excess malnutrition were explored. METHOD: with a cross-sectional, non-experimental design and non-probabilistic, convenience sampling 212 participants were accessed. Instruments included: AFA, EDI-2, and natural semantic networks. RESULTS: women showed higher values than men in all the variables studied (p < 0.05) except bulimia (p > 0.05). Drive for thinness was the only predictor for anti-obesity attitudes (R2 = 0.40). The most prevalent meanings attached to people with obesity were "illness" and "psychological issues". CONCLUSIONS: the presence of drive for thinness in students who will work in the comprehensive approach to obesity is a predisposing factor to experiencing anti-obesity attitudes. Among the most prevalent meanings associated with overweight in this group are psychological issues, rather than concepts related to food and physical activity. All this can have a negative impact on the quality of the care they offer


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Manejo da Obesidade , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Magreza/psicologia , Bulimia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Atividade Motora , Inquéritos e Questionários , Peso-Estatura , Web Semântica/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal
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