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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 7-20, dic.2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117892

RESUMO

El presente estudio fue realizado para desarrollar una reflexión crítica acerca de la formación médica en la Venezuela del siglo XXI, interpretando realidades y consecuencias desde las voces de médicos expertos y jóvenes graduados formados en la Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA). Es un estudio desde el paradigma cualitativo en la modalidad crítica interpretativa, la ruta metodológica fue la hermenéutica crítica y el análisis crítico del discurso. Se utilizó el muestreo intencional y la entrevista para recopilar la narrativa de los actores sociales, categorizándola e interpretándola contrastando voces de actores, teóricos y el autor como instrumento heurístico. Los resultados indican que la formación médica socializa el paradigma biomédico cuantitativo como opción única y válida en la producción de conocimiento y en el mundo académico, con un enfoque evolucionista, organicista, positivista y racional que fragmenta al ser humano. Esta formación académica se cumple en un sistema educativo dual: las universidades autónomas y la universidad bolivariana revolucionaria, con profundas diferencias entre ellas que generan perfiles de egresados contradictorios. La formación del futuro médico implica desarrollar el saber, el saber hacer, saber ser profesional y saber convivir. En conclusión, la formación médica debe cumplirse en centros universitarios calificados y certificados; sus egresados deben ser de alto perfil científico, tecnológico y humanístico los cuales deben dar respuestas pertinentes y oportunas a los problemas de salud de la población venezolana(AU)


This study was conducted to develop a reflective critic about medical training in Venezuela in the 21st century interpreting thoughts from the voices of expert doctors and young graduates from the Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA). This is a qualitative sociocritical study using critical hermeneutics and critical analysis of speech. Intentional sampling and interviewing was used to collect the narrative of the medical professionals. The results shows that medical training socializes the quantitative biomedical paradigm as the only valid option in the production of knowledge and in the academic world, with an evolutionist, organicist, rational and positivist approach, which divides the human being in parts. In Venezuela, a dual educational system exists: autonomous universities and the Bolivarian University with deep differences between them, which generate conflicting graduate profiles. Training of the future doctors implies developing medical knowledge, the know-how, learning how to be a professional and coexist with others. In conclusion, medical training must be performed in qualified and certified university centers; their graduates should have high scientific, technological and humanistic profiles which will allow them to provide pertinent and timely answers to the health problems of the Venezuelan population(AU)


Assuntos
Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Medicina Geral , Venezuela , Programas de Estudo , História da Medicina
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 342, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008374

RESUMO

Worldwide it is being discussed whether medical students might be of help during the present COVID-19 epidemic. Although this question is probably a legitimate one, one should however discuss this thoroughly before deciding whether medical students are to be included in this kind of medical care on a larger scale.Various arguments should be weighted, and potential tasks should be chosen carefully. This period could however be also an opportunity for medical students to learn things they would probably never learn about. Nevertheless, medical students have a deficit concerning knowledge about epidemics, and they are also not really well skilled in many hygiene measures. Furthermore, some of the known medical students' behaviour could be a risk factor for further spread of the virus as well. Then, young adults are at risk of getting infected themselves. Last but not least, medical students in general are under a great deal of pressure from their studies which could lead to the development of anxiety and other mental disorders. One could only speculate on the effects of this epidemic on their further mental well-being. Therefore, medical students participating in direct care of patients with COVID-19 should first be trained well, and then properly supervised at all times. Only then it might be a really useful and exceptional experience, for healthcare, medical schools as well as for society.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
4.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(9): 1264-1269, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spontaneous knowledge of medical students about organ donation. METHODS: 518 students of a medical school in Sao Paulo city, from the first-year to internship, answered an objective questionnaire applied through electronic media to assess their spontaneous theoretical knowledge and organ donation awareness. RESULTS: Organs that can be donated after brain death, such as the cornea, kidneys, heart, liver, and lung were mentioned by the students. Regarding in-life transplantation, they answered it was possible to donate mainly the kidney (91.3%), part of the liver (81.1%), and bone marrow (79.7%). Although it was not expressive, we also noted that their knowledge gradually increased as they reached the end of the course. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students knowledge on organ donation in life and after death was a little superior to 60%. The students had limited exposure to this subject during the course (<40% of them before the internship). The authors suggest that students should be more exposed to the theme of "organ donation" in the medical curriculum.


Assuntos
Transplante de Órgãos , Estudantes de Medicina , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Morte Encefálica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos
5.
Acad Med ; 95(10): 1521-1523, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006869

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health emergency that demands leadership throughout the health care system. Leadership is the ability to guide a team or organization toward a stated goal or objective. In addition to hospital-wide leadership, there is need for leadership at the level of medical teams. Resident leadership is essential to ensure team function and patient care, yet residents are often overlooked as valuable leaders. This Perspective argues that residents can demonstrate leadership during a public health crisis by creating a culture of emotional intelligence in their medical teams. Emotional intelligence has been identified as a critical aspect of leadership and consists of self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. In psychiatry, patient interactions depend upon psychiatrists demonstrating a high level of attention to their own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors as well as those of the patient to communicate in a way that demonstrates both understanding and empathy. In this Perspective, a psychiatry resident uses expertise in emotional intelligence to recommend residents (1) be mindful, (2) ask and listen, (3) establish safety, and (4) unite around a common goal. These practical recommendations can be immediately implemented to increase emotional intelligence on medical teams to improve team function and patient care. Emotional intelligence is valuable at all levels of leadership, so hospital leadership and program directors should also heed these suggestions. While these recommendations are not unique to COVID-19, they are of paramount importance during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Liderança , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239490, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035228

RESUMO

This study analyzes the effects of COVID-19 confinement on the autonomous learning performance of students in higher education. Using a field experiment with 458 students from three different subjects at Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain), we study the differences in assessments by dividing students into two groups. The first group (control) corresponds to academic years 2017/2018 and 2018/2019. The second group (experimental) corresponds to students from 2019/2020, which is the group of students that had their face-to-face activities interrupted because of the confinement. The results show that there is a significant positive effect of the COVID-19 confinement on students' performance. This effect is also significant in activities that did not change their format when performed after the confinement. We find that this effect is significant both in subjects that increased the number of assessment activities and subjects that did not change the student workload. Additionally, an analysis of students' learning strategies before confinement shows that students did not study on a continuous basis. Based on these results, we conclude that COVID-19 confinement changed students' learning strategies to a more continuous habit, improving their efficiency. For these reasons, better scores in students' assessment are expected due to COVID-19 confinement that can be explained by an improvement in their learning performance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Educação a Distância , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Espanha , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(710): 1938-1940, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058581

RESUMO

In recent years, several cases of measles have appeared on the campuses of the University of Lausanne (UNIL) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). In response to this, several medical students have mobilized in collaboration with various cantonal authorities in order to set up a free measles, mumps and rubella vaccination campaign on the UNIL/EPFL campuses, in 2019. This first edition was a success and will be repeated in the future. Such an approach having shown its feasibility, it could be applied to other public health issues. The involvement of medical students could thus be extremely valuable if a generalized vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 were to take place.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Medicina , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Universidades
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008102

RESUMO

Assessing healthy diet literacy and eating behaviors is critical for identifying appropriate public health responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the psychometric properties of digital healthy diet literacy (DDL) and its association with eating behavior changes during the COVID-19 pandemic among nursing and medical students. We conducted a cross-sectional study from 7 April to 31 May 2020 at 10 public universities in Vietnam, in which 7616 undergraduate students aged 19-27 completed an online survey to assess socio-demographics, clinical parameters, health literacy (HL), DDL, and health-related behaviors. Four items of the DDL scale loaded on one component explained 71.32%, 67.12%, and 72.47% of the scale variances for the overall sample, nursing, and medical students, respectively. The DDL scale was found to have satisfactory item-scale convergent validity and criterion validity, high internal consistency reliability, and no floor or ceiling effect. Of all, 42.8% of students reported healthier eating behavior during the pandemic. A 10-index score increment of DDL was associated with 18%, 23%, and 17% increased likelihood of healthier eating behavior during the pandemic for the overall sample (OR, 1.18; 95%CI, 1.13, 1.24; p < 0.001), nursing students (OR, 1.23; 95%CI, 1.10, 1.35; p < 0.001), and medical students (OR, 1.17; 95%CI, 1.11, 1.24; p < 0.001), respectively. The DDL scale is a valid and reliable tool for the quick assessment of digital healthy diet literacy. Students with higher DDL scores had a higher likelihood of healthier eating behavior during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(3): 178-186, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to identify the differences in the use of HPV vaccination between female medical students in the Czech and Slovak Republics and their possible causes. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey among female students of general medicine in all faculties of medicine in the Czech and Slovak Republics. RESULTS: We obtained 630 questionnaires from the Czech Republic and 776 questionnaires from the Slovak Republic. In the Czech Republic, 65.4% of female medical students underwent HPV vaccination, while in the Slovak Republic, the figure was 21.1%. In the Czech Republic, residency and religion of students did not influence their rate of vaccination. However, in the Slovak Republic, village residency with less than 5,000 inhabitants lowered the probability of vaccination with OR = 0.56 (95% CI: 0.38-0.84), and the Catholic religion lowered the probability of vaccination with OR = 0.40 (95% CI: 0.28-0.57). Czech students were informed about the possibility of vaccination by a paediatrician in 55.7% of cases, while the figure for Slovak students was 26.8%. In the Czech Republic, 75.7% of students participated in regular cervical oncologic screening, while in the Slovak Republic, the figure was 57.7%. Vaccination of relatives would be recommended by 86.5% and 80.5% of Czech and Slovak students, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The adoption of an oncologic prevention programme and the more extensive propagation by paediatricians are probably the medical reasons for the higher HPV vaccination among Czech students. Demographic factors - village residency and religion - are also important.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Eslováquia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202530, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901707

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: simulation based teaching is a powerful tool in medical education, allowing hands on practice under a controlled environment and with repeated maneuvers. Central venous access venipuncture is one of the most frequent procedures carried out in the hospital setting, due to its various clinical indications and, when performed with the help of ultrasonography, the risk of adverse events is minimized. Aim: to develop, to describe and to test a porcine model that simulates the central venous access puncture aided by ultrasonography. METHOD: a low cost porcine model was developed to train medical students and residents on central venous access guided by ultrasonography. Both students and medical residents underwent a theoretical training regarding the model, followed by a hands-on training session. Afterwards, the participants assessed the model by answering a questionnaire. RESULTS: there were 51 participants. The average score regarding the similarity between the model and the human anatomy was 9.15. When the characteristics were separately assessed, the mean scores regarding the similarity of the vessels, anatomic disposition and ultrasonographic characteristics as well as the venipuncture were, respectively, 9.27; 9.31; 9.54 and 8.86. CONCLUSION: The model was approved and considered appropriate for the training of central venous venipuncture by all the participants. Furthermore, it is a low cost, simple and reproducible model, that presents high similarity with the human anatomy. Therefore, it may be used as an aid to train people on ultrasonography guided central venous access.


Assuntos
Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Educação Médica , Treinamento por Simulação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Suínos
15.
Tokai J Exp Clin Med ; 45(3): 117-120, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901898

RESUMO

Background; Until 2018, the Breast and Endocrine surgery had no student calendar. A questionnaire survey was conducted on how students felt by creating a weekly schedule of individual students from 2019. METHOD: 6th-year elective courses, targeted at students who selected Breast and Endocrine surgery clinical clerkship. The schedule clarifies the contents of the training as follows; outpatient visits, small group study (preparation for graduation and national exams including mammography reading), simulator training, and surgery. The questionnaire adopted an anonymous five-point evaluation method (5; I think very much; 4; Somewhat I think; 3; Normal; 2; Somewhat I don't think; 1; I don't think), and provided a free text box. The following seven questions were asked; A. I was able to send a good training, B. I was useful for studying national and graduation exams, C. Time constraints were appropriate, D. I could fully experience surgery, E. Appropriately experienced outpatients, F. Assignments (presented at conference) appropriate, G. I was interested in Breast and Endocrine surgery. RESULTS: Average values were A. 4.7, B. 4.9, C. 4.6, D. 4.9, E. 4.8, F. 4.7, G. 4.7. However, C and F received low ratings of 1 and 2. In the free text box, there were favorable opinions such as the fact that it was good to prepare for the national examination and that reading mammography was helpful. Conversely, there were some negative opinions, such as a time spent outpatient was too long, a difference in enthusiasm among the instructors, and a hope to see more at the first visit and to cope with the procedure. DISCUSSION: Preparing a weekly calendar of individual students generally yielded satisfactory results, but also highlighted the potential for future improvements in clinical clerkship.


Assuntos
Mama/cirurgia , Calendários como Assunto , Estágio Clínico , Educação Médica/métodos , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 485-488, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955234

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The parasite Cryptosporidium spp. is an intracellular protozoa which has a broad range of hosts and zoonotic potential. It presents a serious health risk for agricultural workers and veterinarians. The aim of the study was to identify the species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium occurring in a veterinary student who came into contact with calves on a farm. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique was employed to confirm the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. ELISA test was applied to detect coproantigen in faecal specimens. Nested PCR was used to amplify a small ribosomal subunit (SSU rRNA) and sequencing of the GP60 gene served to identify the zoonotic subtypes. RESULTS: The nested PCR allowed to confirm the C. parvum species; subsequently, the IIdA15G1 zoonotic subtype was identified. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first confirmed case in Slovakia of human cryptosporidiosis caused by the unique subtype IIdA15G1.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/classificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , Eslováquia , Estudantes de Medicina , Medicina Veterinária , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/parasitologia
20.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 866-870, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873166

RESUMO

Update Medical Studies 2020: Bern Abstract. The education of the young Bernese medical students is problem-based as well as practice-oriented. The didactical concept of the Bachelor Studies is a guided self-study accompanied by concept lectures and interactive tutorials. The clinical skills are taught in a highly structured way, beginning with e-learning, seminars and Bedside Teaching. The Master Studies are based on evidence-based clinical education. The well-structured internships are the heart of the Bernese Master Studies; they enable the early inclusion of the students in the medical practice of the various healthcare disciplines. The communication trainings as well as the sonography courses are examples for the innovative development of the Bernese curriculum. The rotations in GP practices give an insight into the primary healthcare.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Competência Clínica , Comunicação , Currículo , Humanos , Suíça
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