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2.
Urology ; 135: 28-31, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To address information overload for trainees, a concise electronic case-based urology learning program (CBULP) was developed. Previous qualitative assessments suggested CBULP's potential efficacy/utility. Herein we assess CBULP more stringently by evaluating test performance before/after reviewing a CBULP curriculum covering core concepts in testicular cancer. METHODS: Eleven of 33 CBULP testicular cancer cases were strategically selected for this curriculum. A 26 question multiple-choice test was developed to assess fundamental knowledge about testis cancer tumor biology and evaluation/management. Pretest was administered to PGY4/PGY1 residents at 2 pilot urology-training programs, and medical students interested in Urology. Participants were given 4 weeks to review the curriculum and the test was then repeated. A control group (4 PGY1s) was administered the pretest and repeat test in an analogous manner without provision of the CBULP curriculum. RESULTS: Twenty individuals took the pretest (7 medical students, 8 PGY1s, and 5 PGY4s), and 17 (85%) took the post-test (5 medical students, 8 PGY1s, and 4 PGY4s,). As expected, PGY4s performed significantly better than the other 2 groups on the pre- and post-test. However, significant improvement in test performance was seen across all groups that utilized the CBULP curriculum (P <.02), with highest increase demonstrated by PGY1 residents (4.75 more questions correct, P = .002). The control arm did not demonstrate significant improvement (P = .20). CONCLUSION: Significant improvement in test performance was observed after completion of the CBULP testicular series. This study suggests that CBULP can be an efficacious and clinically useful educational resource for urologic residents and students interested in the field.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Urologia/educação , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859847

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore how medical students differ regarding the HPV vaccination status according to their demographics, sexuality, medical school year and sources of information regarding the vaccine. The cross-sectional survey included 379 participants from medical school year 1 to 6, in a medical school in Brasilia. Statistical analyses of the data obtained from a questionnaire analyzed contingency tables and highlighted odds ratios effect sizes. The results showed that among all the participants, 80 (21.1%) were vaccinated against HPV, 215 (58.7%) were not vaccinated but wanted to be and 84 (22.2%) were neither vaccinated nor wanted to be vaccinated. . Female gender (OR= 5.88, 95% CI 3.36-10.30), parental advice (OR= 6.95, 95% CI= 3.97-12.16), and absence of sexual initiation before 16 years of age (OR= 3.04, 95% CI= 1.05-8.77) were positively associated with HPV-vaccinated students. In parallel, female gender (OR= 4.74, 95% CI= 2.38-9.44), parental advice (OR= 3.50, 95% CI=1.20-10.22), and reporting two or more recent sexual partners (OR= 2.03, 95% CI= 1.06-3.88) were positively associated with the intention to be vaccinated among unvaccinated students. The high cost of the vaccine was perceived as a barrier among those respondents who wished to be vaccinated. Additionally, among the 84 (81.3% male) students who admitted unwillingness to be vaccinated, approximately two-thirds cited the feeling to be safe, lack of counseling, or low efficacy of the vaccine as the reasons for their reluctance. In conclusion, vaccination coverage was low among these medical students. Nevertheless, female gender, personal advice, and safe sex were the main factors associated with higher levels of vaccination and vaccine acceptance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79(5): 384-390, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671388

RESUMO

According to the Association of American Medical Colleges, there are thirteen core Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) that medical graduates should be able to perform in their first day of residency, without direct supervision. In Argentina EPAs are not clearly defined. Moreover, there is no local data about the need of supervision regarding these activities. The aim of this study was to assess residents' and teaching physicians' estimations about the level of supervision that physicians in their first month of residency needed in order to perform EPAs. A cross-section study was conducted. First-year medical residents and teaching physicians were included. Electronic or paper surveys were sent, asking the level of supervision the participants estimated that residents needed to perform the 13 core EPAs, during their first month of residency. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. There were significant differences between the opinion of residents (n = 71) and teaching physicians (n = 39), for 11 out of 13 EPAs. More than half of the teaching physicians considered that residents needed direct supervision when performing EPAs, except for asking clinical questions and looking for evidence. Most residents thought that they required direct supervision in 6 EPAs. In conclusion, medical residents perceived the need of lower levels of supervision when compared to teaching physicians, who considered that medical graduates were not capable of performing most EPAs without direct supervision upon entering residency. Thus, it would be important to improve the procedures to evaluate the competences of medical graduates in order to establish more accurate supervision levels.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/organização & administração , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Argentina , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(11): 1509-1515, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719272

RESUMO

Background: Blood is the most donated tissue in medical practice and a veritable tool in many life-saving situations if used appropriately and judiciously. Despite the increased demand for blood, the supply of safe blood has been inadequate. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the perception and attitude toward voluntary non-remunerated blood donation among medical students in Abakaliki. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, between October 2017 and March 2018. Stratified and simple random sampling technique was used to recruit participants from among medical students using pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Results: A total of 158 medical students who participated in the study were made up of 90 (57%) males and 68 (43%) females. The most prevalent age group was 20-25 years. Most of the participants, 151 (95.6%), were single. The proportion of the participants who had good knowledge about voluntary blood donation was 72.8%, while the attitudes of the respondents were positive to most aspects of blood donation considered. However, participants were found to have poor practice of voluntary blood donation as only 56 of 158 (35.4%) had ever donated blood. Conclusion: The majority of the participants have good knowledge and positive attitude toward voluntary non-remunerated blood donation. However, their practice of voluntary blood donation was poor. Sustained awareness creation and enlightenment is relevant to influence the masses to have better knowledge and positive attitudes toward voluntary non-remunerated blood donation with improved blood donation practices.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Altruísmo , Conscientização , Doadores de Sangue/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Percepção , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voluntários
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 311, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692835

RESUMO

Introduction: Problem-based learning (PBL) method which was introduced about 50 years ago in Canada is beginning to gain acceptance over conventional teaching method (CTM) worldwide in medical education but still remains unpopular in Nigeria. This study aims to determine the perception of clinical medical students to the use of both learning methods in pathology courses. Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted in four Nigerian universities drawn from four regions of the country. Data were collected using pretested semi-structured self-administered questionnaires. Results: The study included 310 respondents, 182(58.7%) males and 128(41.3%) females. Of all the participants, 257(82.9%) had heard of PBL prior to the study and 260(83.9%) thought it suitable for teaching and learning Pathology. Majority of participants, 221(71.3%) preferred a combination of both PBL and CTM while 238(76.8%) thought PBL suitable for all medical students. Some identified factors capable of enhancing adaptation of PBL into medical curriculum include conducive quiet spaces for learning and availability of computers with internet facilities for students' use. Conclusion: Participants demonstrated high level of awareness of PBL and thought it suitable for all medical students. Availability of computers and up-to-date libraries with internet and audio-visual facilities could enhance adaptation of PBL into medical curriculum in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Fam Med ; 51(8): 687-690, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many medical schools assess student clinical knowledge using the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) subject examinations. The Family Medicine Clinical Science Mastery Series (CSMS) self-assessments, which are made up of former Family Medicine NBME examination questions, became available in September 2017. They provide students with realistic practice questions and immediate performance feedback. To further assess the utility of various study tools available to our students, this study investigated the impact of the CSMS self-assessments for family medicine on the NBME family medicine subject examination performance. METHODS: Data analysis was conducted to compare student performance on the end-of-rotation NBME Family Medicine Clinical Subject Examination before and after the introduction of the CSMS family medicine self-assessments. The effect size was measured using a Cohen d analysis. We conducted an independent t-test analysis to determine the effect the NBME Family Medicine CSMS self-assessments had on end-of-rotation clinical subject examination scores. RESULTS: The analysis revealed statistically significant improvement in students' clinical subject examination scores after the release of the CSMS in September 2017 (n=90) compared to the students' scores prior to the availability of the CSMS (n=95). CONCLUSIONS: Student scores improved with the introduction of the NBME CSMS family medicine self-assessment. These results support recommending student use of the CSMS as a study tool for their end-of-clerkship NBME subject examinations.


Assuntos
Estágio Clínico , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Autoavaliação , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Clínica , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Humanos
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1251, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Documentation and diagnosis of childhood obesity in primary care is poor and providers are often unfamiliar with guidelines. This lack of knowledge may be attributed to insufficient training in medical school and residency; however, no studies have evaluated medical students' knowledge of recommendations. METHODS: We distributed a modified version of the Physician Survey of Practice on Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight Control to medical students at a single university. Descriptive analyses assessed knowledge and attitudes of childhood obesity and diabetes. RESULTS: Of the 213 participating students, 74% indicated being unfamiliar with obesity screening recommendations. Few correctly identified BMI percentile cut-points for child overweight (21.2%), obesity (23.7%), and normal weight (29.4%). They reported screening glucose 4.5 years earlier in patients with risk factors compared to those without (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Although students recognized the need for earlier diabetes screening in children with risk factors, we determined that overall, student knowledge of obesity-related preventative care was inadequate.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547407

RESUMO

Global concerns persist regarding the shortage and misdistribution of health workers in rural and remote areas. Medical education is an important input channel of human resources for health. This study aimed to identify the association between medical graduates' job choices for rural practice and their initial intentions when they began to look for a job in China. Data were extracted from a cross-sectional survey among medical students in ten western provinces in China in 2013. Only medical students who were in the last year of study (i.e., medical graduates) and had found a job were included in this study. Of the 482 participants, 61.04% (293) presented an initial intention of rural practice when they began to look for a job, and 68.88% (332) made a final job choice for rural practice. However, of the 332 graduates with a final job choice of rural practice, only 213 (64.55%) had an initial intention. A univariate association was identified in which medical graduates who were more likely to make final job choices for rural practice were those having initial intentions (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.08-2.36); however, after adjusting for controlled variables, it became insignificant and was reduced to a 1.31-fold increase (95% CI: 0.82-2.07). The initial intentions of medical graduates are not assurance of ultimate job outcomes, and it cannot be deduced that all medical graduates who made a final job choice for rural practice had authentic desires for rural practice. Twenty years of age or below, low-income families, majoring in non-clinical medicine, and studying in a junior medical college or below were associated with medical graduates' final job choices for rural practice. More studies are required on how to translate medical student's intention of rural medical practice into reality and how to retain these graduates via a job choice in rural practice in the future.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Intenção , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 51(7): 435-441, ago.-sept. 2019. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185731

RESUMO

Objetivo: Valorar si un programa formativo ofrecido por médicos de familia en el currículum oficial de medicina sobre principios y estrategias para ayudar a los pacientes a cambiar conductas de riesgo (APCCR) produce cambios en sus percepciones, opiniones y actitudes con relación a este tipo de intervenciones. Diseño: Estudio cuasiexperimental antes-después. Emplazamiento: Una facultad de medicina. Participantes: Todos los alumnos de 4.o curso de medicina (n = 110). Intervenciones: Formación experiencial sobre estrategias comunicativas para APCCR. Mediciones: Opiniones y percepciones evaluadas antes y después del curso mediante cuestionario ad hoc. Resultados: Tras el curso, los estudiantes (n = 103) cambiaron sus ideas sobre la motivación como factor «interno» (15, 13%) a "interno-externo" (71, 61%) (p = 0,003), reforzando sus opiniones sobre la capacidad del médico para APCCR (alta: 72, 62%; baja: 10, 12%; p = 0,008). Los alumnos se consideraron más capaces de respetar la autonomía de los pacientes cuando estos toman decisiones o siguen conductas consideradas perjudiciales (fácil: 58, 50%; difícil: 28, 24%; p = 0,001) e incrementaron su percepción sobre su capacidad para afrontar este tipo de entrevistas (83, 72% vs. 1, 1%; p < 0,001). Conclusiones: Esta formación parece contribuir a crear en estudiantes percepciones y actitudes positivas relacionadas con aspectos claves a la hora de afrontar una entrevista para APCCR, lo cual supone un aspecto preliminar clave para implementar este tipo de estrategias


Objective: To evaluate whether a training program offered by family physicians in the official medical curriculum on principles and strategies to help patients change risk behaviours (HPCRB), produces changes in perceptions, opinions, and attitudes regarding this type of intervention. Design: Quasi-experimental before-after study. Setting: A School of Medicine. Participants: All students in their 4th year (n = 110). Interventions: Experiential training course on communicative strategies for HPCRB. Measurements: Opinions and perceptions were evaluated before and after the course using an ad hoc survey. Results: After the course, students (n = 103) changed their ideas about motivation as an "internal" (15, 13%) to ‘internal-external’ factor (71, 61%) (P = .003), reinforcing their opinions about the clinician's ability for HPCRB (high: 72, 62%; low: 10, 12%; P = .008). They considered themselves more capable to respect patient autonomy when they make decisions or follow harmful behaviours (easy: 58, 50%; difficult: 28, 24%; P = .001), and increased their perception of their ability to cope with this type of interview (83, 72% vs. 1, 1%; P < .001). Conclusions: This training course seems to contribute to creating positive perceptions and attitudes in students, as regards key aspects when conducting an interview for HPCRB. This is a key preliminary aspect to implement this type of strategy


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Promoção da Saúde , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Percepção
11.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(3): 86-93, sept. 2019. graf., tab.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048273

RESUMO

Introducción: en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje existen múltiples conflictos al momento de seleccionar el tipo de evaluación que debería aplicarse a estudiantes de Medicina. Nuestro objetivo es comparar diferencias en la media de notas de tres modalidades de examen (oral, escrito para desarrollar y preguntas de opción múltiple) para así determinar cómo estas podrían afectar el desempeño de los estudiantes de Medicina en el campo de la Farmacología. Material y métodos: estudio cuasi experimental con una intervención no aleatorizada en una muestra por conveniencia de estudiantes de Medicina. A fin de evaluar diferencias en la media de notas se hizo un análisis ANOVA para muestras pareadas y luego los correspondientes tests de T para muestras pareadas. Resultados: enrolamos inicialmente a 36 estudiantes; 7 fueron excluidos (4 por ausencia y 3 por abandono), y se obtuvieron 29 participantes. La media de notas del examen oral y la de preguntas de opción múltiple fueron ambas significativamente superiores a la del examen escrito para desarrollar (oral vs. escrito: diferencia 1,8 puntos; IC 95% 0,8 a 2,7; p < 0,01; opción múltiple vs. escrito: diferencia 2,1 puntos; IC 95% 1,4 a 2,9; p < 0,01). No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las notas medias del examen oral y del examen de preguntas de opción múltiple (p = 0,37). Conclusión: los estudiantes de Medicina obtienen peores notas en el examen escrito para desarrollar en Farmacología, en relación con los exámenes oral y de preguntas de opción múltiple. Esto posiblemente se asocie al hecho de que aquella modalidad es menos frecuentemente empleada en la carrera de Medicina. (AU)


Introduction: in the teaching-learning process, there are many problems in the selection of the most suitable type of exam for evaluating medical students. Our target was to compare differences in the average grade of medical students upon taking three different types of exam (oral, written, and multiple-choice questions) to determine how these different types of exam may affect the performance of medical students in the area of Pharmacology. Material and methods: we conducted a quasi experimental study by applying a non-randomized intervention to a convenience sample of medical students. To evaluate differences in the average grades among three groups, an ANOVA analysis was applied followed by paired T-tests. Results: we initially enrolled 36 students; 7 were excluded (4 were absent and 3 abandoned the intervention), arriving at a total sum of 29 participants. The average grades of the oral exam and multiple-choice questions were both significantly higher than the written exam (oral vs. written: difference 1.8 points; 95%CI 0.8 to 2.7, p < 0.01; multiple-choice vs. written: difference 2.1 points, 95%CI 1.4 to 2.9, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the average grades on the oral exam and the multiple-choice exam (p = 0.37). Conclusion: medical students have worse grades on written exams in Pharmacology, as compared to oral and multiple-choice exams. This could possibly be associated with the fact that this type of exam is less frequently applied in Medical School. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Farmacologia/educação , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Habilidades para Realização de Testes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/educação , Questão de Prova , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizagem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370266

RESUMO

Anxiety, although as common and arguably as debilitating as depression, has garnered less attention, and is often undetected and undertreated in the general population. Similarly, anxiety among medical students warrants greater attention due to its significant implications. We aimed to study the global prevalence of anxiety among medical students and the associated factors predisposing medical students to anxiety. In February 2019, we carried out a systematic search for cross-sectional studies that examined the prevalence of anxiety among medical students. We computed the aggregate prevalence and pooled odds ratio (OR) using the random-effects model and used meta-regression analyses to explore the sources of heterogeneity. We pooled and analyzed data from sixty-nine studies comprising 40,348 medical students. The global prevalence rate of anxiety among medical students was 33.8% (95% Confidence Interval: 29.2-38.7%). Anxiety was most prevalent among medical students from the Middle East and Asia. Subgroup analyses by gender and year of study found no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of anxiety. About one in three medical students globally have anxiety-a prevalence rate which is substantially higher than the general population. Administrators and leaders of medical schools should take the lead in destigmatizing mental illnesses and promoting help-seeking behaviors when students are stressed and anxious. Further research is needed to identify risk factors of anxiety unique to medical students.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 56, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448018

RESUMO

Although lumbar puncture is recognized as a great contributor to the diagnosis of some neurological diseases, the modalities of learning this procedure are still poorly defined in training programs for students attending their hospital internships. Apprehension related to the lack of experience and the fear of failure accelerates the abandonment of the practice. This study aims to assess lumbar puncture skills in the students at the Faculty of Medicine in Nouakchott as well as their subjective experience of this procedure. We conducted a survey of TCEM and DCEM 4 interns, residents and students in May 2017. An anonymous questionnaire on teaching and lumbar puncture practice was elaborated and completed by 92 participants. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 software. Out of 105 question sheets, only 92 were workable, reflecting a participation rate of 87.6%. Sixty-seven boys and twenty-five girls participated in the survey. Twelve participants had never performed lumbar puncture, most often because they had low self-esteem. Nearly 10% of students had never learned to do this procedure and 22% had learned it without a supervisor (senior doctor). Lumbar puncture failure rate was 45% among our trainees. Few of them recognized (7.5%) that they had prescribed sedation or local anesthesia to patients before lumbar puncture. Sitting position was much more used than lateral decubitus, but 30% of students reported that they had used both. Lumbar puncture was used to help diagnosis in 69% of cases but in 25% of cases it was performed for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose. Diagnostic indications were dominated by meningitis and meningoencephalitis while normal pressure hydrocephalus was the primary motivation for therapeutic lumbar puncture. Our interns reported that complications mainly included traumatic lumbar puncture followed by headache. Lumbar puncture was mainly performed in the Department of Pediatrics (35%), followed by the Department of Neurology (29%), the Emergency Department (19%) and Internal Medicine (9%). The results of our survey show that lumbar puncture practice is still difficult and risky for many students and that they are not sufficiently prepared for it. The modalities of procedure teaching and learning should be reviewed by supervisors, who could integrate new techniques, such as medical simulation dummies, as in most developed countries.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Punção Espinal/normas , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Punção Espinal/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430842

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate students' perception of team-based learning (TBL) amongst a cohort who was exposed to this methodology for the first time at an university in the United Kingdom . METHODS: Between November and December 2018, 26 first year Master of Pharmacy and 90 second year B.Sc. Biomedical Science students of School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, United Kingdom were invited to participate and requested to complete a questionnaire that contained quantitative and qualitative questions. The quantitative component was based on the team-based-learning student assessment instrument (TBL-SAI) instrument. It additionally contained questions about key student characteristics. RESULTS: The response rate was 60% (70/116), 74% (n=52) were females and 26% (n=18) males. The percentage of agreement in the TBL-SAI suggested a favourable response to TBL. The overall mean score for the TBL-SAI was 115.6 (SD 5.6) [maximum score: 140] which was above the threshold of 102, thus suggesting a preference for TBL. Statistically significant differences were not found according to demographics characteristics. Students who predicted a final result of ≥70% strongly agreed that TBL help improve their grades. Some students highlighted issues with working in teams and only 56% of students agreed that they could learn better in a team setting. CONCLUSION: This study shows that students exposed to TBL for the first-time favour several aspects of it. However, more focused strategies including team-building exercises activities and expert facilitation skills could potentially tackle resistance to working in teams.


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Universidades
15.
Int J Med Inform ; 130: 103944, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the influence of a serious game dedicated to primary health care with traditional learning methods on knowledge of undergraduate medical students. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with undergraduate medical students. The students (n = 27) attended to an expositive leveling lesson regard the theme "Screening on Primary Health Care", and answered to a baseline knowledge test, comprised by objective questions. Students were randomly allocated to the control and game groups, in which received a text-based material regarding "Screening on Primary Health Care" or were exposed to a serious game. An immediate knowledge test and a retention knowledge test, presenting the same questions of baseline test, were responded by students at the finish of exposure and four weeks later. The students also performed a survey evaluating the user experience on the serious game. Knowledge test scores were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA and paired sample t-test. User experience and expectation surveys were descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: For the control group, the mean scores and standard deviation were 7.85 ±â€¯0.99, 9.00 ±â€¯1.87 and 7.69 ±â€¯1.44 for baseline, immediate and retention knowledge tests, respectively; the score at immediate test was higher than for baseline and retention tests. The game group presented 7.07 ±â€¯1.98, 8.00 ±â€¯1.84 and 7.15 ±â€¯1.41 for baseline, immediate and retention knowledge tests, respectively. The comparison between groups did not show differences at any moment (p < 0.05). The majority of the participants consider that the serious game has understandable instructions, presented the contents clearly, and it favors the engagement on study. CONCLUSION: The serious game was effective to improve the students' knowledge on primary health care contents. Learning based on a serious game is as effective as learning based on printed text.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 370-373, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377419

RESUMO

It is no secret that the rigors of professional medical programs are creating an immense strain on mental health, and studies show that students are coping poorly. It is becoming more widely known that this problem especially exists in veterinary medicine. Veterinary colleges are starting to make changes to address the mental health crisis among their student (and practitioner) population, however, in order to solve a problem you must first understand your audience. There are still questions regarding who is more often affected and why? In this study, the prevalence and correlates of stress, anxiety, and depression among veterinary students in the Southeastern US is the primary focus. Three hundred and forty two participants answered survey questions addressing socio-demographics, as well as, completed a perceived stress scale and patient health questionnaire (PHQ-4) to measure anxiety and depression. Chi-square, independent samples t-test, and ANOVA were conducted to assess demographic correlates of stress, anxiety, and depression. High levels of stress, anxiety, and depression were identified among veterinary students participating in the study. Stress level was significantly associated with sex and Grade Point Average (GPA): females and those with GPA <3.0 exhibited higher levels of stress. While it is good that veterinary colleges are already making changes, the question remains if these changes are significant enough. Based on this study's results, transitioning to a pass/fail grading system and implementing regular mindfulness practice are proposed changes that may aid in promoting a positive mental health culture for students and future veterinary professionals.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Educação em Veterinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(4): 919-925, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184719

RESUMO

Introducción: el índice de masa corporal (IMC) es una medida subrogada de la adiposidad corporal, por lo que puede infradiagnosticar sobrepeso y obesidad, lo que hace necesario definir variables más adecuadas para su correcto diagnóstico. Objetivo: comparar la categorización de sobrepeso y obesidad según el porcentaje de grasa medido con absorciometría de rayos X de energía dual (DEXA) con el IMC y la fórmula Clínica Universidad de Navarra - Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE), así como su relación con la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea, la actividad física y la satisfacción con la imagen corporal. Sujetos y métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal llevado a cabo en una muestra de 64 estudiantes de Medicina. Se determinaron peso, talla, perímetro de cintura, porcentaje de grasa medido con DEXA, adherencia a la dieta mediterránea, nivel de actividad física y satisfacción con la imagen corporal. Resultados: el IMC infradiagnostica sobrepeso respecto al porcentaje de grasa medido por DEXA mientras que la ecuación CUN-BAE presenta una buena correlación. El porcentaje de grasa se asocia inversamente con la satisfacción con la imagen corporal con mayor fuerza que el IMC. Conclusión: se necesitan nuevas herramientas capaces de distinguir los casos con IMC normal cuyo porcentaje de grasa corporal está elevado. Sería útil estudiar si el empleo de un cuestionario de satisfacción con la imagen corporal en personas clasificadas como normopeso podría distinguir a aquellas con una mayor probabilidad de exceso de grasa y así emplear estudios más exhaustivos en este colectivo


Introduction: body mass index (BMI) can under-diagnose overweight and obesity as it is a surrogate measure of central adiposity, making it necessary to define more adequate variables for its correct diagnosis. Objective: to compare the categorization of overweight and obesity according to the percentage of fat measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) with the BMI and the Clínica Universidad de Navarra - Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE) formula, as well as their relationship with adherence to the Mediterranean diet, physical activity and satisfaction with body image. Subjects and methods: cross-sectional study conducted in 64 medical students. We determined weight, height, waist circumference, percentage of fat measured with DEXA, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, level of physical activity and degree of satisfaction with body image. Results: BMI underdiagnoses overweight with respect to the percentage of fat measured by DEXA while CUN-BAE has a good correlation. Percentage of fat is inversely associated with satisfaction with body image more strongly than the BMI. Conclusion: the limitations of BMI to diagnose excess body fat pose the need for new tools to distinguish patients with normal BMI whose percentage of body fat is high. It would be useful to assess whether the use of a questionnaire of satisfaction with body image in people classified as normal weight could distinguish individuals with a higher probability of excess of fat, and thus, employ more accurate study methods in this group


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida , Imagem Corporal , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Absorciometria de Fóton/instrumentação , Dieta Mediterrânea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Sobrepeso , Obesidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Antropometria , Atividade Motora
18.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 258, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-based education (CBE) is strategically important to provide contextual learning for medical students. CBE is a priority for countries striving for better primary health care. However, the CBE literature provides little curriculum guidance to enhance undergraduate medical education with the primary health care context. We aim to develop a CBE framework for undergraduate medical education (from macro, meso, and micro curriculum levels) to engage students and teachers with better, more meaningful learning, within primary health care settings. METHODS: We used a grounded theory methodology by interviewing eight medical educationalists and ten CBE teachers, followed with the coding process by sensitizing the concepts of 'medical education' and 'primary care', to explore any new concepts. The primary data originated from a developing country where the paradigm of high-quality primary health care is mostly unfamiliar. Three senior researchers from international associations of general practices from different countries provided validation to the results. RESULTS: We identified a new framework for a community-based educational program. The micro-curriculum should offer opportunities for small group activities, ranging from simple to complex learning, emphasizing clinical skills, leadership, and teamwork to improve self-directed and collaborative practice. Sufficient role models and constructive feedback within primary care contexts are robust facilitators. For the meso-curriculum, comprehensive coordination on teacher-training and CBE program is needed. To ensure the sustainability of the program, faculty leaders and managers should include the macro-curriculum with a national postgraduate general practice curriculum and provide strong commitment. CONCLUSIONS: We designed a 'CBE-tree' model for the undergraduate medical curriculum. By using the CBE framework developed in this study, students and teachers may better comprehend the essential of primary health care.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Educacionais , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
19.
Public Health ; 174: 69-73, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Physical activity level decreases during young adulthood. As social media are nowadays widely used and are included into many people's daily routines, the interventions on these websites have the possibilities to be integrated into those routines without becoming a burden. The aim of this study was to assess physical activity level among first- and fifth-year medical students and social media intervention with the aim to improve physical activity among them. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study was conducted during October of 2016 at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia. The study included 375 first- and fifth-year students. METHODS: At the baseline, students filled in the questionnaire and were asked to join a Facebook discussion group. The intervention consisted of motivation for physical activity through motivational pictures, texts, and discussions. The second assessment was carried out after one month. Based on the reported physical activity level, students were divided into groups: sufficient (>600 metabolic equivalent [MET]-minutes/week) and insufficient physical activity (≤600 MET-minutes/week). RESULTS: Total of 85.4% of students were sufficiently active at the baseline, whereas 90.4% were sufficiently active after one month. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that students who were part of the Facebook group (odds ratio [OR]: 3.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-8.43) and students who had sufficient physical activity at the baseline (OR: 5.44, 95% CI: 2.44-12.13) had a higher likelihood to be sufficiently active after one month. CONCLUSION: Social media are shown to be valuable in health-promoting interventions and can be used for interventions targeting lifestyle change among young adults.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Mídias Sociais , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Motivação , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Sérvia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 164, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303933

RESUMO

Introduction: Research is essential in all areas of health development. However, medical students and residents frequently lack the time and training on performing research. This is especially prevalent in resource-limited settings. We aimed to compare the word counts of undergraduate and postgraduate dissertations with published projects in Rwanda, and to identify the proportion of postgraduate pediatric research projects that have been published since 2012. Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study of undergraduate and postgraduate research dissertations at the University of Rwanda. Dissertations were then compared to randomly selected published papers of Rwandan research. Each IMRaD (Introduction, Methodology, Results and Discussion) section word count was compared using Student's t-test. Results: 19/190 (10%) undergraduate dissertations and 22/41 (54%) postgraduate dissertations, were available in electronic format for word-count analysis. The mean total word count for postgraduate dissertations (5163 words) was significantly longer (p<0.001) than the randomly selected peer-reviewed journal articles (2959 words). Each section of the IMRaD structure of postgraduate dissertations was significantly longer than those of the control group. Undergraduates used a similar number of words to published papers, but used significantly more tables and figures. Of the 41 postgraduate dissertations, only four (10%), were published in peer-reviewed journals. Conclusion: This is the first study to assess the writing style of Rwandan medical students and pediatric postgraduate residents. A simple step to increase dissemination of research findings would be for institutions to modify academic regulations so that students write-up in manuscript form rather than dissertation format.


Assuntos
Dissertações Acadêmicas como Assunto , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ruanda
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