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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248493, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339399

RESUMO

Abstract Parasites of veterinary importance have been heavily focused on domesticated livestock that was introduced into the neo-tropics. The text used in the teaching parasitology to veterinary students in Trinidad has only investigated the parasites of domesticated species. In the reviewed veterinary parasitology text no mention was made on the parasites that affect wild neo-tropical animals. Information on wild neo-tropical animals had to be sourced from texts on the management of wild life animals in the Neotropics. The texts that were reviewed in this document spanned from the mid-1950s to 2020. The information presented in this review reveals the exhaustive work done on the parasites of domesticated species but also revealed little information on neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication. In conclusion, this review reveals the gap of information that is missing from parasitology texts used in the teaching of veterinary students. In the future these parasitology texts can be revised to include chapters on the parasites of neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication. At present students that graduate from the veterinary parasitology course has little information on the parasites of animals which are present in their 'backyards'.


Resumo Parasitas de importância veterinária têm se concentrado fortemente em animais domésticos que foram introduzidos na região neotrópica. O texto usado no ensino de parasitologia para estudantes de veterinária em Trinidad investigou apenas os parasitas de espécies domesticadas. No texto de parasitologia veterinária revisado, nenhuma menção foi feita sobre os parasitas que afetam os animais selvagens neotropicais. As informações sobre animais selvagens neotropicais tiveram que ser obtidas a partir de textos sobre o manejo de animais selvagens nos Neotrópicos. Os textos revisados neste documento vão de meados da década de 1950 até 2020. As informações apresentadas nesta revisão revelam o trabalho exaustivo realizado sobre os parasitas de espécies domesticadas, mas também revelaram poucas informações sobre animais neotropicais com potencial para domesticação. Em conclusão, esta revisão revela a lacuna de informação que existe nos textos de parasitologia utilizados no ensino de estudantes de veterinária. No futuro, esses textos de parasitologia podem ser revisados ​​para incluir capítulos sobre os parasitas de animais neotropicais com potencial para domesticação. Atualmente, os alunos que se formam no curso de parasitologia veterinária têm poucas informações sobre os parasitas de animais que estão presentes em seus "quintais".


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Educação em Veterinária , Animais Selvagens , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária , Estudantes , Trinidad e Tobago , Universidades
2.
PM R ; 14(1): 58-67, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FRAME, a mnemonic referring to a program for helping health care providers adapt patient-provider communication when working with patients with communication disorders, improves the knowledge, confidence, and communication skills of medical students for working with this population. However, the impact of the FRAME program for preparing students from the rehabilitation disciplines to work with patients with communication disorders is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of the FRAME program on the knowledge, confidence, and communication skills of students in physical therapy (PT), occupational therapy (OT), and prosthetics and orthotics (P&O) in terms of how to communicate effectively with patients with communication disorders. DESIGN: An exploratory, quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design. SETTING: PT, OT, and P&O clinical education programs at the University of Washington's Department of Rehabilitation Medicine. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty rehabilitation students (PT = 12; OT = 7; and P&O = 1) participated in the FRAME training. INTERVENTIONS: The FRAME program, delivered in a single, 2-hour session teaches students communication skills to use with patients with various types of communication disorders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A quiz of students' knowledge about communication disorders and a self-rating of confidence for interacting with this patient population were used. Speech-language pathology graduate clinicians rated students' use of communication strategies from each area of the FRAME training during interactions with standardized patients portraying aphasia and dysarthria. Student qualitative feedback were also collected. RESULTS: Students' knowledge, confidence, and use of communication strategies improved significantly following training. Greatest gains were observed in students' ability to familiarize themselves with how a patient communicates and establish a method of communication before proceeding with the interview. Qualitative feedback aligned with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: The FRAME program increases the knowledge, confidence, and use of communication strategies in rehabilitation students in order to communicate more effectively with patients with communication disorders in their future careers.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Comunicação , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Estudantes de Medicina , Competência Clínica , Comunicação , Humanos , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/educação , Estudantes
3.
Psychol Sci ; 33(3): 397-411, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35188855

RESUMO

To address sexism, people must first recognize it. In this research, we identified a barrier that makes sexism hard to recognize: rudeness toward men. We found that observers judge a sexist perpetrator as less sexist if he is rude toward men. This occurs because rudeness toward men creates the illusion of gender blindness. We documented this phenomenon in five preregistered studies consisting of online adult participants and adult students from professional schools (total N = 4,663). These attributions are problematic because sexism and rudeness are not mutually exclusive. Men who hold sexist beliefs about women can be-and often are-rude toward other men. These attributions also discourage observers from holding perpetrators accountable for gender bias. Thus, rudeness toward men gives sexist perpetrators plausible deniability. It protects them and prevents the first perceptual step necessary to address sexism.


Assuntos
Incivilidade , Sexismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Social , Estudantes
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted nearly all sectors of our population, including college students, who continue to share disproportionate rate of disparities. In this study, we aimed to identity key sleep health characteristics, including markers for obstructive sleep apnea, as well as its relation to mental health, physical health, and academic performance. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design with online survey dissemination was used. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were conducted among a predominantly minority population. RESULTS: Results show that nearly 78% of the population reported that the pandemic impacted their mental or physical health, while over 83% reported daytime tiredness/fatigue/sleepiness, and another 61% reported sleeping less than seven hours during weekdays. Among other associations, pandemic-related poor sleep health, including sleeping less than seven hours, was associated with daytime tiredness/fatigue/sleepiness, psychological distress, as well as low mental health and physical health. A severe marker for obstructive sleep apnea, having stopped breathing during sleep, was also associated with psychological distress during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep health interventions are critical for optimizing college student health and well-being, including improving mental health outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/epidemiologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Sono , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Sonolência , Estudantes/psicologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682494

RESUMO

This study compares students' and recent graduates' perceptions of their subjective wellbeing and offers support mechanisms and resources to enhance wellbeing in higher education. Survey data were collected in September 2021 from 414 UK-based higher education students and recent graduates on their self-perceived subjective wellbeing in March 2020 (before COVID-19 regulations restrictions) and September 2021 (18 months later). Findings showed that subjective wellbeing scores fell for almost three-quarters of university students and recent graduates between March 2020 and September 2021. Interestingly, around one-fifth of participants reported increased subjective wellbeing scores whilst the remaining participants reported no impact. Positive impacts of the pandemic included opportunities for self-improvement with more free time for focusing on health and relationships. Adverse outcomes included feelings of isolation, reduced mental and physical health, difficulties undertaking degree studies and work, travel restrictions, and concerns for labour market competitiveness. The study advances the application of the conservation of resources theory and identifies strategies for higher education institutions to better support and improve their students' and future graduates' subjective wellbeing. Strategies include access to counselling, mindfulness, opportunities for participation in hobbies, interaction with peers, flexible work and study options, and guidance on career and finances.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Universidades
6.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 28(3): 27, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652979

RESUMO

In the United States National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health have mandated training STEM doctoral students in the ethical and responsible conduct of research to improve doctoral students' ethical decision-making skills; however, little is known about the process and factors that STEM faculty and graduate students use in their decision-making. This exploratory case study examined how four triads of chemistry faculty and their doctoral students recruited from three research universities in the eastern United States engaged in ethical decision-making on issues of authorship, assignment of credit, and plagiarism. A mixed-methods approach involving the administration of an online survey consisting of three open-ended case studies followed by a think-aloud interview was utilized. Participants were found to use analogical reasoning and base their decision-making on a common core set of considerations including fundamental principles, social contracts, consequences, and discussion with an advisor, often using prior personal experiences as sources. Co-authorship did not appear to impact the doctoral students' ethical decision-making. Gender may play a role in graduate students' decision-making; female doctoral students appeared to be less likely to consider prior experiences when evaluating the vignettes. Graduate students' lack of knowledge of the core issues in the responsible conduct of research, coupled with their lack of research experience, and inability to identify the core considerations may lead them to make bad judgments in specific situations. Our findings help explain the minimal impact that the current responsible conduct of research training methods has had on graduate students' ethical decision-making and should lead to the development of more effective approaches.


Assuntos
Autoria , Tomada de Decisões , Docentes , Feminino , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Estudantes , Estados Unidos
7.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 46(3): 367-374, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658615

RESUMO

This study examines how lower secondary school students understand the circulatory system, using the structure-behavior-function (SBF) framework for conceptual representation. It evaluates the progress of students' understanding after interventions with two different teaching approaches, one using a biology textbook supported by augmented reality (AR) technology and the other using only a textbook as a main source of information. The data analysis is based on the assumption that systemic understanding demands the perception of three system dimensions: the components forming the system at all levels of organization (its structures), the interactions and mechanisms between them (its behavior), and the function as a whole outcome (its phenomena). The results indicate that both learning approaches contribute to a higher level of understanding the circulatory system. The group using AR-supported educational materials showed statistically significant better improvements in their knowledge of the circulatory system, including all three components of the SBF framework.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study examines how lower secondary school students understand the circulatory system, using the structure-behavior-function (SBF) framework for conceptual representation. It confirms that the use of augmented reality (AR) can help lower secondary school students understand the complexity of the circulatory system. The group using AR-supported instructional materials showed statistically significant better improvements in their knowledge of the circulatory system, including all three components of the SBF framework.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Sistema Cardiovascular , Humanos , Conhecimento , Aprendizagem , Estudantes
8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(6): e1009773, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcription factor (TF) regulates the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA by binding to upstream sequence motifs. Identifying the locations of known motifs in whole genomes is computationally intensive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study presents a computational tool, named "Grit", for screening TF-binding sites (TFBS) by coordinating transcription factors to their promoter sequences in orthologous genes. This tool employs a newly developed mixed Student's t-test statistical method that detects high-scoring binding sites utilizing conservation information among species. The program performs sequence scanning at a rate of 3.2 Mbp/s on a quad-core Amazon server and has been benchmarked by the well-established ChIP-Seq datasets, putting Grit amongst the top-ranked TFBS predictors. It significantly outperforms the well-known transcription factor motif scanning tools, Pscan (4.8%) and FIMO (17.8%), in analyzing well-documented ChIP-Atlas human genome Chip-Seq datasets. SIGNIFICANCE: Grit is a good alternative to current available motif scanning tools.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Fatores de Transcrição , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 655-659, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673098

RESUMO

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by inattention and/or impulsivity-hyperactivity symptoms. Through Machine Learning methods and the SHAP approach, this work aims to discover which features have the most significant impact on the students' performance with ADHD in arithmetic, writing and reading. The SHAP allowed us to deepen the model's understanding and identify the most relevant features for academic performance. The experiments indicated that the Raven_Z IQ test score is the factor with the most significant impact on academic performance in all disciplines. Then, the mother's schooling, being from a private school, and the student's social class were the most frequently highlighted features. In all disciplines, the student having ADHD emerged as an important feature with a negative impact but less relevance than the previous features.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Humanos , Matemática , Leitura , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Redação
10.
J Affect Disord ; 311: 486-493, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no safe level of exposure to secondhand smoking. Adolescence is a stage of rapid psychological development and is highly susceptible to various factors that can cause some mental health problems. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure in never-smoking school adolescents and evaluate whether there is an association between secondhand smoking exposure and mental health. METHODS: 70 nationally representative data sets from the Global School-based Student Health Survey, conducted between 2003 and 2017, were used to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure and evaluate whether there is an association between secondhand smoking exposure and loneliness, sleeplessness, and suicidal ideation. RESULTS: Total 191, 613 no-smoking school adolescents (43.0% boys) were included in this analysis. The prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure ranged from 15.1% in Tajikistan to 79.6% in Timor-Leste. There was no difference in the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure between boys and girls in most countries. After adjusted, secondhand smoking exposure was positively associated with loneliness (odds ratio 1.39, 95% CI 1.30-1.49), sleeplessness (odds ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.28-1.47), and suicidal ideation (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.15-1.30) in never-smoking school adolescents in overall samples. LIMITATIONS: Use of self-report measures and potentially limited generalizability. CONCLUSIONS: Secondhand smoking exposure remains a serious public health issue among never-smoking school adolescents and its impact on adolescent mental health cannot be ignored. Stricter and more comprehensive policies and bans on secondhand smoking should be implemented, and adolescents' mental health should receive more attention.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
11.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(6): e549-e556, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Students with health disorders might be at risk of disengaging from education, which can reinforce socioeconomic inequalities in health. We aimed to evaluate the associations between 176 diseases and injuries and later school performance in Norwegian adolescents and to estimate the importance of each disorder using a novel measure for the educational burden of disease (EBoD). METHODS: We used diagnostic information from government-funded health services for all Norwegian inhabitants who were born between Jan 1, 1995, and Dec 31, 2002, were registered as living in Norway at age 11-16 years, and were participating in compulsory education. School performance was assessed as grade point average at the end of compulsory education at age 16 years. We used a linear regression of school performance on disease in a fixed-effects sibling comparison model (113 411 families). The association (regression coefficients) between disease and school performance was multiplied by disease prevalence to estimate the proportional EBoD among 467 412 individuals participating in compulsory education. FINDINGS: Overall, although most diseases were not meaningfully associated with grade point average (regression coefficients close to 0), some were strongly associated (eg, intellectual disability regression coefficients -1·2 for boys and -1·3 for girls). The total educational disease burden was slightly higher for girls (53·5%) than for boys (46·5%). Mental health disorders were associated with the largest educational burden among adolescents in Norway (total burden 44·6%; boys 24·6% vs girls 20·0%), of which hyperkinetic disorder contributed to 22·1% of the total burden (boys 14·6% vs girls 7·5%). Among somatic diseases, those with unknown causes and possibly mental causes were associated with the largest educational burden. INTERPRETATION: The EBoD concept could provide a simple metric to guide researchers and policy makers. Because mental health disorders form a large component of the educational burden, investment in mental health might be particularly important for improving educational outcomes in adolescents. FUNDING: The Research Council of Norway.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Estudantes
12.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 145, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smartphone use has become a pervasive aspect of youth daily life today. Immersive engagement with apps and features on the smartphone may lead to intimate and affectionate human-device relationships. The purpose of this research is to holistically dissect the ranked order of the various dimensions of college students' attachment to the smartphones through the by-person factorial analytical power of Q methodology. METHODS: Inspired by extant research into diverse aspects of human attachment to the smartphones, a concourse of 50 statements pertinent to the functional, behavioral, emotional and psychological dimensions of human-smartphone attachment were pilot tested and developed. A P sample of 67 participants completed the Q sort based on respective subjective perceptions and self-references. Data was processed utilizing the open-source Web-based Ken-Q Analysis software in detecting the main factorial structure. RESULTS: Five distinct factor (persona) exemplars were identified illustrating different pragmatic, cognitive and attitudinal approaches to smartphone engagement. They were labeled mainstream users, disciplined conventionalists, casual fun-seekers, inquisitive nerds, and sentient pragmatists in response to their respective psycho-behavioral traits. There were clear patterns of similarity and divergence among the five personas. CONCLUSION: The typological diversity points to the multiplicate nature of human-smartphone attachment. Clusters of cognitive, behavioral and habitual patterns in smartphone engagement driving each persona may be a productive area of exploration in future research in exploring their respective emotional and other outcomes. The concurrent agency of nomophobia and anthropomorphic attribution is an intriguing line of academic inquiry.


Assuntos
Apego ao Objeto , Smartphone , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Análise Fatorial , Saúde Holística , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Q-Sort , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56008

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Contextualizar una síntesis de evidencia sobre intervenciones en salud mental estudiantil durante la pandemia de la enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) por medio de un diálogo deliberativo con universidades iberoamericanas. Métodos. Se realizó previamente una síntesis de evidencia y un diálogo sincrónico, que consistió en la discusión en subgrupos acerca del diseño y aplicación de las intervenciones en salud mental. Se realizó un análisis de datos dialógicos y se sintetizó por temas. Resultados. Cincuenta y siete miembros de 17 universidades iberoamericanas públicas y privadas participaron en el encuentro. En el diseño de las intervenciones, se percibe la salud mental como desatendida, y visibilizada con la pandemia. La detección de necesidades es la que orienta las intervenciones y rara vez se utiliza evidencia científica para diseñarlas. Se considera importante conformar un equipo interdisciplinario con capacitación continua para diseñar un programa específico, que cubra también familias y personal docente y administrativo. En la aplicación, existen problemas como la saturación de los servicios por la alta demanda y la falta de recursos básicos de los estudiantes. Es innegable la influencia del contexto macro e institucional por la disposición de recursos. El diálogo fue percibido como oportunidad para construir un consolidado nuevo de intervenciones. Conclusiones. Este diálogo permitió enriquecer la descripción de intervenciones en salud mental estudiantil durante la pandemia de COVID-19 ya descritas en la literatura, aunque llevarlas a la práctica en nuestro contexto supone hacer frente a la deuda por la desatención previa y las altas necesidades básicas insatisfechas.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To contextualize a synthesis of evidence on interventions in student mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic through a deliberative dialogue with Ibero-American universities. Methods. An evidence synthesis and synchronous dialogues were previously conducted, consisting of subgroup discussions about the design and implementation of mental health interventions. An analysis of dialogic data was conducted, then organized by topic. Results. Fifty-seven representatives of 17 public and private Ibero-American universities participated in the meeting. In terms of the design of interventions, mental health is perceived as neglected, although its profile was raised by the pandemic. Interventions are guided by detection of needs; scientific evidence is rarely used to design them. Importance was given to forming an interdisciplinary team with continuous training in order to design a specific program that also covers families and teaching/administrative staff. In terms of implementation, problems include saturation of services due to high demand and lack of basic resources among students. Regarding the provision of resources, the influence of the broader context, including the institutional context, is undeniable. The dialogues were perceived as an opportunity to build a new set of interventions. Conclusions. These dialogues enriched the description of interventions already described in the literature on student mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, implementing such interventions in the region means addressing previous neglect and a high level of unmet basic needs.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Contextualizar uma síntese de evidências sobre intervenções em saúde mental de estudantes universitários na pandemia de COVID-19, por meio do diálogo deliberativo com universidades ibero-americanas. Métodos. A partir de uma síntese de evidências previamente elaborada, o diálogo síncrono foi conduzido por meio de discussões em subgrupos sobre o planejamento e a implementação de intervenções em saúde mental. Os dados obtidos foram analisados e resumidos por área temática. Resultados. Cinquenta e sete integrantes de 17 universidades ibero-americanas públicas e privadas participaram do encontro. Os participantes indicaram que a saúde mental é negligenciada no planejamento das intervenções, mas ganhou visibilidade na pandemia. As intervenções são direcionadas às necessidades identificadas e raramente planejadas com base em evidências científicas. Disseram considerar importante formar uma equipe interdisciplinar com capacitação contínua para planejar um programa específico que englobe também familiares e o corpo docente e administrativo. Implementar intervenções é complicado porque os serviços estão sobrecarregados devido à grande demanda e à falta de recursos básicos para os estudantes. O contexto macro e institucional claramente influencia a disponibilização de recursos. O diálogo foi visto como uma oportunidade para consolidar um novo conjunto de intervenções. Conclusões. O presente diálogo contribuiu para enriquecer a literatura de intervenções de saúde mental para estudantes universitários na pandemia de COVID-19. Implementar intervenções no nosso contexto requer sanar as falhas por negligência passada e as enormes necessidades básicas não atendidas.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde para Estudantes , Estudantes , COVID-19 , Política Informada por Evidências , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde para Estudantes , Estudantes , Política Informada por Evidências , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde para Estudantes , Estudantes , Política Informada por Evidências
14.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 141, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642046

RESUMO

Mental health conditions related to trauma among American children are a concern, particularly because of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Children, as students, carry the trauma they encounter with them into the classroom. Students impacted by trauma learn differently due to effects on the brain that relate to several impairments, causing them to perform poorly in school. However, teachers may not always understand this issue. This case study shows how certain dynamics within the EST layers impacted one school during the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers at the school experienced a trauma-informed online PD and SEL program intended to improve student outcomes, teacher perceptions, and teacher-student relationships. The six participants included teachers in a K-8 low-income, minority population charter school. The assessment tools used were the Teacher-Student Relationship Scale, Teacher Perception Scale, and Student Outcomes Survey. The teachers' outlook on SEL improved, particularly online. This improvement helped the teachers implement community circles and SEL infused with mindfulness in their online classrooms, which may have helped them maintain their relationships with the students and may have helped the students with academic and stress outcomes. During unprecedented times, the maintenance, rather than the deterioration, of student outcomes and teacher-student relationships is an accomplishment and an area that necessitates further research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Criança , Ecossistema , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Estudantes/psicologia
15.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(3): 426-430, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642150

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the status quo of satisfaction with postgraduate education of clinical medicine and the influencing factors, so as to provide references for promoting improvements in the education model and the program quality of medical personnel training. Methods: A self-developed Clinical Medicine Postgraduate Program Quality Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to conduct a survey among 1907 postgraduate students of clinical medicine, and multivariate linear regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of postgraduate students' satisfaction with the quality of the program. Results: The overall satisfaction rate with the quality of the postgraduate clinical medical program was 81.44%, and the satisfaction score ranking of different dimensions from the highest to the lowest were 14 (12, 15) for supervisors, 19 (17, 22) for curriculum and instruction, 18 (16, 23) for management and survices, and 12 (10, 14) for research environment. The results of multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the course evaluation method 〔partial regression coefficient ( Β)=0.048, 95% CI: 0.002-0.095, P=0.042〕 and teacher's teaching methodology ( Β=0.041, 95% CI: 0.010-0.072, P=0.011) of the dimension of curriculum and instruction, research outcomes ( B=0.033, 95% CI: 0.002-0.064, P=0.038) of the research environmrnt dimension, the supervisor's research ability ( B=0.035, 95% CI: 0.005-0.065, P=0.022) of the supervisor's ability dimention were important factors influencing the satisfaction with the quality of postgraduate clinical medical training. Conclusion: Satisfaction with the quality of postgraduate clinical medical training still needs further improvement. Regional medical schools should adopt diversified course evaluation methods, appropriately use modern instructional methods, increase investment in research funding, encourage research outputs, and help the supervisors continuously update their teaching and research philosophies.


Assuntos
Medicina Clínica , Faculdades de Medicina , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(6): e1010101, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679237

RESUMO

Undergraduate students from underrepresented backgrounds (e.g., Black, Indigenous, and people of color [BIPOC], members of the Deaf community, people with disabilities, members of the 2SLGBTQIA+ community, from low-income backgrounds, or underrepresented genders) continue to face exclusion and marginalization in higher education. In this piece, authored and edited by a diverse group of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) scholars, we present 10 simple rules for succeeding as an underrepresented STEM undergraduate student, illuminating the "hidden curriculum" of STEM specifically as it relates to the underrepresented undergraduate experience. Our rules begin by encouraging students to embrace their own distinct identities and scientific voices and explain how students can overcome challenges unique to underrepresented students throughout their undergraduate degrees. These rules are derived from a combination of our own experiences navigating our undergraduate STEM degrees and the growing body of literature on improving success for underrepresented students.


Assuntos
Ciência , Engenharia/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Tecnologia/educação
17.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268769, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658021

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Research establishes the critical need to address the underrepresentation of women and racial/ethnic minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). While emergent research addresses similar challenges for sexual and gender minorities (SGM), this research remains scant and focuses on adult experiences. This analysis examines subgroup differences and the impact of bullying on STEM engagement outcomes among a national sample of SGM secondary students in the U.S. METHOD: This report provides descriptive and multivariable regression analysis of national survey data (n = 539) on the experiences of pre-college students who identify as SGM, including the effects of within-school anti-SGM bullying on STEM identity, perceptions of STEM climate, and STEM intentions. RESULTS: Roughly 50% of the sample intended to enter a STEM field (compared to 25% in previous general samples). Bullying in school was negatively associated with STEM identity and perceptions of STEM climate. Sense of belonging is positively associated with perceptions of STEM climate and STEM intentions. Being non-binary and being a transgender man were associated with decreased sense of belonging and negative perception of STEM climate. CONCLUSION: This report is the first to identify factors influencing STEM engagement among SGM secondary students and suggests that issues of STEM engagement are already present in adolescence. Moreover, the findings also establish the relationship between anti-SGM bullying and STEM outcomes highlighting the importance of this marginalization experience. Future research should further examine sub-group differences and the persistence of these effects. These findings highlight the need for research and intervention addressing STEM outcomes in SGM populations. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03511131.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Comportamento Sexual , Estudantes , Tecnologia
18.
Trials ; 23(1): 450, 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are highly prevalent among university students and predict impaired college performance and later life role functioning. Yet most students do not receive treatment, especially in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). We aim to evaluate the effects of expanding treatment using scalable and inexpensive Internet-delivered transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) among college students with symptoms of MDD and/or GAD in two LMICs in Latin America (Colombia and Mexico) and to investigate the feasibility of creating a precision treatment rule (PTR) to predict for whom iCBT is most effective. METHODS: We will first carry out a multi-site randomized pragmatic clinical trial (N = 1500) of students seeking treatment at student mental health clinics in participating universities or responding to an email offering services. Students on wait lists for clinic services will be randomized to unguided iCBT (33%), guided iCBT (33%), and treatment as usual (TAU) (33%). iCBT will be provided immediately whereas TAU will be whenever a clinic appointment is available. Short-term aggregate effects will be assessed at 90 days and longer-term effects 12 months after randomization. We will use ensemble machine learning to predict heterogeneity of treatment effects of unguided versus guided iCBT versus TAU and develop a precision treatment rule (PTR) to optimize individual student outcome. We will then conduct a second and third trial with separate samples (n = 500 per arm), but with unequal allocation across two arms: 25% will be assigned to the treatment determined to yield optimal outcomes based on the PTR developed in the first trial (PTR for optimal short-term outcomes for Trial 2 and 12-month outcomes for Trial 3), whereas the remaining 75% will be assigned with equal allocation across all three treatment arms. DISCUSSION: By collecting comprehensive baseline characteristics to evaluate heterogeneity of treatment effects, we will provide valuable and innovative information to optimize treatment effects and guide university mental health treatment planning. Such an effort could have enormous public-health implications for the region by increasing the reach of treatment, decreasing unmet need and clinic wait times, and serving as a model of evidence-based intervention planning and implementation. TRIAL STATUS: IRB Approval of Protocol Version 1.0; June 3, 2020. Recruitment began on March 1, 2021. Recruitment is tentatively scheduled to be completed on May 30, 2024. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04780542 . First submission date: February 28, 2021.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Internet , América Latina , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudantes/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Universidades
19.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2): 217-225, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of adolescent major depressive disorder increased from 8.3% in 2008 to 14.4% in 2018, and suicide is now the second leading cause of death among U.S. adolescents. OBJECTIVE: Describe the process of community-engaged research methods used to develop a randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing the effectiveness of school-based universal depression screening on depression identification and treatment engagement, compared with standard symptom-based depression recognition. METHODS: We engaged stakeholders with personal or professional expertise and schools enrolled in the study. Qualitative methods aimed to elucidate barriers and opportunities during RCT development. RESULTS: Stakeholders were instrumental in all phases of RCT development. Qualitative feedback from participating schools, students, and parents informed RCT development and implementation. CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of community-engaged research methods provided opportunities to collaboratively address barriers to RCT design and implementation with school communities. This dialogue was invaluable in establishing relationships to further address mental health and other controversial adolescent health topics in future research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Depressão , Adolescente , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pennsylvania , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
20.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2): 277-291, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To address the persistent health inequities in the United States, medical education must prepare future physicians to understand the systemic causes of these inequities, as well as health care's role in alleviating them. METHODS: Limited time and faculty expertise often necessitate innovative strategies to augment existing medical education curriculum with content and experiences to expose medical students to these facets of health inequity. RESULTS: In this report, we describe a partnership between the Chicago Medical School (CMS), a community-based medical school, and the Sinai Urban Health Institute (SUHI), a community-focused research center in Chicago, Illinois. As a part of this partnership, SUHI hosts a summer internship for 7 to 15 medical students per year to teach about health equity, population health, and public health research. The internship includes project-based learning, a structured curriculum, and community tours and volunteering. A total of 62 CMS medical students have participated. Student surveys consistently showed high levels of satisfaction with the program across all years (2013-2018, 2020). CONCLUSIONS: Almost all students report that they were exposed to new ideas and issues (96.6%), and that the new knowledge and skills were applicable to their future work as physicians (91.7%). Other medical schools may benefit from collaborative models with public health research organizations to complement existing curriculum, opportunities for research, and engagement with marginalized populations.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Estudantes de Medicina , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Currículo , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes , Estados Unidos
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