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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 839-844, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581163

RESUMO

The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits the inclusion of characterizing flavors (e.g., candy or fruit) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products at the federal level.* Flavored tobacco products can appeal to youths and young adults and influence initiation and establishment of tobacco-use patterns (1). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed data from the 2014-2018 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine prevalence of current (past 30-day) use of flavored tobacco products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, smokeless tobacco, bidis, and menthol cigarettes among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2018, an estimated 3.15 million (64.1%) youth tobacco product users currently used one or more flavored tobacco products, compared with 3.26 million (70.0%) in 2014. Despite this overall decrease in use of flavored tobacco products, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased among high school students during 2014-2018; among middle school students, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased during 2015-2018, following a decrease during 2014-2015. During 2014-2018, current use of flavored hookah tobacco decreased among middle and high school students; current use of flavored smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, and menthol cigarettes decreased among high school students. Full implementation of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies, coupled with regulation of tobacco products by FDA, can help prevent and reduce use of tobacco products, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths (2,3).


Assuntos
Aromatizantes , Estudantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 845-850, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581164

RESUMO

Use of marijuana at an early age can affect memory, school performance, attention, and learning; conclusions have been mixed regarding its impact on mental health conditions, including psychosis, depression, and anxiety (1-3). Medical marijuana has been legal in Washington since 1998, and in 2012, voters approved the retail sale of marijuana for recreational use to persons aged ≥21 years. The first retail stores opened for business in July 2014. As more states legalize marijuana use by adults aged ≥21 years, the effect of legalization on use by youths will be important to monitor. To guide planning of activities aimed at reducing marijuana use by youths and to inform ongoing policy development, Public Health-Seattle & King County assessed trends and characteristics of past 30-day marijuana use among King County, Washington, public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12. This report used biennial data for 2004-2016 from the Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Among grade 6 students there was a decreasing trend in self-reported past 30-day marijuana use from 2004 to 2016, while the percentage of grade 8 students who had used marijuana during the past 30 days did not change during that period. Among students in grades 10 and 12, self-reported past 30-day use of marijuana increased from 2004 to 2012, then declined from 2012 to 2016. In 2016, the percentage of students with past 30-day marijuana use in King County was 0.6% among grade 6, 4.1% among grade 8, 13.9% among grade 10, and 25.5% among grade 12 students. Among grade 10 students, 24.0% of past 30-day marijuana users also smoked cigarettes, compared with 1.3% of nonusers. From 2004 to 2016 the prevalence of perception of great risk of harm from regular marijuana use decreased across all grades. Continued surveillance using consistent measures is needed to monitor the impact of marijuana legalization and emerging public health issues, given variable legislation approaches among jurisdictions.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/tendências , Setor Público , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Washington/epidemiologia
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 965-970, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484262

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effects of precollege peer bullying at different stages, on quality of life (QOL) among college students. Methods: A stratified cluster sampling method was used to select participants in October, 2018. Cluster sampling method was adopted to recruit a sample of 4 034 college students from four universities in Hefei city, Anhui province. Relations between peer bullying at different stages before entering college, and the quality of life, were investigated. t test and analysis of variance were used to compare the differences of QOL in different groups. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the associations between various types of peer bullying at different stages and the QOL at precollege days. Results: Among all the 4 034 college students under study, mean scores of the 4 dimensions of QOL appeared as physical (12.61±2.02), psychological (14.09±2.62), social relationship (13.72±2.71) and environment (13.77±2.46), respectively. After adjusting the confounding factors, data from multiple linear regression showed that, factors as verbal bullying victimization during primary school (ß=-0.21)/secondary school (ß=-0.27)/or at both periods (ß=-0.56), relational (ß=-0.21) and physical (ß=-0.38) bullying victimization in secondary school, and physical bullying victimization in both periods (ß=-0.67) were negatively correlated with the physical dimension of QOL. Verbal bullying victimization in both periods (ß=-0.41) and relational bullying victimization in secondary school (ß=-0.42) were negatively correlated with psychological dimension of QOL. Factors as relational (ß=-0.32) and physical (ß=-0.51) bullying victimization in secondary school, physical/cyber bullying victimization in both periods (ß=-0.57) were negatively correlated with the social dimension of QOL. Verbal bullying victimization during primary school (ß=-0.20) and both periods (ß=-0.46), relational bullying perpetration during primary school (ß=-0.35) or at both periods (ß=-0.90) were negatively correlated with the environmental dimension of QOL (All P<0.05). Index related to bullying victimization (ß=-0.33, -0.36, -0.30, -0.33) and bullying perpetration ß=-0.28, -0.31, -0.23, -0.28) were both negatively correlated to all the 4 dimensions (physical, psychological, social relationship and environment) of QOL (P<0.001). Conclusions: Various forms of peer bullying experiences occurring before college, were associated with the decreased scores of QOL in different domains, among the university students. Programs on prevention and control of peer bullying in different stages before college days seemed important thus should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 85, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489063

RESUMO

Introduction: Testicular self-examination (TSE) is a screening technique that involves inspection of the appearance and palpation of the testes to detect any changes from the normal. Globally, the incidence of cancer has increased among which is testicular cancer (TC). Data on this topic among male secondary school adolescents in Uganda is limited therefore this study sought to assess the knowledge and practice of testicular self-examination among secondary students at Ntare School, Mbarara District in south western Uganda. The objective of the study is to assess the knowledge and practice of testicular self-examination among secondary students at Ntare School in Mbarara district, south western Uganda. Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study among 165 students. Recruitment was made using simple random sampling technique. Respondents were selected among advanced level (A' level) male students studying at Ntare School in Mbarara district, south western Uganda. Structured self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Results: Of the male students, 41.8% reported to have knowledge about TSE and only 23.6% practiced TSE. Most students rated their knowledge of TSE to be below 5 (from 1-10). Of the 39 students who admitted performing TSE, only 16 did so as recommended (monthly). Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of TSE were low among adolescent secondary school boys in Ntare School in Mbarara District, south western Uganda. This suggests that these students are unaware of the value of this personal health promotion tool which is fundamental in early diagnosis of testicular cancer.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Autoexame/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
5.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(8): 538-541, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is frequently encountered in people traveling from high-income to low-income countries; however, its epidemiology in those traveling between high-income countries is not known. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of diarrhea in North American students relocating to Israel. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study involving medical students from the United States and Canada relocating to Israel was conducted. Students who relocated to Israel during 2010-2016 were contacted by email to participate in an anonymous survey. Data included demographic information as well as occurrence, timing, duration, and outcome of diarrhea after relocation. RESULTS: Ninety-seven students participated in the survey. Most (93.7%) students relocated from the United States or Canada. The period-prevalence of diarrhea was 69.1%. The incidence of diarrhea declined from 34.8 cases per 100 student-months during the first month after relocation to 1.3 cases per 100 student-months after 1 year. The duration of diarrhea was up to 1 week in 72.7%. Students who reported diarrhea were younger than students who did not (mean age 24.0 ± 2.2 and 28.4 ± 1.8 years, respectively, P < 0.001). No other demographic parameter was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of North American medical students relocating to Israel reported diarrhea with clinical and epidemiological features similar to classic TD. Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative agents of TD in Israel.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Canadá/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diarreia/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viagem , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558934

RESUMO

Introduction: The rate of sexually transmitted infection's, including HIV has increased in recent years in Ethiopia. Many adolescents and young people still do not protect themselves against unintended pregnancies and STIs. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the predictors of risky sexual behavior among pre-college students in Adama Town, Ethiopia. Methods: School based cross-sectional study was employed. In this study 364 students were recruited from all pre-college schools in Adama town, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to examine the relationship between the outcome variables and independent variables. Results: The mean age at sexual debut was 16.1 years (± 2.72SD). Social media usage for sexual activity and having multiple sexual partners were observed among students. About 7% of students used social media for watching pornography. The odds of risky sexual behaviour were higher among social media users compared to the nonusers AOR = 1.23 (95% CI 1.13,3.12). Risky sexual behaviour was almost 4 times more likely among night club goers AOR = 4.294 (95% CI: 2.033, 9.073). Peer pressure and substance abuse were also a significant predictor for risky sexual behavior AOR = 6.97 (95% CI: 4.24, 9.69). Conclusion: Social media use, peer pressure, substance abuse, and night club going were found to be significantly associated with risky sexual behaviour among pre-college students. Thus, schools need to establish and strengthen reproductive health clubs to be able to equip students with required skills and knowledge about sexuality. Parents should be aware of the dynamic behavioral change of their children, listen and attend to their needs.


Assuntos
Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Parceiros Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Codas ; 31(4): e20180093, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483039

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Measure the sound pressure levels in classrooms of a university as well to verify the self-perception of noise in the educational environment and its influence on the activities carried out by students and professors. METHODS: The study was carried out with students and professors who answered a questionnaire regarding self-perception of noise in the classroom, as well as the presence of auditory and non-auditory complaints. Measurement of sound pressure levels was performed in ten classrooms of Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais. The points for measuring the sound pressure level inside the classrooms were selected according to the literature and legislation: three distinct points, totaling nine measurements in each room. RESULTS: Participated in this study students and professors from the Institute of Biological and Health Sciences. The classrooms of the morning shift had the highest noise measurement. Classrooms at lunch time had the lowest average noise. The first floor has the highest average noise, being classified as the noisiest floor. Noise is perceived by both students and professors as an interfering factor in the activities performed inside the classrooms, however, professors have a greater perception of noise interference in their activities than students. CONCLUSION: Noise is present in all classrooms with values higher than those recommended by national legislation. This noise is perceived by students and professors and negatively interferes in the teaching-learning activities.


Assuntos
Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Acústica da Fala , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
8.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4642, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and its association with socio-demographic, economic, and anthropometric variables, as well as levels of physical activity among undergraduate students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 348 undergraduate students at the dining hall of a public Brazilian university located in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Body image perception was evaluated using the Silhouette Matching Task. The other variables assessed were sex, age, marital status, housing conditions, socioeconomic class, weight, height, waist circumference and physical activity levels. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to verify the association between the dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: Of the interviewees, 55.7% were men. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 59.8% among men and 55.2% among women. Dissatisfaction for being overweight, between men and women, was higher in overweight individuals when compared to normal weight individuals, according to the body mass index, and also higher in those at risk for cardiovascular disease when compared to those who were not at risk. The dissatisfaction for being thin was higher among women with low weight when compared to normal weight women, according to body mass index. There was no association between dissatisfaction for being thin and the variables analyzed among men. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was observed in more than half of the individuals evaluated and is associated with nutritional status. Knowing the consequences of dissatisfaction with body image helps highlight the need for intervention strategies to avoid the practice of unhealthy behaviors.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Natl Black Nurses Assoc ; 30(1): 34-39, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465683

RESUMO

This article discusses the Provost Scholars, a novel University five-year Mentoring Program for middle and high school students in an inner-city school district. The Provost Scholars is an innovative enrichment Program in which a partnership was formed between an under-resourced inner city school district and a private research university in Cleveland, Ohio. The Program was formed to help students graduate from high school. As these students experience success and empowerment, their willingness and ability to give back to the health of the community is enhanced. The primary goal of the Provost Scholars Mentoring Program is to prepare students for entry into and graduation from colleges/universities, technical/vocational schools, or to find a successful place in the workforce. This article describes a number of initiatives established to ensure the success of the Scholars. One key aspect of the Programs' success is a strong personal interest, caring, engagement, and partnership between the administrative staffs of the following two educational institutions: Case Western Reserve University and the East Cleveland School District, as well as the committed relationships of the university Mentors and the Scholars. Students who participate in the Program are expected to demonstrate improved grades, higher ACT/SAT scores, and to meet the requirements for admission to the colleges and universities of their choice, or to develop skills for meaningful employment in industry.


Assuntos
Tutoria/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Cidades , Humanos , Ohio , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/organização & administração
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 30, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384345

RESUMO

Introduction: In Ghana, there is no data regarding physical activity habits and lipid profiles of students. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical activities, Body Mass Index (BMI) and lipid profile of students in Ghana. Methods: Cluster and systematic sampling techniques were employed to recruit 120 students, aged 18 years and above. This cross-sectional study was carried out among students from the University of Ghana. Biochemical analysis was conducted analysing total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) in serum samples. Anthropometry measurements were also taken and BMI calculated. The physical activities, undertaken over a 7-day period, by the students were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results: 31.7% and 21.7% of the students were overweight and obese respectively. 61.5% of the obese students were engaged in high level physical activity as compared to 45.5% and 36.8% of the normal and overweight students, respectively. Normal weight students and overweight students showed significant differences in means of TC; [(4.56 ± 0.930 mmol/L) and (5.06 ± 0.93 mmol/L), respectively] and also between normal weight group (4.54 ± 0.93 mmol/L) and the obese students (5.24 ± 1.18 mmol/L). Significant correlations were also observed between TG, TC and BMI; and TC and TG, HDL and a strong correlation between LDL and TC (r=0.967). Conclusion: Strong correlations between BMI, physical activity and lipid profile indices among students in Ghana. Comprehensive efforts should be applied to reduce the incidence of CVDs among students.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício/fisiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448045

RESUMO

Introduction: The empowerment of young people aged 15-24 years is a key component of an effective AIDS response. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is progressively being implemented in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods: Socio-demographic and behavioural factors associated with acceptability of HIVST were evaluated among university students in Bunia, DRC. A representative cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Results: A total of 1,012 students were recruited. Acceptability of unsupervised HIVST was higher in the group of young students as compared with older students and was markedly associated with prior knowledge on HIVST. Conclusion: Adapted communication about HIVST appears likely essential to increase the supply and use of HIVST among students in DRC.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Poder (Psicologia) , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
12.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(8): 1070-1077, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417049

RESUMO

Background: The World Health Organization defines obesity as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that can damage health. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of obesity and risk factors in high school students in Erzurum City Center. Study Design and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. The number of students participating in the study was 845, including 47.6% females and 52.4% males. Data collection was done by surveys filled in under supervision. Anthropometric measurements were performed by the researchers. Predictions of the Extended International Obesity Task Force were used for body mass index. Parents' body mass indexes were calculated by self-report and classified according to cut-off points for adults in the world health community. A systematic review of the local literature published between 2004 and 2013 was drafted. Results: In girls and boys, the frequency of overweight was 26.9% and 25.7%, respectively, while the frequency of obesity was 12.4% and 9.5%. A logistic regression analysis was performed to reveal significant risk factors for overweight/obesity. Weekly exercise status [odds ratio = 3.0, 95% confidence interval CI (1.2-7.8)] and school transfer % CI = (1.1-7.2) were important independent risk factors for obesity. The local literature showed a 4.3-fold increase in the prevalence of obesity within 10 years. Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in adolescents requires the implementation of effective programs to fight this epidemic. Health education targeting peers and their parents, peer education, screening of risk groups, and controlling the sale of unhealthy foods can be some interventions.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 156, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308861

RESUMO

Introduction: Tobacco is one of the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Tobacco consumption among teenagers is a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. Younger smokers are more liable to smoking complications. The objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in the Northern Borders region, KSA. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Arar city. Four schools were chosen randomly from 21 secondary schools. A total of 240 students responded to the pre-designed questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions on demographic factors, smoking behavior and knowledge about smoking hazards. Results: Prevalence of current smoking among male secondary school students is 40.8%. Cigarette smoking was the most common type (67.3%) followed by Shish smoking (22.4%). Few students (2.1%) reported other forms of smoking, example (Hashish). Of the studied group, 39.8% smoke on a daily basis with 29.6% of them smoke more than five cigarettes per day. Conclusion: Smoking is a prevalent habit among teenagers. Special concern should be directed to smoking cessation campaigns with behavioral, legal and economic interventions.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(6): 775-778, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340303

RESUMO

Smoking is a major global risk factor for preventable death and disability. EAT is an acronym for Education Against Tobacco, a multinational network of physicians and medical students that aims to improve tobacco control by means of school-based prevention targeted at adolescents through counseling, use of software and support materials. The first EAT-Brazil Award, launched in March 2018, was a competition designed to encourage the proposal of objective solutions for tobacco control in Brasil, and identify new talents in the area. Brazilian undergraduate students from any field of study could submit a one-page essay on the subject, competing for the amount of R$ 1000.00 (one thousand reais). There were a total of 39 applicants (20 women and 19 men) from 9 Brazilian states and 18 undergraduate programs, with a mean age of 22.5 years (SD = 3.7). Data from an online anonymous questionnaire answered after the submission of their essays revealed that most applicants were students of institutions from in the state of Minas Gerais (n = 26/39; 66.6%), studied medicine (n = 20/39, 51.3%), and had no prior knowledge of the EAT-Brazil Network (n = 27/39, 69.2%). The winner of the award was Lucas Guimarães de Azevedo, a fourth-year medical student at Federal University of Western Bahia. The next editions of the award should focus on increasing the number of applicants and diversifying their geographical distribution.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(6): 845-850, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its association with sleep quality in university students from the Anhui province in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in China with 1328 participants. The prevalence of underweight and obesity in university students was estimated according to the reference working group on obesity in China. The sleep quality was evaluated using the standard PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). RESULTS: This study included 470 male and 858 female students from a university in Anhui; 4.4% of the females and 17.7% of the males were overweight or obese. The prevalence of obesity in males was significantly higher than in females, and the prevalence of obesity in higher years was greater than in other years (p<0.05). In general, the mean score for sleep quality was 4.91±2.67; 36.5% of male and 39.1% of female students had poor sleep quality (PSQI score >5). Among the seven components of sleep quality, sleep duration and the use of sleep medication showed significant differences between male and female students and different years (p<0.05). An obvious correlation was found between sleep quality and body mass index (BMI)(p<0.000) in females who took hypnotic drugs. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the sleep quality of females is probably associated with their BMI. College students are a special group of young adults whose cause of poor sleeping quality and BMI may be significant to study, so the health status of university students can be improved.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Magreza/fisiopatologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Work ; 63(3): 469-477, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of cyberbullying is on the rise among adolescents and in schools. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between personality characteristics such as empathy, the tendency to implement cognitive mechanisms aimed at moral disengagement, and the use of social media. PARTICIPANTS: Italian students from first to fifth year in high school classes (n = 264). METHODS: A questionnaire was used to gather information on the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, their use of social media, their level of empathy (Basic Empathy Scale, BES), and mechanisms of moral disengagement (Moral Disengagement Scale MDS). Two questions were included to determine whether each participant had ever been a victim of or witness to cyberbullying. RESULTS: Results suggest that offensive behaviors are related to mechanisms of moral disengagement and to interaction using forms of communication that allow anonymity. In addition, offensive behavior appears to be related to forms of Internet addiction, while prosocial behavior is linked with cognitive empathy. CONCLUSION: In order to promote the establishment of prosocial behavior, it would seem necessary for the various players involved - schools, parents, social network developers - to make an effort to implement educational environments and virtual social networks based on a hypothesis of "design for reflection", educating young people about the need to take the time to understand their feelings and relationships expressed via social media.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Mídias Sociais , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Itália , Masculino , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 124, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: College life represents a key transitional period in the life of young adults that is marked by increased social engagement; living habits acquired during this period have implications on the future life of college students. Therefore, investigation of the determinants of health status of college students is a key imperative; however, there is limited evidence on the study of concomitant effects of physical activity (PA), sedentary time (ST), and sleep duration on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of college students. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted at a medical university in Shenyang in Northeast China in 2017. The study group comprised 926 undergraduate students. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. PA, ST, sleep duration, and HRQOL were measured using the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ)-Long Form and the Chinese version of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). The association of PA, ST, and sleep duration with the HRQOL was examined using independent t-test, Pearson Chi-squared test, and multivariate linear regression analysis. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounding factors, students who reported high PA had significantly higher physical component summary (PCS) score in the total study population and among female students than those who reported low PA, whereas students who reported moderate PA had significantly higher PCS score only among female students (P < 0.05). In the total study population and among male students, students who slept for ≥9 h/day had significantly higher mental component summary (MCS) score than those who slept for 7-< 8 h/day, whereas among only male students, those who slept for 8-< 9 h/day had significantly higher MCS score (P < 0.05). The interaction term between ST and PA was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: PA and sufficient sleep duration had a positive impact on the HRQOL of college students; however, ST was not associated with HRQOL and there was no interaction between the impact of ST and PA on the HRQOL of college students. Increasing PA and promoting adequate sleep duration are key health promotion strategies for college students.


Assuntos
Exercício , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono/fisiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 886, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on adolescents' physical activity and determinants are scarce in Nepal. In this study, we aim to assess the level of physical activity, its correlates and the sedentary behavior of high school students in an urban district of Nepal. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Participants were selected using two-stage cluster sampling technique. We used Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) to collect information regarding physical activity and sedentary behavior. We also collected information about socio-demographic, academic, environmental and lifestyle-related factors. Data from 945 high school students from 23 randomly selected schools were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of low physical activity separately for male and female students. RESULTS: Based on GPAQ classification, one out of five respondents reported low physical activity. The prevalence of low physical activity was 8% for males and 31% for females. About 31% of the adolescents and 14% of young adults did not meet the WHO recommendations of physical activity. Forty-seven percent of the total physical activity was borne by recreational activities. Correlates of low physical activity included school type and mode of transport among females, family support and drinking among males, and playground/park around home among both. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence estimate of low physical activity among adolescents is high, with higher odds among females. Several different factors are associated with physical activity among males and females, therefore, interventions to promote physical activity in school may need to weigh these factors prior to/during implementation.


Assuntos
Exercício , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudantes/psicologia , População Urbana , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 883, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The implementation of interventions at-scale is required to maximise population health benefits. 'Physical Activity 4 Everyone (PA4E1)' was a multi-component school-based program targeting adolescents attending secondary schools in low socio-economic areas. An efficacy trial of the intervention demonstrated an increase in students' mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day and lower weight gain at low incremental cost. This study aims to assess the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a multi-component implementation support intervention to improve implementation, at-scale, of the evidence based school physical activity (PA) practices of the PA4E1 program. Impact on student PA levels and adiposity will also be assessed, in addition to the cost of implementation. METHODS: A cluster randomised controlled trial, utilising an effectiveness-implementation hybrid design, will be conducted in up to 76 secondary schools located in lower socio-economic areas across four health districts in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Schools will be randomly allocated to a usual practice control arm or a multi-component implementation support intervention to embed the seven school PA practices of the PA4E1 program. The implementation support intervention incorporates seven strategies including executive support, in-School Champion, teacher training, resources, prompts, audit and feedback and access to an external Support Officer. The primary trial outcome will be the proportion of schools meeting at least four of the seven physical activity practices of the program, assessed via surveys with Head Physical Education teachers at 12 and 24-months. Secondary outcomes will be assessed via a nested evaluation of student PA and adiposity at 12-months (Grade 8 students) and 24 months (Grade 9 students) undertaken in 30 schools (15 per group). Resource use associated with the implementation intervention will be measured prospectively. Linear mixed effects regression models will assess program effects on the primary outcome at each follow-up period. DISCUSSION: This study is one of few evidence-based multi-component PA programs scaled-up to a large number of secondary schools and evaluated via randomised controlled trial. The use of implementation science theoretical frameworks to implement the evidence-based program and the rigorous evaluation design are strengths of the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12617000681358 registered 12th May 2017. Protocol Version 1.


Assuntos
Exercício , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Análise Custo-Benefício , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New South Wales , Áreas de Pobreza , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/economia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 995, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screen time can play a significant role in the health and quality of life of people with disabilities. However, there is a lack of studies on this issue among people with disabilities, and even fewer in the university setting. Thus, the aim of our study was to explore the relationships between screen time, disability grade, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and sociodemographic variables (gender and socioeconomic status) in university students with different disabilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1091 students with disabilities from 55 Spanish universities. Instruments used for data gathering were the Adolescent Sedentary Activity Questionnaire (ASAQ) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF). A Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) analysis was carried out to explore the relationships between the variables under study. RESULTS: Participants reported high values in overall screen time (5.45 h per day/week), with computers being the media most used (2.45 h per day/week). The SOM analysis showed slightly higher screen time values in women than men. People with a high disability grade spent less screen time than those with lower disability grade. Contradictory results exist when a group of men with the highest BMI had the highest screen time and the lowest physical activity (PA) while women with low BMI show the highest screen time and PA. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and disability grade played a moderating role in screen time among people with disabilities while BMI and PA do not play such a role.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Tela , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Computadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
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