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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27111, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on college students' physical activity. METHODS: All cohort studies comparing college students undertaking physical exercise at school before the COVID-19 pandemic and physical exercise at home during the COVID-19 pandemic will be included in this review. We will use index words related to college students, physical exercise, and COVID-19 to perform literature searches in the PubMed, Medline, Embase, and CNKI databases, to include articles indexed as of June 20, 2021, in English and Chinese. Two reviewers will independently select trials for inclusion, assess trial quality, and extract information for each trial. The primary outcomes are exercise frequency, duration, intensity, and associated factors. Based on the Cochrane assessment tool, we will evaluate the risk of bias of the included studies. Revman 5.3 (the Cochrane collaboration, Oxford, UK) will be used for heterogeneity assessment, data synthesis, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and funnel plot generation. RESULT: We will discuss the impact of COVID-19 on college students' physical activity. CONCLUSION: Stronger evidence about the impact of COVID-19 on college students' physical activity will be provided to better guide teaching practice. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021262390.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Universidades
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(36): 1245-1248, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499631

RESUMO

Universities open for in-person instruction during the 2020-21 academic year implemented a range of prevention strategies to limit the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, including physical distancing, mask use, vaccination, contact tracing, case investigation, and quarantine protocols (1). However, in some academic programs, such as health-related programs, aviation, and kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) education, maintaining physical distance while still providing instruction is difficult; for universities with such programs, a single confirmed case of COVID-19 could result in a large number of students, staff members, and instructors being designated close contacts and requiring quarantine if they are not fully vaccinated, even if masks were worn when contact occurred. In January 2021, the St. Louis City Health Department allowed Saint Louis University (SLU) to implement a modified quarantine protocol that considered mask use when determining which close contacts required quarantine.* To assess the impact of the protocol, SLU assessed positive SARS-CoV-2 test result rates by masking status of the persons with COVID-19 and their close contacts. During January-May 2021, 265 students received a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result; these students named 378 close contacts. Compared with close contacts whose exposure only occurred when both persons were masked (7.7%), close contacts with any unmasked exposure (32.4%) had higher adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of receiving a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result (aOR = 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-31.1). Any additional exposures were associated with a 40.0% increase in odds of a positive test result (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2-1.6). These findings reinforce that universal masking and having fewer encounters in close contact with persons with COVID-19 prevents the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in a university setting. Universities opening for in-person instruction could consider taking mask use into account when determining which unvaccinated close contacts require quarantine if enforced testing protocols are in place. However, this study was conducted before the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant became the dominant strain of SARS-CoV-2 in the United States, which could have affected these findings given that the Delta variant has been found to be associated with increased transmissibility compared to previous variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Busca de Comunicante , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Teste para COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Missouri/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Universidades
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255121, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473719

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains a significant public health problem globally. In Ethiopia, the number of infected peoples and deaths due to COVID-19 has increased dramatically in the past. Currently, students are resuming to face to face education with strict prevention measures. University students are more dynamic and more susceptible to acquiring and spreading the virus. OBJECTIVE: To assess the attitude, preparedness, and self-efficacy to prevent and control COVID-19 and associated factors among university students during school reopening, Northeast Ethiopia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Debre Berhan University (DBU) students from December 1 to 15/2020, when students return to campus. A multistage sampling technique was applied to recruit 682 participants. The ReadyScore criteria were used to classify the level of preparedness. Epi-Data version 4.6 was used for data entry, while SPSS version 25 for analysis. Descriptive and Binary logistic regression analysis was computed, and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULT: The overall level of favourable attitude, good preparedness, and high self-efficacy among students were 67.2%, 17.9%, and 50.4%, respectively. Only mothers' education was associated with attitude. Female gender, open relationships, health science faculty, heart disease, and favourable attitude were significant preparedness factors. Whereas being undergraduate, parents' education, residing in dorm being four and above, having kidney disease, having friend/family history of COVID-19 infection and death, favourable attitude, and good preparedness were predictors of self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: The level of attitude, preparedness, and self-efficacy towards COVID-19 among students during campus re-entry were low. Managing chronic illnesses and raising the attitude and preparedness of students is essential to reduce the burden of COVID-19 pandemics. Besides, emphasis should be placed on male, unmarried, postgraduate, and non-health science students to increase the level of preparedness and self-efficacy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Autoeficácia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257046, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473776

RESUMO

The benefits of schools' closure, used as a containment strategy by many European countries, must be carefully considered against the adverse effects of child wellbeing. In this study, we assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, which better estimates the real extent of the infection unraveling asymptomatic cases, among schoolchildren aged 3 to 18 in Milan, using dried blood spot, a safe and extremely viable methods for children, and then compared it between September 2020 and January 2021. Secondly, we evaluated the seroconversion rate and compared it between students attending schools in presence and those switched to distance-learning, using a logistic regression model, both as univariate and multivariate, adjusting for age and biological-sex. Among 1109 pupils, we found a seroprevalence of 2.8% in September before school reopening, while in January 2021, the seropositive rate was 12.5%, reflecting the general growth rate of infections during the second pandemic wave. The overall seroconversion rate was 10%, with no differences based on biological-sex and age groups; we observed no seroreversion. When considered age groups, the seroconversion rate was 10.5% (95%Confidence Interval, 2.9-24.8) among children attending preschools, 10.6% (95%Confidence Interval, 8.2-13.4) for primary schools, 9.9% (95%Confidence Interval, 6.8-13.8) for secondary schools, and 7.8% (95%Confidence Interval, 4-13.2) among high-school students. Interestingly, no differences in seroconversion rate were found between students who attended school compared to those who started remote learning in the first days of November. Furthermore, most patients (61%) reported that the contact occurred within the household. We reported a low seroconversion rate among school children in Milan, with no differences between those who attended from September 2020 to January 2021 compared to those who switched to remote learning in the first days of November. Our data suggest that schools do not amplify SARS-CoV-2 transmission, but rather reflect the level of the transmission in the community.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
5.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483810

RESUMO

Objectives: In the COVID-19 pandemic, critical health literacy (CHL-P) has been proposed as a means of addressing issues of complexity, uncertainty, and urgency. Our study aimed to identify CHL-P clusters among university students in Germany and to analyze associations with potential determinants. Methods: In May 2020, students at four German universities participated in the COVID-19 International Student Well-Being Study, an online survey that yielded a non-probabilistic sample of N = 5,021. CHL-P, COVID-19-related knowledge, worries, risk perception, and adherence to protective measures were measured in an online questionnaire with self-constructed items. We conducted a cluster analysis of the five CHL-P items and performed logistic regression analyses. Results: Two CHL-P clusters were identified: high vs. moderate CHL-P. Belonging to the high-CHL-P cluster (31.2% of students) was significantly associated with older age, female/other gender, advanced education, higher levels of parental education, and moderate importance placed on education. In addition, higher levels of knowledge, risk perception and worries, and adherence to protective measures were associated with high CHL-P cluster membership. Conclusion: Students would benefit from educational measures that promote CHL-P at German universities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Letramento em Saúde , Pandemias , Estudantes , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1201-1205, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473686

RESUMO

Colleges and universities in the United States have relied on various measures during the COVID-19 pandemic to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, including implementing testing programs (1-3). These programs have permitted a safer return to campus for students by identifying infected persons and temporarily isolating them from the campus population (2,3). The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin) implemented COVID-19 prevention measures in Fall 2020* including the following testing programs: clinic-based diagnostic testing, voluntary community screening, and targeted screening (testing of specific student populations in situations of increased transmission risk). During September 30-November 30, 2020, UT Austin students participated in tests for SARS-CoV-2, which resulted in the detection of 401 unique student cases of COVID-19 from among 32,401 tests conducted.† Among students who participated in one targeted screening program for students attending campus events, 18 (37.5%) of 48 infected students were asymptomatic at the time of their positive test result compared with 45 (23%) of 195 students identified through community testing and nine (5.8%) of 158 students identified through clinic-based testing. Targeted screening also identified a different population of students than did clinic-based and community testing programs. Infected students tested through targeted screening were more likely to be non-Hispanic White persons (chi square = 20.42; p<0.03), less likely to engage in public health measures, and more likely to have had interactions in settings where the risk for SARS-CoV-2 transmission is higher, such as restaurants, gyms, and residence halls. In addition to clinic-based SARS-CoV-2 testing at colleges and universities, complementary testing programs such as community and targeted screening might enhance efforts to identify and control SARS-CoV-2 transmission, especially among asymptomatic persons and disproportionately affected populations that might not otherwise be reached.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Quarentena , Texas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1195-1200, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473687

RESUMO

To prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, colleges and universities have implemented multiple strategies including testing, isolation, quarantine, contact tracing, masking, and vaccination. In April 2021, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified of a large cluster of students with COVID-19 at an urban university after spring break. A total of 158 cases of COVID-19 were diagnosed among undergraduate students during March 15-May 3, 2021; the majority (114; 72.2%) lived in on-campus dormitories. CDPH evaluated the role of travel and social connections, as well as the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants, on transmission. Among 140 infected students who were interviewed, 89 (63.6%) reported recent travel outside Chicago during spring break, and 57 (40.7%) reported indoor social exposures. At the time of the outbreak, undergraduate-aged persons were largely ineligible for vaccination in Chicago; only three of the students with COVID-19 (1.9%) were fully vaccinated. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of 104 specimens revealed multiple distinct SARS-CoV-2 lineages, suggesting several nearly simultaneous introductions. Most specimens (66; 63.5%) were B.1.1.222, a lineage not widely detected in Chicago before or after this outbreak. These results demonstrate the potential for COVID-19 outbreaks on university campuses after widespread student travel during breaks, at the beginning of new school terms, and when students participate in indoor social gatherings. To prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission, colleges and universities should encourage COVID-19 vaccination; discourage unvaccinated students from travel, including during university breaks; implement serial COVID-19 screening among unvaccinated persons after university breaks; encourage masking; and implement universal serial testing for students based on community transmission levels.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Teste para COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Chicago/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Interação Social , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 49, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422172

RESUMO

Introduction: bullying affects up to 85% of in-school adolescents in Nigeria. It presents a potentially serious threat to healthy adolescent development. Bullying has not been extensively studied in Nigeria and more so in northern Nigeria. Therefore, we investigated the types and predictors of bullying perpetration among adolescents in secondary schools. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study between January and March 2019. Using a multistage sampling technique, we recruited 390 adolescents. We estimated the prevalence and types of bullying perpetration, and we examined the predictors of bullying among the participants using chi-square and binary logistic regression at a 5% level of significance. Results: the mean age of adolescents was 15.2 ± 1.9 years. Majority of the participants 234 (60.0%) were in late adolescence (15-19 years), and 205 (52.6%) were males. The most prevalent type of bullying perpetrated was verbal [69.7%; 95% CI = 64.9-74.3%]. Overall, 307 [78.7%; 95% CI = 74.3-82.6%] had perpetrated at least one type of bullying. Male gender (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 2.70; 95%CI = 1.43 - 5.10), attending a boarding school (aOR: 7.93, 95% CI = 2.91 - 21.58) and frequent parental conflicts (aOR: 5.23, 95% CI = 2.15 - 12.71) were independent predictors of bullying perpetration. Conclusion: there is a high prevalence of bullying perpetration among adolescents in Sokoto metropolis, especially among males, those in boarding schools and those who experience frequent parental conflicts. We recommend that school principals should pay close attention to this behaviour and parents should be sensitized on the consequences of their domestic actions on their children.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371814

RESUMO

Food insecurity is an emerging issue for college students. A nutrition course with an integrated teaching kitchen was developed to address this issue at a large public university. We aimed to determine changes in food insecurity and stress among students who took the course. The course consisted of weekly lectures followed by teaching kitchen lab sessions to teach basic nutrition and culinary concepts and expose students to hands-on skill development cooking experiences. Using a pre-post design, enrolled students completed an anonymous online survey at the beginning and the end of the semester. Food security was assessed with the USDA Six-Item Food Security Module; stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Pre- and post-data were linked for 171 participants. Paired data statistical analysis comparing the post- vs. the pre-test showed an increase in food security and a decrease in very low security rates (from 48% to 70%, and from 23% to 6%, respectively; p < 0.0001), and a decrease on the average PSS score, indicating lower stress (from (Mean ± SD) 19.7 ± 5.9 to 18.1 ± 6.0; p = 0.0001). A nutrition and culinary course may be an effective response to food insecurity and could potentially improve students' wellbeing.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Culinária , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 350, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367429

RESUMO

Introduction: sickle cell disease is one of the greatest public health problems of this age. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and control practices on sickle cell disease (SCD) among selected secondary school students in Osun State, Nigeria. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study involved 420 secondary school students within Osogbo Metropolis selected by a multistage stratified sampling technique, using self-administered structured questionnaire. Data were collected using pre-tested self-administered semi structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: a total of 420 students were interviewed, modal age range 15-20 years. There were more females (55%) than males (45%). Majority of them were christians (57.1%). A larger percentage of the respondents were aware of SCD (58.5%). However, comprehensive knowledge as regards the various genotypes related to SCD, tests to be done for genotype screening among the respondents is low. One third of the respondents had positive attitude towards SCD (65%) and nearly one half (48%) of the respondents had bad control practices. Conclusion: findings in this study shows a high level of general awareness on SCD, even though comprehensive knowledge as regards the various genotype related to SCD, tests to be done for genotype screening among others is low. The need to improve on their attitude and practice towards the disease is highly recommended because having a good knowledge is not as important as applying the knowledge in a way to stop the spread of the disease.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/prevenção & controle , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 643-657, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410740

RESUMO

This study examines adjustment patterns among a group neglected in developmental science-Asian American students in high-achieving schools. National reports have declared such schools to connote risk for elevated problems among teens. Asian American students are commonly referred to as model minorities, but little is known about adjustment issues within academically competitive settings, specifically. Guided by past research on culturally salient issues, multiple U.S. high schools were examined to (a) determine areas of relative strength versus weakness in adjustment of Asian Americans compared with Whites, and (b) more importantly, to illuminate salient within-group processes related to Asian Americans' well-being. Risk modifiers examined were perceptions of ethnic discrimination, parent perfectionism, internalized achievement pressure, authenticity in self-presentation, and closeness to school adults. Outcome variables included depression, anxiety, and isolation at school. Results demonstrated that Asian Americans fared better than Whites on anxiety and school isolation, but with low effect sizes. By contrast, they fared more poorly on almost all risk modifiers, with a large effect size on discrimination. Regression results showed that among Asian Americans the most consistent associations, across cohorts and outcomes, were for discrimination and authenticity. Findings underscore the need for greater recognition that discrimination could be inimical for students not typically thought of as vulnerable-Asian Americans in high-achieving schools; these issues are especially pressing in light of increased racism following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Results also suggest that feelings of inauthenticity could be a marker of generalized vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Implications for future theory and interventions are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , COVID-19 , Racismo , Resiliência Psicológica , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Racismo/psicologia , Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 647380, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354557

RESUMO

Objectives: Group-level characteristics in shared contexts such as schools may affect adolescent psychological health. This study examined if the immigrant density in the classroom was associated with the level of self-reported psychological complaints among students with an immigration background. Methods: Cross-sectional data were derived from 2,619 lower secondary school students (aged 13-15) in the 2017/18 wave of the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. Using multilevel analysis estimating two-level random intercept linear regression models, classroom immigrant density was considered as a potential predictor of immigrant students' psychological complaints. Results: Students with an immigration background reported significantly fewer psychological complaints, on average, than students without such a background, even when adjusting for other sociodemographic characteristics. A cross-level interaction indicated that both first- and second-generation immigrant students experienced fewer psychological complaints in immigrant-dense classes compared to when the proportion of immigrant students was lower. Conclusion: Students with an immigration background fare better psychologically in classes with a higher proportion of immigrant students. Such compositional effects could be alleviated by strengthening all schools' capacities to provide a more inclusive classroom climate.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Saúde Mental , Densidade Demográfica , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Suécia
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26746, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397715

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to understand the homosexual behavior characteristics and influencing factors of male college students and to provide scientific evidence for the prevention of HIV infection in college students.A self-made online questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, sexual attitudes, sexual behaviors, and interventions of the respondents. The χ2 test was performed on the constituent ratios of different groups, and whether homosexual behavior occurred was the dependent variable. Logistic regression was subsequently used to analyze the influencing factors of male homosexual behavior.A total of 2665 students were surveyed, including 219 men who have sex with men, accounting for 8.22% of the sample population. Multivariate analysis revealed the following independent influencing factors of homosexual behavior among male college students: the student's household registration was Zhejiang Province, the hometown was in the city, accepted male homosexual sex, had temporary sex in the last year, and awareness that the correct use of condoms can reduce the spread and risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.Various measures should be enacted to promote human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome education and intervention among college students, especially emphasizing making friends and advocating safe sex to prevent the spread of the disease.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , China , Estudos Transversais , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(5): 523-535, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial discrimination is prevalent among Black Americans, and may increase risk for alcohol use and related problems. Understanding the mediating and moderating factors in the pathways linking racial discrimination to alcohol use outcomes is important for prevention and intervention efforts. We tested depressive symptoms as a mediator and ethnic-racial identity as a moderator in the relation between racial discrimination and alcohol use outcomes among Black American young adults. METHODS: We used data from 2 independent samples of Black American young adults recruited from different regions in the United States. The first sample included 383 Black American young adults (Mage = 20.65, SD = 2.28; 81% female), and the second sample included 165 Black American young adults (Mage = 21.56, SD = 4.92; 75% female). RESULTS: Racial discrimination was associated with alcohol consumption and problems indirectly via depressive symptoms across the 2 independent samples. Moderation was evident for one sample such that high private regard levels buffered the association between racial discrimination and alcohol consumption, whereas high public regard levels exacerbated the association between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Racial discrimination experiences put Black American young adults at risk for alcohol use and related problems through increased depressive symptoms. Ethnic-racial identity may buffer or exacerbate these associations depending on the specific dimension. The findings imply the need to target depressive symptoms and alcohol use simultaneously to promote health and well-being among Black Americans. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Depressão , Racismo , Identificação Social , Estudantes , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(26): 953-958, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197363

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, schools across the United States began transitioning to virtual learning during spring 2020. However, schools' learning modes varied during the 2020-21 school year across states as schools transitioned at differing times back to in-person learning, in part reflecting updated CDC guidance. Reduced access to in-person learning is associated with poorer learning outcomes and adverse mental health and behavioral effects in children (1-3). Data on the learning modes available in 1,200 U.S. public school districts (representing 46% of kindergarten through grade 12 [K-12] public school enrollment) from all 50 states and the District of Columbia during September 2020-April 2021 were matched with National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) demographic data. Learning mode access was assessed for K-12 students during the COVID-19 pandemic, over time and by student race/ethnicity, geography, and grade level group. Across all assessed racial/ethnic groups, prevalence of virtual-only learning showed more variability during September-December 2020 but declined steadily from January to April 2021. During January-April 2021, access to full-time in-person learning for non-Hispanic White students increased by 36.6 percentage points (from 38.0% to 74.6%), compared with 31.1 percentage points for non-Hispanic Black students (from 32.3% to 63.4%), 23.0 percentage points for Hispanic students (from 35.9% to 58.9%) and 30.6 percentage points for students of other races/ethnicities (from 26.3% to 56.9%). In January 2021, 39% of students in grades K-5 had access to full-time in-person learning compared with 33% of students in grades 6-8 and 30% of students in grades 9-12. Disparities in full-time in-person learning by race/ethnicity existed across school levels and by geographic region and state. These disparities underscore the importance of prioritizing equitable access to this learning mode for the 2021-22 school year. To increase equitable access to full-time in-person learning for the 2021-22 school year, school leaders should focus on providing safety-optimized in-person learning options across grade levels. CDC's K-12 operational strategy presents a pathway for schools to safely provide in-person learning through implementing recommended prevention strategies, increasing vaccination rates for teachers and older students with a focus on vaccine equity, and reducing community transmission (4).


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação/métodos , Educação/organização & administração , Aprendizagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Humanos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 73, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood adversities pose deleterious consequences on health and well-being, but limited studies explore whether unique patterns of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) impact the mental health of emerging adults and the mediating role of current stressful events (CSEs). This study examined classes of ACEs and how they relate to CSEs, psychological distress, and subjective well-being among Eritrean College undergraduates. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on ACEs, CSEs, symptoms of psychological distress, and subjective well-being were collected from a national sample of college students (N = 507). We identified ACE patterns using latent class analysis and further examined whether CSEs mediated the effects of ACE classes on psychological distress and subjective well-being. RESULTS: 86.4% of the sample experienced at least one ACE. Collective violence, domestic violence, and physical abuse were the most common ACEs. Three subgroups, low ACEs (66.3%), household violence (19.1%), and multiple ACEs (14.6%) were identified. We found that relative to low ACEs, household violence (ß = 0.142, 95% CI 0.046, 0.248) and multiple ACEs (ß = 0.501, 95% CI 0.357, 0.666) indirectly influenced psychological distress through CSEs, and CSEs mediated the relationships between household violence (ß = -0.096, 95% CI -0.176, -0.033), multiple ACEs (ß = -0.338, 95% CI -0.498, -0.210), and subjective well-being. However, there were nonsignificant relative direct effects of ACE patterns on both psychological distress and subjective well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Experiencing multiple ACEs and household violence in conjunction with CSEs significantly predict psychological distress and subjective well-being. Contextual interventions for the early identification of ACEs and the management of CSEs may play a crucial role in the prevention of mental health problems.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Experiências Adversas da Infância/classificação , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Prevalência , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Athl Train ; 56(7): 616-621, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 1982, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has collaborated with athletic trainers (ATs) to create the largest ongoing collegiate sports injury database in the world. This report provides an operational update of the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA ISP) during the academic years 2014-2015 through 2018-2019. SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM STRUCTURE: The NCAA ISP used a convenience sampling technique via a rolling recruitment model. The ATs at contributing institutions voluntarily submitted data into their respective electronic medical record systems; common data elements were pushed to and maintained by the Datalys Center. The ATs provided information about all team-related activities, even if no injury occurred during that activity, as well as detailed reports on each injury, including condition and circumstances. SUMMARY: The NCAA ISP has a long-standing role in supplying NCAA stakeholders with crucial injury surveillance data, playing a critical part in safeguarding student-athletes participating in collegiate sports.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos em Atletas/classificação , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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