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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066008

RESUMO

University students were confronted with abrupt changes to their daily lives by the COVID-19 lock-down. We investigated Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7) and anxiety levels, and the association between perceived impact on well-being, studies, and daily lives and anxiety levels, adjusted for gender, age, social class and affiliation. Early in the lock-down all students of the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (N = 12,429) were invited to a voluntary longitudinal health survey. Participation rate was 20% (n = 2437): 70% females, median age 25 yrs. (IQR 23-28). A total of 10% reported a deterioration of well-being compared to pre-Corona. LCA yielded three classes varying in perceived COVID-19 impact: 1 (low, n = 675), 2 (moderate, n = 1098), and 3 (strong, n = 656). Adjusted proportion of moderate to severe anxiety by class were 45% (95% CI: 28.0-62.0), 15.5% (95% CI: 13.1-17.9), and 5.1% (95% CI: 4.7-5.6), respectively. Multivariate regression analyses yielded an OR for moderate to severe anxiety of 3.88 (95% CI: 2.5-6.0, class 2) and 22.43 (95% CI: 14.5-34.6, class 3) compared to class-1. The investigated association implies that containment measures have a selective effect on anxiety in students. The diversity of students' perception and associated anxiety should be monitored and considered in future response to pandemics.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1416-1418, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001871

RESUMO

Preventing transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in institutes of higher education presents a unique set of challenges because of the presence of congregate living settings and difficulty limiting socialization and group gatherings. Before August 2020, minimal data were available regarding COVID-19 outbreaks in these settings. On August 3, 2020, university A in North Carolina broadly opened campus for the first time since transitioning to primarily remote learning in March. Consistent with CDC guidance at that time (1,2), steps were taken to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 on campus. During August 3-25, 670 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 were identified; 96% were among patients aged <22 years. Eighteen clusters of five or more epidemiologically linked cases within 14 days of one another were reported; 30% of cases were linked to a cluster. Student gatherings and congregate living settings, both on and off campus, likely contributed to the rapid spread of COVID-19 within the university community. On August 19, all university A classes transitioned to online, and additional mitigation efforts were implemented. At this point, 334 university A-associated COVID-19 cases had been reported to the local health department. The rapid increase in cases within 2 weeks of opening campus suggests that robust measures are needed to reduce transmission at institutes of higher education, including efforts to increase consistent use of masks, reduce the density of on-campus housing, increase testing for SARS-CoV-2, and discourage student gatherings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Características de Residência , Comportamento Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 254-261, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192062

RESUMO

The existence of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is the core concept of Schema Therapy (ST). Several studies have demonstrated that EMSs are involved in many psychiatric disorders. The Young Schema Questionnaire is a self-report measure developed to assess the 18 EMSs and has long form (YSQ-L) and short form (YSQ-S) versions. It is currently in its third version (YSQ-S3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that aims to validate the YSQ-S3 according to the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. A non clinical sample of 1372 Italian population was involved in this research. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the latent structure of the YSQ-S3, including both first- and second-order structures. Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the YSQ-S3 and anxiety and mood symptoms were calculated to measure construct validity. Cronbach's alpha of almost all EMSs were higher than 0.7, which indicated good internal reliability, and test-retest reliability was excellent. CFA supports the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. Regarding concurrent validity, each schema in the YSQ-S3 was highly correlated with anxiety and mood symptoms. The new four-domains model of the YSQ-S3 has demonstrated that it can be a useful and valid tool for clinicians and researchers in the self-report measurement of EMSs


La existencia de esquemas maladaptativos tempranos (EMTs) es el concepto central de Schema Therapy (ST). Varios estudios han demostrado que los EMS están involucrados en muchos trastornos psiquiátricos. El Young Schema Questionnaire es una medida de autoinforme desarrollada para evaluar los 18 EMTs y tiene versiones de forma larga (YSQ-L) y forma corta (YSQ-S). Actualmente se encuentra en su tercera versión (YSQ-S3). Hasta donde tenemos conocimiento, este es el primer estudio que tiene como objetivo validar la versión italiana del YSQ-S3 de acuerdo con la nueva organización propuesta de EMTs en cuatro dominios. Una muestra no clínica de 1372 estudiantes italianos participó en esta investigación. El análisis factorial confirmatorio (CFA) se realizó para examinar la estructura latente del YSQ-S3, incluidas las estructuras de primer y segundo orden. Se calcularon la omega coeficiente de McDonald y la correlación interclase para evaluar la consistencia interna y la fiabilidad test-retest. Las correlaciones entre el YSQ-S3 y la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo se calcularon para medir la validez de constructo. El omega de McDonald de casi todos los EMTs fue superior a 0.7, lo que indicó una buena confiabilidad interna, y la confiabilidad test-retest fue excelente. CFA apoya la nueva organización propuesta de EMS en cuatro dominios. Con respecto a la validez concurrente, cada esquema en el YSQ-S3 estaba altamente correlacionado con la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo. El nuevo modelo de cuatro dominios del YSQ-S3 ha demostrado que puede ser una herramienta útil y válida para los médicos e investigadores en la medición del autoinforme de los EMTs


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Modelos Psicológicos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/métodos , Psicoterapia , Autorrelato/normas , Estudantes/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 262-270, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192063

RESUMO

Many previous studies have discussed the influence of extrinsic factors (e.g. living environment) on academic achievement of children from western China. The present study focused on four non-cognitive factors, self-educational aspiration, self-efficacy, instrumental motivation, and anxiety, which could affect mathematics achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms how these four non-cognitive factors affected mathematics achievement. 5774 primary school students from 4th and 5th grade in western China participated in this study. A moderated chained mediation model was constructed. The results showed that self-educational aspiration could positively predict mathematics achievement. However, instrumental motivation and anxiety formed chained mediation between self-educational aspiration and mathematics achievement, and negatively predicted mathematics achievement. Besides, self-efficacy played a moderated role in the relationship between self-educational aspiration and anxiety


Muchos estudios previos han discutido la influencia de factores extrínsecos (por ejemplo, entorno vital) en el logro académico de los niños de China occidental. El presente estudio se centró en cuatro factores no cognitivos, la aspiración autoeducativa, la autoeficacia, la motivación instrumental y la ansiedad, los cuales podrían afectar el logro matemático. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar los mecanismos por los cuales estos cuatro factores no cognitivos afectaron el logro matemático. Un total de 5774 estudiantes de primaria de 4º y 5º grado en el oeste de China participaron en este estudio. Se construyó un modelo de mediación encadenado moderado. Los resultados mostraron que la aspiración autoeducativa podría predecir positivamente el logro matemático. Sin embargo, la motivación instrumental y la ansiedad formaron una mediación encadenada entre la aspiración autoeducativa y el logro matemático, y predijeron negativamente el logro matemático. Además, la autoeficacia desempeñó un papel moderado en la relación entre la aspiración autoeducativa y la ansiedad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Autoeficácia , Modelos Psicológicos , Matemática/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Aspirações Psicológicas , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sucesso Acadêmico
5.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 304-312, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192067

RESUMO

For almost a century now, the concern of universities about student satisfaction with teaching quality has been increasing. A literature review has enabled the attributes of quality teaching to be classified into three main types: pedagogical, generic, and disciplinary. The aim of this paper is to identify the variables that, in the opinion of students, most influence student satisfaction regarding teaching quality. A total of 476 undergraduate students participated from Business Administration and Management of the University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain). An ad hoc questionnaire was used to assess student satisfaction with teaching. Parametric (Logistic Regression Analysis) and non-parametric (Decision Tree) models were used. Our data indicate that if the professor explains the subject clearly, is concerned to find out whether the explanations have been understood, and carefully prepares the classes; the teaching-quality assessment will be very satisfactory. The identification of the attributes of quality teaching will enable universities to draw up initial and ongoing training plans for their teaching staff, bearing in mind the crucial role played by generic, pedagogical, and disciplinary competences in professor-student interaction


Desde hace casi un siglo la preocupación de las universidades sobre la satisfacción de los estudiantes con la calidad de la docencia recibida se ha ido incrementando. La revisión de la literatura permite clasificar los atributos de una docencia de calidad en tres grandes tipos de competencias: pedagógicas, genéricas y disciplinares. El objetivo de este trabajo es señalar las variables, que a juicio de los estudiantes, más influyen en la satisfacción del alumnado con la calidad de la docencia. Los participantes fueron 476 estudiantes del grado de Administración y Dirección de Empresas de la Universidad Castilla La Mancha. Se utilizó un cuestionario construido ad hoc para valorar la satisfacción de los estudiantes con la docencia. Se utilizaron pruebas paramétricas (Análisis de Regresión Logística) y no paramétricas (árbol de decisión). Nuestros datos indican que si el profesor explica con claridad, se preocupa por averiguar si los conceptos explicados han sido entendidos y prepara sus clases la valoración sobre la calidad de su docencia será muy satisfactoria. El identificar los atributos de una docencia de calidad permitirá a las universidades elaborar planes de formación inicial y permanente de su profesorado teniendo presente el papel crucial que juegan las competencias genéricas, pedagógicas y disciplinares en la interacción profesor-estudiante


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Docentes , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia , Educação , Competência Profissional , Universidades , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Árvores de Decisões , Modelos Logísticos , Curva ROC
6.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 37(3): 115-124, jul.-sept. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193520

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: La obesidad y el síndrome metabólico (SM) continúan siendo un problema a nivel socioeconómico, causando elevada morbilidad y mortalidad en la población adulta, por lo que se debería realizar una prevención de factores de riesgo desde temprana edad. En la actualidad no existe un consenso del momento oportuno para iniciar la intervención y tratamiento con respecto al SM. El objetivo del estudio es describir el fenotipo para predecir diagnóstico temprano de SM en escolares. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional, prospectivo, transversal y analítico en escolares de seis a 15 años, aplicado en Guayaquil. Se realizó valoración antropométrica y encuesta escrita, tras firma del consentimiento informado. Se utilizó para los cálculos de asociación la plataforma de inteligencia artificial (IA) Watson de IBM y su software Modeler Flow. RESULTADOS: Se examinó una población de 1.025 estudiantes entre seis y 15 años (media de 12 años para varones y 13 años para mujeres), de los cuales 62,3% fueron hombres y 37,7% mujeres. El 23,9% de la población presentó sobrepeso y 14% obesidad. Se observó una mayor tendencia a la alteración del peso en varones que en mujeres (51,37% vs. 47,79%), y menor perímetro de cintura en varones (85 cm vs. 87 cm, respectivamente). Los varones tuvieron mayor nivel de presión arterial sistólica (PAS), encontrándose dentro del percentil 90 (PAS media de 123 mmHg) un 61,2%, en comparación con un 38,8% de las mujeres, con una p < 0,001. El sedentarismo es similar en ambos grupos, con una media de 4,79 horas frente a la pantalla y/o videojuegos. Se demostró correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la presión arterial y el índice cintura /talla (I c/t) en el percentil 90 y percentil 95 (X2 9,075, p < 0,028, y X2 23,54, p < 0,000, respectivamente), así como relación entre el P95 de la presión arterial y el sexo (X2 11,57, p < 0,001). El sistema Modeler Flow, nos demostró que, si se observa un I c/t > 0,46, peso > 56,1 kg, talla > 1,61 m, y sedentarismo puro mayor a tres horas de tiempo frente a la pantalla, hay una probabilidad de presentar SM de 82,4%. El modelado matemático del árbol de decisiones (basado en inteligencia artificial) tiene una precisión predictiva del 90% (desviación de error de 0,009). La importancia de los predictores de SM, van de un 97,57% a un 100%. CONCLUSIONES: Se observó en escolares de seis a 15 años, una prevalencia del 33,9% de SM, con puntos de corte patológicos de: I c/t ≥ 0,46, peso ≥ 56,1 kg, sedentarismo puro mayor a tres horas frente a la pantalla/videojuegos, y PAS dentro del P90 (> 123 mmHg). Con estos cuatro indicadores, podemos predecir una probabilidad de diagnóstico temprano de SM de 97% al 100%


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) continue to be a problem at a socioeconomic level, causing high morbidity and mortality in the adult population. Prevention of risk factors should be carried out from an early age. Currently, there is no consensus on the opportune moment to start an intervention or treatment, regarding metabolic syndrome. The objective of the study is to describe the phenotype to predict early diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in schoolchildren. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational, prospective, cross-sectional and analytical study in schoolchildren from 6 to 15 years old, conducted in Guayaquil. Anthropometric measurements and a survey were performed, obtaining signing informed consent. The IBM Watson artificial intelligence (AI) platform with its software Modeler Flow, were used for the analysis. RESULTS: A population of 1025 students between 6 and 15 years old (mean of 12 years for men and 13 years for women) was examined, of whom 62.3% were men and 37.7% women. 23.9% of the population was overweight and 14% obese. A greater tendency to weight alteration was observed in men than in women (51.37% vs 47.79%), and a lower waist circumference in men (85 cm vs 87 cm, respectively). Males had a higher level of systolic blood pressure (SBP), being within the 90th percentile (mean SBP of 123 mmHg) 61.2%, compared to 38.8% of women, with a p < 0.001. Sedentary lifestyle is similar in both groups, with an average of 4.79 hours in front of the screen and/or video games. A statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between SBP and the waist/height ratio (WHtR) in the 90th percentile and 95th percentile (X2 9.075, p < 0.028, and X2 23,54, p < 0,000 respectively), as well as a relationship between 95th percentile and sex (X2 11.57, p < 0.001). The Modeler Flow software showed us that if WHtR, > 0.46, weight > 56.1 kg and height > 1.61 m, the probability of presenting metabolic syndrome, was of 82.4%. The statistic of this study has a predictive accuracy of 90% (error deviation of 0.009). The importance in the predictors of metabolic syndrome, range from 97.57% to 100%. CONCLUSIONS: A prevalence of 33.9% of metabolic syndrome was observed in schoolchildren from 6 to 15 years old, with pathological cut-off points of: WHtR > 0.46, weight > 56.1 kg, pure sedentary lifestyle > 3 hours in front of the screen/playing video games, and SBP within the 90th percentile (> 123 mmHg). With these four indicators, we can predict a probability of early diagnosis of metabolic syndrome of 97% to 100%


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Diagnóstico Precoce , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Antropometria , Inteligência Artificial , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Relação Cintura-Quadril
7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200097, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze sociodemographic, school, nutritional, and behavioral factors and body perception associated with being bullied in Brazilian students aged 13 to 17 years old. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on data from sample 2 of the 2015 Brazilian School Health Survey. The sample for this study was composed of 10,699 teenagers from schools in each of the largest regions of Brazil. RESULTS: The prevalence of being bullied was 6.2%, with the highest chance of in teens who bully others (OR = 1.91 95%CI 1.48 - 2.45), who are 13 years old (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.04 - 2.97), who consider themselves fat (OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.06 - 1.98) and who are not treated well by their schoolmates (OR = 2.78, 95%CI 2.17 - 3.45). CONCLUSION: Preventive efforts that include programs to encourage greater social support among students, as well as the implementation of practices that encourage respect for students' differences and singularities can contribute to reducing bullying practices.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime , Estudantes/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4525, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913209

RESUMO

To date we know little about natural emotion word repertoires, and whether or how they are associated with emotional functioning. Principles from linguistics suggest that the richness or diversity of individuals' actively used emotion vocabularies may correspond with their typical emotion experiences. The current investigation measures active emotion vocabularies in participant-generated natural speech and examined their relationships to individual differences in mood, personality, and physical and emotional well-being. Study 1 analyzes stream-of-consciousness essays by 1,567 college students. Study 2 analyzes public blogs written by over 35,000 individuals. The studies yield consistent findings that emotion vocabulary richness corresponds broadly with experience. Larger negative emotion vocabularies correlate with more psychological distress and poorer physical health. Larger positive emotion vocabularies correlate with higher well-being and better physical health. Findings support theories linking language use and development with lived experience and may have future clinical implications pending further research.


Assuntos
Emoções , Saúde Mental , Estudantes/psicologia , Vocabulário , Adolescente , Estado de Consciência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fala , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Redação , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 2): 236-243, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970642

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Systematic and continuous physical exercise of certain intensity and volume is irreplaceable in the stages of growth and development and in preventing impairments of the biological, functional and health state of the human organism.Many studies show that physical exercise contributes to development and reinforcement of mental health and increases self-esteem. Examine mental health and self-esteem of active athletes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The subjects of the study are active athletes from Herzegovina and students of the Faculty of Health Studies in Mostar. Mental health and self-esteem were measured by a sociodemographic questionnaire, The Symptom Checklist-90 and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. RESULTS: There is a statistically significant difference in the frequency of exercise, active athletes have the highest percentage (100%) and state that they exercise often (almost every day) while university students have a significantly lower percentage (20%).Students scored significantly higher on the subscales for somatization, obsessive - compulsive symptoms, interpersonal vulnerability, depression, anxiety, aggression, phobia, and paranoia than active athletes. Active athletes have statistically higher scores for almost all the claims of the subjective assessment of life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Active athletes showed significantly less psychological symptoms and better mental health, greater life satisfaction and higher self-esteem than students of the Faculty of Health Studies in Mostar.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 546-551, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hookah pipe (HP) smoking has become popular globally, especially among young adults and adolescents. There are misperceptions regarding the safety of HP smoking, relative to cigarettes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of HP use in grade 8 and 12 students and the factors associated with use in the different age groups. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in grade 8 and 12 high-school students from six randomly selected public schools in Johannesburg, South Africa. A self-administered structured questionnaire was completed by students after consent had been obtained from parents and students. The questionnaire focused on knowledge and awareness of HP smoking. Data were analysed using Stata/SE version 15. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 347 grade 8 and 232 grade 12 students participated in the study. Of the sample, 26% in grade 8 and 70% in grade 12 had ever smoked an HP. In both grades a higher proportion of males smoked. Eleven percent of students in grade 8 and 37% in grade 12 were currently smoking the HP. Approximately 47% and 51% of grade 8 and grade 12 students, respectively, first started smoking at parties. The mean age of initiation was 8 and 12 years in grade 8 and 12, respectively. Grade 12 students had greater awareness of the risks of HP smoking. Having a family member who smoked an HP was significantly related to HP use in grade 8 students. Overall, factors associated with increased odds of smoking the HP were being in grade 12, not being aware of health effects, and seeing the health warnings on hookah tobacco package labels. CONCLUSIONS: HP smoking increased significantly between grades 8 and 12. Increasing knowledge and awareness of the risks involved in HP smoking in children at an early age is recommended. One of the factors influencing uptake of HP smoking in young students was having a family member smoking it; adult anti-smoking and anti-HP campaigns are therefore also important.


Assuntos
Cachimbos de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 442-447, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955228

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Weekly physical activity (PA) in adolescents is significantly correlated with the educational programme and school environment, where the basis of healthy work habits and a healthy lifestyle is laid. The aim of the study was to identify the differences in the trend and the structure of the weekly step count in adolescent boys and girls in the context of the Polish school environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 930 boys and 1,354 girls aged 15-19 years from 64 secondary schools in the Katowice region participated. The research was conducted between 2011-2018. For the objective monitoring of weekly PA, Yamax Digiwalker SW-700 pedometers were used. RESULTS: Between 2011-2014 and 2015-2018, no significant differences were observed in step counts on an average week day, school day, or weekend day. This means that the level of PA, expressed as daily step count, did not decrease between the two 4-year periods. On average, boys performed 10,799 steps/day, while girls performed 10,130 steps/day. The recommendation of 11,000 steps/day was achieved by 42.2% of boys and 35.3% of girls. A significant decrease by 8.6 percentage points in the achievement of 11,000 steps/day between the two 4-year periods was observed only in boys. CONCLUSIONS: It is positive that in the 8-year monitoring of PA, there was no significant decrease in the average steps/day for Polish boys and girls. However, most boys and girls did not meet the 11,000 steps/day recommendation. Both boys and girls were most physically active on Friday and least physically active on Sunday.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 428-431, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Demodex infection among students in Kunming Medical University, and identify the factors affecting Demodex infections, so as to provide the evidence for the development of the strategy for the prevention of Demodex infections. METHODS: A total of 1 463 students from Grade 2014 who studied Medical Parasitology in Kunming Medical University were included in the survey. Demodex was examined in students'facial skin using the cellophane tape method, and the species was identified using microscopy. The students'gender, ethnicity, place of origin and skin type were captured using a questionnaire survey. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Demodex infections was 19.07% (279/1 463) on the facial skin among the university students, and a higher prevalence was seen in girls (21.16%, 183/865) than in boys (16.05%, 96/598) (χ2 =5.965,P <0.05).TheprevalenceofDemodex infectionswas18.33%(66/360)amongminorethnicstudents,andnoethnicity-specific prevalence was seen (P > 0.05). Demodex folliculorum was the predominant species, with a prevalence of 50.54% (141/279), and mild infections were predominant among all infections (96.77%, 270/279), without severe infections seen. Multivariate nonconditional logistic regression analysis revealed that gender and roommates with Demodex infections were risk factors of Demodex infections, and the infection was not associated with ethnicity, place of origin or skin type. There were only 2.53% (37/1 463) of the subjects understanding the knowledge pertaining to the prevention and control of Demodex infection. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively low prevalence of Demodex infection is detected in the facial skin of students from Kunming Medical University, and Demodex infection is associated with gender and roommates with Demodex infections. Health education pertaining to the prevention of Demodex infections is suggested to be intensified among university students.


Assuntos
Infestações por Ácaros , Ácaros , Pele , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Face/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros/classificação , Ácaros/fisiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Pele/parasitologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1310-1312, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941408

RESUMO

The use of any tobacco product by youths is unsafe, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) (1). Most e-cigarettes contain nicotine, which is highly addictive, can harm the developing adolescent brain, and can increase risk for future addiction to other drugs (1). E-cigarette use has increased considerably among U.S. youths since 2011 (1,2). Multiple factors have contributed to this increase, including youth-appealing flavors and product innovations (1-3). Amid the widespread use of e-cigarettes and popularity of certain products among youths, on February 6, 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) implemented a policy prioritizing enforcement against the manufacture, distribution, and sale of certain unauthorized flavored prefilled pod or cartridge-based e-cigarettes (excluding tobacco or menthol).


Assuntos
Estudantes/psicologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22817, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has generally increased levels of stress and depression among the public. However, the impact on college students in the United States has not been well-documented. OBJECTIVE: This paper surveys the mental health status and severity of depression and anxiety of college students in a large university system in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online survey was conducted among undergraduate and graduate students recruited from Texas A&M University via email. The survey consisted of two standardized scales-the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the General Anxiety Disorder-7-for depression and anxiety, and additional multiple-choice and open-ended questions regarding stressors and coping mechanisms specific to COVID-19. RESULTS: Among the 2031 participants, 48.14% (n=960) showed a moderate-to-severe level of depression, 38.48% (n=775) showed a moderate-to-severe level of anxiety, and 18.04% (n=366) had suicidal thoughts. A majority of participants (n=1443, 71.26%) indicated that their stress/anxiety levels had increased during the pandemic. Less than half of the participants (n=882, 43.25%) indicated that they were able to cope adequately with the stress related to the current situation. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of respondents showing depression, anxiety, and/or suicidal thoughts is alarming. Respondents reported academic-, health-, and lifestyle-related concerns caused by the pandemic. Given the unexpected length and severity of the outbreak, these concerns need to be further understood and addressed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22628, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has threatened the health systems of many countries worldwide. Several studies have suggested that the pandemic affects not only physical health but also all aspects of society. A lot of information has been reported about the disease since the beginning of the outbreak. For that reason, it is essential to investigate the attitudes and level of knowledge and awareness that different populations had regarding COVID-19 during the critical period of the outbreak. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and awareness of and attitudes toward the COVID-19 pandemic among different populations in Central China during the critical period of the outbreak. METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted in Central China from February to March 2020. The study participants included three different populations: medical workers, students, and those with other occupations. In this study, a questionnaire was designed to collect information on the following four aspects: sociodemographic information, knowledge related to COVID-19, awareness of COVID-19, and attitude toward COVID-19. The chi-square test and Fisher test were used for comparison among groups. The level of significance was set at P<.05. RESULTS: This study enrolled a total of 508 participants. Among them, there were 380 students (74.8%), 39 medical workers (7.7%), and 89 people with other occupations (17.5%). Most of the participants were female (n=272, 53.5%), lived in rural areas (n=258, 50.8%), and were single (n=423, 86.9%). The majority of the respondents had attended college (n=454, 89.4%). Most of the participants said they had heard about COVID-19 by January, and most of them looked for information on social media (Sina Weibo, 84.7%), and WeChat and QQ groups (74.2%). The participants showed an adequate level of knowledge about COVID-19 with no significant differences among the groups. However, medical workers demonstrated a slightly advanced knowledge in their responses to professional questions such as the potential susceptible population, possible host, treatment of COVID-19, and disease category. A higher proportion of medical workers (71.8%) and those in the other occupations group (52.8%) were highly concerned about the COVID-19 pandemic. More than 43% of the participants stated that the lockdown of their village/city had a significant impact on their lives. Nevertheless, the majority of respondents had an overall optimistic attitude toward the control of the disease (92.1% of students [n=350], 94.9% of medical workers [n=37], and 92.3% of those in other occupations [n=83]). CONCLUSIONS: All three groups reported an adequate background knowledge about COVID-19 but medical workers showed a slightly advanced knowledge in their responses to professional questions. Most of the participants were highly concerned about COVID-19 during the critical period of the outbreak. The majority of respondents declared that the village/city lockdown policy had a significant impact on their daily life but most of them held an optimistic attitude toward the control of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid misuse and overdose remains a leading US public health concern, and many youth are first exposed to opioids via medical use. In this study, we examine school-level prevalence and correlates of medical use and misuse of prescription opioids among US 12th-grade students. METHODS: A sample of 228 507 US 12th-graders in 1079 public and private schools from 2002 to 2017 from the Monitoring the Future study was used to identify school-level prevalence and correlates associated with medical use and misuse of prescription opioids. RESULTS: The past-year prevalence of prescription opioid misuse was 7.6% and ranged from 0% to 73% across US high schools. Lifetime medical use of prescription opioids was 16.9% and ranged from 0% to 85% across US high schools. The odds of prescription opioid misuse were higher at schools with higher proportions of male students, more white students, higher rates of marijuana use, and more medical use of prescription opioids. Students attending schools with the highest rates of medical use of prescription opioids had 57% increased odds of past-year prescription opioid misuse compared with schools with no medical use (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval = 1.35-1.83); this association was found to weaken in recent years. CONCLUSIONS: Differences exist in the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse among US high schools. The association between greater school-level medical use of prescription opioids and higher prevalence of prescription opioid misuse, although declining, indicates a key risk factor to target for prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Intervalos de Confiança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Defining Issues Test (DIT) aimed to measure one's moral judgment development in terms of moral reasoning. The Neo-Kohlbergian approach, which is an elaboration of Kohlbergian theory, focuses on the continuous development of postconventional moral reasoning, which constitutes the theoretical basis of the DIT. However, very few studies have directly tested the internal structure of the DIT, which would indicate its construct validity. OBJECTIVES: Using the DIT-2, a later revision of the DIT, we examined whether a bi-factor model or 3-factor CFA model showed a better model fit. The Neo-Kohlbergian theory of moral judgment development, which constitutes the theoretical basis for the DIT-2, proposes that moral judgment development occurs continuously and that it can be better explained with a soft-stage model. Given these assertions, we assumed that the bi-factor model, which considers the Schema-General Moral Judgment (SGMJ), might be more consistent with Neo-Kohlbergian theory. METHODS: We analyzed a large dataset collected from undergraduate students. We performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) via weighted least squares. A 3-factor CFA based on the DIT-2 manual and a bi-factor model were compared for model fit. The three factors in the 3-factor CFA were labeled as moral development schemas in Neo-Kohlbergian theory (i.e., personal interests, maintaining norms, and postconventional schemas). The bi-factor model included the SGMJ in addition to the three factors. RESULTS: In general, the bi-factor model showed a better model fit compared with the 3-factor CFA model although both models reported acceptable model fit indices. CONCLUSION: We found that the DIT-2 scale is a valid measure of the internal structure of moral reasoning development using both CFA and bi-factor models. In addition, we conclude that the soft-stage model, posited by the Neo-Kohlbergian approach to moral judgment development, can be better supported with the bi-factor model that was tested in the present study.


Assuntos
Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866171

RESUMO

Academic dishonesty is a common problem at universities around the world, leading to undesirable consequences for both students and the education system. To effectively address this problem, it is necessary to identify specific predispositions that promote cheating. In Polish undergraduate students (N = 390), we examined the role of psychopathy, achievement goals, and self-efficacy as predictors of academic dishonesty. We found that the disinhibition aspect of psychopathy and mastery-goal orientation predicted the frequency of students' academic dishonesty and mastery-goal orientation mediated the relationship between the disinhibition and meanness aspects of psychopathy and dishonesty. Furthermore, general self-efficacy moderated the indirect effect of disinhibition on academic dishonesty through mastery-goal orientation. The practical implications of the study include the identification of risk factors and potential mechanisms leading to students' dishonest behavior that can be used to plan personalized interventions to prevent or deal with academic dishonesty.


Assuntos
Motivação/fisiologia , Má Conduta Profissional/psicologia , Má Conduta Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Decepção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/ética , Polônia , Má Conduta Profissional/ética , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/ética , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237637, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866157

RESUMO

Comprehensive assessment of food insecurity across all college community members is lacking. This research surveyed a random sample of an entire campus population at a Northeast University in two surveys (spring 2017, n = 1,037 and fall 2017, n = 1,123). Analysis of variance, t-tests, and multivariable logit models were used to understand food insecurity outcomes and comparisons among groups. The overall rate of food insecurity on campus was 19.6% (spring) and 15.0% (fall). Food insecurity rates were highest among undergraduates, graduate and medical students, and staff as compared to faculty. First generation students and off-campus students were also more likely to be food insecure in both surveys, while people of color were more likely to be food insecure in the spring survey. Findings suggest university members beyond undergraduates also face high rates of food insecurity, which has important implications for efforts to reduce food insecurity on college campuses.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e21915, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with common mental health problems. However, evidence for the association between fear of COVID-19 and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine if fear of negative events affects Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores in the context of a COVID-19-fear-invoking environment. METHODS: All participants were medical university students and voluntarily completed three surveys via smartphone or computer. Survey 1 was conducted on February 8, 2020, following a 2-week-long quarantine period without classes; survey 2 was conducted on March 25, 2020, when participants had been taking online courses for 2 weeks; and survey 3 was conducted on April 28, 2020, when no new cases had been reported for 2 weeks. The surveys comprised the Y-BOCS and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS); additional items included questions on demographics (age, gender, only child vs siblings, enrollment year, major), knowledge of COVID-19, and level of fear pertaining to COVID-19. RESULTS: In survey 1, 11.3% of participants (1519/13,478) scored ≥16 on the Y-BOCS (defined as possible OCD). In surveys 2 and 3, 3.6% (305/8162) and 3.5% (305/8511) of participants had scores indicative of possible OCD, respectively. The Y-BOCS score, anxiety level, quarantine level, and intensity of fear were significantly lower at surveys 2 and 3 than at survey 1 (P<.001 for all). Compared to those with a lower Y-BOCS score (<16), participants with possible OCD expressed greater intensity of fear and had higher SAS standard scores (P<.001). The regression linear analysis indicated that intensity of fear was positively correlated to the rate of possible OCD and the average total scores for the Y-BOCS in each survey (P<.001 for all). Multiple regressions showed that those with a higher intensity of fear, a higher anxiety level, of male gender, with sibling(s), and majoring in a nonmedicine discipline had a greater chance of having a higher Y-BOCS score in all surveys. These results were redemonstrated in the 5827 participants who completed both surveys 1 and 2 and in the 4006 participants who completed all three surveys. Furthermore, in matched participants, the Y-BOCS score was negatively correlated to changes in intensity of fear (r=0.74 for survey 2, P<.001; r=0.63 for survey 3, P=.006). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that fear of COVID-19 was associated with a greater Y-BOCS score, suggesting that an environment (COVID-19 pandemic) × psychology (fear and/or anxiety) interaction might be involved in OCD and that a fear of negative events might play a role in the etiology of OCD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem
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