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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 839-844, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581163

RESUMO

The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits the inclusion of characterizing flavors (e.g., candy or fruit) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products at the federal level.* Flavored tobacco products can appeal to youths and young adults and influence initiation and establishment of tobacco-use patterns (1). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed data from the 2014-2018 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine prevalence of current (past 30-day) use of flavored tobacco products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, smokeless tobacco, bidis, and menthol cigarettes among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2018, an estimated 3.15 million (64.1%) youth tobacco product users currently used one or more flavored tobacco products, compared with 3.26 million (70.0%) in 2014. Despite this overall decrease in use of flavored tobacco products, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased among high school students during 2014-2018; among middle school students, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased during 2015-2018, following a decrease during 2014-2015. During 2014-2018, current use of flavored hookah tobacco decreased among middle and high school students; current use of flavored smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, and menthol cigarettes decreased among high school students. Full implementation of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies, coupled with regulation of tobacco products by FDA, can help prevent and reduce use of tobacco products, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths (2,3).


Assuntos
Aromatizantes , Estudantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 845-850, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581164

RESUMO

Use of marijuana at an early age can affect memory, school performance, attention, and learning; conclusions have been mixed regarding its impact on mental health conditions, including psychosis, depression, and anxiety (1-3). Medical marijuana has been legal in Washington since 1998, and in 2012, voters approved the retail sale of marijuana for recreational use to persons aged ≥21 years. The first retail stores opened for business in July 2014. As more states legalize marijuana use by adults aged ≥21 years, the effect of legalization on use by youths will be important to monitor. To guide planning of activities aimed at reducing marijuana use by youths and to inform ongoing policy development, Public Health-Seattle & King County assessed trends and characteristics of past 30-day marijuana use among King County, Washington, public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12. This report used biennial data for 2004-2016 from the Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Among grade 6 students there was a decreasing trend in self-reported past 30-day marijuana use from 2004 to 2016, while the percentage of grade 8 students who had used marijuana during the past 30 days did not change during that period. Among students in grades 10 and 12, self-reported past 30-day use of marijuana increased from 2004 to 2012, then declined from 2012 to 2016. In 2016, the percentage of students with past 30-day marijuana use in King County was 0.6% among grade 6, 4.1% among grade 8, 13.9% among grade 10, and 25.5% among grade 12 students. Among grade 10 students, 24.0% of past 30-day marijuana users also smoked cigarettes, compared with 1.3% of nonusers. From 2004 to 2016 the prevalence of perception of great risk of harm from regular marijuana use decreased across all grades. Continued surveillance using consistent measures is needed to monitor the impact of marijuana legalization and emerging public health issues, given variable legislation approaches among jurisdictions.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/tendências , Setor Público , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Washington/epidemiologia
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 965-970, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484262

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effects of precollege peer bullying at different stages, on quality of life (QOL) among college students. Methods: A stratified cluster sampling method was used to select participants in October, 2018. Cluster sampling method was adopted to recruit a sample of 4 034 college students from four universities in Hefei city, Anhui province. Relations between peer bullying at different stages before entering college, and the quality of life, were investigated. t test and analysis of variance were used to compare the differences of QOL in different groups. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the associations between various types of peer bullying at different stages and the QOL at precollege days. Results: Among all the 4 034 college students under study, mean scores of the 4 dimensions of QOL appeared as physical (12.61±2.02), psychological (14.09±2.62), social relationship (13.72±2.71) and environment (13.77±2.46), respectively. After adjusting the confounding factors, data from multiple linear regression showed that, factors as verbal bullying victimization during primary school (ß=-0.21)/secondary school (ß=-0.27)/or at both periods (ß=-0.56), relational (ß=-0.21) and physical (ß=-0.38) bullying victimization in secondary school, and physical bullying victimization in both periods (ß=-0.67) were negatively correlated with the physical dimension of QOL. Verbal bullying victimization in both periods (ß=-0.41) and relational bullying victimization in secondary school (ß=-0.42) were negatively correlated with psychological dimension of QOL. Factors as relational (ß=-0.32) and physical (ß=-0.51) bullying victimization in secondary school, physical/cyber bullying victimization in both periods (ß=-0.57) were negatively correlated with the social dimension of QOL. Verbal bullying victimization during primary school (ß=-0.20) and both periods (ß=-0.46), relational bullying perpetration during primary school (ß=-0.35) or at both periods (ß=-0.90) were negatively correlated with the environmental dimension of QOL (All P<0.05). Index related to bullying victimization (ß=-0.33, -0.36, -0.30, -0.33) and bullying perpetration ß=-0.28, -0.31, -0.23, -0.28) were both negatively correlated to all the 4 dimensions (physical, psychological, social relationship and environment) of QOL (P<0.001). Conclusions: Various forms of peer bullying experiences occurring before college, were associated with the decreased scores of QOL in different domains, among the university students. Programs on prevention and control of peer bullying in different stages before college days seemed important thus should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
Codas ; 31(4): e20180093, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483039

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Measure the sound pressure levels in classrooms of a university as well to verify the self-perception of noise in the educational environment and its influence on the activities carried out by students and professors. METHODS: The study was carried out with students and professors who answered a questionnaire regarding self-perception of noise in the classroom, as well as the presence of auditory and non-auditory complaints. Measurement of sound pressure levels was performed in ten classrooms of Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais. The points for measuring the sound pressure level inside the classrooms were selected according to the literature and legislation: three distinct points, totaling nine measurements in each room. RESULTS: Participated in this study students and professors from the Institute of Biological and Health Sciences. The classrooms of the morning shift had the highest noise measurement. Classrooms at lunch time had the lowest average noise. The first floor has the highest average noise, being classified as the noisiest floor. Noise is perceived by both students and professors as an interfering factor in the activities performed inside the classrooms, however, professors have a greater perception of noise interference in their activities than students. CONCLUSION: Noise is present in all classrooms with values higher than those recommended by national legislation. This noise is perceived by students and professors and negatively interferes in the teaching-learning activities.


Assuntos
Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Acústica da Fala , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558934

RESUMO

Introduction: The rate of sexually transmitted infection's, including HIV has increased in recent years in Ethiopia. Many adolescents and young people still do not protect themselves against unintended pregnancies and STIs. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the predictors of risky sexual behavior among pre-college students in Adama Town, Ethiopia. Methods: School based cross-sectional study was employed. In this study 364 students were recruited from all pre-college schools in Adama town, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to examine the relationship between the outcome variables and independent variables. Results: The mean age at sexual debut was 16.1 years (± 2.72SD). Social media usage for sexual activity and having multiple sexual partners were observed among students. About 7% of students used social media for watching pornography. The odds of risky sexual behaviour were higher among social media users compared to the nonusers AOR = 1.23 (95% CI 1.13,3.12). Risky sexual behaviour was almost 4 times more likely among night club goers AOR = 4.294 (95% CI: 2.033, 9.073). Peer pressure and substance abuse were also a significant predictor for risky sexual behavior AOR = 6.97 (95% CI: 4.24, 9.69). Conclusion: Social media use, peer pressure, substance abuse, and night club going were found to be significantly associated with risky sexual behaviour among pre-college students. Thus, schools need to establish and strengthen reproductive health clubs to be able to equip students with required skills and knowledge about sexuality. Parents should be aware of the dynamic behavioral change of their children, listen and attend to their needs.


Assuntos
Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Parceiros Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 85, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489063

RESUMO

Introduction: Testicular self-examination (TSE) is a screening technique that involves inspection of the appearance and palpation of the testes to detect any changes from the normal. Globally, the incidence of cancer has increased among which is testicular cancer (TC). Data on this topic among male secondary school adolescents in Uganda is limited therefore this study sought to assess the knowledge and practice of testicular self-examination among secondary students at Ntare School, Mbarara District in south western Uganda. The objective of the study is to assess the knowledge and practice of testicular self-examination among secondary students at Ntare School in Mbarara district, south western Uganda. Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study among 165 students. Recruitment was made using simple random sampling technique. Respondents were selected among advanced level (A' level) male students studying at Ntare School in Mbarara district, south western Uganda. Structured self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Results: Of the male students, 41.8% reported to have knowledge about TSE and only 23.6% practiced TSE. Most students rated their knowledge of TSE to be below 5 (from 1-10). Of the 39 students who admitted performing TSE, only 16 did so as recommended (monthly). Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of TSE were low among adolescent secondary school boys in Ntare School in Mbarara District, south western Uganda. This suggests that these students are unaware of the value of this personal health promotion tool which is fundamental in early diagnosis of testicular cancer.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Autoexame/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 803, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scabies, a parasitic disease of the skin, is a major public health problem, largely affecting children. Scabies is often complicated by impetigo which can result in serious complications including invasive infections and immune mediated diseases. Scabies and impetigo are reported to have high prevalence in tropical settings including the Solomon Islands. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional prevalence survey at Gizo Primary School in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands in August 2018. The diagnosis of scabies was based on criteria developed by the International Alliance for the Control of Scabies in 2018. Population attributable risk was calculated to determine the effect of scabies on the prevalence of impetigo, and both adjusted and unadjusted risk ratios were calculated to identify differences between sexes and age groups. RESULTS: A total of 324 students were assessed (47.5% of those enrolled at the school). The prevalence of scabies was 54.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 48.7-59.8) and most disease was mild (68.8%). The prevalence was higher in males (63.5%; adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), and in those aged 10-12 years (61.4%; ARR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.9 when compared to those aged 4-6 years). The prevalence of impetigo was 32.1%, with males more likely to be affected (41.7%, ARR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4) but with no significant differences between age groups. 63.5% of those with impetigo had scabies, corresponding to a population attributable risk of 11.8%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a very high burden of scabies and impetigo among primary school students in Gizo. There is a critical need for the development and implementation of control programs in areas where scabies is endemic.


Assuntos
Impetigo/epidemiologia , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanesia/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(9): 907-912, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474072

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the blood lead level and its relationship with behavior in school-age children from rural areas of Chongqing. Methods: A total of 697 students from grades 3 to 6 in the fall semester of 2014 from 14 rural townships in one district of Chongqing was selected by using the random cluster sampling method. Blood were sampled to analyze the lead level. Neurobehavioral tests were performed to determine their personal cognitive and memory ability. Questionnaires and physical examinations were administered to obtain the information of confounding factors. All students were divided into Q1-Q4 groups according to the quartile of their blood lead level. The relationship between the blood lead level and behavior was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression model and restricted spline regression model. Results: The mean age of 697 students was (10.07±1.36) years old, and the median (interquartile range) of their blood lead level was 44.31 (35.42) µg/L. Multivariate logistic regression model showed that after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index and maternal culture level, compared with Q1 group, the OR (95%CI) values of high digit symbol substitution test (DSST) scores and high overall memory quotient (MQ) scores in Q3 group were 1.65 (1.01-2.70) and 2.10 (1.21-3.62), and the OR (95%CI) value of high long term memory (LTM) scores in Q4 group was 0.53 (0.31-0.92). The results of the restricted spline regression model showed that the dose-response curves between the blood lead level and MQ/LTM test scores were both parabolic (P<0.05). Conclusion: The blood lead level of school-age children from rural areas of Chongqing is the same as that from other areas of China, but slightly higher than that from other areas of Chongqing. Children with higher blood lead level have poor long-term memory ability.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Chumbo , População Rural , Estudantes , Criança , China , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(9): 925-928, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474075

RESUMO

Objective: To identify the status and risky factors of anal sexual intention in casual sex behavior in Zhejiang province. Methods: Stratified cluster sampling was conducted among college students in 13 colleges in 11 cities between October to November, 2018. 482 students were enrolled who self-reported "heterosexuality "and" ever had casual sex behavior". A self-designed network questionnaire was complimented containing basic information, knowledge of HIV, sexual behavior. Chi-square test was used to compared the difference of anal sex intention between different characteristic. The multivariate logistic regression methods was used to analyze the influence factors. Results: Among 482 students, the age was (20±1.442) years old. And 87.3% (421) were male and 29.0% (140) were from other province. The rate of anal sex intention were 19.4% (94/482) in total, with the rates of 38.1% (24/63) and 14.4% (53/367) in students with sexual number more than 5 and less than 5 (P<0.001), separately. Compared with students searching casual sexual partner with non-internet access (17.0%, 16/201), students searching sexual partner with internet access had higher risk of anal sex practice (27.8%, 78/281) (P<0.001). The rate of anal sex practice among students reporting "ever had casual sex after drinking "and" never had casual sex after drinking" were 30.5% (64/210) and 9.4% (25/266) (P<0.001). The multivariate logistic regression results revealed that compared with students searching casual sexual partner with non-internet access and reporting "never had casual sex after drinking", subjects searching sexual partner with internet access(OR (95%CI)=2.65 (1.34-5.23)) and "ever had casual sex after drinking" OR (95%CI)=3.02 (1.65-5.33) were more likely had higher risk of anal sex practice. Conclusion: Heterosexual college students in Zhejiang Province tend to have anal intercourse with causal sexual partners. Searching for causal sexual partners on internet or mobile phone dating software and having temporary sexual behavior after drinking were correlated factors.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Heterossexualidade , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(9): 944-946, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474079

RESUMO

To explore the mediating role of psychological resilience to childhood abuse and binge eating. This study assessed the childhood abuse, binge eating and psychological resilience of 3 453 middle school students in Harbin city, Heilongjiang Province. SPSS PROCESS macro program, combined with Bootstrap method, was employed to explore the mediating effect of psychological resilience. The incidence of middle school students experiencing at least one type of abuse in their childhood was 81.3% (2 807/3 453). Childhood abuse, psychological resilience and binge eating were all significantly different in terms of gender, household registration and whether they were only child (all P values<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between childhood abuse and binge eating. Psychological resilience was negatively associated with childhood abuse and binge eating. Childhood abuse could not only directly predict the binge eating behavior of adolescents, but also could indirectly affect it via psychological resilience.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(8): 538-541, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is frequently encountered in people traveling from high-income to low-income countries; however, its epidemiology in those traveling between high-income countries is not known. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of diarrhea in North American students relocating to Israel. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study involving medical students from the United States and Canada relocating to Israel was conducted. Students who relocated to Israel during 2010-2016 were contacted by email to participate in an anonymous survey. Data included demographic information as well as occurrence, timing, duration, and outcome of diarrhea after relocation. RESULTS: Ninety-seven students participated in the survey. Most (93.7%) students relocated from the United States or Canada. The period-prevalence of diarrhea was 69.1%. The incidence of diarrhea declined from 34.8 cases per 100 student-months during the first month after relocation to 1.3 cases per 100 student-months after 1 year. The duration of diarrhea was up to 1 week in 72.7%. Students who reported diarrhea were younger than students who did not (mean age 24.0 ± 2.2 and 28.4 ± 1.8 years, respectively, P < 0.001). No other demographic parameter was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of North American medical students relocating to Israel reported diarrhea with clinical and epidemiological features similar to classic TD. Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative agents of TD in Israel.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Canadá/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diarreia/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viagem , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448045

RESUMO

Introduction: The empowerment of young people aged 15-24 years is a key component of an effective AIDS response. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is progressively being implemented in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods: Socio-demographic and behavioural factors associated with acceptability of HIVST were evaluated among university students in Bunia, DRC. A representative cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Results: A total of 1,012 students were recruited. Acceptability of unsupervised HIVST was higher in the group of young students as compared with older students and was markedly associated with prior knowledge on HIVST. Conclusion: Adapted communication about HIVST appears likely essential to increase the supply and use of HIVST among students in DRC.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Poder (Psicologia) , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4642, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and its association with socio-demographic, economic, and anthropometric variables, as well as levels of physical activity among undergraduate students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 348 undergraduate students at the dining hall of a public Brazilian university located in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Body image perception was evaluated using the Silhouette Matching Task. The other variables assessed were sex, age, marital status, housing conditions, socioeconomic class, weight, height, waist circumference and physical activity levels. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to verify the association between the dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: Of the interviewees, 55.7% were men. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 59.8% among men and 55.2% among women. Dissatisfaction for being overweight, between men and women, was higher in overweight individuals when compared to normal weight individuals, according to the body mass index, and also higher in those at risk for cardiovascular disease when compared to those who were not at risk. The dissatisfaction for being thin was higher among women with low weight when compared to normal weight women, according to body mass index. There was no association between dissatisfaction for being thin and the variables analyzed among men. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was observed in more than half of the individuals evaluated and is associated with nutritional status. Knowing the consequences of dissatisfaction with body image helps highlight the need for intervention strategies to avoid the practice of unhealthy behaviors.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1088, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvement of health literacy, health behavioural change, creating a supportive physical and social environment to be more conducive to health should be the focus of child and adolescent public health. The concept of Health Promoting School initiated by World Health Organization aims to move beyond individual behavioural change and to consider organisational structure change such as improvement of the school's physical and social environment. The aim of this study is identification of the key indicators for successful implementation of Health Promoting School by analysing the findings of the school health profile based on the structured framework of Hong Kong Healthy School Award Scheme and the health status of students investigated by the Hong Kong Student Health Survey. METHODS: This is a retrospective correlation study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was utilised to analyse for significant improvement of school health profile measured at baseline (n = 104) and among those schools implemented the Hong Kong Healthy School Award Scheme (n = 54). Those indicators showing statistical significance were chosen to be part of the core indicators reflecting effective Health Promoting School. Each of those selected core indicators was then correlated with the related student health outcomes measured by the Hong Kong Student Health Survey Questionnaire to further identify the core indicators. RESULTS: A total of 20 core indicators among all the six Key Areas of Health Promoting School (6 indicators under action competencies, 2 under community link, 2 under physical environment, 2 under social environment, 4 under healthy school policies, 1 under services of school health protection) have been identified with the method mentioned above. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified the indicators with most significant impact on a wide range of health related outcomes. Those are key indicators for motivating positive change of the schools and students. They can be considered as school performance indicators to help schools embarking their Health Promoting School journey as another key education objective.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hong Kong , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1097, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the design and present the baseline characteristics of a web-based lifestyle intervention program, which comprises of sequentially and simultaneously delivered intervention modules targeting physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) in Chinese college students. METHODS: The study adopted a randomized placebo-controlled trial, using the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) and the Compensatory Carry-Over Action Model (CCAM) as the theoretical backdrops. 556 Chinese college students participated in the 8-week web-based lifestyle intervention program. All eligible participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 1) the PA-first arm which received a 4-week intervention addressing PA followed by a 4-week intervention addressing FVC; 2) the FVC-first arm which received a 4-week intervention addressing FVC followed by a 4-week intervention addressing PA; 3) the PA + FVC simultaneous arm that received an 8-week intervention addressing both PA and FVC at the same time; and 4) the placebo-control arm that received 8 weeks of general health information, which is not relevant for changing actual PA and FVC behaviors. Data collection includes four time-points: at the beginning and end of the intervention, and a 3-month and 12-month follow-up after the intervention. RESULTS: At baseline, 41.7% of participants were male and 58.3% were female. 41.0% of the participants did not meet the standard PA-recommendations, while 69.6% did not adhere to the standard FVC-recommendations. In total, only 19.6% of participants met both PA and FVC recommendations. Baseline characteristics across the four groups had no significant differences (all P = .17-.99), indicating successful randomization. CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary results indicate a high prevalence of unhealthy lifestyles in college students in China, which further supports the need for web-based health intervention programs. This is also the first study that examines the comparative effectiveness of simultaneously and sequentially delivered lifestyle interventions in the Chinese population. These findings may contribute to the creation of future web-based health behavior change interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrails.gov: NCT03627949 , 14 August, 2018.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Internet , Estilo de Vida , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , China , Dieta/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1139, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has linked excessive stress among post-secondary students to poor academic performance and poor mental health. Despite attempts to ameliorate mental health challenges at post-secondary institutions, there exists a gap in the evaluation of the specific sources of stress for students within the post-secondary setting. METHODS: The goal of this study was to develop a new instrument to better assess the sources of post-secondary student stress. Over the course of two years, the Post-Secondary Student Stressors Index (PSSI) was created in collaboration with post-secondary students as co-developers and subject matter experts. In this study, we used a combination of individual cognitive interviews (n = 11), an online consensus survey modeled after a traditional Delphi method (n = 65), and an online pre- (n = 535) and post-test (n = 350) survey to psychometrically evaluate the PSSI using samples of students from Ontario, Canada. We collected four types of evidence for validity, including: content evidence, response processes evidence, internal structure evidence, and relations to other variables. The test-retest reliability of the instrument was also evaluated. RESULTS: The PSSI demonstrated strong psychometric properties. Content validation and response processes evidence was derived from active student involvement throughout the development and refinement of the tool. Exploratory factor analysis suggested that the structure of the PSSI reflects the internal structure of an index, rather than a scale, as expected. Test-retest reliability of the instrument was comparable to existing, established instruments. Finally, the PSSI demonstrated good relationships with like measures of stress, distress, and resilience, in the hypothesized directions. CONCLUSIONS: The PSSI is a 46-item inventory that will allow post-secondary institutions to pinpoint the most severe and frequently occurring stressors on their campus. This knowledge will facilitate appropriate targeting of priority areas, and help institutions to better align their mental health promotion and mental illness prevention programming with the needs of their campus.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Natl Black Nurses Assoc ; 30(1): 34-39, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465683

RESUMO

This article discusses the Provost Scholars, a novel University five-year Mentoring Program for middle and high school students in an inner-city school district. The Provost Scholars is an innovative enrichment Program in which a partnership was formed between an under-resourced inner city school district and a private research university in Cleveland, Ohio. The Program was formed to help students graduate from high school. As these students experience success and empowerment, their willingness and ability to give back to the health of the community is enhanced. The primary goal of the Provost Scholars Mentoring Program is to prepare students for entry into and graduation from colleges/universities, technical/vocational schools, or to find a successful place in the workforce. This article describes a number of initiatives established to ensure the success of the Scholars. One key aspect of the Programs' success is a strong personal interest, caring, engagement, and partnership between the administrative staffs of the following two educational institutions: Case Western Reserve University and the East Cleveland School District, as well as the committed relationships of the university Mentors and the Scholars. Students who participate in the Program are expected to demonstrate improved grades, higher ACT/SAT scores, and to meet the requirements for admission to the colleges and universities of their choice, or to develop skills for meaningful employment in industry.


Assuntos
Tutoria/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Cidades , Humanos , Ohio , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/organização & administração
19.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(8): 1070-1077, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417049

RESUMO

Background: The World Health Organization defines obesity as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that can damage health. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of obesity and risk factors in high school students in Erzurum City Center. Study Design and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. The number of students participating in the study was 845, including 47.6% females and 52.4% males. Data collection was done by surveys filled in under supervision. Anthropometric measurements were performed by the researchers. Predictions of the Extended International Obesity Task Force were used for body mass index. Parents' body mass indexes were calculated by self-report and classified according to cut-off points for adults in the world health community. A systematic review of the local literature published between 2004 and 2013 was drafted. Results: In girls and boys, the frequency of overweight was 26.9% and 25.7%, respectively, while the frequency of obesity was 12.4% and 9.5%. A logistic regression analysis was performed to reveal significant risk factors for overweight/obesity. Weekly exercise status [odds ratio = 3.0, 95% confidence interval CI (1.2-7.8)] and school transfer % CI = (1.1-7.2) were important independent risk factors for obesity. The local literature showed a 4.3-fold increase in the prevalence of obesity within 10 years. Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in adolescents requires the implementation of effective programs to fight this epidemic. Health education targeting peers and their parents, peer education, screening of risk groups, and controlling the sale of unhealthy foods can be some interventions.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1055, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood overweight/obesity has become a major public health concern globally because of its adverse health consequences and escalating prevalence. The factors underlying the disease conditions manifested during adulthood commonly originate in childhood. Nepal is going through a transition where under-nutrition co-exists with obesity; however, there is a lack of well-documented information on childhood overweight or obesity in Nepal. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and associated factors of childhood overweight/obesity among urban primary school children. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to October of 2017. Behavioral data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire with parents of children aged 6-13 years old in grades 1-5 studying in private schools of Lalitpur district in Nepal. Study participants were selected using two-stage cluster random sampling from 10 private schools. Height and weight measurements of 575 children were taken and BMI-for-age-sex was calculated using WHO AnthroPlus. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Associated factors were examined using Chi-square tests followed by multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The study found that out of 575 students, 107 (18.6%) were overweight and 41 (7.1%) were obese. Among 328 male children, 62 (19.0%) were overweight and 35 (10.6%) were obese. Likewise, among 247 female children, 45 (18.2%) were overweight and 6 (2.4%) were obese. Male children (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.38-3.53), children of mothers with a high school (aOR = 3.13, 95% CI: 1.39-7.12) or university level of education (aOR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.23-7.70) and children of mothers in a professional field (aOR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.02-4.05) had a greater likelihood of being overweight/obese. Likewise, students consuming energy-dense less nutrient food (aOR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.66-5.12), lacking active travel to and from school (aOR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.12-4.79) and those having sedentary behaviors (aOR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.20-7.29) were likely to be overweight/obese. CONCLUSIONS: More than one-quarter of the children in urban Lalitpur were found to be overweight/obese. High junk food consumption and sedentary activity were found to be significantly associated with childhood overweight/obesity. School health and awareness programs aiming to reduce the intake of energy-dense foods and promote an active lifestyle including active transportation to school among children are imperative. Future studies to objectively measure the type and amount of food intake and physical activity of students are recommended.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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