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1.
Soins ; 64(838): 59-62, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542125

RESUMO

Digital technology can be used as an effective means of improving students' quality of learning. This use goes beyond the need to adapt to this hyperconnected society.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador , Aprendizagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Humanos
2.
J Dent Educ ; 83(9): 1057-1064, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477584

RESUMO

Pipeline programs aim to increase the representation of underrepresented minorities in the dental profession. At New York University College of Dentistry (NYUCD), two dental students initiated the development of a pipeline program for high school students called Saturday Academy. The purpose of the program is twofold: to mentor and coach underrepresented minority and low-income high school students through the college application process, and to expose them to the field of dentistry as a viable career option through both didactic and hands-on learning. The aim of this pilot study was to determine outcomes for the first five years (2013-17) of the Saturday Academy pipeline program at NYUCD with regard to the high school students' experience with the program and their career interests after high school graduation. Across five cohorts, a total of 82 students participated in Saturday Academy. A "where are you now?" survey sent to 72 participants who reported high school graduation years between 2013 and 2018 received a response rate of 76%. The survey results showed that all (100%) of the responding Saturday Academy participants had graduated from high school and were enrolled in college, and 71% were interested in health profession careers. Almost half (47%) of the students self-identified as being pre-dental, and 96% reported that Saturday Academy had increased their interest in the dental profession. These pilot results justified an expansion of Saturday Academy at NYUCD in both size and creation of an alumni outreach initiative. Other dental schools may benefit from the strategies used by this program in establishing or expanding their pipeline programs.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Odontologia , Educação em Odontologia , Faculdades de Odontologia , Estudantes de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Feminino , Ocupações em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde das Minorias , New York , Projetos Piloto , Pobreza , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 965-970, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484262

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effects of precollege peer bullying at different stages, on quality of life (QOL) among college students. Methods: A stratified cluster sampling method was used to select participants in October, 2018. Cluster sampling method was adopted to recruit a sample of 4 034 college students from four universities in Hefei city, Anhui province. Relations between peer bullying at different stages before entering college, and the quality of life, were investigated. t test and analysis of variance were used to compare the differences of QOL in different groups. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the associations between various types of peer bullying at different stages and the QOL at precollege days. Results: Among all the 4 034 college students under study, mean scores of the 4 dimensions of QOL appeared as physical (12.61±2.02), psychological (14.09±2.62), social relationship (13.72±2.71) and environment (13.77±2.46), respectively. After adjusting the confounding factors, data from multiple linear regression showed that, factors as verbal bullying victimization during primary school (ß=-0.21)/secondary school (ß=-0.27)/or at both periods (ß=-0.56), relational (ß=-0.21) and physical (ß=-0.38) bullying victimization in secondary school, and physical bullying victimization in both periods (ß=-0.67) were negatively correlated with the physical dimension of QOL. Verbal bullying victimization in both periods (ß=-0.41) and relational bullying victimization in secondary school (ß=-0.42) were negatively correlated with psychological dimension of QOL. Factors as relational (ß=-0.32) and physical (ß=-0.51) bullying victimization in secondary school, physical/cyber bullying victimization in both periods (ß=-0.57) were negatively correlated with the social dimension of QOL. Verbal bullying victimization during primary school (ß=-0.20) and both periods (ß=-0.46), relational bullying perpetration during primary school (ß=-0.35) or at both periods (ß=-0.90) were negatively correlated with the environmental dimension of QOL (All P<0.05). Index related to bullying victimization (ß=-0.33, -0.36, -0.30, -0.33) and bullying perpetration ß=-0.28, -0.31, -0.23, -0.28) were both negatively correlated to all the 4 dimensions (physical, psychological, social relationship and environment) of QOL (P<0.001). Conclusions: Various forms of peer bullying experiences occurring before college, were associated with the decreased scores of QOL in different domains, among the university students. Programs on prevention and control of peer bullying in different stages before college days seemed important thus should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 971-975, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484263

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the associations between smoking and literacy on health among 4-6 grade primary school students. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted to research on health literacy and smoking among 4-6 grade pupils in Shandong province, through a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method. Sociodemographic characteristics, health literacy level and smoking rate were collected from respondents. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of smoking and health literacy. Results: A total of 9 240 questionnaires were distributed, with the rate of valid response as 99.7%. The current smoking rate of the students was 2.6%, on higher in boys (3.1%) than in girls (2.0%). 60.8% of 4-6 grade students were found to have adequate health literacy level. Levels of literacy health in both boy and girl school students appeared 56.7% and 64.9%, respectively. Results indicated that health literacy in smokers (14.4%) was lower than that in non-smokers (62.0%). Results from the binary logistic regression analysis showed that the independent influencing factors would include grade, father's education level, economic situation of the family, self-assessment on the school record and literacy on health (P<0.01). After controlling the other independent variables, the smoking rate was 8.62 (1/0.116) times in students with low literacy level on health, than those with high literacy level. Conclusions: Literacy on health was significantly associated with smoking in the 4-6 grade pupils of Shandong province.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4642, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and its association with socio-demographic, economic, and anthropometric variables, as well as levels of physical activity among undergraduate students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 348 undergraduate students at the dining hall of a public Brazilian university located in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Body image perception was evaluated using the Silhouette Matching Task. The other variables assessed were sex, age, marital status, housing conditions, socioeconomic class, weight, height, waist circumference and physical activity levels. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to verify the association between the dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: Of the interviewees, 55.7% were men. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 59.8% among men and 55.2% among women. Dissatisfaction for being overweight, between men and women, was higher in overweight individuals when compared to normal weight individuals, according to the body mass index, and also higher in those at risk for cardiovascular disease when compared to those who were not at risk. The dissatisfaction for being thin was higher among women with low weight when compared to normal weight women, according to body mass index. There was no association between dissatisfaction for being thin and the variables analyzed among men. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was observed in more than half of the individuals evaluated and is associated with nutritional status. Knowing the consequences of dissatisfaction with body image helps highlight the need for intervention strategies to avoid the practice of unhealthy behaviors.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Natl Black Nurses Assoc ; 30(1): 34-39, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465683

RESUMO

This article discusses the Provost Scholars, a novel University five-year Mentoring Program for middle and high school students in an inner-city school district. The Provost Scholars is an innovative enrichment Program in which a partnership was formed between an under-resourced inner city school district and a private research university in Cleveland, Ohio. The Program was formed to help students graduate from high school. As these students experience success and empowerment, their willingness and ability to give back to the health of the community is enhanced. The primary goal of the Provost Scholars Mentoring Program is to prepare students for entry into and graduation from colleges/universities, technical/vocational schools, or to find a successful place in the workforce. This article describes a number of initiatives established to ensure the success of the Scholars. One key aspect of the Programs' success is a strong personal interest, caring, engagement, and partnership between the administrative staffs of the following two educational institutions: Case Western Reserve University and the East Cleveland School District, as well as the committed relationships of the university Mentors and the Scholars. Students who participate in the Program are expected to demonstrate improved grades, higher ACT/SAT scores, and to meet the requirements for admission to the colleges and universities of their choice, or to develop skills for meaningful employment in industry.


Assuntos
Tutoria/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Cidades , Humanos , Ohio , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/organização & administração
7.
J Vet Med Educ ; 46(3): 302-339, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460842

RESUMO

Ethical sensitivity has been identified as one of the four necessary components of moral action, yet little has been done to assess ethical sensitivity to animal issues in animal-related professions. The aim of this study was to develop assessment tools to measure and enhance ethical sensitivity to animal issues, and determine relationships between ethical sensitivity and moral reasoning. Of a cohort of 115 third-year veterinary students from the University of Queensland, Australia, 104 students gave permission to use their responses to written ethical sensitivity and moral judgment tests, and 51 to use their video role-plays to demonstrate ethical sensitivity to current animal farming issues. Inter-rater reliability of scoring by an expert panel was moderate to substantial for the written assessment, but only slight to moderate for the video response. In the written test, students' mean scores for recognition of animals' emotions, expression of empathy and recognition of alternative actions and their impacts improved after teaching. Scores did not increase for identification of their own emotions, moral conflicts between stakeholders, and conflicts between legal, organizational and ethical responsibilities as a professional. There was no overall relationship between ethical sensitivity and moral reasoning scores. However, high scores for reasoning using universal principles were correlated with high scores for recognition of moral conflicts between stakeholders and between legal, organizational, and ethical responsibilities as a professional. Further development of these ethical sensitivity assessment tools is encouraged to enable veterinary and animal science students to raise and address animal ethics issues and alleviate moral distress.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Educação em Veterinária , Princípios Morais , Estudantes/psicologia , Bem-Estar do Animal/ética , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Austrália , Fazendas , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Occup Ther Int ; 2019: 1201689, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467499

RESUMO

Background: In the South African context, there are no specific guidelines regarding how to prepare and support adolescents for the transition from a health care to a high school setting post TBI. This raises questions about the relevance and responsiveness of the current transition practices in occupational therapy in terms of adequately preparing and supporting these adolescents to participate in school and hence exercise their right to a quality education. Method: This study explored adolescents and other key role players' perspectives on and experiences of the high school transition (i.e., school reentry and continued school participation) post TBI. It was anticipated that this would provide an increased understanding of the enablers and barriers to high school reentry and participation post TBI. This served as a basis to explore the main aim of this study which was to help occupational therapists identify where efforts in terms of service delivery are needed. This study was situated in the interpretivist qualitative paradigm and used a multicase study design, which included semistructured interviews with eight adolescent learners with TBI, their primary caregivers, teachers, and principals as well as observations and documentation review. Results: This paper will focus on a central theme in the research, namely, the nature and extent of support needed to facilitate the high school transition of adolescents with TBI within a developing context. Similar to the findings of studies conducted in developed contexts, participants highlighted that they felt that adolescents need support at various stages of the school transition. Participants further alluded to support that should be collaborative, coordinated, flexible, and monitored to ensure it is relevant and responsive to these adolescents' changing needs. Conclusion: The study findings conclude that occupational therapists have a crucial role in fostering an enabling environment (directly and indirectly) through fulfilling various roles including that of a facilitator, intermediary, coach, collaborator, supporter, and advocator.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/reabilitação , Terapia Ocupacional , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ajustamento Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 69, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448031

RESUMO

Introduction: Test anxiety and depression are of the major challenges experienced in students' life, considering the inverse associations they have on their mental wellbeing and academic performance. Evidence from Sudan have reported high figures of adolescent's mental health problems of depression and anxiety. However, studies investigating its association with academic exam stress are lacking. We investigated the prevalence of exam anxiety and depression severity among student setting for Sudan national boarding examination, aiming at identifying possible predictors related to student's socio-demographic and academic status and measuring correlation between exam anxiety and depression severity status among students. Methods: Using cross-sectional design, data obtained using standardized west side anxiety scale for measuring test anxiety; and patient's health questionnaire (PHQ9) of nine items for measuring depression was presented in percentages. Association with sociodemographic and academic factors was measured using logistic regression models. Analysis was run at 0.05 level of significance. Results: Depression and exam anxiety were found to be highly correlated. The highest fractions of students are those with high levels of test anxiety and moderate to severe depression. Gender, maternal level of education, previous exam experience and academic performance are significant predictor for student's exam anxiety status. Conclusion: High figures of exam anxiety and depression are there among Sudanese students setting for their third years boarding exam. Males, low academic performance and maternal low education are risk factors. School mental health services and programs addressing such group of students are highly demanded in line with more elaborative research efforts in this arena.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Escala de Ansiedade Frente a Teste , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Sudão , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Work ; 63(3): 469-477, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of cyberbullying is on the rise among adolescents and in schools. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between personality characteristics such as empathy, the tendency to implement cognitive mechanisms aimed at moral disengagement, and the use of social media. PARTICIPANTS: Italian students from first to fifth year in high school classes (n = 264). METHODS: A questionnaire was used to gather information on the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, their use of social media, their level of empathy (Basic Empathy Scale, BES), and mechanisms of moral disengagement (Moral Disengagement Scale MDS). Two questions were included to determine whether each participant had ever been a victim of or witness to cyberbullying. RESULTS: Results suggest that offensive behaviors are related to mechanisms of moral disengagement and to interaction using forms of communication that allow anonymity. In addition, offensive behavior appears to be related to forms of Internet addiction, while prosocial behavior is linked with cognitive empathy. CONCLUSION: In order to promote the establishment of prosocial behavior, it would seem necessary for the various players involved - schools, parents, social network developers - to make an effort to implement educational environments and virtual social networks based on a hypothesis of "design for reflection", educating young people about the need to take the time to understand their feelings and relationships expressed via social media.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Mídias Sociais , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Itália , Masculino , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Am J Occup Ther ; 73(4): 7304205120p1-7304205120p8, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The student cohort model used by most occupational therapy programs can produce outcomes that are either adaptive or maladaptive as a result of the unique identities formed by student cohorts. The purpose of this study was to examine the cohort model through the lens of group-level affect and emotional contagion theory. METHOD: The study used a cross-sectional survey design with 159 undergraduate health care cohort members (including occupational therapy assistant students) across 24 student cohorts. The survey consisted of three measures, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Emotional Contagion Scale, and the Emotional Expressivity Scale. RESULTS: Data analysis showed that group affective convergence occurred along a continuum of positive affect. The results also showed that cohort members' susceptibility to the emotion of anger strengthened the cohort's emotional convergence. CONCLUSION: Cohort identity may be influenced by the process of emotional contagion, creating a distinct group-level affect.


Assuntos
Emoções , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 124, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: College life represents a key transitional period in the life of young adults that is marked by increased social engagement; living habits acquired during this period have implications on the future life of college students. Therefore, investigation of the determinants of health status of college students is a key imperative; however, there is limited evidence on the study of concomitant effects of physical activity (PA), sedentary time (ST), and sleep duration on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of college students. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted at a medical university in Shenyang in Northeast China in 2017. The study group comprised 926 undergraduate students. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. PA, ST, sleep duration, and HRQOL were measured using the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ)-Long Form and the Chinese version of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). The association of PA, ST, and sleep duration with the HRQOL was examined using independent t-test, Pearson Chi-squared test, and multivariate linear regression analysis. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounding factors, students who reported high PA had significantly higher physical component summary (PCS) score in the total study population and among female students than those who reported low PA, whereas students who reported moderate PA had significantly higher PCS score only among female students (P < 0.05). In the total study population and among male students, students who slept for ≥9 h/day had significantly higher mental component summary (MCS) score than those who slept for 7-< 8 h/day, whereas among only male students, those who slept for 8-< 9 h/day had significantly higher MCS score (P < 0.05). The interaction term between ST and PA was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: PA and sufficient sleep duration had a positive impact on the HRQOL of college students; however, ST was not associated with HRQOL and there was no interaction between the impact of ST and PA on the HRQOL of college students. Increasing PA and promoting adequate sleep duration are key health promotion strategies for college students.


Assuntos
Exercício , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono/fisiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16352, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-stress level affects students' health and many of them experiencing high levels of stress are at risk of burnout. School administrators are often concerned about the experiences and negative effects of burnout among students and staff. Burnout is described as a psychological reaction to chronic stress. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of a group-focused intervention (rational emotive behavior coaching, REBC) on academic burnout among undergraduate students attending public universities in Southeast Nigeria. METHODS: A group randomized controlled trial design was adopted for this study. A total of 52 convenient samples of undergraduate students (with a high degree of burnout symptoms) took part in the research. We used a group REBT program manual for the management of burnout which was complemented with REBC techniques. Data were gathered with the aid of the perceived stress scale (PSS-10) and Oldenburg Burnout inventory-student (OLBI-S). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and paired t test at .05 probability level. RESULTS: Results showed that the group-focused REBC program significantly alleviated burnout symptoms among students in the treatment group compared to students in the control group as measured by OLBI-S subscales: exhaustion (F(1,51) = 41.789, P = .000, (Equation is included in full-text article.), ΔR = 0.634, SE = 1.00), and disengagement (F(1,51) = 196.036, P = .000, (Equation is included in full-text article.), ΔR = 0.869, SE = 0.69). The students who benefitted from the group-focused REBC program maintained reduced symptoms of burnout after three months when the researchers conducted a follow-up as measured by OLBI-S subscales: exhaustion (F(1,51) = 34.012, P = .000, (Equation is included in full-text article.), ΔR = 0.467, SE = 1.21), and disengagement (F(1,51) = 108.941, P = .000, (Equation is included in full-text article.), ΔR = 0.765, SE = 0.85). CONCLUSION: This research indicates that group-focused REBC can be applied to reduce burnout symptoms among undergraduate students. The group-focused REBC intervention may be adapted to overcome employee burnout and school administrators' burnout. Researchers may need to investigate the possibility of storing and harnessing data from studies on REBC and burnout and delivering computer-based/internet REBC program following evidence-based computing strategies and principles.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/terapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Percepção , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16219, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the effect of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) intervention on burnout among English education undergraduates in southeastern Nigeria. METHOD: The study adopted a randomized controlled trial design. A total of 96 English education undergraduates with high burnout symptoms in the participating universities took part in the study. These were randomly assigned to groups - intervention group (n = 48) and control group (n = 48). The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory for students (OLBI-S) was used for data collection. The collected data were analyzed using 2-way mixed repeated measure ANOVA at .05 probability level. RESULT: Results showed that the REBT program significantly reduced the burnout level among English education undergraduates in the intervention group compared to the students in the no-intervention control group as measured by the OLBI-S subscales. Also, the students who benefited from the REBT program maintained reduced burnout levels when the researchers conducted a follow-up. CONCLUSION: Given the present finding, the REBT program is an effective intervention for preventing and managing burnout among students. The present study has important curriculum innovation implications as far as English education is concerned especially in the Nigerian context. This intervention program can be included in the students' curriculum activities so as to equip the students with necessary therapeutic skills to manage burnout symptoms presently and in the future.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Esgotamento Psicológico/terapia , Psicoterapia Racional-Emotiva , Estudantes/psicologia , Capacitação de Professores , Currículo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Nigéria , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 886, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on adolescents' physical activity and determinants are scarce in Nepal. In this study, we aim to assess the level of physical activity, its correlates and the sedentary behavior of high school students in an urban district of Nepal. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Participants were selected using two-stage cluster sampling technique. We used Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) to collect information regarding physical activity and sedentary behavior. We also collected information about socio-demographic, academic, environmental and lifestyle-related factors. Data from 945 high school students from 23 randomly selected schools were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of low physical activity separately for male and female students. RESULTS: Based on GPAQ classification, one out of five respondents reported low physical activity. The prevalence of low physical activity was 8% for males and 31% for females. About 31% of the adolescents and 14% of young adults did not meet the WHO recommendations of physical activity. Forty-seven percent of the total physical activity was borne by recreational activities. Correlates of low physical activity included school type and mode of transport among females, family support and drinking among males, and playground/park around home among both. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence estimate of low physical activity among adolescents is high, with higher odds among females. Several different factors are associated with physical activity among males and females, therefore, interventions to promote physical activity in school may need to weigh these factors prior to/during implementation.


Assuntos
Exercício , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudantes/psicologia , População Urbana , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 883, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The implementation of interventions at-scale is required to maximise population health benefits. 'Physical Activity 4 Everyone (PA4E1)' was a multi-component school-based program targeting adolescents attending secondary schools in low socio-economic areas. An efficacy trial of the intervention demonstrated an increase in students' mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day and lower weight gain at low incremental cost. This study aims to assess the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a multi-component implementation support intervention to improve implementation, at-scale, of the evidence based school physical activity (PA) practices of the PA4E1 program. Impact on student PA levels and adiposity will also be assessed, in addition to the cost of implementation. METHODS: A cluster randomised controlled trial, utilising an effectiveness-implementation hybrid design, will be conducted in up to 76 secondary schools located in lower socio-economic areas across four health districts in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Schools will be randomly allocated to a usual practice control arm or a multi-component implementation support intervention to embed the seven school PA practices of the PA4E1 program. The implementation support intervention incorporates seven strategies including executive support, in-School Champion, teacher training, resources, prompts, audit and feedback and access to an external Support Officer. The primary trial outcome will be the proportion of schools meeting at least four of the seven physical activity practices of the program, assessed via surveys with Head Physical Education teachers at 12 and 24-months. Secondary outcomes will be assessed via a nested evaluation of student PA and adiposity at 12-months (Grade 8 students) and 24 months (Grade 9 students) undertaken in 30 schools (15 per group). Resource use associated with the implementation intervention will be measured prospectively. Linear mixed effects regression models will assess program effects on the primary outcome at each follow-up period. DISCUSSION: This study is one of few evidence-based multi-component PA programs scaled-up to a large number of secondary schools and evaluated via randomised controlled trial. The use of implementation science theoretical frameworks to implement the evidence-based program and the rigorous evaluation design are strengths of the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12617000681358 registered 12th May 2017. Protocol Version 1.


Assuntos
Exercício , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Análise Custo-Benefício , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New South Wales , Áreas de Pobreza , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/economia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 750, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European school-based drug addiction prevention program Unplugged was adapted to the Brazilian context by the Ministry of Health and renamed #Tamojunto. Its first implementations, in the form of a public policy in Brazil, showed contradictory and different effects from those observed in Europe. Adaptations were made to #Tamojunto in 2018 to reintroduce the essential content of the original program. METHODS: A parallel, two-arm, randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the new version of the school-based government program #Tamojunto2.0 for the prevention of drug use among 8th grade middle school students from 70 public schools in three Brazilian cities, totaling approximately 6.300 participating students distributed in 210 classes. For intervention, the experimental group will receive the 12 lessons of the #Tamojunto2.0 program under the supervision of a Brazilian Ministry of Health team. The control group will not receive any intervention. Information will be collected from the students at three time points: preintervention and 9 and 18 months postintervention. Multilevel analyses will be performed using the Gllamm Stata program to assess simultaneous differences in prevalence, in time and among groups for the outcomes of interest. Structural equation modeling will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in changing the behavioral patterns of the adolescents through latent transition analysis. The effect of the mediators involved in the program effectiveness outcomes will also be analyzed. The program doses applied in all classes of the intervention group will be collected using a form completed by the teacher at the end of each lesson, indicating the activities taught and not taught in each lesson. DISCUSSION: This study will show whether the #Tamojunto2.0 program can be expanded as a public policy for all schools with the aim of preventing drug use among Brazilian students. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (RBR-8cnkwq) under the name "Avaliação do Efeito do Programa de Prevenção Escolar ao Uso de Drogas #Tamojunto2.0, Versão 2018", on August 30th, 2018 ( http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-8cnkwq/ ).


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 752, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, alcohol use is responsible for 320 deaths every hour, and the impact is more among those in the younger age group. Despite the adverse health and social challenges associated with alcohol use, alcohol remains the most used and abused psychoactive substance among young adults. Our study aimed at determining the prevalence, correlates and frequency of alcohol use among young adults in two Nigerian universities. We further explored the role of family structure, family support and religion/religiosity on alcohol use in this study setting. Such findings could help to inform public health policy formulation in the country. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in two selected universities in the North Central region of Nigeria. The study was conducted among a final sample of 784 students selected using stratified random sampling. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on ever and current alcohol use and frequency of alcohol use between February and April 2018. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: The level of ever and current use of alcohol was 43.5 and 31.1%, respectively. The mean frequency of alcohol use among the study participants was three days, but ten days among current alcohol users. In the adjusted model, male sex, age above 19 years, infrequent attendance of religious rituals, and belonging to rich/middle-class family were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of ever use and current use of alcohol, while living in the same household as one's father was associated with lower odds of current and ever use of alcohol. CONCLUSION: There is a high rate of lifetime and current use of alcohol among university students in the study setting. Alcohol use was significantly associated with living with parents, religion and religiosity. Both high and low socioeconomic status were associated with alcohol use. There is a need to implement measures in controlling alcohol manufacturing and marketing as well as policies regulating alcohol outlets establishment around educational institutions as well as the working hours in such outlets. Finally, there is a need to organise interventions aimed at reducing this unhealthy social norm among students in this setting.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Religião , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 754, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviors are prevalent in Chinese children, however, the studies on their trends and socioeconomic disparities are scarce. We examined the time trends of daily television (TV) viewing and video game playing and the associated socioeconomic factors in Chinese children in Hong Kong, the most developed and westernized city in China. METHODS: In a panel data study involving 538,300 primary four and 510,294 primary six students from 1999/2000 to 2008/09, data on socioeconomic status, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing and video game playing) and other lifestyle habits were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Trends in sedentary behaviors over time were assessed. Their socioeconomic disparities were examined by interactions in generalized estimating equations with the adjustment for weight status and extracurricular physical activities. RESULTS: The age and sex-standardized prevalence of ≥2 h daily TV viewing decreased from 51.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 51.1-51.8%) in 1999/2000 to 43.8% (95% CI 43.4-44.2%) in 2008/09 (P for trend < 0.001), whereas that of ≥1 h daily video game playing increased from 8.2% (95% CI 7.9-8.4%) to 22.4% (95% CI 22.0-22.7%). Both sedentary behaviors were more prevalent in boys than girls, but the disparities decreased over time (Ratio of odds ratio [ROR] = 0.996 and 0.924 for TV viewing and video game playing, respectively). In contrast, both sedentary behaviors were increasingly more prevalent in children whose parents had lower education levels or non-managerial/professional occupations (ROR 1.006-1.082). CONCLUSIONS: Children in lower socioeconomic families in Hong Kong were increasingly at risk of having sedentary behaviors over years and thus deserve more attention. Effective strategies targeting children and/or their parents of lower socioeconomic status are needed to reduce sedentary behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Comportamento Sedentário , Criança , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 742, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking prevention programmes that reach adolescents before they experiment with tobacco may reduce the prevalence of tobacco use. ASSIST is a school-based, peer-led smoking prevention programme that encourages the diffusion of non-smoking norms among secondary school students (aged 12-13), and was shown in a randomised control trial (conducted 2001-2004) to reduce the prevalence of weekly smoking. This paper presents findings from a process evaluation of the implementation of ASSIST in Scotland in 2014-2017. It examines acceptability and fidelity of implementation and explores the context of message diffusion between peers. METHODS: Mixed method implementation study with students (n = 61), school staff (n = 41), trainers (n = 31) and policy and commissioning leads (n = 17), structured observations (n = 42) and student surveys (n = 2130). RESULTS: ASSIST was delivered with a high degree of fidelity to the licensed manual with all elements of the programme implemented. Student survey findings indicated that the frequency of conversations about smoking increased over the ASSIST delivery period (18% at baseline, 26% at follow-up), but student recollection of conversations about smoking with peer supporters was low (9%). The delivery context of ASSIST was important when considering perceptions of message diffusion. In the study schools, survey findings showed that 0.9% (n = 19) of participants were regular smokers (at least once a week), with nine out of ten (89.9%, n = 1880) saying they had never smoked. This very low prevalence may have affected when and with whom conversations took place. Study participants indicated that there were wider benefits of taking part in ASSIST for: peer supporters (i.e. personal and communication skills); schools (an externally delivered health promotion programme that required minimal resource from schools); and communities (via communication about the risks of smoking to wider social networks). CONCLUSIONS: ASSIST in Scotland was delivered with a high degree of fidelity to the licensed programme and was acceptable from the perspective of schools, students and trainers. Targeting ASSIST in deprived areas with higher youth smoking prevalence or in other countries where youth smoking rates are rising or higher than in Scotland may be particularly relevant for the future delivery.


Assuntos
Grupo Associado , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Escócia/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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