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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 61-68, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190650

RESUMO

School coexistence/violence is often the subject of social alarm. There is no consensus on the prevalence of violent behavior in the classroom, but there does seem to be about its differences according to sex, socioeconomic level, or the importance of preventive interventions for its reduction. Models consider attitudes towards violence as an indicator of risk for its expression. The objectives of this study are to explore the psychometric properties of the revised version of Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia [Attitudes towards Violence Questionnaire] (CAHV-25) in primary and secondary education students, proposing a version of four scales and a total of 28 items, along with the exploration of their significance as a function of sex and academic cycle. A qualitative review of CAHV-25 and a psychometric study of the revised version in each of its original dimensions was carried out, obtaining the fit indicators of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the scale was studied as a function of sex and educational stage se in school children (N = 600) of the Region of Murcia (Spain). The four dimensions show better psychometric properties in their revised version. Attitudes towards violence are more present in males and in secondary school. As conclusions, the proposed version optimizes the detection of attitudes towards violence in schoolchildren and suggests more specific school violence prevention programs


La convivencia/violencia escolar, a menudo, es objeto de alarma social. No parece existir consenso en la prevalencia de conductas violentas en las aulas, pero sí en sus diferencias según sexo, nivel socioeconómico o la importancia de las intervenciones preventivas para su disminución. Los modelos sitúan a las actitudes hacia la violencia como un indicador de riesgo para la manifestación de dichas conductas. Los objetivos del presente estudio son explorar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión ampliada del Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia (CAHV-25) en alumnos de Educación Primaria y Secundaria, proponiendo una versión dividida en cuatro escalas y 28 ítems en total, junto a la exploración de la significación según sexo y etapa académica. Se ha llevado a cabo una revisión cualitativa del cuestionario CAHV-25 y se realizó un estudio psicométrico de la misma para cada una de sus dimensiones originales obteniendo los indicadores de ajuste de Análisis Factorial Exploratorio y Confirmatorio en menores de Educación Primaria y Secundaria (N = 600) de la Región de Murcia (España). Los resultados indican que las cuatro dimensiones tienen mejores propiedades psicométricas en su versión revisada. Las actitudes hacia la violencia son mayores en varones y en Secundaria. Se concluye que la versión propuesta permite maximizar la detección de actitudes hacia la violencia en menores escolarizados, sirviendo de base para el planteamiento de posibles programas de prevención de violencia escolar más específicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Atitude , Análise Fatorial , Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Psicometria
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028002

RESUMO

This study examined the difficulties of running online physical education classes in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and used the findings to develop an efficient operation plan to address these difficulties. Six middle and high school physical education teachers participated; three were experts in online physical education and active in the Korea Council School Physical Education Promotion, and three were recommended teachers making efforts to improve the online classes offered by the Korea Ministry of Education. A qualitative case study method employing phenomenological procedures to collect and analyze the data was used. The difficulties of operating middle and high school online physical education classes for the first time included (1) the monotony of the classes within their limited environmental conditions and limited educational content that did not adequately convey the value of physical education, (2) trial-and-error methods applied nationwide, resulting from a lack of expertise in operating online physical education classes, and (3) very limited evaluation guidelines proposed by the Korea Ministry of Education, which made systematic evaluation with online methods impossible. To address the identified problems and facilitate the efficient operation of online physical education classes, changes in strategic learning methods are needed to understand online physical education characteristics and thereby better communicate the value of physical education. It is also necessary to cultivate teaching expertise through sharing online physical education classes, where collaboration among physical education teachers is central. In addition, evaluation processes should be less formal to encourage active student participation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Eficiência Organizacional , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1416-1418, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001871

RESUMO

Preventing transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in institutes of higher education presents a unique set of challenges because of the presence of congregate living settings and difficulty limiting socialization and group gatherings. Before August 2020, minimal data were available regarding COVID-19 outbreaks in these settings. On August 3, 2020, university A in North Carolina broadly opened campus for the first time since transitioning to primarily remote learning in March. Consistent with CDC guidance at that time (1,2), steps were taken to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 on campus. During August 3-25, 670 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 were identified; 96% were among patients aged <22 years. Eighteen clusters of five or more epidemiologically linked cases within 14 days of one another were reported; 30% of cases were linked to a cluster. Student gatherings and congregate living settings, both on and off campus, likely contributed to the rapid spread of COVID-19 within the university community. On August 19, all university A classes transitioned to online, and additional mitigation efforts were implemented. At this point, 334 university A-associated COVID-19 cases had been reported to the local health department. The rapid increase in cases within 2 weeks of opening campus suggests that robust measures are needed to reduce transmission at institutes of higher education, including efforts to increase consistent use of masks, reduce the density of on-campus housing, increase testing for SARS-CoV-2, and discourage student gatherings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Características de Residência , Comportamento Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 2): 236-243, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970642

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Systematic and continuous physical exercise of certain intensity and volume is irreplaceable in the stages of growth and development and in preventing impairments of the biological, functional and health state of the human organism.Many studies show that physical exercise contributes to development and reinforcement of mental health and increases self-esteem. Examine mental health and self-esteem of active athletes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The subjects of the study are active athletes from Herzegovina and students of the Faculty of Health Studies in Mostar. Mental health and self-esteem were measured by a sociodemographic questionnaire, The Symptom Checklist-90 and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. RESULTS: There is a statistically significant difference in the frequency of exercise, active athletes have the highest percentage (100%) and state that they exercise often (almost every day) while university students have a significantly lower percentage (20%).Students scored significantly higher on the subscales for somatization, obsessive - compulsive symptoms, interpersonal vulnerability, depression, anxiety, aggression, phobia, and paranoia than active athletes. Active athletes have statistically higher scores for almost all the claims of the subjective assessment of life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Active athletes showed significantly less psychological symptoms and better mental health, greater life satisfaction and higher self-esteem than students of the Faculty of Health Studies in Mostar.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e925591, 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Beginning in the 2020 spring semester, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all school-age children in China were homeschooled via live/recorded broadcasts, online group communication, and software-based homework submission. This study assessed the effects of and proper preparation for this educational approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS The homeschooling behaviors and feelings of school-age children were assessed with 2010 online surveys obtained separately from students, parents, and teachers of grades 1-9 in 15 Chinese provinces. Answers were compared among low- (grades 1-3), middle- (grades 4-6), and high- (grades 7-9) grade groups. The chi-square test was used to identify significant differences between groups. RESULTS We found that 76% of the respondents thought the homeschooling style was acceptable. However, teachers were concerned that students' interest, focus, and academic performance would decline. Sixty-nine percent of the parents reported their children had more than 3 hours of daily screen time, and 82% of students had less than 2 hours of daily outdoor activity. Ninety-five percent of the parents were concerned about their children's eyesight. Additionally, 17.6% of the students were suspected to have emotional or behavioral problems according to the parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) results. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) results of parents and teachers showed higher levels of anxiety than usual. CONCLUSIONS Students should continue the going-to-school rhythm at home to cope with changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Integrated grade-specific approaches are needed. Because long screen time and insufficient outdoor activities can severely affect children's eyesight, appropriate eye-protection measures should be implemented.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Educação a Distância , Pandemias , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicologia da Criança , Quarentena/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200097, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze sociodemographic, school, nutritional, and behavioral factors and body perception associated with being bullied in Brazilian students aged 13 to 17 years old. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on data from sample 2 of the 2015 Brazilian School Health Survey. The sample for this study was composed of 10,699 teenagers from schools in each of the largest regions of Brazil. RESULTS: The prevalence of being bullied was 6.2%, with the highest chance of in teens who bully others (OR = 1.91 95%CI 1.48 - 2.45), who are 13 years old (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.04 - 2.97), who consider themselves fat (OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.06 - 1.98) and who are not treated well by their schoolmates (OR = 2.78, 95%CI 2.17 - 3.45). CONCLUSION: Preventive efforts that include programs to encourage greater social support among students, as well as the implementation of practices that encourage respect for students' differences and singularities can contribute to reducing bullying practices.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime , Estudantes/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22817, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has generally increased levels of stress and depression among the public. However, the impact on college students in the United States has not been well-documented. OBJECTIVE: This paper surveys the mental health status and severity of depression and anxiety of college students in a large university system in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online survey was conducted among undergraduate and graduate students recruited from Texas A&M University via email. The survey consisted of two standardized scales-the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the General Anxiety Disorder-7-for depression and anxiety, and additional multiple-choice and open-ended questions regarding stressors and coping mechanisms specific to COVID-19. RESULTS: Among the 2031 participants, 48.14% (n=960) showed a moderate-to-severe level of depression, 38.48% (n=775) showed a moderate-to-severe level of anxiety, and 18.04% (n=366) had suicidal thoughts. A majority of participants (n=1443, 71.26%) indicated that their stress/anxiety levels had increased during the pandemic. Less than half of the participants (n=882, 43.25%) indicated that they were able to cope adequately with the stress related to the current situation. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of respondents showing depression, anxiety, and/or suicidal thoughts is alarming. Respondents reported academic-, health-, and lifestyle-related concerns caused by the pandemic. Given the unexpected length and severity of the outbreak, these concerns need to be further understood and addressed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Adulto Jovem
8.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e924994, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore the emotional resilience of middle school students learning at home in February and March 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the impact of this resilience on students' learning management skills. The results could provide a basis for psychological health education of middle school students during major life events. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study used a survey to explore emotional resilience and learning management abilities in middle school students (N=896) from February 10, 2020, to March 22, 2020. Students used online e-learning during this period due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were analyzed using t-testing, Pearson's correlation, and multivariate linear regression. RESULTS The results indicate that emotional resilience was significantly lower in eighth grade students than in seventh grade students (t=1.98, P<0.05) and negative emotional recovery increased during the study period. Emotional resilience was positively correlated with learning management skills (r=0.498, P<0.01), and positive emotional ability predicted learning management skills. CONCLUSIONS The study findings indicate that in the face of major life events, emotional resilience is an important factor for the mental health of adolescents and improves coping ability. Cultivating positive emotions can improve learning efficiency.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Educação a Distância , Emoções , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Habilidades para Realização de Testes , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 254-261, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192062

RESUMO

The existence of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is the core concept of Schema Therapy (ST). Several studies have demonstrated that EMSs are involved in many psychiatric disorders. The Young Schema Questionnaire is a self-report measure developed to assess the 18 EMSs and has long form (YSQ-L) and short form (YSQ-S) versions. It is currently in its third version (YSQ-S3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that aims to validate the YSQ-S3 according to the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. A non clinical sample of 1372 Italian population was involved in this research. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the latent structure of the YSQ-S3, including both first- and second-order structures. Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the YSQ-S3 and anxiety and mood symptoms were calculated to measure construct validity. Cronbach's alpha of almost all EMSs were higher than 0.7, which indicated good internal reliability, and test-retest reliability was excellent. CFA supports the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. Regarding concurrent validity, each schema in the YSQ-S3 was highly correlated with anxiety and mood symptoms. The new four-domains model of the YSQ-S3 has demonstrated that it can be a useful and valid tool for clinicians and researchers in the self-report measurement of EMSs


La existencia de esquemas maladaptativos tempranos (EMTs) es el concepto central de Schema Therapy (ST). Varios estudios han demostrado que los EMS están involucrados en muchos trastornos psiquiátricos. El Young Schema Questionnaire es una medida de autoinforme desarrollada para evaluar los 18 EMTs y tiene versiones de forma larga (YSQ-L) y forma corta (YSQ-S). Actualmente se encuentra en su tercera versión (YSQ-S3). Hasta donde tenemos conocimiento, este es el primer estudio que tiene como objetivo validar la versión italiana del YSQ-S3 de acuerdo con la nueva organización propuesta de EMTs en cuatro dominios. Una muestra no clínica de 1372 estudiantes italianos participó en esta investigación. El análisis factorial confirmatorio (CFA) se realizó para examinar la estructura latente del YSQ-S3, incluidas las estructuras de primer y segundo orden. Se calcularon la omega coeficiente de McDonald y la correlación interclase para evaluar la consistencia interna y la fiabilidad test-retest. Las correlaciones entre el YSQ-S3 y la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo se calcularon para medir la validez de constructo. El omega de McDonald de casi todos los EMTs fue superior a 0.7, lo que indicó una buena confiabilidad interna, y la confiabilidad test-retest fue excelente. CFA apoya la nueva organización propuesta de EMS en cuatro dominios. Con respecto a la validez concurrente, cada esquema en el YSQ-S3 estaba altamente correlacionado con la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo. El nuevo modelo de cuatro dominios del YSQ-S3 ha demostrado que puede ser una herramienta útil y válida para los médicos e investigadores en la medición del autoinforme de los EMTs


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Modelos Psicológicos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/métodos , Psicoterapia , Autorrelato/normas , Estudantes/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 262-270, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192063

RESUMO

Many previous studies have discussed the influence of extrinsic factors (e.g. living environment) on academic achievement of children from western China. The present study focused on four non-cognitive factors, self-educational aspiration, self-efficacy, instrumental motivation, and anxiety, which could affect mathematics achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms how these four non-cognitive factors affected mathematics achievement. 5774 primary school students from 4th and 5th grade in western China participated in this study. A moderated chained mediation model was constructed. The results showed that self-educational aspiration could positively predict mathematics achievement. However, instrumental motivation and anxiety formed chained mediation between self-educational aspiration and mathematics achievement, and negatively predicted mathematics achievement. Besides, self-efficacy played a moderated role in the relationship between self-educational aspiration and anxiety


Muchos estudios previos han discutido la influencia de factores extrínsecos (por ejemplo, entorno vital) en el logro académico de los niños de China occidental. El presente estudio se centró en cuatro factores no cognitivos, la aspiración autoeducativa, la autoeficacia, la motivación instrumental y la ansiedad, los cuales podrían afectar el logro matemático. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar los mecanismos por los cuales estos cuatro factores no cognitivos afectaron el logro matemático. Un total de 5774 estudiantes de primaria de 4º y 5º grado en el oeste de China participaron en este estudio. Se construyó un modelo de mediación encadenado moderado. Los resultados mostraron que la aspiración autoeducativa podría predecir positivamente el logro matemático. Sin embargo, la motivación instrumental y la ansiedad formaron una mediación encadenada entre la aspiración autoeducativa y el logro matemático, y predijeron negativamente el logro matemático. Además, la autoeficacia desempeñó un papel moderado en la relación entre la aspiración autoeducativa y la ansiedad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Autoeficácia , Modelos Psicológicos , Matemática/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Aspirações Psicológicas , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sucesso Acadêmico
11.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 283-294, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192065

RESUMO

Identificar factores instruccionales específicos relacionados con progresos en comprensión lectora es esencial para optimizar el aprendizaje y orientar la intervención, especialmente en contextos de desventaja socio-cultural o dificultades de aprendizaje. Este estudio pretende identificar patrones instruccionales de mediación eficaces en la explicación del progreso en comprensión. Se grabaron, transcribieron y analizaron sistemáticamente 82 sesiones-clase, y se registraron pautas de mediación relativas a diferentes procesos lectores. Los patrones de mediación fueron analizados mediante codificación y categorización del contenido con el programa Maxqdea-7. Fueron consideradas 19 categorías, que aglutinaron 178 unidades de información significativas (pautas/conductas de mediación). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 21 docentes y 821 estudiantes de tercero a octavo grado de Educación Básica de escuelas públicas de Chile ubicadas en contextos de-privados socialmente. El progreso lector se midió con la prueba estandarizada CL-PT, aplicada al principio y al final del curso escolar. Los resultados permitieron identificar pautas específicas de mediación significativas en la explicación del progreso, especialmente el patrón M_17 (Mediación del uso de estrategias para la activación e integración de conocimientos previos) explicaba el 26% de la varianza (r = .55, p < .01; R2ajustado = .26, F (1, 19) = 8.19, p = .01). Se discuten las implicaciones educativas de estos resultados


Identifying specific instructional factors related to progress in reading comprehension is essential to optimize learning and guide intervention, especially in contexts of sociocultural disadvantage or learning difficulties. This study aims to identify effective mediational instructional patterns in the explanation of progress in reading comprehension. Teaching guidelines were systematically recorded in relation to different reading processes. Eighty-two sessions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed by coding and categorizing the content of the sessions through the Maxqdea-7 program. Nineteen categories were considered, which comprised 178 significant units of information (mediation guidelines). The sample consisted of 21 teachers and 821 students from third to the eighth grade of public schools of Chile located in deprived contexts. Reading progress was measured with the standardized CL-PT test, which was applied at the beginning and end of the school year. The results have allowed identifying mediation patterns with a significant relevance in the explanation of reading progress, especially the pattern M_P17 (Mediation of the use of strategies for the activation and integration of previous knowledge) managed to explain 26% of the variance in the progress (r = .55, p < .01; R2adjusted = .26, F(1, 19) = 8.19, p = .01). The educational implications of these results are discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Compreensão , Populações Vulneráveis , Leitura , Aprendizagem , Docentes/normas , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , 25783 , Recursos Audiovisuais/normas , Ajustamento Social , Análise de Regressão , Desempenho Acadêmico/normas
12.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 295-303, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192066

RESUMO

Este estudio compara las estrategias para leer oraciones utilizadas por un grupo de escolares con dislexia (n = 107) y un grupo con sordera e implante coclear (n = 61) de lengua castellana. Los resultados indican que solo los participantes con sordera adoptan la estrategia de palabras clave (EPC), que consiste en identificar algunas de las palabras de la oración con contenido semántico propio, e ignorar las palabras funcionales. Se observa además que el uso de la EPC está asociado con un déficit sintáctico. Por otra parte, cuando los dos grupos se emparejan en el nivel lector con niños con desarrollo típico en lectura (Grupo Control, n = 785), las diferencias entre los Grupos Disléxico y Control desaparecieron. Sin embargo, los niños con sordera mantenían su tendencia a usar la EPC y seguían presentando dificultades para procesar las palabras funcionales. Estos resultados excluyen la hipótesis de que la EPC sea un procedimiento utilizado de forma general para compensar los déficits de lectura, pareciendo depender, más específicamente, de dificultades en la capacidad sintáctica


The present study compares the strategies to read sentences used by Spanish-speaking children with dyslexia (n = 107) and cochlear-implanted children with deafness (n = 61). The results show that children with deafness, but not with dyslexia, adopt the key-word-strategy (KWS), which consists of identifying some content words of the sentence while ignoring the function words. Furthermore, it appeared that the KWS was associated with poor syntactic ability. Moreover, when Dyslexic and Deaf Groups were carefully matched at reading level with normally developing children (Control Group, n = 785) all of the differences between dyslexics and normally developing children disappeared. Children with hearing loss however were still poor at dealing with function words and consequently maintained their tendency to use the KWS. These results exclude the hypothesis that the KWS is a broadly used procedure to compensate for reading deficits but seems, rather, to depend on poor syntactic ability


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Dislexia/psicologia , Leitura , Surdez/psicologia , Estratégias , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Implantes Cocleares , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia
13.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 304-312, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192067

RESUMO

For almost a century now, the concern of universities about student satisfaction with teaching quality has been increasing. A literature review has enabled the attributes of quality teaching to be classified into three main types: pedagogical, generic, and disciplinary. The aim of this paper is to identify the variables that, in the opinion of students, most influence student satisfaction regarding teaching quality. A total of 476 undergraduate students participated from Business Administration and Management of the University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain). An ad hoc questionnaire was used to assess student satisfaction with teaching. Parametric (Logistic Regression Analysis) and non-parametric (Decision Tree) models were used. Our data indicate that if the professor explains the subject clearly, is concerned to find out whether the explanations have been understood, and carefully prepares the classes; the teaching-quality assessment will be very satisfactory. The identification of the attributes of quality teaching will enable universities to draw up initial and ongoing training plans for their teaching staff, bearing in mind the crucial role played by generic, pedagogical, and disciplinary competences in professor-student interaction


Desde hace casi un siglo la preocupación de las universidades sobre la satisfacción de los estudiantes con la calidad de la docencia recibida se ha ido incrementando. La revisión de la literatura permite clasificar los atributos de una docencia de calidad en tres grandes tipos de competencias: pedagógicas, genéricas y disciplinares. El objetivo de este trabajo es señalar las variables, que a juicio de los estudiantes, más influyen en la satisfacción del alumnado con la calidad de la docencia. Los participantes fueron 476 estudiantes del grado de Administración y Dirección de Empresas de la Universidad Castilla La Mancha. Se utilizó un cuestionario construido ad hoc para valorar la satisfacción de los estudiantes con la docencia. Se utilizaron pruebas paramétricas (Análisis de Regresión Logística) y no paramétricas (árbol de decisión). Nuestros datos indican que si el profesor explica con claridad, se preocupa por averiguar si los conceptos explicados han sido entendidos y prepara sus clases la valoración sobre la calidad de su docencia será muy satisfactoria. El identificar los atributos de una docencia de calidad permitirá a las universidades elaborar planes de formación inicial y permanente de su profesorado teniendo presente el papel crucial que juegan las competencias genéricas, pedagógicas y disciplinares en la interacción profesor-estudiante


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Docentes , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia , Educação , Competência Profissional , Universidades , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Árvores de Decisões , Modelos Logísticos , Curva ROC
14.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 313-319, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192068

RESUMO

The quality of learning in Higher Education is particularly dependent on students' skills in regulating their cognition. This regulation requires cognitive and metacognitive skills as well as motivational dimensions. Due to its relevance in explaining students' academic achievement and developing lifelong learning skills, it´s important to increase research in the area. This study aims to adapt and validate a short version of the Regulation of Cognition of Metacognitive Awareness Inventory to first-year Portuguese university students. A sample of 360 students was considered and was identified a three-dimensional structure (Planning, 4 items; Strategies, 7 items; and Monitoring and evaluation, 7 items) with a second-order factor (Regulation of Cognition). The internal consistency values of the reduced scale are within the acceptable parameters for a self-report scale and the correlations with academic achievement at the end of the first year of the university guarantee the predictive validity of the scale. This short version of regulation of cognition measure allows its use in research with other instruments in larger studies and can function as a diagnostic / screening tool to help students in higher education learning challenges


La calidad del aprendizaje en la Educación Superior depende, especialmente, de las habilidades de los estudiantes para regular su cognición. Esta regulación requiere habilidades cognitivas y metacognitivas, así como dimensiones motivacionales. Dada su relevancia en el rendimiento académico y el desarrollo de habilidades para el aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida, es importante aumentar la investigación en el campo. Este estudio pretende adaptar y validar una versión abreviada de la dimensión Regulación de la Cognición del Metacognitive Awareness Inventory para estudiantes universitarios portugueses de primer año. Se empleó una muestra de 360 estudiantes y se identificó una estructura tridimensional (Planificación, 4 ítems; Estrategias, 7 ítems; y Monitoreo y evaluación, 7 ítems) con un factor de segundo orden (Regulación de la cognición). Los valores de consistencia interna de la escala reducida son aceptables para una escala de auto-informe y las correlaciones con el logro académico al final del primer año de la universidad garantizan su validez predictiva. Esta versión abreviada para medir la regulación de la cognición puede usarse en investigación junto con otros instrumentos en estudios más amplios y puede funcionar como una herramienta de diagnóstico para ayudar a los estudiantes en los desafíos del aprendizaje en la enseñanza superior


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Cognição , Estudantes/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Autocontrole/psicologia , Logro , Desempenho Acadêmico , Autorrelato , Portugal , Análise Fatorial , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 320-329, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192069

RESUMO

In accordance with the goal of the positive psychology approach, this study was designed to build an understanding of the relationships among optimism, cognitive flexibility, adjustment to university life and happiness by proposing a multiple mediation model. A total of 386 undergraduates (64% female and 36% male) between 18-22 years participated in the study. The participants were recruited from a small university in Turkey. The Life Orientation Test, Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, University Life Scale, and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form were utilized as measures. The results showed that optimism, cognitive flexibility, adjustment to university life, and happiness positively correlated. The findings from the mediational analyses also indicated that the serial multiple mediation of cognitive flexibility and adjustment to university life in the hypothetical model was statistically significant and explained approximately 50% of the variance in happiness


De acuerdo con el objetivo del enfoque de psicología positiva, este estudio fue diseñado para construir una comprensión de las relaciones entre optimismo, flexibilidad cognitiva, ajuste a la vida universitaria y felicidad mediante la propuesta de un modelo de mediación múltiple. Un total de 386 estudiantes universitarios (64% mujeres y 36% hombres) entre 18-22 años participaron en el estudio. Los participantes fueron reclutados de una pequeña universidad en Turquía. El Test de Orientación de Vida, el Inventario de Flexibilidad Cognitiva, la Escala de Vida Universitaria y el Formulario Corto del Cuestionario de Felicidad de Oxford fueron utilizados como medidas. Los resultados mostraron que el optimismo, la flexibilidad cognitiva, el ajuste a la vida universitaria y la felicidad se correlacionan positivamente. Los resultados de los análisis mediacionales también indicaron que la mediación serial múltiple de la flexibilidad cognitiva y el ajuste a la vida universitaria en el modelo hipotetizado fue estadísticamente significativa y explicaron aproximadamente el 50% de la varianza en la felicidad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Otimismo , Felicidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Universidades , Cognição , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Testes Psicológicos
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4525, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913209

RESUMO

To date we know little about natural emotion word repertoires, and whether or how they are associated with emotional functioning. Principles from linguistics suggest that the richness or diversity of individuals' actively used emotion vocabularies may correspond with their typical emotion experiences. The current investigation measures active emotion vocabularies in participant-generated natural speech and examined their relationships to individual differences in mood, personality, and physical and emotional well-being. Study 1 analyzes stream-of-consciousness essays by 1,567 college students. Study 2 analyzes public blogs written by over 35,000 individuals. The studies yield consistent findings that emotion vocabulary richness corresponds broadly with experience. Larger negative emotion vocabularies correlate with more psychological distress and poorer physical health. Larger positive emotion vocabularies correlate with higher well-being and better physical health. Findings support theories linking language use and development with lived experience and may have future clinical implications pending further research.


Assuntos
Emoções , Saúde Mental , Estudantes/psicologia , Vocabulário , Adolescente , Estado de Consciência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fala , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Redação , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872577

RESUMO

During the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the lockdown, various changes of dietary habits are observed, including both positive and negative ones. However, the food choice determinants in this period were not studied so far for children and adolescents. The study aimed to analyze the changes in the food choice determinants of secondary school students in a national sample of Polish adolescents within the Polish Adolescents' COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study population. The study was conducted in May 2020, based on the random quota sampling of schools (for voivodeships and counties) and a number of 2448 students from all the regions of Poland participated. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) (36 items) was applied twice-to analyze separately current choices (during the period of COVID-19 pandemic) and general choices (when there was no COVID-19 pandemic). For both the period before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, sensory appeal and price were indicated as the most important factors (with the highest scores). However, differences were observed between the scores of specific factors, while health (p < 0.0001) and weight control (p < 0.0001) were declared as more important during the period of COVID-19 pandemic, compared with the period before, but mood (p < 0.0001) and sensory appeal (p < 0.0001) as less important. The observations were confirmed for sub-groups, while female and male respondents were analyzed separately. It can be concluded that the COVID-19 pandemic may have changed the food choice determinants of Polish adolescents, as it may have increased the importance of health and weight control, but reduced the role of mood and sensory appeal. This may be interpreted as positive changes promoting the uptake of a better diet than in the period before the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22344, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a disease with a high incidence and easy to relapse. It not only affects the work and life of patients, but also brings a heavy economic burden. University is the peak of depression, and the prevalence of depression among college students is much higher than that of ordinary people. The purpose of this research is to evaluate depression symptoms, life satisfaction, self-confidence, substance use, social adjustment, and dropout rates of the use of psychological intervention for college students. METHODS: We will identify relevant trials from systematic searches in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library. We will also search Clinical Trials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for unpublished data. Additional relevant studies will be searched through search engines (such as Google), and references included in the literature will be tracked. All relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be included. There are no date restrictions. Use Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of bias tool to conduct risk of bias analysis. Use the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation to assess the quality of evidence. All statistical analysis will be performed using Stata (V.15.0.) and Review Manager (V.5.2.0). RESULTS: A total of 6238 records were obtained by searching the database and 27 records were obtained by other sources. After removing duplicate records, there are 4225 records remaining. We excluded 3945 records through abstract and title, leaving 280 full-text articles. CONCLUSION: This will be the first study to compare the effects of different psychological treatments on depression in college students. We hope that this study will guide clinical decision-making of psychotherapy to better treat depression in college students. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: INPLASY202070134.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença/economia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Metanálise em Rede , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , Prevalência , Psicoterapia/tendências , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Autoimagem , Ajustamento Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866171

RESUMO

Academic dishonesty is a common problem at universities around the world, leading to undesirable consequences for both students and the education system. To effectively address this problem, it is necessary to identify specific predispositions that promote cheating. In Polish undergraduate students (N = 390), we examined the role of psychopathy, achievement goals, and self-efficacy as predictors of academic dishonesty. We found that the disinhibition aspect of psychopathy and mastery-goal orientation predicted the frequency of students' academic dishonesty and mastery-goal orientation mediated the relationship between the disinhibition and meanness aspects of psychopathy and dishonesty. Furthermore, general self-efficacy moderated the indirect effect of disinhibition on academic dishonesty through mastery-goal orientation. The practical implications of the study include the identification of risk factors and potential mechanisms leading to students' dishonest behavior that can be used to plan personalized interventions to prevent or deal with academic dishonesty.


Assuntos
Motivação/fisiologia , Má Conduta Profissional/psicologia , Má Conduta Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Decepção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/ética , Polônia , Má Conduta Profissional/ética , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/ética , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238373, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866215

RESUMO

The term "retroactive avoidance" refers to a special class of effects of future stimulus presentations on past behavioral responses. Specifically, it refers to the anticipatory avoidance of aversive stimuli that were unpredictable through random selection after the response. This phenomenon is supposed to challenge the common view of the arrow of time and the direction of causality. Preliminary evidence of "retroactive avoidance" has been published in mainstream psychological journals and started a heated debate about the robustness and the true existence of this effect. A series of seven experiments published in 2014 in the Journal of Consciousness Studies (Maier et al., 2014) tested the influence of randomly drawn future negative picture presentations on avoidance responses based on key presses preceding them. The final study in that series used a sophisticated quantum-based random stimulus selection procedure and implemented the most severe test of retroactive avoidance within this series. Evidence for the effect, though significant, was meager and anecdotal, Bayes factor (BF10) = 2. The research presented here represents an attempt to exactly replicate the original effect with a high-power (N = 2004) preregistered multi-lab study. The results indicate that the data favored the null effect (i.e., absence of retroactive avoidance) with a BF01 = 4.38. Given the empirical strengths of the study, namely its preregistration, multi-lab approach, high power, and Bayesian analysis used, this failed replication questions the validity and robustness of the original findings. Not reaching a decisive level of Bayesian evidence and not including skeptical researchers may be considered limitations of this study. Exploratory analyses of the change in evidence for the effect across time, performed on a post-hoc basis, revealed several potentially interesting anomalies in the data that might guide future research in this area.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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