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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD011512, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The strain on public resources to meet the healthcare needs of populations through publicly-provided health insurance programmes is increasing and many governments turn to private health insurance (PHI) to ease the pressure on government budgets. With the goal of improving access to basic health care for citizens through PHI programmes, several high-income countries have developed strong regulations for PHI schemes. Low- and middle-income countries have the opportunity to learn from this experience to optimise PHI. If poorly regulated, PHI can hardly achieve an adequate quantity or quality of population coverage, as can be seen in the USA where a third of adults younger than 65 years of age have no insurance, sporadic coverage or coverage that exposes them to high out-of-pocket healthcare costs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of policies that regulate private health insurance on utilisation, quality, and cost of health care provided. SEARCH METHODS: In November 2019 we searched CENTRAL; MEDLINE; Embase; Sociological Abstracts and Social Services Abstracts; ICTRP; ClinicalTrials.gov; and Web of Science Core Collection for papers that have cited the included studies. This complemented the search conducted in February 2017 in IBSS; EconLit; and Global Health. We also searched selected grey literature databases and web-sites.  SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials, non-randomised trials, interrupted time series (ITS) studies, and controlled before-after (CBA) studies conducted in any population or setting that assessed one or more of the following interventions that governments use to regulate private health insurance: legislation and licensing, monitoring, auditing, and intelligence. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias and certainty of the evidence resolving discrepancies by consensus. We planned to summarise the results (using random-effects or fixed-effect meta-analysis) to produce an overall summary if an average intervention effect across studies was considered meaningful, and we would have discussed the implications of any differences in intervention effects across studies. However, due to the nature of the data obtained, we have provided a narrative synthesis of the findings. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven CBA studies, conducted in the USA, and that directly assessed state laws on cancer screening. Only for-profit PHI schemes were addressed in the included studies and no study addressed other types of PHI (community and not for-profit). The seven studies were assessed as having 'unclear risk' of bias. All seven studies reported on utilisation of healthcare services, and one study reported on costs. None of the included studies reported on quality of health care and patient health outcomes. We assessed the certainty of evidence for patient health outcomes, and utilisation and costs of healthcare services as very low. Therefore, we are uncertain of the effects of government mandates on for-profit PHI schemes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our review suggests that, from currently available evidence, it is uncertain whether policies that regulate private health insurance have an effect on utilisation of healthcare services, costs, quality of care, or patient health outcomes. The findings come from studies conducted in the USA and might therefore not be applicable to other countries; since the regulatory environment could be different. Studies are required in countries at different income levels because the effects of government regulation of PHI are likely to differ across these income and health system settings. Further studies should assess the different types of regulation (including regulation and licensing, monitoring, auditing, and intelligence). While regulatory research on PHI remains relatively scanty, future research can draw on the rich body of research on the regulation of other health financing interventions such as user fees and results-based provider payments.


Assuntos
Regulamentação Governamental , Seguro Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Setor Privado/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Estadual , Viés , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Masculino , Setor Privado/economia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD012882, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The leading causes of mortality globally in children younger than five years of age (under-fives), and particularly in the regions of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Southern Asia, in 2018 were infectious diseases, including pneumonia (15%), diarrhoea (8%), malaria (5%) and newborn sepsis (7%) (UNICEF 2019). Nutrition-related factors contributed to 45% of under-five deaths (UNICEF 2019). World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), in collaboration with other development partners, have developed an approach - now known as integrated community case management (iCCM) - to bring treatment services for children 'closer to home'. The iCCM approach provides integrated case management services for two or more illnesses - including diarrhoea, pneumonia, malaria, severe acute malnutrition or neonatal sepsis - among under-fives at community level (i.e. outside of healthcare facilities) by lay health workers where there is limited access to health facility-based case management services (WHO/UNICEF 2012). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of the integrated community case management (iCCM) strategy on coverage of appropriate treatment for childhood illness by an appropriate provider, quality of care, case load or severity of illness at health facilities, mortality, adverse events and coverage of careseeking for children younger than five years of age in low- and middle-income countries. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL on 7 November 2019, Virtual Health Library on 8 November 2019, and Popline on 5 December 2018, three other databases on 22 March 2019 and two trial registers on 8 November 2019. We performed reference checking, and citation searching, and contacted study authors to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, controlled before-after studies (CBAs), interrupted time series (ITS) studies and repeated measures studies comparing generic WHO/UNICEF iCCM (or local adaptation thereof) for at least two iCCM diseases with usual facility services (facility treatment services) with or without single disease community case management (CCM). We included studies reporting on coverage of appropriate treatment for childhood illness by an appropriate provider, quality of care, case load or severity of illness at health facilities, mortality, adverse events and coverage of careseeking for under-fives in low- and middle-income countries. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently screened abstracts, screened full texts and extracted data using a standardised data collection form adapted from the EPOC Good Practice Data Collection Form. We resolved any disagreements through discussion or, if required, we consulted a third review author not involved in the original screening. We contacted study authors for clarification or additional details when necessary. We reported risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and hazard ratios (HR) for time to event outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for clustering, where possible. We used estimates of effect from the primary analysis reported by the investigators, where possible. We analysed the effects of randomized trials and other study types separately. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven studies, of which three were cluster RCTs and four were CBAs. Six of the seven studies were in SSA and one study was in Southern Asia. The iCCM components and inputs were fairly consistent across the seven studies with notable variation for the training and deployment component (e.g. on payment of iCCM providers) and the system component (e.g. on improving information systems). When compared to usual facility services, we are uncertain of the effect of iCCM on coverage of appropriate treatment from an appropriate provider for any iCCM illness (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.19; 2 CBA studies, 5898 children; very low-certainty evidence). iCCM may have little to no effect on neonatal mortality (HR 1.01, 95% 0.73 to 1.28; 2 trials, 65,209 children; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain of the effect of iCCM on infant mortality (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.26; 2 trials, 60,480 children; very low-certainty evidence) and under-five mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.37; 1 trial, 4729 children; very low-certainty evidence). iCCM probably increases coverage of careseeking to an appropriate provider for any iCCM illness by 68% (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.27; 2 trials, 9853 children; moderate-certainty evidence). None of the studies reported quality of care, severity of illness or adverse events for this comparison. When compared to usual facility services plus CCM for malaria, we are uncertain of the effect of iCCM on coverage of appropriate treatment from an appropriate provider for any iCCM illness (very low-certainty evidence) and iCCM may have little or no effect on careseeking to an appropriate provider for any iCCM illness (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.17; 1 trial, 811 children; low-certainty evidence). None of the studies reported quality of care, case load or severity of illness at health facilities, mortality or adverse events for this comparison. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: iCCM probably increases coverage of careseeking to an appropriate provider for any iCCM illness. However, the evidence presented here underscores the importance of moving beyond training and deployment to valuing iCCM providers, strengthening health systems and engaging community systems.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Países em Desenvolvimento , África ao Sul do Saara , Ásia , Viés , Pré-Escolar , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/economia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Diarreia/terapia , Febre/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/terapia , Recém-Nascido , Malária/terapia , Sepse Neonatal/terapia , Pneumonia/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Salários e Benefícios , Nações Unidas
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD011865, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes to the method of payment for healthcare providers, including pay-for-performance schemes, are increasingly being used by governments, health insurers, and employers to help align financial incentives with health system goals. In this review we focused on changes to the method and level of payment for all types of healthcare providers in outpatient healthcare settings. Outpatient healthcare settings, broadly defined as 'out of hospital' care including primary care, are important for health systems in reducing the use of more expensive hospital services. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of different payment methods for healthcare providers working in outpatient healthcare settings on the quantity and quality of health service provision, patient outcomes, healthcare provider outcomes, cost of service provision, and adverse effects. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase (searched 5 March 2019), and several other databases. In addition, we searched clinical trials platforms, grey literature, screened reference lists of included studies, did a cited reference search for included studies, and contacted study authors to identify additional studies. We screened records from an updated search in August 2020, with any potentially relevant studies categorised as awaiting classification. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials, non-randomised trials, controlled before-after studies, interrupted time series, and repeated measures studies that compared different payment methods for healthcare providers working in outpatient care settings. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We conducted a structured synthesis. We first categorised the payment methods comparisons and outcomes, and then described the effects of different types of payment methods on different outcome categories. Where feasible, we used meta-analysis to synthesise the effects of payment interventions under the same category. Where it was not possible to perform meta-analysis, we have reported means/medians and full ranges of the available point estimates. We have reported the risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and the relative difference (as per cent change or mean difference (MD)) for continuous outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: We included 27 studies in the review: 12 randomised trials, 13 controlled before-and-after studies, one interrupted time series, and one repeated measure study. Most healthcare providers were primary care physicians. Most of the payment methods were implemented by health insurance schemes in high-income countries, with only one study from a low- or middle-income country. The included studies were categorised into four groups based on comparisons of different payment methods. (1) Pay for performance (P4P) plus existing payment methods compared with existing payment methods for healthcare providers working in outpatient healthcare settings P4P incentives probably improve child immunisation status (RR 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19 to 1.36; 3760 patients; moderate-certainty evidence) and may slightly increase the number of patients who are asked more detailed questions on their disease by their pharmacist (MD 1.24, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.54; 454 patients; low-certainty evidence). P4P may slightly improve primary care physicians' prescribing of guideline-recommended antihypertensive medicines compared with an existing payment method (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.12; 362 patients; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effects of extra P4P incentives on mean blood pressure reduction for patients and costs for providing services compared with an existing payment method (very low-certainty evidence). Outcomes related to workload or other health professional outcomes were not reported in the included studies. One randomised trial found that compared to the control group, the performance of incentivised professionals was not sustained after the P4P intervention had ended. (2) Fee for service (FFS) compared with existing payment methods for healthcare providers working in outpatient healthcare settings We are uncertain about the effect of FFS on the quantity of health services delivered (outpatient visits and hospitalisations), patient health outcomes, and total drugs cost compared to an existing payment method due to very low-certainty evidence. The quality of service provision and health professional outcomes were not reported in the included studies. One randomised trial reported that physicians paid via FFS may see more well patients than salaried physicians (low-certainty evidence), possibly implying that more unnecessary services were delivered through FFS. (3) FFS mixed with existing payment methods compared with existing payment methods for healthcare providers working in outpatient healthcare settings FFS mixed payment method may increase the quantity of health services provided compared with an existing payment method (RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.76; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of FFS mixed payment on quality of services provided, patient health outcomes, and health professional outcomes compared with an existing payment method due to very low-certainty evidence. Cost outcomes and adverse effects were not reported in the included studies. (4) Enhanced FFS compared with FFS for healthcare providers working in outpatient healthcare settings Enhanced FFS (higher FFS payment) probably increases child immunisation rates (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.48; moderate-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether higher FFS payment results in more primary care visits and about the effect of enhanced FFS on the net expenditure per year on covered children with regular FFS (very low-certainty evidence). Quality of service provision, patient outcomes, health professional outcomes, and adverse effects were not reported in the included studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: For healthcare providers working in outpatient healthcare settings, P4P or an increase in FFS payment level probably increases the quantity of health service provision (moderate-certainty evidence), and P4P may slightly improve the quality of service provision for targeted conditions (low-certainty evidence). The effects of changes in payment methods on health outcomes is uncertain due to very low-certainty evidence. Information to explore the influence of specific payment method design features, such as the size of incentives and type of performance measures, was insufficient. Furthermore, due to limited and very low-certainty evidence, it is uncertain if changing payment models without including additional funding for professionals would have similar effects. There is a need for further well-conducted research on payment methods for healthcare providers working in outpatient healthcare settings in low- and middle-income countries; more studies comparing the impacts of different designs of the same payment method; and studies that consider the unintended consequences of payment interventions.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Pessoal de Saúde/economia , Mecanismo de Reembolso/economia , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Capitação , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/economia , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/normas , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Médicos de Atenção Primária/economia , Médicos de Atenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/economia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Mecanismo de Reembolso/classificação , Mecanismo de Reembolso/estatística & dados numéricos , Reembolso de Incentivo/economia , Reembolso de Incentivo/normas , Reembolso de Incentivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Salários e Benefícios/economia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 54(2): 113-121, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of implementation of the acutely presenting older patient (APOP) screening program for older patients in routine emergency department (ED) care shortly after implementation. METHODS: We conducted an implementation study with before-after design, using the plan-do-study-act (PDSA) model for quality improvement, in the ED of a Dutch academic hospital. All consecutive patients ≥ 70 years during 2 months before and after implementation were included. The APOP program comprises screening for risk of functional decline, mortality and cognitive impairment, targeted interventions for high-risk patients and education of professionals. Outcome measures were compliance with interventions and impact on ED process, length of stay (LOS) and hospital admission rate. RESULTS: Two comparable groups of patients (median age 77 years) were included before (n = 920) and after (n = 953) implementation. After implementation 560 (59%) patients were screened of which 190 (34%) were high-risk patients. Some of the program interventions for high-risk patients in the ED were adhered to, some were not. More hospitalized patients received comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) after implementation (21% before vs. 31% after; p = 0.002). In 89% of high-risk patients who were discharged to home, telephone follow-up was initiated. Implementation did not influence median ED LOS (202 min before vs. 196 min after; p = 0.152) or hospital admission rate (40% before vs. 39% after; p = 0.410). CONCLUSION: Implementation of the APOP screening program in routine ED care did not negatively impact the ED process and resulted in an increase of CGA and telephone follow-up in older patients. Future studies should investigate whether sustainable changes in management and patient outcomes occur after more PDSA cycles.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Idoso , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Alta do Paciente
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(51): e23776, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371146

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Whereas handover of pertinent information between hospital and primary care is necessary to ensure continuity of care and patient safety, both quality of content and timeliness of discharge summary need to be improved. This study aims to assess the impact of a quality improvement program on the quality and timeliness of the discharge summary/letter (DS/DL) in a University hospital with approximatively 40 clinical units using an Electronic medical record (EMR).A discharge documents (DD) quality improvement program including revision of the EMR, educational program, audit (using scoring of DD) and feedback with a ranking of clinical units, was conducted in our hospital between October 2016 and November 2018. Main outcome measures were the proportion of the DD given to the patient at discharge and the mean of the national score assessing the quality of the discharge documents (QDD score) with 95% confidence interval.Intermediate evaluation (2017) showed a significant improvement as the proportion of DD given to patients increased from 63% to 85% (P < .001) and mean QDD score rose from 41 (95%CI [36-46]) to 74/100 (95%CI [71-77]). In the final evaluation (2018), the proportion of DD given to the patient has reached 95% and the mean QDD score was 82/100 (95% CI [80-85]). The areas of the data for admission and discharge treatments remained the lowest level of compliance (44%).The involvement of doctors in the program and the challenge of participating units have fostered the improvement in the quality of the DD. However, the level of appropriation varied widely among clinical units and completeness of important information, such as discharge medications, remains in need of improvement.


Assuntos
Documentação/normas , Alta do Paciente/normas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Documentação/métodos , Documentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Paris , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21691, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899001

RESUMO

This retrospective study explored the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine in treating early postoperative cognitive dysfunction (EPPNCD) after video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy (VATL) in elderly male patients with lung cancer (LC).This study included a total of 80 elderly male patients with LC who received VATL. All of them were equally assigned to a treatment group and a control group, with 40 patients each group. The primary outcome included cognitive dysfunction, as evaluated by mini-mental state examination scale. The secondary outcomes consisted of incidence of EPPNCD, lung function (as measured by forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, peak expiratory flow, and maximal voluntary ventilation), and adverse events. All outcome data were analyzed before and 3 days after surgery.After surgery, all patients in the treatment group exerted better efficacy in mini-mental state examination scale (P < .01) and incidence of EPPNCD (P = .03), than patients in the control group. However, no significant differences were detected in forced vital capacity (P = .65), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P = .50), peak expiratory flow (P = .73), and maximal voluntary ventilation (P = .27) between 2 groups. In addition, there is similar safety profile between 2 groups.The findings of this study showed that dexmedetomidine may benefit EPPNCD after VATL in elderly male patients with LC. Future studies are needed to warrant the present conclusions.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239554, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Without any pharmaceutical intervention and vaccination, the only way to combat Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is to slow down the spread of the disease by adopting non-pharmaceutical public health interventions (PHIs). Patient isolation, lockdown, quarantine, social distancing, changes in health care provision, and mass screening are the most common non-pharmaceutical PHIs to cope with the epidemic. However, there is neither systematic evidence on the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical PHIs in controlling the COVID-19 nor on how these interventions work in different contexts. Therefore, in this study we will address two main objectives: 1) to assess the effectiveness of the non-pharmaceutical PHIs in controlling the spread of COVID-19 using a systematic review and meta-analyses; 2) to explore why, how, and for whom these interventions work using a realist review. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review study has two main phases. In the first phase of this study, we will extract data from two main types of studies including quasi-experimental studies (such as quasi-randomized trials, controlled before-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series studies (ITSs)) and observational studies (such as cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies), written in the English language. We will explore effectiveness of the non-pharmaceutical PHIs targeted either suppression or mitigation strategies (or a combination of both) in controlling the COVID-19 epidemics in the community level. Effectiveness will be considered as the changes in mortality rate, incidence rate, basic reproduction number rate, morbidity rate, rates of hospitalization, rates of intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization, and other health outcomes where possible. We will perform random-effects meta-analyses, if possible, using CMA software. In the second phase, we will conduct a realist review to find out how, why, for whom, and in what circumstances the non-pharmaceutical PHIs work. At the realist review, we will identify and explore Context-Mechanism-Outcome configurations to provide a robust explanation on the effectiveness of the interventions in different contexts using Pawson's 5-step realist review template including: "clarify scope; search for evidence; appraise primary studies and extract data; synthesize evidence and draw conclusions; and disseminate, implement and evaluate". Although the steps are presented in a linear manner, in practice, we will follow them in iterative stages to fill any potential overlap. DISCUSSION: The findings of this research will provide a crucial insight into how and in which context the non-pharmaceutical PHIs work in controlling the spread of COVID-19. Conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis in line with a realist review will allow us to draw a robust conclusion on the effects and the way in which the interventions work. Understanding the role of contextual factors in the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical PHIs and the mechanism of this process could enable policymakers to implement appropriate policies and manage the COVID-19 epidemics more efficiently. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: CRD42020186855.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Número Básico de Reprodução , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Metanálise como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
9.
Ann Emerg Med ; 76(3S): S12-S20, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928457

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: This was a prospective, pre-post, 13-year observational study documenting the multiyear implementation of an observation unit sickle cell pathway for patients with uncomplicated vaso-occlusive events. METHODS: The sickle cell pathway begins with rapid triage to identify patients with uncomplicated vaso-occlusive events for immediate transfer to the observation unit and initiation of patient-controlled analgesia followed by repeated evaluations of pain and identification of other complications. Data were abstracted from the electronic medical record or observation unit database. The sickle cell pathway was initiated in April 2006. Major revisions of it were carried out in June 2009 (physician evaluation occurs in sickle cell pathway and only patient-controlled analgesia administration of medications) and October 2010 (multidisciplinary management and individual dosing). RESULTS: Annual ED visits ranged between 287 and 528. The preimplementation hospital admission rate was 33% (123/368), 3-day return rate 16% (60/368), and 30-day return rate 67% (248/368). Refinements to the sickle cell pathway have resulted in a decrease in admission rate to 20% (258/1276); 3-day return rate, to 3.6% (46/1,276); and 30-day return rate, to 41% (525/1,276) for the past 3 years. CONCLUSION: The use of a sickle cell pathway for the treatment of uncomplicated vaso-occlusive events has been effective in providing rapid treatment and reducing hospital admissions. However, it was not only the intervention and its refinement that made the sickle cell pathway successful. With the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, it was discerned that outer setting factors of organizational commitment to the care of patients with SCD, inner setting factors of learning climate and leadership engagement, individuals, and process contributed to the success of the sickle cell pathway.


Assuntos
Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente/métodos , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Unidades de Observação Clínica , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Aguda/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Procedimentos Clínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Triagem , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ann Emerg Med ; 76(3S): S21-S27, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928458

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited hematologic disorder that affects approximately 100,000 US individuals and results in greater than 200,000 emergency department (ED) visits annually in the United States, with pain being the most common complaint. The objective of this retrospective study is to determine the effect of implementing individualized pain plans in the treatment of patients with SCD in the ED on time to first opioid, length of stay, and disposition. METHODS: At The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, a multidisciplinary group including hematologists and ED physicians was formed and enacted a protocol for using individualized pain plans, with the goal of decreasing time to treatment for patients with SCD who presented to the ED with chief complaint of pain. In this retrospective study, data from the year before through the year of implementation were gathered. Generalized linear models were fit to compare time to first opioid, length of stay, and disposition before and after protocol implementation. RESULTS: Data showed a 48% decrease in time to first opioid and a 22% decrease in length of ED stay after protocol implementation. No significant change was found in disposition or length of inpatient admission before and after protocol initiation. CONCLUSION: The use of individualized pain plans in the treatment of patients with SCD in the ED is a useful method of not only ensuring rapid and adequate treatment but also decreasing use of health care resources.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/terapia , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Dor Aguda/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD011860, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Workplace aggression constitutes a serious issue for healthcare workers and organizations. Aggression is tied to physical and mental health issues at an individual level, as well as to absenteeism, decreased productivity or quality of work, and high employee turnover rates at an organizational level. To counteract these negative impacts, organizations have used a variety of interventions, including education and training, to provide workers with the knowledge and skills needed to prevent aggression.  OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of education and training interventions that aim to prevent and minimize workplace aggression directed toward healthcare workers by patients and patient advocates. SEARCH METHODS: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, six other databases and five trial registers were searched from their inception to June 2020 together with reference checking, citation searching and contact with study authors to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomized controlled trials (CRCTs), and controlled before and after studies (CBAs) that investigated the effectiveness of education and training interventions targeting aggression prevention for healthcare workers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Four review authors evaluated and selected the studies resulting from the search. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included nine studies-four CRCTs, three RCTs, and two CBAs-with a total of 1688 participants. Five studies reported episodes of aggression, and six studies reported secondary outcomes. Seven studies were conducted among nurses or nurse aides, and two studies among healthcare workers in general. Three studies took place in long-term care, two in the psychiatric ward, and four in hospitals or health centers. Studies were reported from the United States, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Taiwan, and Sweden. All included studies reported on education combined with training interventions. Four studies evaluated online programs, and five evaluated face-to-face programs. Five studies were of long duration (up to 52 weeks), and four studies were of short duration. Eight studies had short-term follow-up (< 3 months), and one study long-term follow-up (> 1 year). Seven studies were rated as being at "high" risk of bias in multiple domains, and all had "unclear" risk of bias in a single domain or in multiple domains. Effects on aggression Short-term follow-up The evidence is very uncertain about effects of education and training on aggression at short-term follow-up compared to no intervention (standardized mean difference [SMD] -0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.27 to 0.61, 2 CRCTs; risk ratio [RR] 2.30, 95% CI 0.97 to 5.42, 1 CBA; SMD -1.24, 95% CI -2.16 to -0.33, 1 CBA; very low-certainty evidence). Long-term follow-up Education may not reduce aggression compared to no intervention in the long term (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.37, 1 CRCT; low-certainty evidence). Effects on knowledge, attitudes, skills, and adverse outcomes Education may increase personal knowledge about workplace aggression at short-term follow-up (SMD 0.86, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.38, 1 RCT; low-certainty evidence). The evidence is very uncertain about effects of education on personal knowledge in the long term (RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.75, 1 RCT; very low-certainty evidence). Education may improve attitudes among healthcare workers at short-term follow-up, but the evidence is very uncertain (SMD 0.59, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.94, 2 CRCTs and 3 RCTs; very low-certainty evidence). The type and duration of interventions resulted in different sizes of effects. Education may not have an effect on skills related to workplace aggression (SMD 0.21, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.49, 1 RCT and 1 CRCT; very low-certainty evidence) nor on adverse personal outcomes, but the evidence is very uncertain (SMD -0.31, 95% CI -1.02 to 0.40, 1 RCT; very low-certainty evidence). Measurements of these concepts showed high heterogeneity. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Education combined with training may not have an effect on workplace aggression directed toward healthcare workers, even though education and training may increase personal knowledge and positive attitudes. Better quality studies that focus on specific settings of healthcare work where exposure to patient aggression is high are needed. Moreover, as most studies have assessed episodes of aggression toward nurses, future studies should include other types of healthcare workers who are also victims of aggression in the same settings, such as orderlies (healthcare assistants). Studies should especially use reports of aggression at an institutional level and should rely on multi-source data while relying on validated measures. Studies should also include days lost to sick leave and employee turnover and should measure outcomes at one-year follow-up. Studies should specify the duration and type of delivery of education and should use an active comparison to prevent raising awareness and reporting in the intervention group only.


Assuntos
Agressão , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Violência no Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Viés , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Exposição à Violência/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Assistentes de Enfermagem/educação , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/educação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21697, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a critical thinking intervention (CTI) on stress management among undergraduates of adult education and extramural studies programs. METHOD: A total of 44 undergraduates were randomly sorted into experimental and waitlist control groups. We used the Perceived Stress Scale for data collection at the pre-test, post-test, and follow-up stages. We used unpaired t and paired t-tests to analyze the data collected. SPSS version 22.0 was used for the data analyses (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). RESULTS: It was shown that the CTI was effective in reducing the mean stress of the participants compared to the control group both in the post-test (t[42] = -22.453, P < .001) and follow-up periods (t[42] = -34.292, P < .001). There were statistically significant changes in the mean stress of participants in the experimental group from the pre-test to post-test phases (t[23] = 26.30, P = .000, r = .08], and from pre-test to follow-up(t[23] = 37.10, P = .000, r = .30). The mean stress of the participants in the experimental group from post-test to follow-up signified the sustained positive influence of the CTI on the mean stress (t[23] = 2.41, P = .000, r = .46) of the undergraduates. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the literature by showing that a CTI is a valuable strategy for stress reduction in a university environment. Given that the CTI demonstrated the ability to reduce stress among undergraduates enrolled in adult education and extramural studies programs, we hope that similar interventions will be adopted to manage and prevent stress among students in other departments and disciplines.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Pensamento , Universidades , Adulto , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rehabilitación (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 54(3): 154-161, jul.-sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196731

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Demostrar si un protocolo de rehabilitación multimodal (biofeedback [BFB] más radiofrecuencia [RF] capacitiva-resistiva [INDIBA®]) disminuye el dolor y aumenta la fuerza muscular en los pacientes con dolor pélvico crónico (DPC) y dispareunia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo cuasiexperimental tipo antes-después a 37 pacientes con DPC y/o dispareunia derivados al Servicio de Rehabilitación del Hospital Universitario Santa Cristina (enero-2016 a diciembre-2018). El protocolo consistió en 8 sesiones de ejercicios de musculatura del suelo pélvico asistido con BFB manométrico (ejercicios tónicos/fásicos 15min, respectivamente) supervisado por fisioterapeuta, seguido de RF bipolar capacitiva (5min)/resistiva (10min) a nivel suprapúbico y perineovaginal. Las variables evaluadas fueron el dolor (EVA 0-10) y la fuerza (mmHg) de la musculatura del suelo pélvico al inicio/término del tratamiento. RESULTADOS: Edad media, 41,5±12,65 años. Es más frecuente entre los 21-40 años (n=20, 54%) y los 41-60 años (n=12; 32.4%). Dispareunia, n=34 (91,8%); DPC inespecífico, n=3 (8,2%). El protocolo mejoró el dolor (de 7,27±1,34 a 3,75±2,21 puntos), la fuerza muscular máxima (de 25,56±15,9mmHg a 35,35±20,4mmHg) y la media (de 4,86±3,53mmHg a 7,18±4,46mmHg), respectivamente (p < 0,0001). CONCLUSIÓN: EL DPC y la dispareunia suponen un reto diagnóstico que requiere un manejo multidisciplinario. El tratamiento debe iniciarse precozmente y con la asociación de diferentes modalidades terapéuticas. El protocolo de rehabilitación multimodal que incluye al BFB y a la RF capacitiva-resistiva disminuye el dolor y mejora la fuerza en los pacientes con DPC y dispareunia


OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a multimodal rehabilitation protocol (Biofeedback [BFB] plus capacitive-resistive [INDIBA®] radiofrequency [RF]) reduces pain and increases muscular strength in patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and dyspareunia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a prospective, quasi-experimental, before-after study in 37 patients with CPP and/or dyspareunia referred to the Rehabilitation Department of Hospital Universitario Santa Cristina (January 2016 to December 2018). The protocol consisted of 8 sessions of pelvic floor exercises assisted by manometric BFB (15min of tonic/phasic exercises each) supervised by a physiotherapist, followed by suprapubic and perineovaginal bipolar RF [capacitive(5 min)/resistive(10 min)]. The variables evaluated were pain (VAS 0-10) and strength (mmHg) of the pelvic floor musculature and the start/end of the treatment. RESULTS: The mean age was 41.5±12.65 years. The prevalence was higher among women aged 21-40 years (n=20, 54%) and those aged 41-60 years (n=12; 32.4%). Dyspareunia was present in 34 patients (91.8%), and non-specific CPP in 3 (8.2%). The protocol improved pain (from 7.27±1.34 to 3.75±2.21 points), maximal muscular strength (from 25.56±15.9mmHg to 35.35±20.4mmHg) and mean muscular strength (from 4.86±3.53mmHg to 7.18±4.46mmHg) respectively (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: CPP and dyspareunia are a diagnostic challenge that requires multidisciplinary management. Treatment should be started early and should consist of distinct therapeutic modalities. The protocol of multimodal rehabilitation including BFB and capacitive-resistive RF reduces pain and improves strength in patients with CPP and dyspareunia


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pélvica/reabilitação , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento/métodos , Terapia por Radiofrequência/métodos , Dispareunia/reabilitação , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD009438, 2020 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of injury and death caused by car crashes with teenage drivers remain high in most high-income countries. In addition to injury and death, car use includes other non-traffic risks; these may be health-related, such as physical inactivity or respiratory disease caused by air pollution, or have global significance, such as the environmental impact of car use. Research demonstrates that reducing the amount of time driving reduces the risk of injury, and it is expected that it would also reduce other risks that are unrelated to traffic. Mobility management interventions aim to increase mobility awareness and encourage a shift from private car use to active (walking, cycling, skateboarding), and public (bus, tram, train), transportation. 'Soft' mobility management interventions include the application of strategies and policies to reduce travel demand and may be instigated locally or more widely, to target a specific or a non-specific population group; 'hard' mobility management interventions include changes to the built environment or transport infrastructure and are not the focus of this review. Between the ages of 15 to 19 years, young people enter a development stage known as the 'transition teens' in which they are likely to make long-lasting lifestyle changes. It is possible that using this specific time point to introduce mobility management interventions may influence a person's long-term mobility behaviour. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether 'soft' mobility management interventions prevent, reduce, or delay car driving in teenagers aged 15 to 19 years, and to assess whether these mobility management interventions also reduce crashes caused by teenage drivers. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Social Policy and Practice on 16 August 2019. We searched clinical trials registers, relevant conference proceedings, and online media sources of transport organisations, and conducted backward- and forward-citation searching of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled before-after studies (CBAs) evaluating mobility management interventions in teenagers aged 15 to 19 years. We included informational, educational, or behavioural interventions that aimed to prevent, reduce, or delay car driving in this age group, and we compared these interventions with no intervention or with standard practice. We excluded studies that evaluated graduated drivers licensing (GDL) programmes, separate components of GDL, or interventions that act in conjunction with, or as an extension of, GDL. Such programmes aim to increase driving experience and skills through stages of supervised and unsupervised exposure, but assume that all participants will drive; they do not attempt to encourage people to drive less in the long term or promote alternatives to driving. We also excluded studies which evaluated school-based safe-driving initiatives. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We assessed the certainty of evidence with GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included one RCT with 178 participants and one CBA with 860 participants. The RCT allocated university students, with a mean age of 18 years, who had not yet acquired a driving licence, to one of four interventions that provided educational information about negative aspects of car use, or to a fifth group in which no information was given. Types of educational information about car use related to cost, risk, or stress, or all three types of educational information combined. In the CBA, 860 school students, aged 17 to 18 years taking a driving theory course, had an additional interactive lesson about active transport (walking or cycling), and some were invited to join a relevant Facebook group with posts targeting awareness and habit. We did not conduct meta-analyses because we had insufficient studies. We could not be certain whether educational interventions versus no information affected people's decision to obtain a driving licence 18 months after receiving the intervention (risk ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.85; very low-certainty evidence). We noted that fewer participants who were given information obtained a driving licence (42.6%) compared to those who did not receive information (69%), but we had very little confidence in the effect estimate; the study had high or unclear risks of bias and the evidence was from one small study and was therefore imprecise. We could not be certain whether interventions about active transport, given during a driving theory course, could influence behavioural predictors of car use. Study authors noted: - an increased intention to use active transport after obtaining a driving licence between postintervention and an eight-week follow-up in students who were given an active transport lesson and a Facebook invitation compared to those given only the active transport lesson; and - a decrease in intention between pre- and postintervention in those given an active transport lesson and Facebook invitation compared to those given the active transport lesson only. There were high risks of bias in this CBA study design, a large amount of missing data (very few participants accepted the Facebook invitation), and data came from a single study only, so we judged the evidence to be of very low certainty. These studies did not measure our primary outcome (driving frequency), or other secondary outcomes (driving distance, driving hours, use of alternative modes of transport, or car crashes). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found only two small studies, and could not determine whether mobility management interventions were effective to prevent, reduce, or delay car driving in teenagers. The lack of evidence in this review raises two points. First, more foundational research is needed to discover how and why young people make decisions surrounding their personal transport, in order to find out what might encourage them to delay licensing and driving. Second, we need longitudinal studies with a robust study design - such as RCTs - and with large sample sizes that incorporate different socioeconomic groups in order to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of relevant interventions. Ideally, evaluations will include an assessment of how attitudes and beliefs evolve in teenagers during these transition years, and the potential effect of these on the design of a mobility management intervention for this age group.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/educação , Transportes , Adolescente , Viés , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Humanos , Intenção , Licenciamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
15.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 80, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid access to emergency medical communication centers (EMCCs) is pivotal to address potentially life-threatening conditions. Maintaining public access to EMCCs without delay is crucial in case of disease outbreak despite the significant increased activity and the difficulties to mobilize extra staff resources. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of two-level filtering on EMCC performance during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A before-after monocentric prospective study was conducted at the EMCC at the Nantes University Hospital. Using telephone activity data, we compared EMCC performance during 2 periods. In period one (February 27th to March 11th 2020), call takers managed calls as usual, gathering basic information from the caller and giving first aid instructions to a bystander on scene if needed. During period two (March 12th to March 25th 2020), calls were answered by a first-line call taker to identify potentially serious conditions that required immediate dispatch. When a serious condition was excluded, the call was immediately transferred to a second-line call taker who managed the call as usual so the first-line call taker could be rapidly available for other incoming calls. The primary outcome was the quality of service at 20 s (QS20), corresponding to the rate of calls answered within 20 s. We described activity and outcome measures by hourly range. We compared EMCC performance during periods one and two using an interrupted time series analysis. RESULTS: We analyzed 45,451 incoming calls during the two study periods: 21,435 during period 1 and 24,016 during period 2. Between the two study periods, we observed a significant increase in the number of incoming calls per hour, the number of connected call takers and average call duration. A linear regression model, adjusted for these confounding variables, showed a significant increase in the QS20 slope (from - 0.4 to 1.4%, p = 0.01), highlighting the significant impact of two-level filtering on the quality of service. CONCLUSIONS: We found that rapid access to our EMCC was maintained during the COVID-19 pandemic via two-level filtering. This system helped reduce the time gap between call placement and first-line call-taker evaluation of a potentially life-threatening situation. We suggest implementing this system when an EMCC faces significantly increased activity with limited staff resources.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emergências , Sistemas de Comunicação entre Serviços de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Triagem/métodos , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Telefone
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD004398, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Printed educational materials are widely used dissemination strategies to improve the quality of healthcare professionals' practice and patient health outcomes. Traditionally they are presented in paper formats such as monographs, publication in peer-reviewed journals and clinical guidelines. This is the fourth update of the review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of printed educational materials (PEMs) on the practice of healthcare professionals and patient health outcomes. To explore the influence of some of the characteristics of the printed educational materials (e.g. source, content, format) on their effect on healthcare professionals' practice and patient health outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), HealthStar, CINAHL, ERIC, CAB Abstracts, Global Health, and EPOC Register from their inception to 6 February 2019. We checked the reference lists of all included studies and relevant systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised trials (RTs), controlled before-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series studies (ITSs) that evaluated the impact of PEMs on healthcare professionals' practice or patient health outcomes. We included three types of comparisons: (1) PEM versus no intervention, (2) PEM versus single intervention, (3) multifaceted intervention where PEM is included versus multifaceted intervention without PEM. Any objective measure of professional practice (e.g. prescriptions for a particular drug), or patient health outcomes (e.g. blood pressure) were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers undertook data extraction independently. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. For analyses, we grouped the included studies according to study design, type of outcome and type of comparison. For controlled trials, we reported the median effect size for each outcome within each study, the median effect size across outcomes for each study and the median of these effect sizes across studies. Where data were available, we re-analysed the ITS studies by converting all data to a monthly basis and estimating the effect size from the change in the slope of the regression line between before and after implementation of the PEM. We reported median changes in slope for each outcome, for each study, and then across studies. We standardised all changes in slopes by their standard error, allowing comparisons and combination of different outcomes. We categorised each PEM according to potential effects modifiers related to the source of the PEMs, the channel used for their delivery, their content, and their format. We assessed the risks of bias of all the included studies. MAIN RESULTS: We included 84 studies: 32 RTs, two CBAs and 50 ITS studies. Of the 32 RTs, 19 were cluster RTs that used various units of randomisation, such as practices, health centres, towns, or areas. The majority of the included studies (82/84) compared the effectiveness of PEMs to no intervention. Based on the RTs that provided moderate-certainty evidence, we found that PEMs distributed to healthcare professionals probably improve their practice, as measured with dichotomous variables, compared to no intervention (median absolute risk difference (ARD): 0.04; interquartile range (IQR): 0.01 to 0.09; 3,963 healthcare professionals randomised within 3073 units). We could not confirm this finding using the evidence gathered from continuous variables (standardised mean difference (SMD): 0.11; IQR: -0.16 to 0.52; 1631 healthcare professionals randomised within 1373 units ), from the ITS studies (standardised median change in slope = 0.69; 35 studies), or from the CBA study because the certainty of this evidence was very low. We also found, based on RTs that provided moderate-certainty evidence, that PEMs distributed to healthcare professionals probably make little or no difference to patient health as measured using dichotomous variables, compared to no intervention (ARD: 0.02; IQR: -0.005 to 0.09; 935,015 patients randomised within 959 units). The evidence gathered from continuous variables (SMD: 0.05; IQR: -0.12 to 0.09; 6,737 patients randomised within 594 units) or from ITS study results (standardised median change in slope = 1.12; 8 studies) do not strengthen these findings because the certainty of this evidence was very low. Two studies (a randomised trial and a CBA) compared a paper-based version to a computerised version of the same PEM. From the RT that provided evidence of low certainty, we found that PEM in computerised versions may make little or no difference to professionals' practice compared to PEM in printed versions (ARD: -0.02; IQR: -0.03 to 0.00; 139 healthcare professionals randomised individually). This finding was not strengthened by the CBA study that provided very low certainty evidence (SMD: 0.44; 32 healthcare professionals). The data gathered did not allow us to conclude which PEM characteristics influenced their effectiveness. The methodological quality of the included studies was variable. Half of the included RTs were at risk of selection bias. Most of the ITS studies were conducted retrospectively, without prespecifying the expected effect of the intervention, or acknowledging the presence of a secular trend. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The results of this review suggest that, when used alone and compared to no intervention, PEMs may slightly improve healthcare professionals' practice outcomes and patient health outcomes. The effectiveness of PEMs compared to other interventions, or of PEMs as part of a multifaceted intervention, is uncertain.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Manuais como Assunto , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prática Profissional , Análise de Variância , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Difusão de Inovações , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Melhoria de Qualidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 288, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831086

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that Patient-centred Medical Home (PCMH) model facilitates person-centred care and improves health-related quality of life for patients with chronic illness. This study aims to evaluate changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL), before and after enrolment into a 12-month integrated care program called 'WellNet'. METHODS: This study includes 616 eligible consented patients aged 40 years and above with one or more chronic conditions from six general practices across Sydney, Australia. The WellNet program included a team of general practitioners (GPs) and clinical coordinators (CCs) providing patient-tailored care plans configured to individual risk and complexity. HRQoL was recorded using the validated EuroQol five dimensions five levels (EQ-5D-5L) instrument at baseline and 12 months. Additionally, patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis also reported HRQoL using short versions of Knee and/or Hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome scores (KOOSjr and HOOSjr). A case-series study design with repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess changes in mean differences of EQ-5D index scores after controlling for baseline covariates. Additionally, backward stepwise multivariable linear regression models were conducted to determine significant predictors of EQ-5D index scores at follow-up. RESULTS: Out of 616 patients, 417 (68%) reported EQ-5D scores at follow-up. Almost half (48%) of the WellNet patients reported improved EQ-5D index scores at follow-up. After controlling for baseline covariates, the adjusted mean difference was statistically significant whilst also meeting the bare minimal clinically important difference (MCID) with a change of 0.03 (95% CI 0.01, 0.05). The multivariable regression models determined that baseline EQ-5D scores and positive diagnosis of a respiratory illness were significant predictors of HRQoL at follow-up. There were significant improvements across both KOOS and HOOS assessments, specifically, the pain and symptom scores in both scales met statistical significance in addition to meeting the MCID. CONCLUSION: Patient-tailored chronic disease management (CDM) plans designed by team of GPs and CDM clinical coordinators could lead to better HRQoL among primary care patients.


Assuntos
Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Austrália , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Doença Crônica/terapia , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diferença Mínima Clinicamente Importante , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
S Afr Med J ; 110(4): 291-295, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa (SA) and other countries worldwide are experiencing extreme drought conditions. Since the start of the drought in SA, many ways of saving water have been proposed and innovative water-saving mechanisms have become part of the lives of communities. We investigated water use during surgical scrubbing procedures and possible interventions to reduce water consumption. OBJECTIVES: To compare water use during surgical hand preparation before and after the implementation of specific water-saving interventions. METHODS: This was a non-randomised controlled study, following a before-and-after design, of orthopaedic theatre personnel scrubbing for surgical cases at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town. A control (CON) group (n=32) was established to observe standard practice for baseline measurements including total amount of water used, wash time and water flow rate during surgical hand preparation. After this, three interventions were randomly assigned to a single theatre each, where the same variables were measured. Intervention AS entailed using an alcohol scrub (n=18), intervention SN (n=12) had a dedicated assistant to open and close taps during scrubbing, and intervention SW (n=12) made use of adjusted tap levers to allow the surgeon to open and close taps more easily. Analysis of variance was used to detect global differences between groups, and Tukey's post hoc test was performed to detect differences between groups. RESULTS: Significant differences in water use (p<0.001), wash time (p<0.001) and water flow rate (p<0.001) were observed between the four groups. On average, the AS group used the least water per scrub (mean (standard deviation) 0.82 (1.43) L), which was significantly less than the CON (5.56 (1.79) L; p<0.001) and SN (2.29 (0.37) L; p=0.002) groups. The amount of time spent per scrub was significantly less in the AS group than all the other groups (p<0.05 for all comparisons), with no significant differences observed between the CON, SN and SW groups independently. The SW group had the lowest mean water flow rate (0.73 (0.22) L/min), which was significantly lower than the CON group (2.19 (0.84) L/min; p<0.001). The flow rate of the SN group (1.36 (0.66) L/min) was also significantly lower than that of the CON group (p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Water use during surgical hand preparation can easily be reduced by implementing easy and effective interventions. The practicality of interventions may differ between institutions, and their acceptance by surgical staff is important to ensure compliance. However, ensuring that alternative scrubbing options are available to surgical staff would equate to substantial savings over time.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Secas , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Higienizadores de Mão , Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Humanos , Ortopedia , África do Sul , Fatores de Tempo , Água
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605225

RESUMO

Background: Recent research indicates that shift work is associated with neurocognitive function. However, studies that examine the association between shift work and neurocognitive function in firefighters have not yet been performed. We examined the effect of shift work on neurocognitive function in firefighters by measuring and comparing neurocognitive function before and after night shift. Methods: 352 firefighters from eight fire stations in South Korea were included in this study. We performed neurocognitive function test using central nervous system vital signs (CNSVS) during daytime work and on the next day after night work. We performed paired t-tests to assess differences between neurocognitive function before and after night work. We also compared neurocognitive function in insomnia and depression. We used a general linear model to analyze the associations between shiftwork schedule and the changes in neurocognitive function. Results: The neurocognitive function significantly decreased in six domains (composite memory, verbal memory, visual memory, complex attention, psychomotor speed, and motor speed) as did the neurocognitive index on the next day after night work compared with during day work. These decreased domains were the same following night work regardless of the type of shift work. Conclusion: Night work in firefighters may cause neurocognitive decline.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Bombeiros , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Adulto , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/efeitos adversos , Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Adulto Jovem
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