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1.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 22(3): 242-247, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210922

RESUMO

AIM AND OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the effects of aloe vera toothpaste on dental plaques and gingivitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-center, single-blind, randomized, two-period crossover study was performed on 20 dental students with a mean age of 24.5 ± 4 years with gingivitis. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 10). After 14 days of trial period, plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) were assessed for each group. The first group used aloe vera toothpaste for 30 days and then their PI and GI were recorded. A 2-week washout period was allowed and then the subjects used fluoride toothpaste for the next 30 days and underwent PI and GI assessment again. This order was reversed in group 2. RESULTS: Toothpaste-containing aloe vera showed no significant improvement in the GI and PI scores as compared with a fluoride-containing dentifrice. PI was 2.14 ± 1.3 at baseline and 1.84 ± 1.02 in 30 days (p <0.098). GI was 0.62 ± 0.74 at baseline and 0.25 ± 0.46 at 30 days (p <0.068). During the trial, no side effects were seen due to the use of aloe vera or fluoride toothpaste. CONCLUSION: The effect of aloe vera toothpaste on PI and GI was similar to that of fluoride toothpaste and it seems that this toothpaste can be used as an alternative to a chemical toothpaste. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The use of an aloe vera toothpaste in improving the progression of gingivitis can be evaluated.


Assuntos
Aloe , Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Índice de Placa Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Método Simples-Cego , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200618

RESUMO

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition associated with impaired muscle strength and exercise-induced pain. Physical exercise has been highlighted, by international clinical guidelines and stakeholders, as an essential component of rehabilitation in FM. Exposure to pain during exercise is generally correlated with elevated lactate levels and, additionally, is one known reason for persons with FM to avoid physical exercise and activity. A crossover design was used to test and evaluate an approach consisting of resistance exercise with heavy loads and a low number of repetitions among ten women with FM. The participants were consecutively recruited to test and perform exercise with two different resistance levels (A = light/moderate load, and B = heavy load) in a randomized crossover trial using an AB/BA setting. Results showed that the heavy load exercise session was experienced as more positive than the light/moderate load exercise session and that lower lactate levels followed exercise with heavier weight loads. This is promising and indicates that the approach of heavy weight loads and accustomed repetitions is accepted in FM and has the potential to attenuate hesitation to exercise due to exercise-induced pain. However, these effects need to be further investigated in more extensive studies.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia , Treinamento de Força , Estudos Cross-Over , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209561

RESUMO

Obesity is one of the major health problems worldwide. Following healthy dietary patterns can be difficult in some countries due to the lack of availability of certain foods; thus, alternative foods are needed. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of a dietary pattern consisting of fruit, avocado, whole grains, and trout (FAWGT) on postprandial insulinemia and lipemia in obese Colombian subjects. A randomized controlled crossover study was conducted, in which 44 subjects with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 followed either a FAWGT diet or a diet high in saturated fat and rich in processed carbohydrates. Levels of lipids and carbohydrates were measured during the postprandial state. The FAWGT diet reduced fasting insulin, VLDL, and HOMA-IR after 8 weeks (p < 0.05), while there was a lower postprandial increase in TG, VLDL, and insulin levels after both acute and chronic intake of FAWGT diet (p < 0.05). The intake of FAWGT-diet was characterized by high consumption of foods rich in fiber, MUFAs, and vitamins C and E (p < 0.05). The consumption of a diet composed of fruit, avocado, whole grains, and trout has emerged as a valid alternative to the foods included in other heart-healthy diets since it improves postprandial lipemia and insulinemia in obese people and has similar beneficial effects to these healthy models.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Hiperinsulinismo/dietoterapia , Hiperlipidemias/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , VLDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Persea , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Truta , Grãos Integrais
4.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 56, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of low muscle glycogen on molecular markers of protein synthesis and myogenesis before and during aerobic exercise with carbohydrate ingestion is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of initiating aerobic exercise with low muscle glycogen on mTORC1 signaling and markers of myogenesis. METHODS: Eleven men completed two cycle ergometry glycogen depletion trials separated by 7-d, followed by randomized isocaloric refeeding for 24-h to elicit low (LOW; 1.5 g/kg carbohydrate, 3.0 g/kg fat) or adequate (AD; 6.0 g/kg carbohydrate, 1.0 g/kg fat) glycogen. Participants then performed 80-min of cycle ergometry (64 ± 3% VO2peak) while ingesting 146 g carbohydrate. mTORC1 signaling (Western blotting) and gene transcription (RT-qPCR) were determined from vastus lateralis biopsies before glycogen depletion (baseline, BASE), and before (PRE) and after (POST) exercise. RESULTS: Regardless of treatment, p-mTORC1Ser2448, p-p70S6KSer424/421, and p-rpS6Ser235/236 were higher (P < 0.05) POST compared to PRE and BASE. PAX7 and MYOGENIN were lower (P < 0.05) in LOW compared to AD, regardless of time, while MYOD was lower (P < 0.05) in LOW compared to AD at PRE, but not different at POST. CONCLUSION: Initiating aerobic exercise with low muscle glycogen does not affect mTORC1 signaling, yet reductions in gene expression of myogenic regulatory factors suggest that muscle recovery from exercise may be reduced.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Estudos Cross-Over , Ergometria/métodos , Glicogênio/deficiência , Humanos , Masculino , Proteína MyoD/metabolismo , Miogenina/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição PAX7/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Transcrição Genética , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203021

RESUMO

The effect of ambient air pollutants and Asian dust (AD) on absence from school due to sickness has not been well researched. By conducting a case-crossover study, this study investigated the influence of ambient air pollutants and desert sand dust particles from East Asia on absence from school due to sickness. From November 2016 to July 2018, the daily cases of absence due to sickness were recorded in five elementary schools in Matsue, Japan. During the study period, a total of 16,915 absence cases were recorded, which included 4865 fever cases and 2458 cough cases. The relative risk of overall absence in a 10-µg/m3 increment of PM2.5 and a 0.1-km-1 of desert sand dust particles from East Asia were found with 1.28 (95%CI: 1.15-1.42) and 2.15 (1.04-4.45) at lag0, respectively. The significant influence of PM2.5 persisted at lag5 and that of desert sand dust particles at lag2. NO2 had statistically significant effects at lag2, lag3, and lag4. However, there was no evidence of a positive association of Ox and SO2 with absence from school. These results suggested that PM2.5, NO2, and AD increased the risk of absence due to sickness in schoolchildren.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Extremo Oriente , Japão/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202167

RESUMO

In a recent study, we showed that konjac glucomannan (KGM) inhibits rice gruel-induced postprandial increases in plasma glucose and insulin levels. To extend this research, we investigated the effects of KGM addition to rice gruel on pre- and postprandial concentrations of circulating lipoprotein lipase (LPL), glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL), free fatty acids (FFA), and triglycerides (TG). A total of 13 Japanese men, without diabetes, dyslipidemia, or gastrointestinal diseases, interchangeably ingested rice gruel containing no KGM (0%G), rice gruel supplemented with 0.4% KGM (0.4%G), and rice gruel supplemented with 0.8% KGM (0.8%G), every Sunday for 3 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and at 30, 60, and 120 min after ingestion to measure the abovementioned lipid parameters. Lipid parameters showed small, but significant, changes. Significant reductions were found in circulating FFA levels among all participants. Circulating TG levels significantly declined at 30 min and then remained nearly constant in the 0.8%G group but exhibited no significant difference in the 0%G and 0.4%G groups. Although circulating levels of LPL and GPIHBP1 significantly decreased in the 0%G and 0.4%G groups, they increased at 120 min in the 0.8%G group. Participants in the 0%G and 0.4%G groups showed significant decreases in circulating HTGL levels, which was not observed in the 0.8%G group. Our results demonstrate the novel pleiotropic effects of KGM. Supplementation of rice gruel with KGM powder led to TG reduction accompanied by LPL and GPIHBP1 elevation and HTGL stabilization, thereby attenuating TG metabolism.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Grão Comestível , Mananas , Oryza , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipase Lipoproteica/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Pós , Receptores de Lipoproteínas/sangue
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(27): e26601, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curcuminoids have been widely studied for human health and disease applications, yet bioavailability remains a hurdle to actualizing all the benefits ascribed to them. The lack of standardization in analysis method, confusion about what constitutes an ideal analyte, and conflicting thoughts around dosing strategies have made it difficult to draw parity between bioavailability and bioactivity and establish a baseline for formulation comparisons. METHODS: This randomized double-blinded, 2-way cross over, single oral dose, comparative bioavailability study differentially evaluates curcumin at the time of its absorption and along various biotransformation pathways, to include free curcumin, the readily usable form of curcumin; individual and composite totals of curcumin and its analogues as exogenously cleaved conjugates, for example, total curcumin, total demethoxycurcumin (DMC), total bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), and total curcuminoids respectively; and the bioactive metabolite of curcumin, total tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). As a primary study objective, the relative bioavailability of CURCUGEN, a novel dispersible, 50% curcuminoids-concentrated turmeric extract was compared to the standard curcumin reference product, curcuminoids 95% standardized extract (C-95), using the maximum concentration (Cmax), and area under the curve (AUC0-t) of free curcumin, total curcumin, total DMC, total BDMC and the curcumin active metabolite, as total THC. RESULTS: The evaluation of free curcumin demonstrated that the Cmax and AUC0-t of the CURCUGEN was 16.1 times and 39 times higher than the Cmax and AUC0-t of C-95. Furthermore, total curcumin, total DMC, total BDMC, and total curcuminoids resulted in AUC0-t of the CURCUGEN at 49.5-, 43.5-, 46.8-, and 52.5-fold higher than C-95, respectively. The relative bioavailability of CURCUGEN for total THC was found to be 31 times higher when compared to C-95. CONCLUSION: As the first human pharmacokinetics study to apply best-practice recommendations and pharmaceutically-aligned guidance in the comprehensive evaluation of a novel curcuminoids formulation, we have established the novelty of said formulation while better standardizing for the common variances and discrepancies between curcuminoids and their derivatives in the literature and commercial marketing, alike.


Assuntos
Curcumina/análogos & derivados , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(28): e26639, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260560

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Even healthy individuals often encounter leg venous symptoms such as heaviness, pain, and swelling especially after prolonged standing work. Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) is a widely used simple therapy for preventing deep vein thrombosis and for treating lymphedema and chronic venous insufficiency. However, IPC has not been evaluated for its effect in relieving venous symptoms of healthy people.This was single center, cross-over study to investigate the effect of IPC for 20 healthy volunteers who usually stand on duty and complain of leg pain and swelling. The primary outcome was pain (measured using a visual analogue scale) and secondary outcomes were leg circumference and volume. Three different interventions included natural rest, sequential mode of IPC, and circular mode of IPC. Outcomes were measured before work and immediately after work (T1), after 30 minutes of intervention (T2), and 30 minutes of rest after intervention (T3).Pain and leg circumferences were significantly improved at T2 and T3 compared with those at T1. Sequential and circular IPC led to significantly greater improvement in pain and leg circumferences than just natural rest, but there was no difference in its effect according to the 2 modes of IPC. Leg volume was reduced significantly at T2 and T3 as compared with T1 in all 3 interventions, but effects did not differ among 3 intervention groups.IPC is effective for reducing leg pain and circumferences more than natural rest in healthy adults with prolonged standing work, without causing adverse events.


Assuntos
Edema/terapia , Dispositivos de Compressão Pneumática Intermitente , Perna (Membro)/fisiopatologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Posição Ortostática , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Medição da Dor
9.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 283, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) occur unexpectedly and independently of classical risk factors. In the light of increasing climate variability and change, we investigated weather and rapid weather changes as possible short-term risk factors for SAH. METHODS: Seven hundred ninety one patients admitted to three major hospitals in Germany for non-traumatic SAH with a determinable onset of SAH symptoms were included in this hospital-based, case-crossover study. The effects of atmospheric pressure, relative air humidity, and ambient temperature and their 24 h changes on the onset of SAH under temperate climate conditions were estimated. RESULTS: There was no association between the risk of SAH and 24 h weather changes, mean daily temperature or mean relative air humidity in the overall population. For every 11.5 hPa higher mean daily atmospheric pressure, the risk of SAH increased by 15% (OR 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.30) in the entire study population with a lag time of three days. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest no relevant association between 24 h-weather changes or absolute values of ambient temperature and relative humidity and the risk of SAH. The medical significance of the statistically weak increase in SAH risk three days after exposure to high atmospheric pressure is unclear. However, as the occurrence of stable high-pressure systems will increase with global warming and potentially affect SAH risk, we call for confirming studies in different geographical regions to verify our observations.


Assuntos
Pressão Atmosférica , Umidade , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200105

RESUMO

Consumption of prebiotic inulin has been found to increase calcium absorption, which may protect against gut diseases such as colorectal cancer. This dietary relation may be modulated by compositional changes in the gut microbiota; however, no human study has addressed this hypothesis. We determined the feasibility of a randomized crossover trial to evaluate the effect of three interventions (combined calcium and inulin supplementation, calcium supplementation alone, and inulin supplementation alone) on the intestinal microbiota composition and function. We conducted a 16-week pilot study in 12 healthy adults who consumed the three interventions in a random sequence. Participants provided fecal and blood samples before and after each intervention. Each intervention period lasted four weeks and was flanked by one-week washout periods. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and quantification of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) was determined in fecal samples. Systemic lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) was quantified in serum. Of the 12 individuals assigned to an intervention sequence, seven completed the study. Reasons for dropout included time (n = 3), gastrointestinal discomfort (n = 1), and moving (n = 1). Overall, participants reported positive attitudes towards the protocol (n = 9) but were unsatisfied by the practicalities of supplement consumption (44%) and experienced digestive discomfort (56%). We found no appreciable differences in microbial composition, SCFA concentration, nor LBP concentrations when comparing intervention periods. In conclusion, an intervention study using a randomized crossover design with calcium and a prebiotic fiber is feasible. Improvements of our study design include using a lower dose prebiotic fiber supplement and a larger sample size.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Fase Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Estudos de Viabilidade , Fezes/química , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Haptoglobinas , Humanos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/farmacologia , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/sangue , Prebióticos , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202690

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate if a home meal replacement (HMR), designed with a low ω-6/ω-3 fatty acid ratio, improves cardiometabolic parameters, including metabolic syndrome (MetS) in obese individuals. We conducted a monocentric, controlled, randomized crossover trial. The HMR contains higher protein and fat content, lower carbohydrate content, and a lower ω6FA/ω3FA ratio than the regular diet. Sixty-four participants were randomized into two groups and switched to the other group following a 4-week intervention. While subjects in the HMR group were provided three HMRs daily, those in the control group were requested to maintain their regular dietary pattern. We conducted paired t-tests, repeated measures analysis of variance, and McNemar tests before and after the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) and weight were lower in the HMR group after adjusting for age, sex, and total energy intake and significantly changed in the between-group differences. The waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, triglyceride-glucose index, and triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were reduced in the HMR group (all p < 0.05). The percentage of subjects with MetS significantly decreased from 39.1% at baseline to 28.1% post-intervention (p = 0.035). Using the HMR for 4 weeks reduced the BMI, weight, and MetS prevalence in individuals with obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04552574).


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas e Pobre em Carboidratos/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202877

RESUMO

Glucosamine (GLU) is a natural compound found in cartilage, and supplementation with glucosamine has been shown to improve joint heath and has been linked to reduced mortality rates. GLU is poorly absorbed and may exhibit functional properties in the gut. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of glucosamine on gastrointestinal function as well as changes in fecal microbiota and metabolome. Healthy males (n = 6) and females (n = 5) (33.4 ± 7.7 years, 174.1 ± 12.0 cm, 76.5 ± 12.9 kg, 25.2 ± 3.1 kg/m2, n = 11) completed two supplementation protocols that each spanned three weeks separated by a washout period that lasted two weeks. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover fashion, participants ingested a daily dose of GLU hydrochloride (3000 mg GlucosaGreen®, TSI Group Ltd., Missoula, MT, USA) or maltodextrin placebo. Study participants completed bowel habit and gastrointestinal symptoms questionnaires in addition to providing a stool sample that was analyzed for fecal microbiota and metabolome at baseline and after the completion of each supplementation period. GLU significantly reduced stomach bloating and showed a trend towards reducing constipation and hard stools. Phylogenetic diversity (Faith's PD) and proportions of Pseudomonadaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Bacillaceae were significantly reduced following GLU consumption. GLU supplementation significantly reduced individual, total branched-chain, and total amino acid excretion, with no glucosamine being detected in any of the fecal samples. GLU had no effect on fecal short-chain fatty acids levels. GLU supplementation provided functional gut health benefits and induced fecal microbiota and metabolome changes.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosamina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Defecação/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Projetos Piloto , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem
13.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 74, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particle (PM2.5) pollution is an important public health problem in China. Short-term ambient PM2.5 exposure is associated with increased mortality of respiratory diseases. However, few evidence was available on the effect of exposure to ambient PM2.5 on the years of life lost (YLL) from respiratory diseases in the elderly. Furthermore, birth season which is frequently applied as a proxy for environmental exposure in early life may influence the health outcome in the later life. Nevertheless, the modification effect of birth season on the relationship of PM2.5 exposure and respiratory health need to be explored. METHODS: A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to analyze YLL from respiratory diseases in the elderly related to ambient PM2.5 exposure between 2013 and 2016 in Ningbo, China. The modification effect of birth season was explored by subgroup comparisons between different birth seasons. RESULTS: Each 10 µg/m3 increase in daily ambient PM2.5 was associated with an increment of 1.61 (95% CI 0.12, 3.10) years in YLL from respiratory diseases in the elderly population. Individuals who were born in winter had significantly higher YLL from respiratory diseases associated with ambient PM2.5 exposure than those who were born in other seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Birth season which reflects the early-life PM2.5 exposure level that may influence the lung development has a potential effect on the disease burden of respiratory diseases related to ambient PM2.5 exposure in later life. The results would provide theoretical basis to protect vulnerable population defined by birth season when exploring the adverse effects of ambient PM2.5 in the respiratory health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Expectativa de Vida , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Causas de Morte , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Transtornos Respiratórios/mortalidade , Estações do Ano
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198554

RESUMO

Nutritional strategies may have an effect on body composition and physical performance. Intermittent fasting (IF) is an eating pattern that cycles between periods of eating and fasting in specified time periods. Moreover, it is a common strategy among members of the athlete population that are looking for weight loss. However, this strategy may negatively affect physical performance, as compared to other weight loss strategies. The main purpose of this research was to use a cross-over design to study the effects of HIIT, with or without intermittent fasting, on muscular and anaerobic performance in 14 active women (27 ± 6 y). To assess performance, body composition (anthropometry), hand-grip strength, and counter-movement jump (CMJ) height was measured, and a 30 s Wingate test was completed assessed. HIIT + IF reduced fat mass (1 kg, p < 0.05, d = 1.1; 1.5%, p < 0.01, d = 1.0) and increased CMJ height (6.2 cm, p < 0.001, d = 1.8). In addition, the change in CMJ height in HIIT + IF was higher over HIIT (5.2 cm, p < 0.001, d = 1.9). In conclusion, intermittent fasting could be a nutritional strategy to decrease fat mass and increase jumping performance. However, longer duration programs would be necessary to determine whether other parameters of muscle performance could be positively affected by IF.


Assuntos
Jejum , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Desempenho Físico Funcional
15.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Foods rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) have been discouraged by virtue of their cholesterol-raising potential, but this effect is modulated by the food source and background level of carbohydrate. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the consumption of palm stearin (PS) versus butter on circulating cholesterol responses in the setting of both a low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC/HF) and high-carbohydrate/low-fat (HC/LF) diet in healthy subjects. We also explored effects on plasma lipoprotein particle distribution and fatty acid composition. METHODS: We performed a randomized, controlled-feeding, cross-over study that compared a PS- versus a Butter-based diet in a group of normocholesterolemic, non-obese adults. A controlled canola oil-based 'Run-In' diet preceded the experimental PS and Butter diets. All diets were eucaloric, provided for 3-weeks, and had the same macronutrient distribution but varied in primary fat source (40% of the total fat). The same Run-In and cross-over experiments were done in two separate groups who self-selected to either a LC/HF (n = 12) or a HC/LF (n = 12) diet track. The primary outcomes were low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C, triglycerides, and LDL particle distribution. RESULTS: Compared to PS, Butter resulted in higher LDL-C in both the LC/HF (13.4%, p = 0.003) and HC/LF (10.8%, p = 0.002) groups, which was primarily attributed to large LDL I and LDL IIa particles. There were no differences between PS and Butter in HDL-C, triglycerides, or small LDL particles. Oxidized LDL was lower after PS than Butter in LC/HF (p = 0.011), but not the HC/LF group. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Butter raises LDL-C relative to PS in healthy normocholesterolemic adults regardless of background variations in carbohydrate and fat, an effect primarily attributed to larger cholesterol-rich LDL particles.


Assuntos
Manteiga , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Palmeira/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/efeitos adversos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Adulto Jovem
16.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(3): 623-627, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125037

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intravenous haloperidol has been shown to decrease milligram morphine equivalents (MME) of analgesia and reduce hospital admissions for diabetic gastroparesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether haloperidol decreases MME for the treatment of non-specific abdominal pain diagnoses in the emergency department (ED), including gastroparesis, cyclic vomiting, cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, and unspecified abdominal pain. The primary outcome compared the difference in MME between encounters. Secondary outcomes included admission rate, pain scores, length of stay, rescue therapy administration, and adverse effects. METHODS: This retrospective chart review included patients ≥ 18 years old who presented to the ED. Patients must have had ≥ 2 ED encounters for abdominal pain, one in which they received conventional therapy with opioids (C-encounter), and the other in which they received haloperidol (H-encounter). Agitated patients were excluded. Seventy-five patients were needed to detect a 3 MME difference with 80% power and two-sided alpha of 0.05. RESULTS: We analyzed 107 patients with self-matched encounters. The median dose of haloperidol administered was 5.0 milligrams (mg) (interquartile range [IQR] 2.0 - 5.0). C-encounters had significantly more MME administered than H-encounters (median 5.7 mg [IQR 4.0 - 8.0] vs 0.0 mg [IQR 0.0 - 2.5], P < 0.001). These results remained significant despite route of haloperidol administration. C-encounters had higher rates of rescue therapy administration than H-encounters, (56% vs 33.6%, P < 0.001). There were higher rates of ketorolac administration in the H-encounter (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Encounters in which patients received haloperidol and ketorolac for abdominal pain had a statistically significant reduction in MME administered and lower rates of rescue therapy administration than encounters in which patients were treated with opioids.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Haloperidol/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Estudos Cross-Over , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(3): 775-781, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125060

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ultrasound hypotension protocols (UHP) involve imaging multiple body areas, each with different transducers and imaging presets. The time for task switching between presets and transducers to perform an UHP has not been previously studied. A novel hand-carried ultrasound (HCU) has been developed that uses a multifrequency single transducer to image areas of the body (lung, heart, abdomen, superficial) that would typically require three transducers using a traditional cart-based ultrasound (CBU) system. Our primary aim was to compare the time to complete UHPs with a single transducer HCU to a multiple transducer CBU. METHODS: We performed a randomized, crossover feasibility trial in the emergency department of an urban, safety-net hospital. This was a convenience sample of non-hypotensive emergency department patients presenting during a two-month period of time. Ultrasound hypotension protocols were performed by emergency physicians (EP) on patients using the HCU and the CBU. The EPs collected UHP views in sequential order using the most appropriate transducer and preset for the area/organ to be imaged. Time to complete each view, time for task switching, total time to complete the examination, and image diagnostic quality were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 29 patients were scanned by one of eight EPs. When comparing the HCU to the CBU, the median time to complete the UHP was 4.3 vs 8.5 minutes (P <0.0001), respectively. When the transport and plugin times were excluded, the median times were 4.1 vs 5.8 minutes (P <0.0001), respectively. There was no difference in the diagnostic quality of images obtained by the two devices. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound hypotension protocols were performed significantly faster using the single transducer HCU compared to a multiple transducer CBU with no difference in the number of images deemed to be diagnostic quality.


Assuntos
Hipotensão/diagnóstico por imagem , Transdutores de Pressão/normas , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 49, 2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147116

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous investigations have found positive effects of acute ingestion of capsules containing 4-to-9 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass on several aspects of judo performance. However, no previous investigation has tested the effectiveness of caffeinated chewing gum as the form of caffeine administration for judoists. The main goal of this study was to assess the effect of acute ingestion of a caffeinated chewing gum on the results of the special judo fitness test (SJFT). METHODS: Nine male elite judo athletes of the Polish national team (23.7 ± 4.4 years, body mass: 73.5 ± 7.4 kg) participated in a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled and double-blind experiment. Participants were moderate caffeine consumers (3.1 mg/kg/day). Each athlete performed three identical experimental sessions after: (a) ingestion of two non-caffeinated chewing gums (P + P); (b) a caffeinated chewing gum and a placebo chewing gum (C + P; ~2.7 mg/kg); (c) two caffeinated chewing gums (C + C; ~5.4 mg/kg). Each gum was ingested 15 min before performing two Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) which were separated by 4 min of combat activity. RESULTS: The total number of throws was not different between P + P, C + P, and C + C (59.66 ± 4.15, 62.22 ± 4.32, 60.22 ± 4.08 throws, respectively; p = 0.41). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA indicated no significant substance × time interaction effect as well as no main effect of caffeine for SJFT performance, SJFT index, blood lactate concentration, heart rate or rating of perceived exertion. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study indicate that the use of caffeinated chewing gum in a dose up to 5.4 mg/kg of caffeine did not increase performance during repeated SJFTs.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Cafeína/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Goma de Mascar , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Artes Marciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Aptidão Física , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 16(8): 1381-1391, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146225

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rhinoplasty is one of the most common and challenging plastic surgery procedures. Facial analysis is a crucial step in planning. Utilizing three-dimensional (3D) model of a patient's face is an emerging way of performing facial analysis. This paper evaluates the agreement and reliability of facial measurements taken using a web app, located at digitized-rhinoplasty.com, that utilizes 3D models of the patient's face. METHODS: Eleven measurements were calculated on 16 human subjects. Three methods of measurements were performed: direct measurements on human subjects' faces, measurements on 2D photographs, and measurements on 3D models of face scans. The Bland-Altman plot is used for testing the agreement between the web app and the well-known Blender 3D modeling software. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability was calculated and compared for 2D and 3D methods using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) method. The statistical analysis methods were checked for the normality and homoscedasticity assumptions. RESULTS: The results indicate that the web app and Blender software show agreement within 95% confidence limits. The web app performs well in intra-rater and inter-rater reliability statistical analysis. The web app's reliability scores are consistently better than facial analysis software which was found highly reliable in a previous study. We also compare the methods of measurements in terms of time, ease of use, and cost. CONCLUSION: The utilization of 3D computer modeling for facial analysis has its advantages and started to become more common due to recent advances in technology. The web app utilizes 3D face scans for pre-operative planning and post-operative evaluation of facial surgeries. The web app performs well in agreement and inter-/intra-reliability analysis and performs consistently better than software that works utilizing 2D photographs. The web app provides accurate, repeatable, affordable, and fast facial measurements for facial analysis when compared to direct and 2D methods.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Rinoplastia/métodos , Software , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
20.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063191

RESUMO

Exhaled breath is a potential noninvasive matrix to give new information about metabolic effects of diets. In this pilot study, non-targeted analysis of exhaled breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was made by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) to explore compounds relating to whole grain (WG) diets. Nine healthy subjects participated in the dietary intervention with parallel crossover design, consisting of two high-fiber diets containing whole grain rye bread (WGR) or whole grain wheat bread (WGW) and 1-week control diets with refined wheat bread (WW) before both diet periods. Large interindividual differences were detected in the VOC composition. About 260 VOCs were detected from exhaled breath samples, in which 40 of the compounds were present in more than half of the samples. Various derivatives of benzoic acid and phenolic compounds, as well as some furanones existed in exhaled breath samples only after the WG diets, making them interesting compounds to study further.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Grãos Integrais , Adulto , Ácido Benzoico/química , Pão , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Finlândia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenol/química , Adulto Jovem
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