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1.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 11(2): 165-172, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453416

RESUMO

Tadalafil is an effective, reversible, and competitive phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor mainly used to treat erectile dysfunction. This study investigated the bioequivalence of generic and marketed formulations of 10-mg tadalafil tablets under fasted and fed conditions. This open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-period crossover study included 53 healthy Chinese men (aged 20-43 years). Plasma samples were collected from 0.5 hours before treatment to 72 hours after each dose and analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. Safety assessments were performed throughout the study. For the fasted state, the 90% confidence intervals of the geometric mean ratios between the generic and marketed formulations were 86.1% to 99.1% for the maximum plasma concentration and 88.4% to 100.3% for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity, and the corresponding values under the fed state were and 99.9% to 108.4% and 95.7% to 104.3%, respectively. All data were within the accepted bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%. After consuming high-fat, high-calorie meals in the fed condition, the time to the maximum plasma concentration was similar between the formulations, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity and maximum plasma concentration were 10.2% and 6.55% higher, respectively, for the marketed formulation. Thus, food had no clinically relevant effect on tadalafil exposure following a single oral dose in healthy Chinese men. No serious adverse reactions were reported. These results indicated that the analyzed generic and marketed tadalafil tablets were bioequivalent with similar safety profiles.


Assuntos
Jejum , Adulto , China , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Comprimidos , Tadalafila/efeitos adversos , Equivalência Terapêutica , Adulto Jovem
2.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 11(2): 278-284, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431240

RESUMO

Herein, we report a food-effect study of vonoprazan, an oral potassium-competitive acid blocker. In a phase 1, randomized, open-label, crossover study, healthy subjects received a single 20-mg dose of vonoprazan either following an overnight fast or 30 minutes after a high-fat breakfast. Plasma vonoprazan levels were determined at 0 hour and at 17 subsequent assessment points up to 48 hours after dosing. After a 5-day washout, subjects received a second 20-mg vonoprazan dose in the alternative fed/fasted state (identical process repeated). Twenty-four subjects completed the study. Vonoprazan exposure was not meaningfully affected by food. Geometric mean ratios for maximum concentration, area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to 24 hours, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity obtained under fed and fasting conditions were 1.05 (90% confidence interval, 0.98-1.12), 1.13 (1.09-1.18), and 1.15 (1.11-1.19), respectively. Four subjects experienced 6 adverse events that were all mild and considered unrelated to the study drug. Vonoprazan can be administered without regard to food intake.


Assuntos
Interações Alimento-Droga , Potássio , Administração Oral , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Pirróis , Sulfonamidas
3.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271636, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The two-thumb encircling technique (2TT) is superior to the two-finger technique (2FT) in infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but there are difficulties in providing ventilation as soon as possible. We modified the 2TT to the cross-thumb technique (CTT) to maintain good CPR performance at the same position as 2FT. We aimed to compare the quality of chest compression and brief hands-off times in 2FT, 2TT, and CTT by a single rescuer using an infant CPR manikin model. METHODS: This study was designed as a prospective randomized controlled simulation-based study. We used the Resusci® Baby QCPR (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway) as a simulated 3-month-old infant. Ventilation was performed by the mouth-to-mouth technique using a chest compression-to-ventilation ratio of 30:2 as a single rescuer. Data on CPR quality, such as locations, rates, depth and release of chest compressions, hands-off times, and proper ventilation, were recorded using the Resusci® Baby QCPR and SkillReporter. Also, the chest compression fraction (CCF) was automatically calculated. RESULTS: The depth of chest compression in 2FT, 2TT, and CTT were 40.0 mm (interquartile range [IQR] 39.0, 41.0), 42.0 mm (IQR 41.0, 43.0), and 42.0 mm (IQR 41.0, 43.0), respectively. The depth of chest compression in 2FT was shallower than that in the other two techniques (P<0.05). CCF in 2FT, 2TT, and CTT were 73.9% (IQR 72.2, 75.6), 71.2% (IQR 67.2, 72.2) and 71.3% (IQR 67.7, 74.1), respectively. CCF was higher in 2FT than in the other two techniques (P<0.05). Correct location in 2FT, 2TT, and CTT were 99.0% (IQR 86.0, 100.0), 100.0% (IQR 97.0, 100.0) and 100.0% (IQR 99.0, 100.0), respectively. Correct location in CTT and 2TT was higher than that in 2FT. Performing CTT, the subjective pain and fatigue score were lower than other two technique. CONCLUSION: A new chest compression technique, CTT was better in chest compression depth compared with 2FT and may be helpful in maintaining correct chest compression location with less pain and fatigue in infant CPR.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Polegar , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Fadiga , Humanos , Lactente , Manequins , Dor , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 9968428, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910832

RESUMO

The ergogenic effects of photobiomodulation therapy combined with a static magnetic field (PBMT-sMF) on exercises with characteristics similar to those of CrossFit® are unknown. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of PBMT-sMF applied at different times on recovery and physical performance in CrossFit® athletes by analyzing functional aspects, muscle damage, inflammatory processes, and oxidative stress. This was a prospectively registered, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. CrossFit® athletes were recruited and assigned to receive one of the four possible interventions. Each intervention included protocols before and after the exercise (referred to as the workout of the day (WOD)). The four possibilities of intervention were as follows: placebo before and after WOD (placebo), PBMT-sMF before and placebo after WOD (PBMT-sMF before), placebo before and PBMT-sMF after WOD (PBMT-sMF after), and PBMT-sMF before and after WOD (PBMT-sMF before and after). The order of possibilities for the interventions was randomized. The primary outcome was the functional test performance. The secondary outcomes were the subjective perception of exertion, muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress. The outcomes were measured before the WOD; immediately after the intervention; and 1, 24, and 48 hours after the WOD. Statistical analysis was performed using repeated measures ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test to examine the differences between the interventions at each time point. Twelve participants were randomized and analyzed for each sequence. PBMT-sMF enhanced the performance on functional tests (calculated as a percentage of change) when applied before or after WOD in the assessment performed immediately post-WOD and at 24 and 48 hours later (p < 0.05) compared to placebo and PBMT-sMF before and after WOD. In terms of the secondary outcomes, PBMT-sMF applied before or after WOD significantly decreased the creatine kinase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities and interleukin-6, thiobarbituric acid, and carbonylated protein levels (all p < 0.05) compared to the other possibilities of intervention. In addition, PBMT-sMF applied before and after WOD decreased creatine kinase activity at 24 hours and IL-6 levels at 24 and 48 hours compared to placebo (p < 0.05). None of the participants reported any adverse events. PBMT-sMF enhanced the performance of functional tests, decreased the levels of biochemical markers of muscle damage and inflammation, decreased oxidative stress, and increased antioxidant activity in CrossFit® athletes when applied before or after WOD.


Assuntos
Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Atletas , Creatina Quinase , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Inflamação , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Campos Magnéticos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
5.
Physiol Rep ; 10(15): e15418, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924333

RESUMO

Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (WBPA, pGz), is a bed that moves the body headward to forward, adds pulses to the circulation inducing descent of the dicrotic notch (DN) on the pulse waveform with an increase in a/b ratio (a = the height of the pulse waveform and b = the height of the secondary wave). Since the WBPA is large, heavy, and non-portable, we engineered a portable device (Jogging Device, JD). JD simulates passive jogging and introduces pulsations to the circulation. We hypothesized that JD would increase the a/b ratio during and after its use. In Study A, a single-arm placebo-controlled cross-over trial was conducted in24 adults (53.8 ± 14.4 years) using JD or control (CONT) for 30 min. Blood pressure (BPs and BPd) and photoplethysmograph pulse (a/b) were measured at baseline (BL), during 30 min of JD or CONT, and 5 and 60 min after. In Study B (n = 20, 52.2 ± 7 years), a single-arm observational trial of 7 consecutive days of JD on BP and a/b, measured at BL, and after 7 days of JD and 48 and 72 hr after its discontinuation. In Study A, BPs, and BPd decreased during JD by 13% and 16%, respectively, while in CONT both increased by 2% and 2.5%, respectively. The a/b increased by 2-fold and remained greater than 2-fold at all-time points, with no change in a/b during CONT. In Study B, BPs and BPd decreased by 9% and remained below BL, at 72 hr after discontinuation of JD. DN descent also occurred after 7 days of JD with a/b increase of 80% and remained elevated by 60% for at least 72 h. JD improves acute and longer-term vascular hemodynamics with an increase in a/b, consistent with increased effects of nitric oxide (NO). JD may have significant clinical and public health implications.


Assuntos
Artérias , Corrida Moderada , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia
6.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272062, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Measures of Doppler blood flow velocity profiles are an integral part of monitoring fetal well-being during pregnancy. These examinations are performed at different times of the day and at different maternal meal states. In uncomplicated pregnancies, we assessed the effect of a standardized maternal meal on middle cerebral artery (MCA) and umbilical artery (UA) Doppler blood flow velocity pulsatility indices (PIs) and MCA peak systolic velocity (PSV). METHODS: In this prospective single-blinded crossover study 25 healthy women were examined at 36 weeks of pregnancy. The first examination was performed in the morning following overnight fast, and repeated after extended fast (state A), and after a standard breakfast meal (state B). RESULTS: Irrespective of maternal prandial status, the MCA-PI values were lower in the 2nd compared to the 1st examination (-0.187; p = 0.071, and -0.113; p = 0.099, state A and B, respectively). Compared to the values in the 1st examination, the UA-PI values, were higher after extended fast (0.014; p = 0.436), and lower post-prandially (-0.036; p = 0.070). The difference (state B minus state A) between the meal states were not significant (0.074; p = 0.487 and -0.050; p = 0.058, for MCA-PI and UA-PI, respectively). Adjusting for the possible influence of fetal heart rate on MCA-PI and UA-PI, the differences between meal states remained non-significant (p = 0.179, p = 0.064, respectively). The MCA-PSV values increased after the meal (6.812; p = 0.035), whereas no increase was observed following extended fast (0.140; p = 0.951). The difference in MCA-PSV values between the two meal states was not significant (6.672; p = 0.055). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate possible diurnal variations in MCA-PI and UA-PI, with and without adjustment for fetal heart rate, that seem to be unaffected by maternal meal intake in healthy pregnancies.


Assuntos
Artéria Cerebral Média , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Artérias Umbilicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Umbilicais/fisiologia
7.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 206, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBE) have been used in traditional medicines for centuries. GBE has been shown to deliver protective effects against symptoms of age-related cognitive decline. Despite there being standardised extractions for GBE, there is still variability in the absorption and efficacy of different extracts. Following the development of a liposomal GBE (Ginkgosome™), the aim of this study is to investigate the absorption of the liposomal formulation compared to a comparator formulation of equal dose. METHODS: Thirteen healthy male and female volunteers completed this single equivalent dose, randomised, double-blind crossover study. Plasma concentrations were determined at baseline and at regular intervals over a 24-h period following ingestion of 120 mg of either a liposomal or comparator formulation. RESULTS: The liposomal formulation was able to increase plasma concentration of ginkgolide B and C by 1.9 and 2.2-fold compared to the comparator formulation. CONCLUSION: The novel liposomal formulation is safe in humans and demonstrates superior absorption for the supply of GBE constituents compared to a comparator standardised formulation.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba , Extratos Vegetais , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3828, 2022 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780220

RESUMO

Meiotic recombination frequency varies along chromosomes and strongly correlates with sequence divergence. However, the causal relationship between recombination landscapes and polymorphisms is unclear. Here, we characterize the genome-wide recombination landscape in the quasi-absence of polymorphisms, using Arabidopsis thaliana homozygous inbred lines in which a few hundred genetic markers were introduced through mutagenesis. We find that megabase-scale recombination landscapes in inbred lines are strikingly similar to the recombination landscapes in hybrids, with the notable exception of heterozygous large rearrangements where recombination is prevented locally. In addition, the megabase-scale recombination landscape can be largely explained by chromatin features. Our results show that polymorphisms are not a major determinant of the shape of the megabase-scale recombination landscape but rather favour alternative models in which recombination and chromatin shape sequence divergence across the genome.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Cromatina , Arabidopsis/genética , Estudos Cross-Over , Rearranjo Gênico , Heterozigoto
9.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 657, 2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35820904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis is associated with higher kinetic friction in the knee joint, hence increased acoustic emissions during motion. Decreases in compressive load and improvements in movement quality might reduce this friction and, thus, sound amplitude. We investigated if an exercise treatment acutely affects knee joint sounds during different activities of daily life. METHODS: Eighteen participants with knee osteoarthritis (aged 51.8 ± 7.3 years; 14 females) were included in this randomized crossover trial. A neuromuscular exercise intervention and a placebo laser needle acupuncture treatment were performed. Before and after both interventions, knee joint sounds were measured during three different activities of daily living (standing up/sitting down, walking, descending stairs) by means of vibroarthrography. The mean amplitude (dB) and the median power frequency (MPF, Hz) were assessed at the medial tibial plateau and the patella. Differences in knee acoustic emissions between placebo and exercise interventions were calculated by analyses of covariance. RESULTS: Controlled for participant's age, knee demanding activity level and osteoarthritis stage, the conditions significantly differed in their impact on the MPF (mean(± SD) pre-post-differences standing up: placebo: 9.55(± 29.15) Hz/ exercise: 13.01(± 56.06) Hz, F = 4.9, p < 0.05) and the amplitude (standing up: placebo:0.75(± 1.43) dB/ exercise: 0.51(± 4.68) dB, F = 5.0, p < 0.05; sitting down: placebo: 0.07(± 1.21) dB/ exercise: -0.16(± .36) dB, F = 4.7, p < 0.05) at the tibia. There were no differences in the MPF and amplitude during walking and descending stairs (p > 0.05). At the patella, we found significant differences in the MPF during walking (placebo 0.08(± 1.42) Hz/ exercise: 15.76(± 64.25) Hz, F = 4.8, p < .05) and in the amplitude during descending stairs (placebo: 0.02 (± 2.72) dB/ exercise: -0.73(± 2.84) dB, F = 4.9, p < 0.05). There were no differences in standing up/ sitting down for both parameters, nor in descending stairs for the MPF and walking for the amplitude (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The MPF pre-post differences of the exercise intervention were higher compared to the MPF pre-post differences of the placebo treatment. The amplitude pre-post differences were lower in the exercise intervention. In particular, the sound amplitude might be an indicator for therapy effects in persons with knee osteoarthritis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was retrospectively registered in the German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00022936 , date of registry: 26/08/2020).


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho , Acústica , Atividades Cotidianas , Estudos Cross-Over , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho/complicações , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia
10.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 184, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventilator liberation is one of the most challenging aspects in patients with respiratory failure. Most patients are weaned through a transition from full to partial respiratory support, whereas some advocate using a continuous spontaneous ventilation (CSV). However, there is little scientific evidence supporting the practice of pediatric ventilator liberation, including the timing of onset of and the approach to weaning mode. We sought to explore differences in patient effort between a pressure controlled continuous mode of ventilation (PC-CMV) [in this cohort PC assist/control (PC-A/C)] with a reduced ventilator rate and CSV, and to study changes in patient effort with decreasing PS. METHODS: In this prospective physiology cross-over study, we randomized children < 5 years to first PC-A/C with a 25% reduction in ventilator rate, or CSV (continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP] + PS). Patients were then crossed over to the other arm. Patient effort was measured by calculating inspiratory work of breathing (WOB) using the Campbell diagram (WOBCampbell), and by pressure-rate-product (PRP) and pressure-time-product (PTP). Respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) was used to calculate the phase angle. Measurements were obtained at baseline, during PC-A/C and CPAP + PS, and during decreasing set PS (maximum -6 cmH2O). RESULTS: Thirty-six subjects with a median age of 4.4 (IQR 1.5-11.9) months and median ventilation time of 4.9 (IQR 3.4-7.0) days were included. Nearly all patients (94.4%) were admitted with primary respiratory failure. WOBCampbell during baseline [0.67 (IQR 0.38-1.07) Joules/L] did not differ between CSV [0.49 (IQR 0.17-0.83) Joules/L] or PC-A/C [0.47 (IQR 0.17-1.15) Joules/L]. Neither PRP, PTP, ∆Pes nor phase angle was different between the two ventilator modes. Reducing pressure support resulted in a statistically significant increase in patient effort, albeit that these differences were clinically negligible. CONCLUSIONS: Patient effort during pediatric ventilation liberation was not increased when patients were in a CSV mode of ventilation compared to a ventilator mode with a ventilator back-up rate. Reducing the level of PS did not lead to clinically relevant increases in patient effort. These data may aid in a better approach to pediatric ventilation liberation. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT05254691. Registered 24 February 2022.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Respiratória , Trabalho Respiratório , Criança , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Desmame do Respirador , Trabalho Respiratório/fisiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11626, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35804037

RESUMO

This study aimed to test the agreement of the incremental test's physiological responses between tethered running on a nonmotorized treadmill (NMT) to matched relative intensities while running on a conventional motorized treadmill (MT). Using a within-subject crossover design, nine male recreational runners (age = 22 ± 5 years; height = 175 ± 6 cm; weight = 68.0 ± 16.6 kg) underwent two test sessions: one was an incremental intensity protocol on an MT; the other was on an instrumented NMT. Intensity thresholds at [Formula: see text]O2max, respiratory compensation point (iRCP), and lactate threshold (iLT) were registered for analysis, together with [Formula: see text]̇O2, [Formula: see text]̇E, ƒR, and blood lactate concentration ([Lac]). Comparisons were based on hypothesis testing (Student's T-test), effect sizes (Cohen's d), ICC, and Bland Altman analysis. Statistical significance was accepted at p < 0.05. Attained [Formula: see text]O2max (MT = 52.2 ± 7.3 mL·kg-1·min-1 vs NMT = 50.1 ± 8.1 mL·kg-1·min-1) and [Formula: see text]̇O2 at iRCP (MT = 46.3 ± 7.2 mL·kg-1·min-1 vs NMT = 42.8 ± 9.3 mL·kg-1·min-1) were not different between ergometers (p = 0.15 and 0.13, respectively), with significant ICCs (0.84 and 0.70, respectively) and Pearson's correlations (r = 0.87 and 0.76, respectively). The [Lac] at iLT presented poor agreement between conditions. Significant correlations were found (r between 0.72 and 0.83) for relative power values of i[Formula: see text]O2max (6.56 ± 1.28 W·kg-1), iRCP (4.38 ± 1.50 W·kg-1), and iLT (4.15 ± 1.29 W·kg-1) related to their counterpart obtained on MT. Results show that running on an NMT offers a higher glycolytic demand under the same relative internal load as running on an MT but with a similar aerobic response and correlated intensity determination.


Assuntos
Consumo de Oxigênio , Corrida , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805343

RESUMO

The Eastern Economic Corridor in Thailand is undergoing development, but industrial activities are causing serious air pollution. This study aimed to examine the effects of particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), SO2, NO2, O3, and CO on outpatient department (OPD) visits and mortality with various causes in the Eastern Economic Corridor, Thailand between 2013 and 2019 using a case-crossover design and conditional Poisson model. The corresponding burden of disease due to air pollution exposure was calculated. A 1 µg/m3 increase in the PM10 was associated with significant increases in OPD visits for circulatory diseases (0.22, 95% CI 0.01, 0.34), respiratory diseases (0.21, 95% CI 0.13, 0.28), and skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases (0.18, 95% CI 0.10, 0.26). By contrast, a 1 µg/m3 increase in the PM10 was associated with significant increases in mortality from skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases (0.79, 95% CI 0.04, 1.56). A 1 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with significant increases in mortality from circulatory diseases (0.75, 95% CI 0.20, 1.34), respiratory diseases (0.82, 95% CI 0.02, 1.63), and skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases (2.91, 95% CI 0.99, 4.86). The highest OPD burden was for circulatory diseases. Respiratory effects were attributed to PM10 exceeding the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) of Thailand (120 µg/m3). The highest morbidity burden was for skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases attributed to PM2.5 concentrations that exceeded the NAAQs (50 µg/m3). PM pollution in the EEC could strongly contribute to OPD visits and morbidity from various diseases. Preventing PM10 concentrations from being higher than 60 µg/m3 could decrease OPD visits by more than 33,265 and 29,813 for circulatory and respiratory diseases, respectively. Our study suggests that such pollution increases the risks of OPD visits and mortality in various causes in the Thai EEC. Reducing the ambient air pollution concentration of NAAQSs in Thailand could reduce the health effect on the Thai population.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Tailândia/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805371

RESUMO

South Asian women living in the UK are particularly at high risk of obesity-related complications, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exposure to large portion sizes is a risk factor for obesity. Specifically designed tableware helps individuals to manage weight by controlling food portion sizes. Thirty-one (n = 31) overweight or obese South Asian adult women participated in a randomised cross-over trial aimed to assess the efficacy, acceptance, and weight change of two guided/calibrated commercially available portion control tools (Utensil set and Crockery Set) used in free-living conditions. Data on acceptance, perceived changes in portion size, frequency, and meal type was collected using paper questionnaires and 3-day diet diaries. Scores describing acceptance, ease of use, and perceived effectiveness were derived from five-point Likert scales from which binary indicators (high/low) were analysed for significance using multivariate variance analysis for repeated measurements. A reduction in BMI was observed at each point of measurement (p = 0.007). For overall tool use, the crockery set scored higher in all areas of acceptance, ease of use, and perceived efficacy for all comparisons. Self-selected portion sizes increased for salads and decreased for cooking oil and breakfast cereals with both tools. Further research to scale up and evaluate similar weight management interventions for this group is warranted.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Tamanho da Porção , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Redução de Peso
14.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807800

RESUMO

Polyphenol supplementation may be useful during exercise. However, there is no evidence indicating yerba mate (YM) increases muscle strength. Thus, this study sought to evaluate the effect of acute YM supplementation on muscle strength following the strength test. In a crossover and pilot clinical trial, ten men were divided into two groups, receiving either supplementation with YM or a placebo. One hour after consumption of beverages, the participants were submitted to tests of one-repetition maximum (1 RM) on the bench press and leg press. The average age of the participants was 25.5 ± 4.1 years, and the average body mass index was 24.4 ± 2.9 kg/m². YM was not able to increase muscle strength when compared to the placebo in either the 1RM leg press exercise (YM: 225 ± 56.2 kg, vs. placebo: 223 ± 64.3 kg, p = 0.743, Cohen's d = 0.03) or in the 1 RM bench press exercise (YM: 59.5 ± 20.7 kg vs. placebo: 59.5 ± 21.5 kg, p = 1.000, Cohen's d = 0.) In conclusion, acute intake of YM did not change muscle strength in physically active men.


Assuntos
Ilex paraguariensis , Treinamento de Força , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Músculos , Projetos Piloto , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807854

RESUMO

Postprandial hyperglycemia is an important risk factor in the development and progression of type-2 diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases. Therefore, maintaining a low postprandial glucose response is key in preventing these diseases. Carbohydrate-rich meals are the main drivers of excessive glycemic excursions during the day. The consumption of whey protein premeals or mulberry leaf extract was reported to reduce postprandial glycemia through different mechanisms of action. The efficacy of these interventions was shown to be affected by the timing of the consumption or product characteristics. Two randomised crossover studies were performed, aiming to identify the optimal conditions to improve the efficacy of these nutritional supplements in reducing a glycemic response. The acute postprandial glycemic response was monitored with a continuous glucose monitoring device. The first study revealed that a preparation featuring 10 g of whey protein microgel reduced the postprandial glucose response by up to 30% (p = 0.001) and was more efficient than the whey protein isolates, independently of whether the preparation was ingested 30 or 10 min before a complete 320 kcal breakfast. The second study revealed that a preparation featuring 250 mg mulberry leaf extract was more efficient if it was taken together with a complete 510 kcal meal (-34%, p < 0.001) rather than ingested 5 min before (-26%, p = 0.002). These findings demonstrate that the efficacy of whey proteins premeal and mulberry leaf extracts can be optimised to provide potential nutritional solutions to lower the risk of type-2 diabetes or its complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Morus , Glicemia/metabolismo , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Refeições , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
16.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high risk of vascular complications. Interestingly, cocoa flavanols (CF) can exert beneficial vascular effects in non-diabetic subjects. However, these effects have only been scarcely studied in T2DM. Therefore, we performed a study to assess the effects on vascular reactivity of a single dose of CF (790 mg) in T2DM and whether certain antihypertensive drugs may modulate these effects. METHODS: 24 non-diabetic and 11 T2DM subjects were studied in a cross-over design. Fasting blood samples, blood pressure (BP), and arterial vasoreactivity (flow-mediated dilation) were assessed before and 70 min after capsule ingestion. Muscle microvascular reactivity was only assessed after capsule ingestion. Age, waist-to-hip ratio, BP at baseline, and the use of antihypertensive drugs were regarded as covariates in a mixed models analysis. RESULTS: CF ingestion did not affect any parameter. However, independent of the type of capsules ingested, a decrease in diastolic BP by 3 mmHg (95% CI: -4.0; -2.0) and an increase in the change in brachial artery diameter (pre vs. post occlusion) by 0.06 mm (95% CI: 0.01; 0.12) were detected in the non-diabetic group, while they remained unchanged in the T2DM group. CONCLUSION: No beneficial effects of CF were detected on vascular reactivity parameters in T2DM and non-diabetic participants.


Assuntos
Cacau , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensão , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Hipertensão Essencial , Humanos , Polifenóis/farmacologia
17.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 16: 17534666221107312, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35815354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low peak inspiratory flow (PIF) is common following severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with COPD and low PIF may be at risk of suboptimal delivery of inhaled therapies to the airways, especially when using devices such as dry powder inhalers (DPIs), which require greater inspiratory effort than metered dose inhalers (MDIs). We report the results from a 2-week crossover study evaluating the effects of inhaled dual therapy with budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate with an MDI with a spacer versus a DPI in patients with COPD and low PIF. METHODS: This randomized, open-label, two-period (each 1 week in duration) crossover efficacy and safety study included patients with severe-to-very severe COPD and PIF < 50 L/min (NCT04078126). Patients were randomized 1:1 to twice-daily budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate MDI (BFF MDI) 320/10 µg with a spacer for 1 week followed by twice-daily budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate DPI (BUD/FORM DPI) 320/9 µg for 1 week, or the inverse. The primary endpoint was peak change from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) within 4 h post-dose following 1 week of treatment. Other assessments included pre-dose lung function, pharmacokinetics, and safety, as assessed by adverse events. RESULTS: The modified intention-to-treat analysis set comprised 30 patients (mean age: 66.9 years; mean baseline FEV1: 766 mL; mean COPD assessment test score: 22.20). Following 1 week of treatment, both BFF MDI and BUD/FORM DPI improved mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] peak FEV1 4 h post-dose [256 (190, 322) mL and 274 (208, 340) mL, respectively]. No clinically meaningful difference between treatments was observed for any lung function endpoint. There were no unexpected safety findings. CONCLUSION: Dual therapy with BFF MDI and with BUD/FORM DPI led to improvements in lung function in patients with severe-to-very severe COPD and low PIF.


Assuntos
Glicopirrolato , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Broncodilatadores , Budesonida/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Fumarato de Formoterol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pulmão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889796

RESUMO

Nitrate (NO3-) supplementation has been reported to enhance intermittent exercise performance; however, its impact on oxygen (O2) cost during intermittent running exercise is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess if acute NO3- supplementation would elicit performance benefits in recreationally active individuals during the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test, with its potential benefit on O2 consumption (VO2), in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, 12 recreational males consumed NO3--rich (NIT; ~12.8 mmol), and NO3--depleted (PLA; 0.04 mmol) concentrated beetroot juice 3 h before completing the Yo-Yo IR1 test. VO2 was measured at 160, 280 and 440 m (sub-maximal) and when the test was terminated (peak). Performance in the Yo-Yo IR1 was greater with NIT (990 ± 442.25 m) compared to PLA (870 ± 357.4 m, p = 0.007). The VO2 was not significantly different at 160 m (1.92 ± 0.99 vs. 2.1 ± 0.88 L·min-1), 280 m (2.62 ± 0.94 vs. 2.83 ± 0.94 L·min-1), 440 m (3.26 ± 1.04 vs. 3.46 ± 0.98 L·min-1) and peak (4.71 ± 1.01 vs. 4.92 ± 1.17 L·min-1) between NIT and PLA trials (all p > 0.05). The present study has indicated that acute supplementation of NO3- enhanced intermittent running performance but had no effect on VO2 during the Yo-Yo IR1 test in recreational young adults.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Corrida , Antioxidantes , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Masculino , Nitratos , Oxigênio , Consumo de Oxigênio , Poliésteres , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805342

RESUMO

The purpose of this secondary analysis was to assess whether students' use of stand-biased desks during the school day influenced physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) during the afterschool period. By using a crossover design consisting of two 9-week intervention periods, 99 participants from grades 3, 4, and 6 were randomly assigned by their teacher to either a traditional (Group 1; sit-stand) or stand-biased (Group 2; stand-sit) desk in the classroom. The desk type then switched between intervention periods. Afterschool PA and SB were measured by accelerometry at baseline (fall) and following both intervention periods at post I (winter) and post II (spring). Independent sample t-tests and mixed-effects modeling were applied at a significance value of p < 0.05 to detect differences between groups. No significant differences in afterschool SB, light-intensity PA (LPA), or moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) were found between groups. There were also no significant two- or three-way interaction effects detected between desk assignment, time, and afterschool SB, LPA, or MVPA. Stand-biased desks in the classroom were not detrimental to children's afterschool PA and SB.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário , Modelos Estatísticos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estações do Ano , Postura Sentada , Posição Ortostática , Estudantes
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