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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141824, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896789

RESUMO

Chromium (Cr) can coexist with other heavy metals in the blood of chronically chromate-exposed individuals. However, few studies have explored the health impacts of other hazardous metals after exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. This study aimed to assess the modification effects of blood lead (Pb) on the genetic damage induced by Cr(VI). During 2010-2019, 1000 blood samples were collected from 455 workers exposed to chromate and 545 workers not exposed to chromate from the same factory with similar labor intensity. The levels of Cr and Pb were measured in whole blood samples. Micronucleus frequency (MNF) and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured to reflect different types of genetic damage. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between hazardous metals and the modification effects of Pb on genetic damage. The geometric mean levels of Cr and Pb in the exposure group were significantly higher than those in the control group [Cr: 6.42 (6.08- 6.79) vs. 1.29 (1.22- 1.36) µg/L; Pb: 38.82 (37.22- 40.50) vs. 34.47 (33.15- 35.85) µg/L]. The geometric means of urinary 8-OHdG and MNF in exposure group were 4.00 (3.64- 4.40) µg/g and 5.40 (4.89- 5.97) ‰, respectively, significantly higher than the 3.20 (2.94- 3.48) µg/g and 4.57 (4.15- 5.03) ‰, respectively, in control group. log2Cr was independently and positively associated with urinary 8-OHdG (ß-adjusted = 0.143, 95% CI: 0.082- 0.204) and MNF (ß-adjusted = 0.303, 95%CI: 0.020- 0.587). With the change in circulating Pb levels, the types of genetic damage induced by Cr(VI) were different. At low levels of circulating Pb (<30.80 µg/L), chromate mainly caused changes in 8-OHdG, while at high circulating Pb levels (≥44.88 µg/L), chromate induced alterations in MNF. The findings suggested that chromate exposure could cause multiple types of genetic damage, and circulating Pb might modify the association between circulating Cr and the form of genetic damage.


Assuntos
Cromatos , Exposição Ocupacional , Cromatos/toxicidade , Cromo/toxicidade , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
2.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 57-64, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1146077

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar o perfil de utilização de medicamentos por hipertensos e/ou diabéticos de uma Estratégia de Saúde da Família do Sul de Mato Grosso. Métodos: trata-se de uma pesquisa quantitativa e transversal com usuários cadastrados em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde. Os dados foram coletados em visitas domiciliares. Resultados: os usuários consumiram uma média de 2,9 medicamentos. Não houve diferença estatística no consumo médio de medicamentos entre homens e mulheres. Os idosos utilizavam mais medicamentos. Os fármacos que atuam no sistema cardiovascular foram os mais consumidos. Conclusão: os resultados apontam para a necessidade da promoção do uso racional de medicamentos, sobretudo na população idosa


Objective: to analyze the profile of drug use by hypertensive and diabetic people from a Family Health Strategy of Southern Mato Grosso. Methods: this is a quantitative and cross-sectional research with users registered at a Basic Health Unit. The data were collected in home visits. Results: the users consumed an average of 2.9 drugs. There was no statistical difference in the mean consumption between men and women. The elders used more drugs. The most used drugs were the ones that work in the cardiovascular system. Conclusion: the results show the need for promoting the rational use of drugs, especially in the elderly population


Objetivo: analizar el perfil de utilización de medicamentos por hipertensos y/o diabéticos de una Estrategia de Salud de la Familia del Sur de Mato Grosso. Métodos: se trata de una investigación cuantitativa y transversal con usuarios registrados en una Unidad Básica de Salud. Los datos fueron colectados en visitas domiciliarias. Resultados: los usuarios consumieron una media de 2,9 medicamentos. No habia diferencia estadística en el consumo medio de medicamentos entre hombres y mujeres. Los ancianos utilizaban más medicamentos. Los fármacos que actúan en el sistema cardiovascular fueron los más consumidos. Conclusión: los resultados apuntan a la necesidad de la promoción del uso racional de medicamentos, sobre todo en la población anciana


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estratégia Saúde da Família , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Visita Domiciliar , Hipertensão
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12545-12557, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Scientific research is an essential necessity for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Accelerated paper-sharing makes it possible to explore the responses of scientific communities of different countries and their research focus. This is achieved by examining relevant publications during the early stage of the pandemic. This paper explores a timely research assessment on COVID-19 among China, USA, and EU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Papers indexed in PubMed and published from December 30, 2019, to March 11, 2020, were selected. Papers from China, USA, and EU were assessed by calculating the significance of items in the co-occurrence exported from VOSviewer. RESULTS: The results showed that Chinese studies focus more on clinical manifestations, while USA and EU focus on experimental research. Furthermore, US research is more geared toward detection techniques and mathematical models, China focuses more on monitoring the epidemic situation, and EU engages in both. CONCLUSIONS: This paper argues that the above distinctions are caused by differences in the stages of epidemic development, researchers' experience bases for formulating measures, traditions within the different medical cultures, and the distinction between "information" and "knowledge".


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Internacionalidade , /tratamento farmacológico , China , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , União Europeia , Humanos , Editoração , Estados Unidos
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(12)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328201

RESUMO

Recent reports using conventional Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Removed models suggest that the next wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK could overwhelm health services, with fatalities exceeding the first wave. We used Bayesian model comparison to revisit these conclusions, allowing for heterogeneity of exposure, susceptibility and transmission. We used dynamic causal modelling to estimate the evidence for alternative models of daily cases and deaths from the USA, the UK, Brazil, Italy, France, Spain, Mexico, Belgium, Germany and Canada over the period 25 January 2020 to 15 June 2020. These data were used to estimate the proportions of people (i) not exposed to the virus, (ii) not susceptible to infection when exposed and (iii) not infectious when susceptible to infection. Bayesian model comparison furnished overwhelming evidence for heterogeneity of exposure, susceptibility and transmission. Furthermore, both lockdown and the build-up of population immunity contributed to viral transmission in all but one country. Small variations in heterogeneity were sufficient to explain large differences in mortality rates. The best model of UK data predicts a second surge of fatalities will be much less than the first peak. The size of the second wave depends sensitively on the loss of immunity and the efficacy of Find-Test-Trace-Isolate-Support programmes. In summary, accounting for heterogeneity of exposure, susceptibility and transmission suggests that the next wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic will be much smaller than conventional models predict, with less economic and health disruption. This heterogeneity means that seroprevalence underestimates effective herd immunity and, crucially, the potential of public health programmes.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Teorema de Bayes , Causalidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(51): e23801, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To clarify the styles used in background sections of systematic reviews (SR) and to identify which styles if any were related to the publication in high-impact-factor (HIF) medical journals. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study for original SR articles published in top 50 journals in MEDICINE, GENERAL & INTERNAL category in Journal Citation Reports 2018. We randomly included 90 articles from top 10 HIF journals and 90 from others, respectively. We conducted a content analysis to classify the background styles. We assessed the factors associated with the publication in HIF journals. RESULTS: We found 6 categories. We defined 6 categories as follows: Update of prior SR, New in scope than prior SR, Higher quality than prior SR, Completely new SR, Limitations of primary studies only, and Not presenting unknown in prior SR or primary studies. All 6 categories were not related to the publication in HIF journals. CONCLUSIONS: We found 6 categories of styles in background sections of SR, none of which however were related to publication in HIF journals. SR authors may wish to use any of these categories to communicate the importance of their research questions.


Assuntos
Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências
6.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e00892020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem. It is necessary to understand the epidemic, verifying the combination of biological and demographic characteristics. METHODS: This is an analytical ecological and epidemiological study. Confirmed case data from the Notification Disease Information System (SINAN) were used. RESULTS: From 2009-2018, SINAN confirmed 404,003 viral hepatitis cases in Brazil, with 12.49%, 37.06%, and 48.28% cases of hepatitis A, B, and C, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, 4,296 deaths were associated with viral hepatitis, of which 36.66% were associated with acute hepatitis B. The proportional distribution of cases varied among the five Brazilian regions.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite Viral Humana , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência
8.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(Suppl 2): e20200673, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of socioeconomic, demographic, epidemiological factors, and the health system structure in the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. METHODS: Ecological study with variables extracted from databases, having the incidence and mortality by COVID-19 until August 23, 2020, in Brazilian states, as response variables. The magnitude of the associations was estimated using Spearman's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: In the Brazilian states, 59.8% of variation in the incidence of COVID-19 was justified by income inequality, significant home densification, and higher mortality. In the case of mortality, those same variables explained 57.9% of the country's variations in federal units. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that socioeconomic factors influenced the evolution and impact of COVID-19 in Brazil. Thus, we suggest comprehensive actions to ensure economic conditions and strengthening of health networks for populations with socioeconomic vulnerability.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Renda , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
9.
Euro Surveill ; 25(40)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034281

RESUMO

BackgroundThe natural history of disease in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remained obscure during the early pandemic.AimOur objective was to estimate epidemiological parameters of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and assess the relative infectivity of the incubation period.MethodsWe estimated the distributions of four epidemiological parameters of SARS-CoV-2 transmission using a large database of COVID-19 cases and potential transmission pairs of cases, and assessed their heterogeneity by demographics, epidemic phase and geographical region. We further calculated the time of peak infectivity and quantified the proportion of secondary infections during the incubation period.ResultsThe median incubation period was 7.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.9‒7.5) days. The median serial and generation intervals were similar, 4.7 (95% CI: 4.2‒5.3) and 4.6 (95% CI: 4.2‒5.1) days, respectively. Paediatric cases < 18 years had a longer incubation period than adult age groups (p = 0.007). The median incubation period increased from 4.4 days before 25 January to 11.5 days after 31 January (p < 0.001), whereas the median serial (generation) interval contracted from 5.9 (4.8) days before 25 January to 3.4 (3.7) days after. The median time from symptom onset to discharge was also shortened from 18.3 before 22 January to 14.1 days after. Peak infectivity occurred 1 day before symptom onset on average, and the incubation period accounted for 70% of transmission.ConclusionThe high infectivity during the incubation period led to short generation and serial intervals, necessitating aggressive control measures such as early case finding and quarantine of close contacts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(3): 373-384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128863

RESUMO

Coccidiosis is the most economically impactful enteric protozoan disease of animals including cattle. A year (March 2018 to February 2019) study was conducted on cattle in Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria with the objective of determining the prevalence, intensity of infection, diversity of Eimeria species, co-infection patterns and risk factors associated with the enteric protozoan infection in cattle. To address this, faecal samples from 478 cattle of different age groups, breeds and sex were subjected to the floatation technique, the McMaster counting technique and sporulation procedure. One hundred and eighty-six (38.91%) of the sampled cattle were positive, and 8 different species were identified (Eimeria bovis, E. zuernii, E. auburnensis, E. cylindrica, E. subspherica, E. canadensis, E. bukidnonensis and E. alabamensis) with E. bovis (25.94%) and E. zuernii (23.43%) been the most prevalent. Eimeria oocysts were detected all through the year. The intensity of Eimeria species among infected cattle ranged between 200-12900 oocyst per gram of faeces. Following univariate analysis, breed, age, sex, physiological status, faecal consistency and PCV were significantly (p<0.05) associated with Eimeria infection. Multivariate analysis revealed that breed, age and physiological status were the significant risk factors associated with eimeriosis. The present study constitutes the first attempt to analyse the prevalence, intensity, diversity and epidemiological risk factors involved in bovine eimeriosis in North-Central Nigeria. It is envisaged that the data obtained will facilitate better control and prevention measures for Eimeria infection among cattle in the region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Fezes , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência
12.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(11): e612-e623, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In early 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, New Zealand implemented graduated, risk-informed national COVID-19 suppression measures aimed at disease elimination. We investigated their impacts on the epidemiology of the first wave of COVID-19 in the country and response performance measures. METHODS: We did a descriptive epidemiological study of all laboratory-confirmed and probable cases of COVID-19 and all patients tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in New Zealand from Feb 2 to May 13, 2020, after which time community transmission ceased. We extracted data from the national notifiable diseases database and the national SARS-CoV-2 test results repository. Demographic features and disease outcomes, transmission patterns (source of infection, outbreaks, household transmission), time-to-event intervals, and testing coverage were described over five phases of the response, capturing different levels of non-pharmaceutical interventions. Risk factors for severe outcomes (hospitalisation or death) were examined with multivariable logistic regression and time-to-event intervals were analysed by fitting parametric distributions using maximum likelihood estimation. FINDINGS: 1503 cases were detected over the study period, including 95 (6·3%) hospital admissions and 22 (1·5%) COVID-19 deaths. The estimated case infection rate per million people per day peaked at 8·5 (95% CI 7·6-9·4) during the 10-day period of rapid response escalation, declining to 3·2 (2·8-3·7) in the start of lockdown and progressively thereafter. 1034 (69%) cases were imported or import related, tending to be younger adults, of European ethnicity, and of higher socioeconomic status. 702 (47%) cases were linked to 34 outbreaks. Severe outcomes were associated with locally acquired infection (crude odds ratio [OR] 2·32 [95% CI 1·40-3·82] compared with imported), older age (adjusted OR ranging from 2·72 [1·40-5·30] for 50-64 year olds to 8·25 [2·59-26·31] for people aged ≥80 years compared with 20-34 year olds), aged residential care residency (adjusted OR 3·86 [1·59-9·35]), and Pacific peoples (adjusted OR 2·76 [1·14-6·68]) and Asian (2·15 [1·10-4·20]) ethnicities relative to European or other. Times from illness onset to notification and isolation progressively decreased and testing increased over the study period, with few disparities and increasing coverage of females, Maori, Pacific peoples, and lower socioeconomic groups. INTERPRETATION: New Zealand's response resulted in low relative burden of disease, low levels of population disease disparities, and the initial achievement of COVID-19 elimination. FUNDING: Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment Strategic Scientific Investment Fund, and Ministry of Health, New Zealand.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 246-254, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 is an emerging respiratory disease that is now a pandemic. Indonesia is experiencing a rapid surge of cases but the local data are scarce. METHODS: this is an analysis using data from the ongoing recapitulation of Epidemiological Surveillance (ES) by the Provincial Health Office of Jakarta from March 2nd to April 27th 2020. We evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics of all confirmed cases in association with death. RESULTS: of the 4,052 patients, 381 (9.4%) patients were deceased. Multivariable analysis showed that death was associated with older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 1.05, per year increase; p<0.001), dyspnea (OR 4.83; 95% CI 3.20, 7.29; p<0.001), pneumonia (OR 2.46; 95%CI 1.56, 3.88; p<0.001), and pre-existing hypertension (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.24, 2.78; p=0.003). Death was highest in the week of April 6th 2020 and declined in the subsequent weeks, after a large-scale social restriction commenced. CONCLUSION: older age, dyspnea, pneumonia, and pre-existing hypertension were associated with death. Mortality was high, but may be reduced by lockdown.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Adulto Jovem
15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(9): 95001, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that ambient air pollution is associated with an increased risk of developing or dying from coronavirus-2 (COVID-19). Methodological approaches to investigate the health impacts of air pollution on epidemics should differ from those used for chronic diseases, but the methods used in these studies have not been appraised critically. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to identify and critique the methodological approaches of studies of air pollution on infections and mortality due to COVID-19 and to identify and critique the methodological approaches of similar studies concerning severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS: Published and unpublished papers of associations between air pollution and developing or dying from COVID-19 or SARS that were reported as of 10 May 2020 were identified through electronic databases, internet searches, and other sources. RESULTS: All six COVID-19 studies and two of three SARS studies reported positive associations. Two were time series studies that estimated associations between daily changes in air pollution, one was a cohort that assessed associations between air pollution and the secondary spread of SARS, and six were ecological studies that used area-wide exposures and outcomes. Common shortcomings included possible cross-level bias in ecological studies, underreporting of health outcomes, using grouped data, the lack of highly spatially resolved air pollution measures, inadequate control for confounding and evaluation of effect modification, not accounting for regional variations in the timing of outbreaks' temporal changes in at-risk populations, and not accounting for nonindependence of outcomes. DISCUSSION: Studies of air pollution and novel coronaviruses have relied mainly on ecological measures of exposures and outcomes and are susceptible to important sources of bias. Although longitudinal studies with individual-level data may be imperfect, they are needed to adequately address this topic. The complexities involved in these types of studies underscore the need for careful design and for peer review. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7411.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Viés , Surtos de Doenças , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892591

RESUMO

Objective: To study the epidemiological characteristics of occupational diseases in Shenzhen City, China in 2006-2017, and to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of occupational diseases. Methods: Cases of occupational diseases in 2006-2017 were collected from the Information System of Occupational Diseases and Occupational Health. A statistical analysis was performed to identify the characteristics of the disease distribution in terms of spectrum of disease, year, area, industry, type of economy and enterprise scale. Results: A total of 1673 cases of occupational disease (64 types, 8 classes) were diagnosed and reported in 2006-2017, chemical poisoning (31.50%) , ear, nose and throat diseases (28.21%) , and pneumoconiosis and other respiratory diseases (21.34%) were the most three commonest occupational diseases. The constituent of ratio of ear, nose and throat diseases and occupational diseases caused by physical factors increased in turn, the constituent of chemical poisoning, pneumoconiosis and other respiratory diseases, and skin disease reduced in turn, which all showed the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01) . Occupational diseases were often seen in districts of Baoan, Longgang, Longhua and Pingshan, as well as in private economy and small enterprise, mainly occurred in manufacturing industry. Conclusion: The incidence of occupational diseases increased steadily in 2006-2017, and we need to strengthen common occupational diseases, especially occupational noise-induced hearing loss, pay attention to districts of Baoan, Longgang, Longhua and Pingshan, as well as private economy and small enterprise.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia
17.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 66(3): 259-271, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876554

RESUMO

Measurement invariance and normative data of the 8-item short form of the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D-8) Objectives: Female gender is a risk factor for depression. It is questionable whether a given psychometric instrument depicts depressive symptom severity in men and women alike. Therefore, we examined measurement invariance of the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-8 (CES-D-8) between women, men and different age groups. Additionally, we aimed providing normative data for CES-D-8. Methods: We assessed depressive symptoms in a German population-based sample (N = 2,507) with the CES-D-8. Gender-distorted items were excluded in the short form. Results: Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we found good model fit for men, women and the overall sample. A multi-group CFA confirmed measurement invariance of CES-D-8 regarding the tested factors and their interaction. Gender- and age-group-specific norms were computed. Conclusion: The use of the CES-D-8 can be recommended in epidemiological contexts, for practice and research. Different values between women and men of different age groups can be compared appropriately from a psychometric perspective.


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
18.
J. Health NPEPS ; 5(2)set. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1119828

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar os dados epidemiológicos da COVID-19 em Uberlândia e confrontá-los com as determinações municipais de abertura e fechamento comercial em diferentes momentos da pandemia. Método: trata-se de estudo epidemiológico, observacional e descritivo, utilizando dados secundários, referente aos casos notificados da COVID-19 em Uberlândia. Resultados: foram realizados 59.994 testes, sendo 14.389 positivos (23,98%) e 45.605 negativos (76,02%). Registraram-se 265 óbitos e taxa de letalidade de 1,89%. Casos confirmados apresentaram tendência de crescimento após abertura comercial, tendência de estabilização após fechamento comercial, e tendência de queda após a última reabertura comercial, acompanhada de acúmulo de testes suspeitos e queda da testagem populacional. Entre os internados diários, houve predomínio de homens (59%), maiores de 60 anos (55%) e alocados em leitos de enfermaria (55%). Conclusão: percebeu-se expressiva influência do grau de abertura comercial nos indicadores da doença, com incremento da frequência de testes positivos e óbitos, e manutenção das internações.(AU)


Objective: to analyze COVID-19's epidemiological data in Uberlândia and compare them with the municipal determinations of opening and closing of commercial's acitivities at different times of the pandemic. Method: this is an epidemiological, observational and descriptive study, using secondary data, referring to notified cases of COVID-19 in Uberlândia. Results: 59,994 tests were performed, of which 14,389 were positive (23.98%) and 45,605 negative (76.02%). There were 265 deaths and a fatality rate of 1.89%. Confirmed cases showed a growth tendency after commercial opening, a stabilization tendecy after commercial closing, and a downward tendecy after the last commercial reopening, accompanied by an accumulation of suspicious tests and a drop in population testing. Among daily inpatients, there was a predominance of men (59%), older than 60 years old (55%) and allocated to infirmary beds (55%). Conclusion: there was a significant influence of the degree of commercial opening in the indicators of the disease, with an increase in the frequency of positive tests and deaths, and maintenance of hospitalizations.(AU)


Objetivo: analizar los datos epidemiológicos de COVID-19 en Uberlândia y confrontarlos con las determinaciones municipales de apertura y cierre comercial en diferentes momentos de la pandemia. Método: se trata de un estudio epidemiológico, observacional y descriptivo, utilizando datos secundarios, referidos a los casos notificados de COVID-19 en Uberlândia. Resultados: se realizaron 59.994 pruebas, de las cuales 14.389 fueron positivas (23,98%) y 45,605 negativas (76,02%). Hubo 265 muertes y una tasa de mortalidad del 1,89%. Los casos confirmados mostraron una tendencia de crecimiento después de la apertura comercial, una tendencia de estabilización después del cierre comercial y una tendencia a la baja después de la última reapertura comercial, acompañada de una acumulación de pruebas sospechosas y una caída en las pruebas de población. Entre los internados diarios, hubo predominio de hombres (59%), mayores de 60 años (55%) y asignados a camas de enfermería (55%). Conclusión: hubo una influencia significativa del grado de apertura comercial en los indicadores de la enfermedad, con un aumento en la frecuencia de pruebas positivas y muertes, y mantenimiento de hospitalizaciones.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Epidemiologia Descritiva
19.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 257-266, set. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130600

RESUMO

EL HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) es un estimador de insulinorresistencia (IR) pero depende de la determinación de insulina. Los índices triglicéridos-glucosa (T-G)-circunferencia de la cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) o triglicéridos-glucosa-índice de masa corporal (TG- IMC) podrían ser sustitutos. Los objetivos de este trabajo consistieron en investigar en personas con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) los índices T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1; b) determinar su poder discriminante. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en el que se estudiaron 223 individuos ≥45 años con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). La relación T-G se calculó como ln [triglicéridos (mg/dL) x glucemia (mg/dL)/2]. La relación T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fue el producto de T-G por CC o IMC. Se utilizó análisis de regresión logística y se calcularon las áreas bajo las curvas ROC (receiver operating characteristic curves) (ABC) para comparar las asociaciones de T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC con HOMA-IR>2,1. Mediante análisis discriminante se evaluó la clasificación de los sujetos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 y HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidad, especificidad, poder predictivo positivo y negativo para T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fueron mayores que para T-G, con los siguientes valores de corte: T-G=8,75, T-G-CC=821 y T-G-IMC=255. Los odds ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para confusores, fueron: T-G>8,75, OR: 4,85 (IC 95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-GIMC> 255, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Con el análisis discriminante T-G>8,75 clasificó correctamente 69,2% individuos con HOMA-IR≤2,1 y 68,3% con HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC y T-G-IMC clasificaron 74,4% y 78,2% respectivamente (p<0,001 en todos los casos). Se concluyó que T-GCC> 821 y T-G-IMC>255 fueron mejores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Estas son determinaciones simples y accesibles y podrían ser útiles en la práctica clínica y en estudios epidemiológicos.


HOMA-IR ((homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) is a surrogate estimator of insulin resistance (IR) but it depends on insulin determination. Triglyceride-glucose-waist circumference (T-G-WC) or triglyceride-glucose-body mass index (BMI) (T-G-BMI) could be substitutes. The objectives of this work were: to investigate in people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D): a) T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI as estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 and b) to determine their discriminating power. A prospective study was conducted studying 223 individuals ≥45 years of age at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The T-G ratio was calculated as ln [triglycerides (mg/dL) x glycemia (mg/dL)/2]. The T-G-CC and T-G-BMI ratio was the product of T-G by CC or BMI. Logistic regression analysis was used and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) curves were calculated to compare the associations of T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI with HOMA-IR>2.1. Using a discriminant analysis, the classification of the subjects between HOMA-IR>2.1 or HOMA-IR≤2.1 was evaluated. AUC, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive powers for T-G-CC and T-G-BMI were higher than for T-G, with the following cut-off values: TG=8.75, T-G-CC=821 and T-G-BMI=255. Odds ratios (OR) for HOMA-IR>2.1, adjusted for confounders, were: T-G>8.75, OR 4.85 (95% CI 2.73-8.62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53); T-G-BMI>255, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53). With the discriminant analysis T-G>8.75, 69.2% correctly classified with HOMA-IR≤2.1 and 68.3% with HOMA-IR>2.1; T-G-CC and T-G-BMI correctly classified 74.4% and 78.2% respectively (p <0.001 in all cases). It is concluded that T-G-CC>821 and T-G-BMI>255 were better estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 than T-G>8.75. T-G-WC and T-G-BMI are simple and reliable determinations and could be useful in clinical practice and epidemiological studies.


O HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) e um estimador de resistencia a insulina (RI), mas depende da determinacao da insulina. Triglicerideos-glicose (T-G), circunferencia da cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) ou triglicerideos-glicose-indice de massa corporal (T-G-IMC) poderiam ser substitutos. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram investigar em pessoas com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) os indices T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR> 2,1; b) determinar seu poder discriminante. Um estudo prospectivo foi realizado em 223 pessoas ≥45 anos com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). A razao T-G foi calculada como ln [triglicerideos (mg/dL) x glicemia (mg/dL)/2]. A razao T-G-CC e T-G-IMC foi o produto de T-G por CC ou IMC. A analise de regressao logistica foi utilizada e as areas sob as curvas ROC (receiver operating features) ABC foram calculadas para comparar as associacoes de T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC com HOMA-IR>2.1. Por meio de analise discriminante, avaliou-se a classificacao dos sujeitos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 e HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidade, especificidade, poder preditivo positivo e negativo para TG-CC e TG-IMC foram maiores que para TG, com os seguintes valores de corte: TG=8,75, TG-CC=821 e TG-IMC=255. Odds Ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para fatores de confusao, foram: TG>8,75, OR 4,85 (IC95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-G-IMC>255, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Com a analise discriminante T-G>8,75, 69,2% foram classificados corretamente com HOMA-IR≤2,1 e 68,3% com HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC e T-G-IMC classificaram 74,4% e 78,2%, respectivamente (p<0,001 em todos os casos). Conclui-se que T-G-CC>821 e TG- IMC>255 foram melhores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Elas sao determinacoes simples e acessiveis e poderiam ser uteis na pratica clinica e em estudos epidemiologicos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Triglicerídeos , Poder Psicológico , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Classificação , Área Sob a Curva , Corte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Glucose , Objetivos , Insulina , Pessoas , Organização e Administração , Associação , Glicemia , Resistência à Insulina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise Discriminante , Risco , Análise de Regressão , Circunferência da Cintura
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756437

RESUMO

The recent publication, "Assessing Agreement in Exposure Classification between Proximity-Based Metrics and Air Monitoring Data in Epidemiology Studies of Unconventional Resource Development" by Hess et al [...].


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Diretivas Antecipadas , Benchmarking , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Estudos Epidemiológicos
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